Group Title: effects of pretraining clients to increase the in-counseling frequency of affective and concrete verbal behavior /
Title: The Effects of pretraining clients to increase the in-counseling frequency of affective and concrete verbal behavior
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Title: The Effects of pretraining clients to increase the in-counseling frequency of affective and concrete verbal behavior
Physical Description: viii, 92 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shaw, Daniel Eric, 1951-
Publication Date: 1981
Copyright Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Counseling   ( lcsh )
Verbal behavior   ( lcsh )
Conditioned response   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 86-91.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Eric Shaw.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00097445
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000296470
oclc - 08125417
notis - ABS2835

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THE EFFECTS OF PRETRAINING CLIENTS TO INCREASE
THE IN-COUNSELING FREQUENCY OF AFFECTIVE AND
CONCRETE VERBAL BEHAVIOR















By

DANIEL ERIC SHAW


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1981












To my Mother, Father, and Brother,

whose loving spirit has, and will always be with me.


And especially to Laurie,

for her love, patience, encouragement, understanding,
individuality, laughter, and wisdom.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation and

admiration to the members of his doctoral committee:

Dr. Joe Wittmer, for his guidance, structure and

genuine facilitative manner,

Dr. Max Parker, for his true concern and friendship,

Dr. Don Avila, for his honest freedom.


A hearty thank you to the staff, counselors, and trainees

of the University of Florida and Bradley University

counseling centers,

especially Dr. Jim Orr and Jo Adams.


A salute and thank you to all the students who participated

in and assisted with my research.



An affirmation of loyalty to my classroom mentors and heroes:

Dr. Betty Siegel, for her warmth and brilliance,

Dr. Bill Purkey, "If it's worth doing .. it's worth

doing."

Dr. Art Combs, for Perceptual Psychology.


111

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

.~~ ~ . . i


. . . vii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . ......


ABSTRACT. . . . . . . .


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION............


Purpose of the Study.......
Definitions of Terms Used....


REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE..


Pretraining for Counseling. ...
Counseling as a Learning Process.
Experiential Learning .....
Perceptual Psychology Theory of
Programmed and Self-Instruction
Modeling. . . . . . .
Client Verbal Behavior. ....
Affective Verbal Behavior ...


. . .
. . .
. . .
Learning.
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .


III


PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY......


Description of the Population and Sampling
Procedures . .. .. .... .... 22
The Experimental Treatments . .. .... 24
Counselors and Data Collection. . . .. 25
Scoring and Dependent Measures. . .. ... 25
Research Design and Hypothesis. .. .. .. 26
Basic Design. .. ... . ... ... 26
Analysis of the Data. .. .. .. .. .. 27
Hypotheses. . .. .. .. .. .... 27

RESULTS ... .. .. . .. .. .. .. 29


Hol
Ho
Ho3
Ho . . . .
Ho5
Ho . . . .
Ho7
Ho . . . .
Sumr f h euts








DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS......

Summary of the Findings.......
Discussion. . . . . . . .
Implications. ............
Recommendations for Future Research.
Limitations ............


APPENDICIES

A INFORMED CONSENT FORM .....

B CONTROL GROUP INFORMATION ...


C TAPESCRIPT OF AUDIO-TAPE (SIM2)

D PROGRAMMPED INSTRUCTION WORKBOOK

E SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTIONS ...

F SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTIONS ...

REFERENCES . . . . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. ..........


. . 59

. . 61

. . 62

. . 72

. . 84

. . 85

. . 86

. . 92


(SIM ).













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EFFECTS OF PRETRAINING CLIENTS TO INCREASE
THE IN-COUNSELING FREQUENCY OF AFFECTIVE AND
CONCRETE VERBAL BEHAVIOR

By

DANIEL ERIC SHAW

June, 1981


Chairman: P. Joseph Wittmer

Major Department: Counselor Education


Individuals who seek help through personal counseling

experience varying time intervals after requesting counseling

and before they actually meet face to face with a counselor.

This study addressed procedures counselors could use during

this lapsed time period which would better prepare their

clients for later counseling. Specifically, the purpose of

this investigation was to study the effects of three different

self-instruction modules on clients prior to counseling. The

aim of the modules was to prepare individuals for counseling

during the interval prior to actual counseling by teaching

them two communication skills which would be beneficial to

them in later counseling. These skills were: (1) affective

verbal expression and (2) the concrete verbalization of these

expressions. Affective verbal expression was defined as the







total count of affective words or phrases emitted by a client

during a 15-minute audio-taped analyzed segment of his/her

first counseling session. Concreteness was operationally

defined as an increase in the frequency of specific self-

referent affective statements and a concomitant decrease in

the frequency of the client's specific and nonspecific other

referent affective statements during counseling. Specifically,

this study examined the effects of self-instruction via: (1)

a written programmed instruction workbook, (2) modeling via

an audio-taped simulated counseling session, and (3) the

combination of these two techniques. A total of 52 subjects

seeking personal counseling took part in this study and were

randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control

group.

Eight hypotheses were tested in order to locate signifi-

cant differences between the three experimental groups and the

one control group on the dependent measures. Using analysis

of variance and post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range Test, two of

the eight hypotheses were rejected at the alpha level of p <

.05 and one at the p < .005 level of significance. Basically,

the results indicated that the module using modeling alone and

the module combining the techniques of programmed instruction

and modeling were effective pretraining techniques for increas-

ing the frequency of affective verbal expression emitted by

clients in a later counseling session. Also, modeling via

an audio-taped simulated counseling session was shown to sig-

nificantly increase the frequency of specific self-referent


vii







affective statements. The dependent measures of specific and

nonspecific other referent affective statements were not sig-

nificantly effected by the self-instruction modules. In

summary, two of the three self-instruction modules proved to

be effective in preparing clients prior to counseling.


viii














CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


In the classic 1940's motion picture, "The
wizard of Oz," the protagonist Dorothy, found
herself in a very strange place following an
extremely traumatic event in her life. She was
troubled and asked those around her what she
should do in order to resolve her problem. She
was advised to go to the Emerald City and speak
with some kind of wizard or something like that.
You see, maybe the Wiz could help her with her
problem. When she asked how she might find the
Emerald City where the Wizard lived and worked,
she was told to follow the road that was paved
with yellow brick. They, the Munchkins, told her
to begin at the beginning.
Dorothy began her long journey alone and
discovered many things about herself along the
way before seeing the Wizard. Unfortunately,
after speaking to the Wizard at the Emerald City
she realized that he was unable to help her.
Dorothy was finally helped through the facil-
itation of a very warm, genuine, and empathic
witch who assisted her in discovering the power
she herself possessed. (Shaw, 1980)


Like Dorothy, many individuals find themselves lost

and troubled. Some of these individuals 'turn to counseling

and become clients. Unlike many clients, Dorothy had some

positive assistance with her problem by being prepared by

another prior to seeing the Wizard, on what she might do to

facilitate her audience with him. Can we as counselors

positively assist clients prior to counseling so that they

might be "better" clients? This question is the focus of

this study.







Many investigators have researched the technique of

preparing clients for counseling. That is, exposing the

clients) to, or involving the clients) in some form of

learning experience prior to the actual counseling inter-

action that will hopefully be of significant therapeutic

value during the process of counseling. Basically, these

investigations have approached this preparation for coun-

seling from one of two angles: (1) an information process

that operates on the set of expectations that clients bring

to counseling or (2) teaching the client predesignated

appropriate behaviors to engage in and exhibit during

counseling as predetermined by the individual investigator

or investigative team.

Similar techniques have been utilized with varying

results to operate on client expectations and/or behaviors.

According to Sauber (1974), there are basically three

approaches to the pretraining/preparation technique: role

induction, vicarious precounseling training based on imi-

tation/modeling procedures, and therapeutic reading (biblio-

therapy). The approach dealing with client expectations

attempts to bring the clients' expectations of counseling to

a level which approximates the actual experience of counsel-

ing. Both Goldstein (1976), with individual clients, and

Cartwright (1972), with group clients, utilized an audio-

visual preparatory film that informed, explained and illus-

trated through modeling the process of counseling. This

method assumes that the client who understands the process







of counseling will benefit more from the counseling than

those who do not (Holmes & Urie, 1975; Urie, 1974).

The approach of teaching clients specific or appropri-

ate behaviors can be subdivided into two different modes of

learning: modeling and direct instructions. This approach

attempts to teach clients various behaviors thought to be

beneficial to the counseling process, that is, self-disclo-

sure, accurate expression of feeling, statements of positive

self-reference, present tense verbalizations, and statements

that indicate self-exploration. Exposure to films, audio-

tapes or video-tapes, written and verbal descriptions, and

written and verbal instructions are the instructional mediums

that have been used to transmit the information to the client.

Learning via modeling and direct instructions seems to be

the major thrust of the pretraining/preparation research

(DelBeato, 1971; Galdaleto, 1976; Green & Marlatt, 1972;

Hemmerich, 1976; Long, 1968; Myrick, 1968, 1969; Navabinejad,

1977).

Role induction, which has been used in and during the

therapeutic relationship attempts to orient the client to

the process of counseling. This is achieved by informing

the client through a didactic interaction with a counselor

as to the process of counseling, expected behaviors, psy-

chological and behavioral dynamics, and other issues

relevant to counseling (Hoehn-Saric, Frank, Imber, Nash,

Stone, & Battle, 1964; Sauber, 1974).







The results of the above studies indicate both success-

ful and unsuccessful outcomes as a result of pretraining.

This study focused on a uniquely different approach to

pretraining clients for counseling. This study is predi-

cated on the assumption that it is highly important and

necessary that clients be aware of, be able to express and

understand their feelings as well as be able to communicate

their thoughts and feelings in a clear and unambiguous

manner during counseling (Buscaglia, 1972; Greenwald, 1973;

Hayakawa, 1979).


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and

measure the effects among and between three self-instruction

modules designed to teach preclients two communication skills

for positive growth within the counseling relationship:

(1) affective verbal expression of felt emotion and (2) the

concreteness of their verbally expressed affect. More

specifically, this study attempts to answer the following

questions: (1) Is a written, programmed instruction

workbook approach to a self-instruction module effective

in increasing the dependent measures of affective verbal

expression and concreteness? (2) Is an audio-taped client

model approach to a self-instruction module effective in

increasing the above mentioned dependent measures? (3) Are

the combined approaches to the self-instruction modules

(both written programmed instruction workbook and audio-

taped client model) together as one, effective in increasing







the above mentioned dependent measures? And, (4) which

of the modules or combination of the two prove to be more

effective in increasing the dependent measures emitted by

clients in a later counseling session?


Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following defini-

tions apply.

Self-instruction module (SIM1)--a self-contained, and

self-applied programmed instruction package. The

SIM1 in this study used an audio-taped client
model and a written programmed instruction work-

book to assist the preclient user in reaching

the desired criteria. (Appendix C and D)

SI2--the audio-taped client model component of the

SIM1 used independently as a separate treatment.
(Appendix C)

SIM--the written programmed instruction workbook

component of the SIM1 used independently as a

separate treatment. (Appendix D)

Affective verbal expression (AVE)--words or phrases

emitted by the client that he/she uses to des-

cribe feelings. AVE was measured by counting

each occurrence of affective words or phrases

emitted by the client.

Concreteness--that dimension of human language which

characterizes the specificness and explicitness







of the communication. Concreteness has been

described as the polar opposite of vagueness.

For the purpose of the study, concreteness is

operationally defined as an increase in

specific self-referent affective statements and

a decrease in specific and nonspecific other

referent affective statements.

Specific self-referent affect (SSRA)--affective words

or phrases used in a self-referent manner. The

presence of first person pronouns used in con-

junction with affective words or statements.

(Example: "I'm confused." or "That's confusing

for me.")

Specific other referent affect (SORA)--affective words

or phrases used in an other referent manner. The

presence of second person pronouns used in con-

junction with affective words or phrases or

affective words or phrases used to describe the

emotion of specifically identified other individ-

viduals by name. (Example: "She's unhappy." or

"Bill is angry at me.").

Nonspecific other referent affect (NORA)--affective

words or phrases that are attributed to either

self or other individuals without the use of a

first or second person pronoun or name of a

specifically identified other individual.

(Example: "That's upsetting." or "It's terrible.")~













CHAPTER III

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


Three self-instruction modules designed to increase

the frequency of affective and concrete verbal behavior in

clients were the focus of this study. This topic includes

many theoretical considerations concerning the scope, nature,

and aim of counseling. More specifically, this study dealt

with the training of clients prior to counseling and examined

the effects of programmed instruction and modeling on the

affective and concrete verbal behavior of clients during

their initial counseling session and investigated the

differing impact of the three modules.


Pretraining for Counseling

Myrick (1969) stated that Truax was one of the first

to report the potentialities of modeling and imitative

learning in counseling. Truax called his technique

vicarious therapy pretraining (VTP). VTP utilized an

audio-tape of clients exploring their feelings. This

audio-tape served as a model during pretraining with those

clients scheduled for counseling. The subjects in the study

were told, prior to hearing the tape, that this was an

example of good client behavior. Exposure to a model prior

to receiving counseling was an intergral dimension of the








study, though not controlled for as an experimental variable.

Myrick (1968) was interested in the use of modeling

as a means of orienting high school students to counseling.

He found that an audio-taped model was significantly more

effective than a video-taped model in increasing the fre-

quency of the subjects' use of first person proniouns during

the initial counseling interview.

One of the major points of Myrick's study was the

orientation to counseling. This orientation was intended

as a means of preparing the high school student for counsel-

ing, with specific attention to their verbal behavior dur-

ing the counseling session which followed the orientation.

Citing the learning process in the classroom Myrick stated

that "consequently, it seems reasonable to concentrate on

orienting clients to both the stimulus and response aspects

of counseling" (.1)

Another form of client preparation for counseling,

The Role Induction Interview (RII), was empirically tested

by Hoehn-Saric et al. (1964). Outpatient psychiatric

clinic patients were involved in a group process (RII) in

which an informal discussion took place concerning the

patients' expectations about the upcoming psychotherapeutic

process. The RII is an instructional and didactic process

that explains the nature of psychotherapy, expected patient

behavior, expected patient dynamics, and realistic expecta-

tions for improvements. The RII is basically concerned with

the expectations that clients and patients bring with them






to therapy/counseling. It is widely believed that client/

patient expectations play an important part in the process

and outcome of counseling/therapy. Research indicates that

client/patient expectations about the entire counseling/

therapy process vary and that these expectations seem to

influence the counseling process and outcome. There is an

indication that the length of counseling tends to decrease

the amount of anticipation a client has concerning his/her

expectations of an expert or accepting counselor (Gelso,

Brooks, & Karl, 1975; Goldstein, 1962; Scaccuzzo, 1975;

Tinsley, 1976; Ziemelis, 1974). Results of the Hoehn-Saric

et al. (1964) study showed favorable outcomes on patient

expectations following participation in the Role Induction

Interview. It is important to note that the RII is not

intended to be a psychotherapy session since it is used

prior to entering therapy/counseling and, as such, is a

pretraining technique.

Concerning Myrick's statement on high school student

orientation to counseling, Sauber (1974) appeared to be in

agreement when he stated that "if certain patient behaviors

are necessary for successful therapy, why not increase the

probability of their occurrence by arranging pretherapy

training experiences?" (p. 190).

Sauber (1974) sought to investigate the effects of the

major approaches to pretraining on the various processes and

outcomes of counseling/psychotherapy. He found that counsel-

ing/therapy which employed pretraining techniques generally

led to successful outcomes.





10

A through review of the recent literature reveals an

upsurge of interest in the use of pretraining for counseling

techniques. Numerous studies have demonstrated, with varying

results, the relative effectiveness of utilizing various

modes of pretraining for counseling techniques.

Wuehler (1976) evaluated the effectiveness -af video-

taped modeling and the precounseling counselor/client inter-

view on the dependent measure of client self-disclosure and

counseling expectations. Three groups of subjects were

utilized: those who viewed the video-taped model, those

who viewed the video-taped model and then discussed it with

a counselor, and a control group, consisting of those who

received no treatment. No differences were found between

the experimental groups, but the findings indicated that the

video-taped model was effective in eliciting self-disclosure

behaviors and reducing incongruent expectations.

Isenberg (1975) examined the relationship between

client personality dimensions and counselor style in the

preparation process. It was found that the counseling

sessions were considered more beneficial to the client when

his/her expectations closely resembled the actual experience

of the counseling session.

Slaney (1974) hypothesized that the presentation prior

to receiving counseling of audio-taped information describ-

ing desired client behavior would increase the frequency

of the desired behavior's occurrence. Seven different





11

treatments were used to manipulate client expression of the

problem, self-exploration, and frequency of self-referent

affective statements. No statistically significant results

were found to support the treatments used. Richardson (1977)

utilized a 30-minute video-tape that presented a model and

information about counseling to increase the cli-ent's

knowledge of the counseling process, reduce anxiety, and

modify client counseling attitudes. Results indicated that

the client's knowledge of counseling was significantly

infulenced by the pretraining with a video-tape experience,

although no support could be found for its effect on the

client's anxiety and attitudes about counseling. Overall,

the pretraining experience was thought to be an appropriate

intervention technique.

Shannon (1975) investigated the effects of three

specific precounseling techniques for continuation in

counseling: (1> a brief written statement, (2) a video-taped

explanation, and (3) an interview with a counselor. Results

showed that those subjects who saw the video-tape and those

who had the brief interview with a counselor had a signifi-

cant increase in the continuation in counseling. Those who

read the brief written statement (and the control subjects)

did not significantly increase their continuation in counsel-

ing.

Martin (1975) investigated the effects of a counseling

orientation audio-tape on the dependent measures of (1)

counselor rating of client problem expression, (2) client





12

personality dimensions, and (3) mode of counseling termin-

ation. Results fully supported the precounseling treatment

on all three dependent measures.

Fernbach (1975) studied the effect of a written

document on client expectations and specific appropriate

client behaviors such as termination, attendance, and

rating of the therapy experience. Orenstein (1974) demon-

strated the effects of pretherapy client role preparation

techniques on both client and therapist attitudes and

expectations concerning the upcoming counseling sessions.

Reeves (1978), although finding no significant results,

assumed that precounseling information transmission was an

appropriate precounseling intervention.

The bulk of the above mentioned research indicates

that the most effective precounseling training techniques

employed modeling via a media approach, or some form of

direct instructions for the acquisition of specific

behaviorally identifiable, predesignated, appropriate client

behaviors, which included affective verbal expression and

self-referent affective statements. The decision to use

a precounseling technique was arrived at through a logical

examination of the nature of the possible applications

of the various modes of precounseling techniques and

empirical research considerations. Future research on

precounseling techniques might benefit from an examination

of the temporal dimension of the precounseling technique.





13

Counseling as a Learning Process

Why does an individual seek counseling? The answer is,

presumably, to make some sort of positive change in a certain

area (or areas) of his/her existence which he/she has been

unable to accomplish by his/herself. The client seeks the

help, expertise, and knowledge of a trained professional.

Learning involves the changes in behavior that an

organism makes in order to adapt to its physical and social

environments. A change in behavior as a result of experience

(in this case, counseling) is what is commonly accepted as

learning (Mikulas, 1974, 1978; VanDerveer, 1974). In this

sense, counseling is basically an event that provides the

opportunity for the client to make perceptual, attitudinal,

behavioral, emotional, and cognitive changes (VanDerveer,

1974).


Experiential Learning

Rogers (1969) believes that learning is divided into

two general types. He implies a mode of instruction by

describing a continuum in which one end is material rich in

personal meaning for the individual and the other end is

material which has little personal significance. He cites

the example of learning nonsense syllables, which are not

easy to learn and are likely to be forgotten, because there

is little, if any, personal meaning involved. At the other

extreme lies experiential learning, which is high in personal

meaning. Rogers defined experiential learning as follows:






14

"It has a quality of personal involvement, the whole person

in both his feeling and cognitive aspects being in the learn-

ing event. It is self-initiated. Even when the impetus or

stimulus comes from the outside, the sense of discovery,

of reaching out, of grasping and comprehending comes from

within. It is pervasive. It makes a difference in the

behavior, the attitudes, perhaps even the personality of

the learner. It is evaluated by the learner. He knows

whether it is meeting his need, whether it leads toward

what he wants to know, whether it illuminates the dark area

of ignorance he is experiencing. The locus of evaluation we

might say, resides definitely in the learner. Its essence

is meaning. When such learning takes place, the element of

meaning to the learner is built into the whole experience."

(p. 5).


Perceptual Psychology Theory of Learning

Combs and Snygg (1959) and Combs, Richards, and Richards

(1976) offered a definition of learning similar to that of

Rogers; that is, learning is an active process such as

experiencing, and behavior that results from an individual's

effort to safisfy personal needs. Learning is a differen-

tiation of personal meaning. The relationship of the

individual's needs to any given moment determines what the

person learns, or differentiates, in a given situation. The

greater the relationship of the material to be learned to

the learner, the higher the probability that the learner will

attend to and be successful in learning the material. The






15

more personal meaning is involved, the greater are the

chances that the individual will actively attend to the

material (Combs & Snygg, 1959; Combs et al.; 1976; Purkey

1970; Rogers, 1951). Combs (1954) stated that counseling

is a learning process; successful counseling occurs when the

client learns a new and better relationship between him/

herself and the world in which he/she lives. The goal of

counseling is to aid the client in achieving a perceptual

field as rich, varied, accurate, and free of distortion as

possible.

It appears that a self-instruction module that focuses

upon the individual client's own affective verbal behavior

adequately fits both the experiential and perceptual psycho-

logical views of learning, because the client him/herself is

allowed to use his/her own words which fit his/her unique

personal experience.


Programmed and Self-Instruction

According to Mikulus (1974), the area of programmed

instruction was originally investigated by S. C. Pressy in

the 1920's but was carried on by B. F. Skinner and his

colleagues. Programmed instruction is based on the prin-

ciples of behavioral reinforcement, knowledge of results, and

learning theory. Learning via this process is a highly

systematized, dynamic, and structured event in which specific

goals are identified by terminal behaviors. The material

to be learned is identified in advance and is presented in

a series of logical units. Through the process of shaping,






16

the learner is at first given small amounts of the material

to be learned and is then requested to respond to the

material with increasing magnitude (Mikulus, 1972, 1974,

1978; Maurer, 1976; Reynolds, 1968; Skinner, 1953, 1968).

Mikulus (1974) states that programmed instruction has

several desirable elements; it involves active student

participation, immediate feedback, and self-pacing. Mikulus

recognizes that some individuals find programmed instruction

too constricting, preferring, conceptualized, more flexible,

integrative learning experiences.

Kirk (1977) investigated the effects of a self-instruc-

tion program in increasing clients' readiness for counseling

and psychotherapy. A sample of students at Florida State

University was divided into two groups: one group received

what he termed the Counseling Readiness Program and the

other group served as the control. Results indicated

insignificant increases on the Gough Adjective Check List,

of the Counseling Readiness Scale. However, it was found

that the subjects' expectations corresponded more closely

to the expectations that counselors hold concerning the

counseling process.

Maurer (1976) investigated the effects of a self-

instruction program on facilitation and communication skills

for elementary school teachers. The experimental group

subjects of elementary school.teachers received a 15 lesson

self-instruction module, designed to increase the frequency

of facilitative teacher responses. Results were significant





17

at the E 1 .05 level for the dependent measures of facili-

tative teacher verbal response pattern, teacher written

response identification, and student perception of teacher

verbally expressed affect.

Higgens, Ivey, and Uhlemann (1970) investigated the use

of what they termed media therapy, in a programmed instruc-

tion approach, for teaching clients in dyads the verbal

skills of direct mutual communication. Three treatment

groups were used: (1) full treatment (media therapy), (2)

programmed text and video models only, and (3) reading

material only. Results indicated that the full treatment

(media therapy) was the most successful of the three in

improving the frequency of direct mutual communication.

The preceding literature and research support the

use of a programmed instruction approach for teaching

specific client verbal behaviors.


Modeling

Thus far, -several theoretical positions on learning

have been discussed. One of the most frequently studied and

researched is social learning theory. Modeling, imitation,

or observational learning (as it is sometimes called) com-

prises a large portion of the literature in social learning

theory. According to social learning theory, modeling is

the process whereby human behavior is learned by observing

others. The theory states that most human behavior is

learned observationally, which might account for the high

probability of success in research that uses modeling to





18

teach certain behaviors. It is believed that the individual

forms an ideal of how new behaviors are performed, and later

this idea serves as a guide for replication of that behavior.

Current research shows a wide scope of human behaviors that

are learned via modeling, including specific client verbal

behaviors in counseling (Bandura, 1971, 1972, 1977;

Dankowski, 1976; Green & Marlatt, 1972; Hemmerich, 1976;

Hosford, 1980; Krumboltz, 1980; Myrick, 1968, 1969; Raque,

1974; Scheiderer, 1977; Schmitz, 1974; Shery, 1976;

Thorenson, Hosford, & Krumboltz, 1970; Whalen, 1969;

Wuehler, 1976).

Hemmerich (1976) utilized a video-taped pretraining

therapy film with clients who were unfamiliar with the

counseling process. The clients were exposed to the video-

taped pretraining therapy film which combined both didactic

and modeling techniques to encourage the accurate expression

of feelings during the initial counseling session. Results

testified to the powerful influence of modeling and didactic

instructions on the in-counseling behavior of pretrained

clients.

Green and Marlatt (1972) compared the effects of instruc-

tion and modeling on affective verbalizations and descriptive

verbalizations made by clients during a counseling session.

Results from this study provided clear evidence that modeling

as well as instructions (independently and combined) were

instrumental in increasing the frequency of the dependent

measures.





19

Scheiderer (1977) showed how modeling was successful

in producing self-disclosure behaviors with clients, as

measured during the initial counseling interview. Dankowski

(1976) also found that preinitial counseling training with

an audio-taped model was successful in producing self-

disclosure behaviors.

Whalen (196), convinced of the effectiveness of

modeling, tested its influence on group verbal behaviors.

One hundred twenty-eight male volunteers taken from an

introductory psychology class were assigned to one of four

groups. The groups were either exposed to a film model

high in interpersonal openness (which included descriptive

instructions), a film model with minimal instructions,

detailed instructions and no film model, or a minimal-

instructions-only treatment. The group exposed to the

film model high in interpersonal openness and detailed

instructions tended to engage in interpersonal openness

while the other groups failed to demonstrate the desired

behaviors during a subsequent group counseling experience.

Citing Bandura, DelBeato (1972) indicated that the mere

presentation of a model does not insure that the observer

will attend to the model. DelBeato suggested that a

refinement of the modeling technique is needed.


Client Verbal Behavior

According to Truax, as reported by Myrick (1968),

descriptions of the counseling psychotherapeutic process





20

are concerned with clients' self-disclosure and self-

exploration. Obviously, this process involves clients

engaging in extensive verbal behaviors which communicate to

themselves, as well as the counselor, their basic personal

experiences as they relate to counseling. The role of the

counselor is to facilitate the clients' verbal behaviors.

Myrick therefore concluded that "verbal behavior,...

particularly in client-centered counseling, is an indispen-

sible part of the counseling process" (p. 21).

Whalen (1969) stated that the goal of psychotherapy

often includes the manipulation of a variety of complex

client verbal behaviors, especially affective statements.

Because verbal behavior is the primary manner in which the

client communicates his/her internal experience, Fromm-

Reichman (1950) stated that listening to what the client

has to say is the basic psychotherapeutic instrumentality.

Obviously, what the client says during counseling/psycho-

therapy is highly important and is related to the success

of the counseling process.

Krumboltz (1966) advocated the use of specific

behavioral goals, of which affective verbal behavior is

a part.


Affective Verbal Behavior

Greenwald (1973) contended that one of the more

important values that he holds as a psychotherapist is the

importance of the fact that individuals, especially clients,

be aware of, and express, their feelings. Current training





21

of counselors and therapists emphasizes the importance of

the facilitator communicating his/her understanding of

the client's internal experience and expressed feelings

(Carkhuff, 1969, 1971, 1972; Combs et al., 1978; Egan,

1975; Rogers, 1951; Standish, 1971; Wittmer & Myrick, 1974).

There has been meaningful research on the therapeutic

relationship concerned with the manipulation of affective

verbal behaviors (Lukens, 1969; Merbaum & Lukens, 1968;

Scheiderer, 1977). Of particular importance to this study

was the work of Lukens (1970), who investigated several

intervention techniques designed to increase the frequency

of clients emitting positive affective verbalizations.

The study confirmed that direct instructions would have a

more immediate and sustaining effect on client positive

affective verbalizations than would counselor reflection of

feelings. In addition, Green and Marlatt (1972), as mentioned

before in the discussion on modeling, showed that the

frequency of affective verbalizations could be increased

through modeling and direct instructions














CHAPTER III

PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY


Many graduate programs in counselor preparation teach

their students a counseling model which emphasizes among

other communication dimensions, the reflection of feeling

and concreteness of the reflected communication. This

client centered model is often utilized in the relationship

building phase of the therapeutic relationship. It appears

evident then, to assume that it would be advantageous for

potential clients, prior to receiving counseling, to have an

understanding of and a beginning functional skill in these

communication dimensions. This was the focus of this study.

More specifically, it was the purpose of this study to

design and measure the effects of three different self-

instruction modules and their major components. These

self-instruction modules were developed for the purpose of

teaching clients prior to counseling two communication skills

necessary for growth within the counseling relationship:

(1) affective verbal expression and, (2) concreteness of the

verbally expressed affect.


Description of the Population and Sampling Procedures

The target population for this study were University of

Florida and Bradley University students who came to their





23

respective psychological and vocational counseling centers

for either personal or vocational counseling. Clients in

crisis were not requested to volunteer for this study.

These clients were considered inappropriate as the highly

emotional concerns are not considered suitable for the self-

instruction modules developed for this study and, of course,

ethically could not be assigned to the control group.

Clients who walked in to the counseling centers request-

ing personal or vocational counseling and who fit the basic

guidelines as mentioned above were given a short typed

statement by the receptionist at the front desk. This

statement (Appendix A) briefly described the study, requested

their participation, and emphasized the confidentiality of

the study. Those who agreed to participate were randomly

given by the receptionist either self-instruction modulel'

self-instruction module2, self-instruction modules, or

received another brief typed statement (Appendix B) which

explained that they were to be part of the control group

and had the option to complete a self-instruction module

after the data were collected (directly following the initial

counseling session). A total of 52 subjects volunteered for

this study.

Upon receipt of the self-instruction modulel, self-

instruction module2' or self-instruction module, the

experimental subjects and the control subjects were scheduled

an appointment with a counselor. The experimental subjects

were instructed to complete the module they had received





24

before reporting for their scheduled counseling appointment.


The Experimental Treatments

Self-instruction modulel (SIM1) consisted of two basic

information transmission and learning mediums. The first

was an audio-taped client model on a standard cassette tape

which provided the individual user with an understanding via

modeling and instruction of what a good example of high

affective verbal expression and concrete client communication

is. The second medium was a written programmed instruction

workbook which assisted the individual user to identify

his/her own baseline of affective verbal expression and

concreteness. Through a series of written programmed

instruction exercises, the individual was taught to increase

the frequency of his/her affective verbal expression and

concrete client communication. This workbook also contained

for reference an affective vocabulary list (Gazda, Asbury,

Blazer, Childers, & Walters, 1977).

The goal of the SIM1 as well as SIM2 and SIM3 was to
increase the individuals frequency of verbally expressed

affective words or phrases, and the frequency of concrete

affective statements with a counselor during forthcoming

counseling sessions. SIM1 also included two brief typed pages

of supplemental instructions (Appendix E and F).

SIM2 was the same audio-taped client model used in

SIM1 (Appendix C). This audio-taped client model was used
as a separate treatment as SIM2. SIM2 also included a brief

typed page of supplemental instructions (Appendix E).





25

SIM3 was the same written programmed instruction
workbook as used in SIM1 (Appendix D). This written

programmed instruction workbook was used as a separate

treatment as SIM3. SIM3 also included a brief typed page

of supplemental instructions (Appendix E).

In summary, there were four groups. Experimental

group one, which received SIM1. Experimental group two,

which received SIM2. Experimental group three, which

received SIM3. And the fourth group comprised the control

group who did not receive a self-instruction module.


Counselors and Data Collection

The counselors in this study were the regular intake

counselors from the psychological and vocational counseling

centers at the University of Florida and Bradley University.

They were not informed of the detailed purpose of the study

in order to control for counselor biasing and were requested

to treat the client in the normal fashion during counseling.

The counselors were instructed to audio-tape the

initial counseling session following the administration of

the experimental treatment. This audio-tape provided an

objective record from which the data were scored and analyzed.


Scoring and Dependent Measures

To achieve a representative sample of the audio-taped

counseling session, five minute segments were selected from

the beginning, middle, and end of each tape. This provided

a total of 15 minutes for each audio-tape. Scores were





26

obtained on the dependent measures by two trained raters

from the University of Florida graduate psychology program

who had previous experience in rating and scoring audio-taped

counseling sessions.

The dependent measure of verbally expressed affect

(AVE) was scored by counting each occurrence of affective

words or phrases emitted by the client. The dependent

measure of specific self-referent affect (SSRA) was scored

by counting each occurrence of first person pronouns emitted

in conjunction with affective words or phrases. The

dependent measure of specific other referent affect (SORA)

was scored by counting each occurrence of second person

pronouns or specifically identified others by name emitted

in conjunction with affective words or phrases. The dependent

measure of nonspecific other referent affect (NORA) was

scored by counting each occurrence of affective words or

phrases that were not emitted in conjunction with a first

or second person pronoun or name of a specifically identified

other individual.


Research Design and Hypothesis


Basic Design

The research design used in this study was the Post

Test Only Randomized Control-Group Design as described by

Campbell and Stanley (Issac & Michael, 1971, p. 42).

The experimental design consisted of four groups,

three experimental groups and one control group.








Analysis of the Data

The data collected in this study were analyzed by using

a one-way analysis of variance in conjunction with a post-

hoc Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Interrater reliability was

tested using Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient

method. An advance decision was made to accept a correlation

of .75 or above. The interrater reliability coefficient for

the raters in this study was .82. All hypotheses were tested

for a E .05 level of significance.


Hypotheses

Hol: There is no statistically significant difference
between the experimental and control groups on the

dependent measure of- affective verbal expression

(AVE).

Ho2: There is no statistically significant difference
between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

AVE.

Ho : There is no statistically significant difference

between the experimental and control groups on the

dependent measure of specific self-referent affect

(SSRA).

Ho : There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

SSRA.





28

Ho5-: There is no statistically significant difference
between the experimental and control groups on the

dependent measure of specific other referent

affect (SORA).

Ho : There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

SORA.

Ho7: There is no statistically significant difference
between the experimental and control groups on the

dependent measure of nonspecific other referent

affect (NORA).

Ho : There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

NORA.














CHAPTER IV

RESULTS


The purpose of this study was to develop and investi-

gate the effects of three different self-instruction

modules on preclients (clients waiting for their first

counseling session) frequency of affective verbal expression

and concreteness of their verbally expressed affect during

a later counseling session. This chapter gives the results

of the data analysis relative to the four dependent

variables, affective verbal expression (AVE), specific self-

referent affect (SSRA), specific other referent affect

(SORA), and nonspecific other referent affect (NORA). The

results are presented in the order in which they were

initially discussed and outlined in Chapter III.


Ho

In general, null hypothesis #1 stated that no signifi-

cant differences would exist between the experimental

groups of preclients receiving the self-instruction modules

and the control group on the dependent measure of affective

verbal expression (AVE) during a later counseling session.

The results of the one-way analysis of variance,

presented in Table 1, indicate that a significant difference

was found between the groups on the measure of affective

























Source of Variation DF SS MS F


* p< .005


TABLE 1

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

USING AVE SCORES


3 205.36
8 652.11
1 857.48


68.45
13.58


5.04*


Group
error
Total





31

verbal expression (AVE) with an F of 5.04 and p < .005.

Therefore null hypothesis #1 was rejected. Analysis of

variance only indicates whether a significant difference has

occurred or not. In this study three separate treatments

were employed. Post-hoc analysis on the dependent measure

of affective verbal expression (AVE) was performed in order

to indicated where the significant differences) occurred

between the three experimental groups and the control group.

This was tested as stated in null hypothesis #2.


Ho

There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

AVE.

The attempt here was to discover which of the two major

parts of SIM1, that being a combination of an audio-taped

simulated counseling session (SIM2) and a programmed

instruction workbook (SIM3), were responsible for yielding

a significant difference on the reported measure of affective

verbal expression.

The results of using the post-hoc Duncan's Multiple

Range Test are presented in Table 2. It can be observed

that experimental group one (using the audio-tape and

workbook; SIM1) was not significantly different from both

experimental groups two (using the audio-tape only; SIM2)

and three (using the workbook only; SIM3). Therefore,

null hypothesis #2 was not rejected at the .05 level of

significance.
























Grouping Mean N Group

A 12.42 14 2
BA 11.41 12 1
BC 8.41 12 3
C '7.78 14 control


Means with the same letter are not significantly different

Alpha = .05 DF = 48 MS = 13.58


TABLE 2

DUNCAN 'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST

USING AVE SCORES





33

Further evaluation of this post-hoc test indicates

that, although not significantly different from each other,

experimental group one (using audio-tape and workbook; SIM )

and experimental group two (using audio-tape only; SIM2)

were significantly different from the control group at the

.05 level of significance. The means and standard deviations

for the dependent measure affective verbal expression (AVE).

are presented in Table 3. Figure 1 is a graphical represen-

tation of the treatment means. This figure illustrates

that experimental group two (using audio-tape; SIM2) had

the highest mean and experimental group one (using audio-

tape and workbook; SIM1) had the second highest mean.

Experimental group three (using workbook only; SIM3) had
the third highest mean and was not significantly different

from the control group as were experimental groups one and

two. The control group yielded the lowest mean.

Basically these results indicate that preclients

completing a self-instruction module with an audio-taped

simulated counseling session (SIM2) or those completing

a module that combined the audio-tape with a programmed

instruction workbook (SIMI)) had a significantly higher

frequency of affective verbal expression (AVE) in a later

counseling session than did the control group.


Ho

In general, null hypothesis #3 stated that no statis-

tically significant difference would exist between the

experimental groups using the self-instruction modules and

























Group N Mean SD

1 12 11.41 4.90
2 14 12.42 3.48
3 12 8.41 3.05
control 14 7.78 3.12


TABLE 3

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS

USING AVE SCORES


























15
14
13
12
11
k 10






33
2






Group 1 2 3 control



FIGURE 1

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TREATMENT MEANS

USING AVE SCORES





36

the control group on the dependent measure of specific

self-rererent affect (SSRA) during a later counseling

session.

The results of the one-way analysis of variance

presented in Table 4 indicate that a significant difference

was found between the groups on the measure of specific self-

referent affect (SSRA) with an F of 2.94 and E < .05.

Therefore, null hypothesis #3 was rejected. As analysis of

variance does not indicate the direction of the difference,

a post-hoc analysis on this measure was performed in order

to indicate where the significant differences) occurred

between the groups. This was tested as stated in null

hypothesis #4.


Ho

There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

SSRA.

The results of using the post-hoc Duncan's Multiple

Range Test presented in Table 5 indicated that experimental

group one (using audio-tape and workbook; SIM ) was not

significantly different from both experimental group two

(using audio-tape only; SIM2) and experimental group three

(using workbook only; SIM3) on the dependent measure of

specific self-referent affect. Therefore, null hypothesis

#4 was not rejected. However, the post-hoc data analysis


























Source of Variation DF SS MS F


* p< .05


TABLE 4

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

USING SSRA SCORES


3 122.71
48 668.84
51 791.55


40.90
13.93


2.94*


Group
error
Total

























Grouping Mean N Group

A 9.92 14 2
BA 9.33 12 1
B 6.75 12 3
B 6.50 14 control


Means with the same letter are not significantly different

Alpha = .05 DF = 48 MS = 13.58


TABLE 5

DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST

USING SSRA SCORES





39

revealed a somewhat similar pattern as was found with the

previous dependent measure of AVE.

This time, only experimental group two was found to be

significantly different at the alpha level of .05 from the

control group. On the previous measure of AVE both experi-

mental groups one and two were found to be significantly

different from the control. Experimental group one (SIM1)

was not found to be significantly different from experimental

group two (SIM2). This points out a similarity between the

effects of SIM1 (audio-tape and workbook) and SIM2 (audio-

tape only). More specifically, experimental group two

(using audio-tape only; SIM2) was the only group shown to

have an increase on the dependent measure of specific self-

referent affect. It is important to note that SIM1 (audio-

tape and workbook) and SIM3 (workbook only) were shown to
have no significant effects on the dependent measure of

specific self-referent affect.

The means and standard deviations for the dependent

measure of specific self-referent affect are shown in Table

6. Figure 2, showing a graphic representation of the

treatment means, illustrates that experimental group two

(audio-tape only; SIM2) had the highest mean. Experimental

group one (audio-tape and workbook; SIM1) had the second

highest, experimental group three (workbook only; SIM3) the
third highest and the control group had the lowest mean.

This rank order of treatment means is identical to the order

that was reported for the previous dependent measure of AVE

illustrated in Figure 1.

























Group N Mean SD

1 12 9.33 3.87
2 14 9.92 3.84
3 12 6.75 3.74
control 14 6.50 3.47


40







TABLE 6

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS

USING SSRA SCORES

























15

13
12
11
k 10
On 8

7


3






Group 1 2 3 control


FIGURE 2

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TREATMENT MEANS

USING SSRA SCORES





42

Ho

Null hypothesis #5 indicated that no statistically

significant difference would exist between the experimental

groups of preclients and the control group on the dependent

measure of specific other referent affect (SORA) during a

later counseling session.

The results of using a one-way analysis of variance for

the dependent measure specific other referent affect are

presented in Table 7. These results depart from the previous

reported findings indicating that no significant differences

were found between the groups on this measure (SORA). The

Probability of the F statistic for this measure was E = 0.27.

Therefore, null hypothesis #5 was not rejected.

Post-hoc data analysis was run on all dependent varia-

bles as a matter of routine in the statistical analysis

system used to analyze the data obtained during this

investigation even though no significant differences might

have been found. Post-hoc analysis on the dependent

measure of specific other referent affect was performed to

determine where the significant differences) occurred

(Analysis of variance already indicated that no differences

were found). This was tested as stated in null hypothesis #6.


Ho

There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of

SORA.
























Source of Variation DF SS MS F

Group 3 5.38 1.79 1.32
error 48 65.44 1.36
Total 51 70.82


* p< .05


TABLE 7

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

USING SORA SCORES





44

The results of using Duncan's post-hoc test shown in

Table 8 indicate that no significant differences were found

between the groups. Therefore, null hypothesis #6 was not

rejected. The means and standard deviations for the

dependent measure of specific other referent affect are

shown in Table 9.

Simply, the results indicate that the self-instruction

modules used in this study had no effects on the frequency

of specific other referent affective statements emitted by

preclients in a later counseling session.


Ho

Null hypothesis #7 stated, in general, that no

statistically significant difference would exist between the

experimental groups of preclients using the self-instruction

modules and the control group on the dependent measure of

nonspecific other referent affect (NORA). The results of

using the one-way analysis of variance are presented in

Table 10. The findings indicated that no significant

differences were found between the groups on the measure

of NORA. Therefore, null hypothesis #7 was not rejected.

Post-hoc data analysis was performed on the dependent

measure of nonspecific other referent affect to indicate

where the significant differences) occurred (Analysis of

variance already indicated that no differences were found).

This was tested as stated in null hypothesis #8.

























Grouping Mean N Group

A 1.42 14 2
A 0.91 12 1
A 0.83 12 3
A 0.57 14 control


Means with the same letter are not significantly different

Alpha = .05 DF = 48 MS = 1.36


TABLE 8

DUNCAN 'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST

USING SORA SCORES

























Group N Mean SD

1 12 0.91 1.08
2 14 1.42 1.65
3 12 0.83 0.93
control 14 0.57 0.75


TABLE 9

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS

USING SORA SCORES

























Source of Variation DF SS MS F

Group 3 1.07 0.35 0.31
error 48 55.35 1.15
Total 51 56.42


* p< .05


TABLE 10

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

USING NORA SCORES





48

Ho

There is no statistically significant difference

between experimental group one as compared with

groups two and three on the dependent measure of
NORA.

The results of using Duncan's post-hoc test presented

in Table 11 indicate that experimental group one was not

significantly different from experimental groups two and

three. Therefore, null hypothesis #8 was not rejected.

The means and standard deviations for the dependent measure

nonspecific other referent affect are presented in Table 12.

More specifically, the results indicate that the the self-

instruction modules, regardless of the type, used in this

investigation had no effects on the frequency of nonspecific

other referent affective statements emitted by the experimen-

tal group subjects as compared with the control group subjects

in a later counseling session.


Summary of the Results

Three different self-instruction modules were inves-

tigated for their effects on four dependent variables: (1)

affective verbal expression (AVE), (2) specific self-referent

affect (SSRA), (3) specific other referent affect (SORA)

and, (4) nonspecific other referent affect (NORA). The

eight hypotheses generated by these variables were tested

using analysis of variance and the direction of the

significant differences) was tested post-hoc using

Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Both statistical tests
























Grouping Mean N Group

A 1.25 12 1
A 1.07 14 control
A 1.00 14 2
A 0.83 12 3


Means with the same letter are niot significantly different

Alpha = .05 DF = 48 MS = 1.15


49








TABLE 11

DUNCAN 'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST

USING NORA SCORES


























Group N Mean SD

1 12 1.25 0.89
2 14 1.00 1.10
3 12 0.83 0.83
control 14 1.07 1.32


TABLE 12

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS

USING NORA SCORES






51

utilized a rejection level of E < .05. It was found that

a self-instruction module utilized by clients prior to

receiving counseling which combined a simulated audio-taped

counseling session and a programmed instruction workbook,

or a self-instruction module with the audio-tape only were

effective in significantly increasing the frequency of

affective verbal expression emitted by a client in a later

counseling session when compared to a control group.

It was also found that a self-instruction module

utilizing an audio-tape only was effective in significantly

increasing clients' emitted frequency of specific self-

referent affect in later counseling. No other significant

results were generated, indicating that the self-instruction

modules used in this study had no significant effects on

the frequency of specific other referent affect or nonspecific

other referent affect emitted by the clients in a later

counseling session.













CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS


Individuals who seek help through counseling will often

experience varying time intervals after they initially

request counseling and before they actually meet face to

face with a counselor for their first formal counseling

session. Is there some way in which counselors might

capitalize on this sometimes unavoidable delay for the

positive assistance of their clients prior to counseling?

And, might there be some intervention that would assist these

individuals to be "better" clients and possibly experience

a more successful encounter in counseling? This study

addresses these two questions.

The purpose of this investigation was to study the

effects of three self-instruction modules. The aim of the

modules was to prepare clients for counseling during the

interval prior to actual counseling by teaching them two

communication skills for positive growth within the forth-

coming counseling relationship: (1) affective verbal

expression and, (2) the concreteness of their verbally

expressed affect. More specifically, this study examined

the effects of programmed instruction via a written self-

instruction workbook and modeling via an audio-taped

simulated counseling session on the dependent measures of





53

affective verbal expression, specific self-referent affect,

specific other referent affect, and nonspecific other

referent affect. As described in Chapter III, affective

verbal expression was defined as the total count of

affective words or phrases emitted by the client during an

audio-taped 15-minute analyzed segment of the cl-ient's first

counseling session. Concreteness was operationally defined

as an increase in the frequency of specific self-referent

affect and a concomitant decrease in the frequency of the

client's specific other referent affect and nonspecific

other referent affect. A total of 52 subjects volunteered

for this study.


Summary of the Findings

Eight hypotheses were tested in order to locate signifi-

cant differences between the three experimental groups and

the one control group on the four dependent measures. Using

analysis of variance and post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range

Test, two of the eight hypotheses were rejected at the alpha

level of E < .05, one at the p < .005 level of significance.

Basically, the results indicated that the combined

techniques of programmed instruction and modeling or

modeling alone, as used in this study, were effective

pretraining techniques for increasing the frequency of

affective verbal expression emitted by clients in a later

counseling session. On the dependent measure of specific

self-referent affect, only modeling via an audio-taped

simulated counseling session was shown to significantly





54

increase the frequency of this measure. The dependent

measures of specific other referent affect and nonspecific

other referent affect were not significantly effected by the

self-instruction modules used. In general this indicates

that two of the three self-instruction modules achieved the

desired effects of increased affective verbal expression but

had no effects positive or negative on the concreteness of

the clients verbally expressed affect.


Discussion

The results of this study, on the whole, parallel the

findings of the numerous investigations utilizing the various

modes of pretraining clients for counseling. These studies

have shown varying results as did the current investigation.

The results of this study confirm the findings of Green and

Marlatt (1972) who found that modeling and direct instruc-

tions would increase the frequency of affective verbaliza-

tions. This current investigation utilized a unique format

for the audio-taped presentation of a client modeling

desirable counseling communication. The uniqueness was that

the audio-tape model not only demonstrated desirable

communication behaviors but also demonstrated undesirable

client counseling communication. The direct instructions and

the format of the presentation (two distinct back to back

examples, desirable and undesirable) drew attention to this

difference and were designed to increase the frequency of the

desirable modeled communication behaviors and decrease the

frequency of the undesirable counseling communication with





55

clients in a later counseling session. The positive results

of this deliberate design were borne out by the results of

this current study.

The results of this investigation clearly indicate that

the programmed instruction workbook developed especially for

this study was by itself ineffective in producing any changes

in the frequency of the four dependent measures emitted by

the clients in a later counseling session. These findings

are somewhat contrary to those found by Maurer (1976).

However, Maurer investigated the effects of programmed

self-instruction on the facilitative communication skills of

elementary school teachers in a teaching environment.

Obviously there are great differences between clients in a

counseling environment and elementary school teachers in a

teaching environment. It may be this difference that

accounts for the ineffectiveness of the programmed self-

instruction on the dependent measures investigated in this

current study.

The results of this current study also confirm the

findings of Myrick (1968, 1969) who showed that modeling would

increase the frequency of high school students' emission of

first person pronouns since specific self-referent affect

was defined as the frequency of first person pronouns used

in conjunction with affective words and or phrases.


Implications

(1) The results of this study clearly demonstrated the

success of modeling as a pretraining technique to increase





56

the frequency of a client's affective verbal expression and

specific self-referent affect in a later counseling session.

More importantly, the unique modeling presentation format

was shown to be effective.

(2) It was shown that the modeling and programmed

instruction used in this study had no significant effects

on clients' emission of specific other referent affect and

nonspecific other referent affect, thus revealing no

positive effects on the concreteness of the clients'

verbalized affect.

(3) This study reveals that pretraining for counseling

is an effective and viable intervention which can be used

to assist the clients of those counselors who believe in

the importance of a client expressing his/her feelings.

(4) The limitations of the programmed instruction work-

book were made evident by the results of this study. Its

effects at this point are unclear as post-hoc data analysis

showed that the group using the workbook only was similar to

a group that was, and one that was not, significantly

different from the control group.


Recommendations for Future Research

(1) Systematic replication of this study would be useful

to test for the specific effectiveness of the format of the

audio-taped modeling used in this study. A similar research

design could be adopted that separates the audio-tape into

its two main components.





57

(2) Systematic replication of this investigation

with the added research component of the subjects' evaluation

of the helpfulness of the experimental program would provide

information on the wider scope of the program's practical

value.

(3) Systematic replication of this study with the added

research dimension of the counselors evaluation of the

subjects' communication behaviors would provide meaningful

information on the counselors perception of the effectiveness

of the program.

(4) Follow-up research that focuses on such issues as

client length of counseling, premature termination, or

general success in counseling would provide answers to the

questions regarding the overall worthiness in using a

pretraining experience.

(5) Regarding the limitations of the written programmed

instruction workbook used in this study, there is an assump-

tion held by this investigator relative to the subjects

level of personal involvement with the workbook based on

the users attractiveness to the workbook. Basically that

assumption states that the attractiveness of a self-instruc-

tion workbook is an important variable to be considered

relative to the overall effectiveness of the module.

It might be that a written programmed instruction

workbook is a relatively boring and overused medium of

instruction, especially when one considers the sophistication

of today's college students. Computerization is currently







one of the most exciting and powerful modes of instruction

and of late it is becoming more affordable to the lay person.

A programmed self-instruction workbook lends itself ideally

to the format and logic of a computer. Adapted to a com-

puter presentation with interactive capabilities would thus

increase a module's attractiveness and power of self-instruc-

tion. Systematic replication of this study with an improved

self-instruction module via computer technology is the next

step toward the overall increased efficiency of pretraining

clients for counseling.


Limitations

Research in the behavioral sciences contains, as in any

investigation, certain inherent limitations that may effect

the results of the study.

The first limitation in this study is concerned with

the nature of the experimental design. The randomized

control group, post-test only design was chosen as protesting

(in this case counseling) would contaminate the effects of

the treatment used. This basic design implies that subjects

are equivalent through randomization. However, randomization

does not guarantee equivalency.

The second limitation involves the use of university

students for the experimental population. The results are

therefore limited in their generalizability to those

individuals with similar educational and socio-economic

backgrounds.














APPENDIX A

INFORMED CONSENT FORM


Self-instruction Module Study

As a student at the University of Florida/Bradley

University you may or may not have participated in a research

study. This letter is written to request your participation

in a study here at the University Counseling Center. If you

agree to participate in this study, the receptionist will

give you a self-instruction module to take home and complete

before you return for your first counseling session. This

module is designed to help you in counseling as it will

orient you to the process of counseling and teach you basic

communication skills useful during counseling. It should

take you less than 1.5 hours to complete the module.

In order to measure the results of the module it will

be necessary to audio-tape record only your first counseling

session. Please understand that ALL INFORMATION OBTAINED

DURING THIS STUDY WILL BE HELD IN THE STRICTEST OF CONFIDENCE.

Confidentiality is a must as your counseling is a personal

matter. Confidentiality will be provided and maintained

to the fullest extent of the law. For data purposes, only

this investigator and two graduate students (to be named at

a later date) will have access to the audio-tapes. The

audio-tapes will be magnetically erased after the data are

59





60

recorded following your first counseling session here at

the center.

I have read and I understand the procedure described

above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have

received a copy of this description.


Signatures:
CLIENT



WITNESS



Daniel E. Shaw


Project investigator's
name and address.

Daniel E. Shaw
University of Florida
311 Little Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-1575




( ) Check here if you would like to receive a summary of
the research project.














APPENDIX B

CONTROL GROUP INFORMATION


Thank you for your participation. You have been

assigned to what is called the control group. You will

not receive the self-instruction module until after you

have completed your first counseling session. It is not

required that you take the self-instruction module; I feel

certain, however that you will find it useful for future

counseling sessions.

Thank you

Daniel E. Shaw
University of Florida
311 Little Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-1575













APPENDIX C

TAPESCRIPT OF AUDIO-TAPE (SIM2)


This module has been developed to assist you as a client

before you enter counseling. It is not a substitute for

counseling. It is designed to help you learn a special way

to communicate your concerns with a counselor. This module

is not designed to resolve your concerns, although it may

bring you closer to your concerns by involving you with them

in this special way

This module will help you to learn two basic communica-

tion skills that have been shown to be necessary for effective

communication in a counseling relationship. That which you

will learn will assist you and your counselor in helping you

reach a satisfactory resolution of your concerns. The two

communication skills that you will become more familiar

with are: the specific and accurate expression of your

feelings and specific as opposed to vague verbal communica-

tion.

The counseling relationship is based upon two people

sharing their thoughts, ideas, and feelings. The more you

as a client share your feelings with a counselor, the more

that your counselor can understand and help you. Expressing

your feelings will also assist you toward a better understand-

ing of your concerns.





63

Speaking in specific terms with a counselor is impor-

tant too. Being specific involves speaking in a concrete

and direct manner as opposed to being vague and elusive.

Obviously, the more specific you communicate the easier

it will be for you and your counselor to understand your

concerns and thus reach solutions.

This module will assist you to identify and practice,

feeling oriented and concrete communication which you are

encouraged to demonstrate during your counseling session.

The remainder of this audio-tape consists of two

simulated counseling sessions. You will hear both good and

poor client communication. In the first section you will

notice that the client is most vague and unspecific about

her situation and her own feelings. In fact she only alludes

to her own feelings. She rarely expresses her feelings to

the counselor. Listen carefully as the client begins.

Client: How ya doing?

Counselor: I've been fine. How are you?

Cl: OK, I guess.

Co: Not too good.

Cl: Well, remember that person I told you that I moved in

with a while back, and that things were going real good

and all?

Co: Yes.

Cl: Well um .. I went home over break and I was having

a good vacation and I get this little phone call and

it's my Mom. She says, "Your roommate has been trying





64

to get a hold of you." So I said, "Oh wow!" What

was wrong. So I called her up and she said to me,

"I found a cheaper place to live and I'm moving out

and I'm turning off the utilities and your going to

have to find someone." Or what ever. .. She's

leaving me with the whole thing.

Co: Just dumped right on you.

Cl: She didn't give me hardly any notice at all.

Co: Sounds like your angry with her.

Cl: .. But I can't. .. You know? .. I'm not used

to telling people, "Ooooh I'm peaved with youoooo."

So I didn't say anything. .. I can't believe she

did that.

Co: You're not coming out and telling her but inside

you're mad.

Cl: (nervous laughter) Ha ha ha.

Co: I guess your also wondering what your going to do now.

Cl: (big sigh) Tell me about it! Ha ha ha, well I. You

know? I've been looking in the paper and stuff and I

know some folks who will let me stay with them and.

...You know? .. She doesn't even realize what

she did to me. (imitates ex-roommate) "This is good

for me but I don't care about you. .. You know?

You gotta put down the deposits and I'm turning off

the electricity and that will be just too tough for

you." You know?

Co: She's treated you poorly.





65

Cl: .. I didn't expect that from her cause I thought

she liked me and, and nobody. .. I don't think

it's right that if you get a good deal like that.

...But you just don't walk out on someone like

that.

Co: Sounds like you feel bad and let down by her.

Cl: .. I'd like to tell her but. You know?...

I don't want to get into a hassle. I'd like to

...just do it, but she's the type of person who

can make it hard for you to talk to. You know what

I mean?

Co: You believe you don't have a good way of telling her

how you feel without some heavy consequences dropping

on you.

Cl: Like she's slapped some boys for practically nothing.

She may try something with me. ... You knowi? ...

I don't want to .. uh.

Co: You're actually afraid of her.

Cl: She's always telling me how she gets even with people

and goes, (imitates) "Ha ha ha." You see the whole

thing is I owe her some money and since the contract's

been broken I'm going to have to get someone else.

She walked out, so I'm not about to give her the

money when she's the one in the first place. I'll

pay one of the bills but she'll. .. She can get

like the mafia. .. You know?

Co: You're afraid of what she might try to do to you





66

about that. You're determined not to give it back to

her.

C1: NOPE!

Co: But your worried about what may happen.

Cl: I don't want to get into it with her or make a big

scene or anything. I'd just like to sort of explain

to her that she gave me a bad deal and that I'm not

cheating her by not giving her the money cause in

essence I don't owe her anything. .. You know?

She's the one who broke the contract in the first

place and I don't know how to explain that and I

don't know if I'm going to get a place to live. It's

really crummy. .. Like, I had to come back from

vacation and uh. (sigh) This is like my second to last

quarter and I have all these things going on now.

Co: It's just a whole lot more pressure that you don't

need right now.

Cl: .. And she. .. It's like I didn't deserve it.

Why did she, she could have. .. Oh sure she got a

good deal and all but where does that leave me. It's

like she has given all of her problems to me and she

figured that, ... "I can do it!" But she didn't

ever think. .. She just called me up like that.

Co: Uh huh. What if you. .. What have you thought

about doing about finding a place to live?

Cl: (sigh) Well I'm just going to look around and stuff

cause all of my old friends. That's the thing. All





67

of my friends are already living in places. You

know? So I'm just going to have to look around and end

up living with someone I don't even know.

Co: Sounds like your not happy about that at all.

Cl: Yeah? .. Cause I, .. I don't like to move around

just cause of the fact that moving is such -a pain. But,

then again I might be able to find some place that's

better than what I have now and maybe cheaper too.

In a way it might be a blessing in disguise....

What should I do now? Should I just come out and

tell her. You know? I think this is really nasty of

her. .. I don't want. .. I don't know what to

do. .. I don't know whether to go in during the

middle of the night and move all of my things to my

friends so I don't have to see her or whatever?...

This is such a pain.

Co: If you weren't concerned about the consequences about

what she'd do, what would you like to tell her?

Cl: Ha ha ha ha. .. To stick it up her nose! Ha ha ha.

Now listen to the same situation. This time notice how

her communication is clearer, more specific and full of words

and phrases which clearly express her feelings.

Cl: How ya doing?

Co: Oh I'm fine thanks. How about you?

Cl: I'm really aggravated and upset.

Co: You do sound angry. What's happening?

Cl: Well, do you remember that new roommate that I told you






68

I moved in with back in January, and how we were

getting along so well?

Co: Yes.

Cl: Well when I was home over spring break, enjoying myself,

my mother tells me that my roommate had been calling me.

Mom didn't say much else, so I got real concerned and

called my roommate up immediately. So my roommate

informs me that she has found a cheaper place to live

and that she is moving out in four days and is having

the utilities turned off. .. I'm so mad at her.

I'm left having to pay all the rent, move out, or find

another roommate, reconnect the utilities and shell out

for the deposits. My whole break was ruined. I'm

still upset too.

Co: She just dumped on you.

Cl: Yeah, I'm outraged. Just four days notice!

Co: You're really furious with her.

Cl: I am furious .. and surprised! You know? I'm

embarrassed to tell you but I'm scared to tell her how

angry and insulted I am. I'm really on the spot now

too with these housing obligations.

Co: You're not coming out and telling her, but on the

inside your seething.

Cl: Yeah. I'm angry and really on the spot too.

Co: I guess your also wondering what your going to do now.

Cl: (big sigh) I'm so pressured. .. I've been looking

in the paper, frantically making calls and putting up





69

notices. .. The one thing I feel good about is

that my friends have reassured me that they will put

me up if necessary. .. I can't believe her, I feel

so used.

Co: Taken advantage of .. and she treated you so

shabbily.

Cl: I thought she liked me. .. I'm hurt and let down!

We had an agreement and she broke it as if I wasn't

worth the effort. I wouldn't treat anyone like she

did me.

Co: Sounds like you feel unimportant and rejected.

Cl: Yes I sure do! I'd like to tell her that but I'm

afraid of getting into a fight with her. I'm certain

she wouldn't be civil with me. I'm suspicious of her

motives. .. She could easily get vicious.

Co: You're unsure of how to talk to her without some heavy

consequences dropping on you.

Cl: I'm definitely leary of her. .. I've heard stories

of how she slapped an old boy friend right in the face.

Co: You're actually afraid of her.

Cl: I'm afraid of her physically. .. I remember her

telling me how she enjoyed getting even with some old

ex-friends. You see, I owe her for the last months

rent and I feel so burned by her that I think I have the

right to keep that money. Oh, I'll pay her for my share

of the utilities. I'm not that spiteful. But I'm

really fearful that she'll lean on me like the mafia.






70

Co: You're afraid of what she might try to do to you.

You're determined not to give her the rent money back.

Cl: Exactly.

Co: You seem worried about what may happen between you two.

Cl: I really dislike arguing with anyone and especially her.

I feel correct in keeping the money. I'd like to calmly

explain to her that I feel betrayed by her and I think

she ought to understand that. I'm reluctant to talk

with her. .. I'm so disappointed about how my

vacation was ruined. I don't know what to do about a

place to live .. (sigTh). This is my next to the last

quarter before I graduate and I don't need to feel this

pushed and pulled right now.

Co: You've got more pressure that you know you don't want

or need.

Cl: What puzzles me is trying to figure out why she did

this. .. I didn't deserve to be treated so poorly

and what hurts me is how easy this seemed for her to

do to me. She didn't even think of me.

Co: You seem overwhelmed by how she treated you. . .I

wonder what you have been thinking about in terms of

finding a place to live.

Cl: (sigh) Well, .. I'll have to resort to looking in

the paper. I'm all alone in this, all my friends

already have places. I'm nervous about the possibility

of living with strangers.

Co: Moving into a new place with strangers can feel odd.





71

Cl: I'm not too happy about the idea of having to move.

I dislike moving .. but .. then again, I might

be able to find some place closer to school which I

don't have now .. and maybe even someplace cheaper.

I was thinking .. I'm upset now sure, but maybe this

is a blessing in disguise. .. I 'm torn between

telling my ex-roommate how angry I am and just wanting

to avoid her completely. I'm really upset over how she

treated me.

Co: If you weren't worried about the consequences about

what she'd do, .. what would you like to tell her?

Cl: Ha ha ha ha. To stick the rent money up her nose. Ha

ha ha.

Hear the differences between the two sessions. Listen

to them again if you like. When you are done your task will

be to imagine yourself talking with a counselor. Try to

express you concerns in your own style but remember to be

as specific as you can and to do your best at expressing

your feelings freely. When you have your counseling appoint-

ment demonstrate this communication skill. (end of tape)














APPENDIX D

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION WORKBOOK (SIM3)

-----------------------CONFIDENTIAL----------------


This is a programmed instruction workbook. All of the

entries you make in this workbook will be kept strictly

confidential. The workbook will be destroyed by the primary

investigator when it is turned in following your counseling

appointment. Please be sure to bring it with you when you

arrive at the counseling center to insure its return.

Thank you.





73

This module has been developed to assist you as a

client before you enter counseling. This module is not

a substitute for counseling. It is designed to help you

to learn a special way to communicate your concerns with a

counselor. This module is not designed to resolve your

concerns, although it may bring you closer to your concerns

by involving you with them in this special way.

This module will help you to learn two basic communica-

tion skills that have been shown to be necessary for effec-

tive communication in a counseling relationship. What you

will learn will assist you and your counselor in helping

you reach a satisfactory resolution of your concerns. The

two communication skills that you will become more familiar

with are: the specific and accurate expression of your

feelings and specific as opposed to vague verbal communica-

tion.

The counseling relationship is based upon two people

sharing their thoughts, ideas and feelings. The more you as

a client share your feelings with a counselor the more that

counselor can understand and help you. Expression of your

feelings will also assist you toward a better understanding

of your concerns.

Speaking in specific terms with a counselor is important

too. Being specific involves speaking in a concrete and

direct manner as opposed to being vague and elusive.

Obviously, the more specific your communication is, the easier

it will be for you and your counselor to understand you.





GO TO NEXT PAGE


74

This module will assist you to identify and practice,

feeling oriented and concrete communication which you are

encouraged to utilize and demonstrate during your counseling

session.




Read the directions for each question carefully.

Begin with #1 and complete each item before you begin the

next.




#1 Using as much or as little of the space provided below,

please describe the concerns) that you have come to

discuss with a counselor. Write as if you were speaking

directly to a counselor. ion't worry about spelling.

This is for your practice.





75

#2 Now look back over your response for #1. Briefly think

about how you have stated that which you did in regards

to the feelings and experiences you had about this

situation. Where the feelings pleasant, unpleasant or

both?

#3 What feeling words did you use in #1? Circle them and

list them below putting a check next to the last one.












#4 Now going back to your response to #1, think about your

concerns again. Look to see if you left out any words

that might better or more completely describe how you

felt and/or still feel with this concern. Ask yourself,

"HowJ did I feel in that situation, towards the people,

about the ideas, about myself, or the situation in

general?" "How do I feel about it now?"

#5 Go back to #3 and add any words which fit your experience.

#6 Now turn to the last page in this workbook to where the

feeling vocabulary list begins.

#7 Look at both the feeling vocabulary and your list in #3.

Thinking about your concerns, are there any words which

you could add or change in order to more accurately and

specifically describe how you feel?
GO TO NEXT PAGE





76

#8 Add as many new words as you can. Add at least one or

two new words. Use the space below.










#9 Count all the feeling words that you have used in #3

and #9. Put the total number of words here. +

#10 Now in the space provided below briefly describe the

concern in #1 as if you were speaking with a counselor.

This time use as many feeling words as is appropriate

to accurately, specifically, and completely express

your concern.


GO TO NEXT PAGE





77

#11 Look back over your response to #10 and circle the

feeling words you have used. Is there anything you

want to add or change that will more accurately and

specifically describe how you feel? If yes, do so

in the space provided below.


GO TO NEXT PAGE





78

#12 Look back at your last response (#10 or #12). Think

about the specificity of the communication. That is,

have you stated your concern clearly. Will another

person recognize the way in which you choose to express

your feelings? How else can you make the communication

more specific, to the point, relatively accurate, and

concise?

Here are some suggestions:

Does anything look ar sound vague as you re-read

your last response?

Did you use the words you, they, us, we, or it,

when your really meant I or ME?

Did you express your feelings, using specific

feeling words?

#13 Go back to your last response and look to see what

changes you can make after asking yourself the above

questions.

#14 Now for the last time. Re-write your concern using

the space provided on the next page in #15. You

should make as many changes as you can to make the

communication more specific. Remember, express your

feelings using as many feeling words as apply for you.


GO TO NEXT PAGE





#15 Use the space below for your final re-write.


#16 Compare your response in #1 with #15. Notice the

differences. Your task is to now demonstrate what you

have learned from this module during your counseling

session. Remember to express your feelings often during

the session and be as specific and concrete as you know

how.








VOCABULARY OF AFFECTIVE ADJECTIVES

Pleasant Affective States


Love, Affection, Concern


admired
adorable
affectionate
agreeable
altruistic
amiable
benevolent
benign
big-hearted
brotherly
caring
charitable
comfortable
congenial
conscientious
considerate
cooperative
cordial
courteous
dedicated
devoted
easy-going
empathetic
fair
faithful
forgiving
friendly


Elation, Joy


amused
at ease
blissful
brilliant
calm
cheerful
comical
contented
delighted
ecstatic
elevated
enchanted
enthusiastic
excellent
fantastic


optimistic
patient
peaceful
pleasant
polite
reasonable
receptive
reliable
respectful
responsible
sensitive
sweet
sympathetic
tender
thoughtful
tolerant
truthful
trustworthy
understanding
unselfish
warm
warm-hearted
well-meaning
wise


generous
genuine
giving
good
good-humored
good-natured
helpful
honest
honorable
hospitable
humane
interested
just
kind
kind-hearted
lenient
lovable
loving
mellow -
mild
moral
neighborly
nice
obliging
open


fine
fit
gay
glad
glorious
good
grand
gratified
great
happy
humorous
in high spirits
inspired
jovial
magnificent


majestic
marvelous
overjoyed
pleasant
pleased
proud
satisfied
serene
splendid
superb
terrific
thrilled
tremendous
triumphant
vivacious








Potency


able
adequate
assured
authoritative
bold
brave
capable
competent
confident
courageous
daring
determined
durable
dynamic
effective


energetic
fearless
firm
forceful
gallant
hardy
healthy
heroic
important
influential
intense
lion-hearted
manly
mighty
powerful


robust
secure
self-confident
self-reliant
sharp
skillful
spirited
stable
stouthearted
strong
sure
tough
virile
well-equipped
well-put-together


Unpleasant Affective states


Depression


abandoned
alien
alienated
alone
annihilate
awful
battered
bruised
blue
burned
cast off
cheapened
crushed
debased
defeated
degraded
dejected
demolished
depressed
despair
despised
despondent
destroyed
discarded
discouraged
disfavored
dismal


done for
dowln cast
downhearted
downtrodden
dreadful
estranged
excluded
forlon
forsaken
gloomy
glum
grim
hated
hopeless
horrible
humiliated
hurt
in the dumps
kaput
left out
loathed
lonely
lonesome
lousy
low
miserable
mishandled


mistreated
moody
mournful
obsolete
ostracized
out of sorts
overlooked
pathetic
pitiful
rebuked
regretful
rejected
reprimanded
rotten
ruined
run down
sad
stranded
terrible
unhappy
unloved
valueless
washed up
shipped
worthless
wrecked







Distress


afflicted
anguished
at the feet of
at the mercy of
awkward
badgered
bewildered
blameworthy
clumsy
confused
constrained
disgusted
disliked
displeased
dissatisfied
distrustful
disturbed


Fear, Anxiety


afraid
agitated
alarmed
anxious
apprehensive
bashful
desperate
dread
embarrassed
fearful
fidgety
frightened


doubtful
foolish
futile
grief
helpless
hindered
impaired
impatient
imprisoned
lost
nauseated
offended
pained
perplexed
puzzled
ridiculous
sickened


silly
skeptical
speechless
strained
suspicious
swamped
the plaything of
the puppet of
tormented
touchy
ungainly
unlucky
unpopular
unsatisfied
unsure


hesitant
horrified
ill at ease
insecure
intimidated
jealous
jittery
jumpy
nervous
on edge
overwhelmed
panicky


restless
scared
shaky
shy
strained
tense
terrified
terror-stricken
timid
uncomfortable
uneasy
worrying


Belittling, criticism,


scorn


abused
belittled
branded
carped at
caviled at
censured
criticized
defamed
deflated
depreciated
derided
discredited


disgraced
disparaged
humiliated
ignored
jeered
lampooned
laughed at
libeled
make light of
maligned
minimized
neglected


poked fun at
pooh-poohed
pulled to pieces
put down
ridiculed
roasted
scoffed at
scorned
shamed
slammed
slandered
underestimated







Impotency, Inadequate


anemic
broken
broken down
chicken-hearted
cowardly
crippled
debilitated
defective
deficient
demoralized
disabled
effeminate
exhausted
exposed
feeble
flimsy
fragile
frail
harmless


helpless
impotent
inadequate
incapable
incompetent
indefensible
ineffective
inefficient
inept
inferior
infirm
insecure
insufficient
lame
maimed
meek
nerveless
paralyzed
powerless


puny
shaken
shaky
sickly
small
strengthless
trivial
unable
unarmed
uncertain
unfit
unimportant
unqualified
unsound
unsubstantiated
useless
vulnerable
weak
weak-hearted


Anger, Hostility, Cruelty


aggravated
agitated
aggressive
angry
annoyed
antagonistic
arrogant
austere
bad-tempered
belligerent
bigoted
biting
bloodthirsty
blunt
bullying
callous
cantankerous
cold-blooded
combative
contrary
cool
corrosive
cranky
critical
cross
cruel
dictatorial


discontented
dogmatic
enraged
envious
fierce
furious
gruesome
hard
hard-hearted
harsh
hateful
heartless
hellish
hideous
hostile
hypercritical
illtempered
impatient
inconsiderate
inhuman
insensitive
intolerable
intolerant
irritated
mad
malicious
mean


obstinate
opposed
oppressive
outraged
perturbed
poisonous
prejudiced
pushy
rebellious
reckless
resentful
revengeful
rough
rude
ruthless
sadistic
savage
severe
spiteful
stern
stormy
unfeeling
unfriendly
unmerciful
unruly
vicious
vindictive














APPENDIX E

SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTIONS


------------------------IMPORTANT-----------------


Please return all materials in this envelope to the

receptionist when you arrive at the counseling center for

your appointment.

It is important that you not discuss the self-instruction

modules with your counselor until the study is completed

because this information may bias the results of the study.

This should in no way effect your success in counseling.

Thank you.














APPENDIX F

SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTIONS





LISTEN TO AUDIO-TAPE FIRST












































85














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Daniel Eric Shaw was born May 22, 1951, in New York

City, New York. When he was five years old his family moved

to North Miami, Florida. After graduating from North Miami

Senior High School in June of 1969, he attended Miami Dade

Junior College in Miami, Florida, where he earned an

Associate of Arts degree in 1971.

He attended the University of Florida in Gainesville,

Florida, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in 1974 and

a Master of Education degree in 1975. After teaching

psychology at Pensacola Junior College, in 1977 he returned

to the University of Florida where he received a Specialist

in Education degree in March of 1978. After completing a

one-year internship at the Psychological and Vocational

Counseling Center at the University of Florida, he accepted

a staff position under a federally funded grant for 14

months. Completing his research at the Counseling Center,

he received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in June of 1981.

He is married to Laurie Jill Samet, a Medical Record

Administrator.




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