• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Literature review
 Methods and materials
 Results and discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Appendix
 References
 Biographical sketch














Title: Legume intercrops and weed control in sun-grown coffee plantings in the Bolivian Yungas
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097431/00001
 Material Information
Title: Legume intercrops and weed control in sun-grown coffee plantings in the Bolivian Yungas
Physical Description: 1 online resource (xii, 106 leaves) : ill. ;
Language: English
Creator: Janicki, Lawrence John, 1947-
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Coffee -- Bolivia   ( lcsh )
Coffee -- Weed control   ( lcsh )
Legumes -- Bolivia   ( lcsh )
Intercropping -- Bolivia   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 96-104).
Statement of Responsibility: by Lawrence John Janicki.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Description based on print version record.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097431
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 004799253
oclc - 497834336

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Dedication
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
    Abstract
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Literature review
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Methods and materials
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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        Page 50
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        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Results and discussion
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
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        Page 80
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        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Appendix
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    References
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Biographical sketch
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
Full Text












LEGUME INTERCROPS AND WEED CONTROL IN SUN-GROWN
COFFEE PLANTINGS IN THE BOLIVIAN YUNGAS







BY


LAWRENCE JOHN JANICKI


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1982

























This dissertation is dedicated to my loving wife

Karen, and to our cherished daughter Michelle, for their

love and patience. Also, to my mother and father, and my

sisters and brothers for the love we share.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to express his deepest appreciation

to the chairman of his supervisory committee, Dr. Gordon M.

Prine, for his interest, encouragement and support during

the course of this study. His understanding of the reality

of the developing world and his commitment to international

agronomy were most valuable during the difficult moments.

The author also would like to extend his gratitude to the

members of his supervisory committee, Dr. Hugh L. Popenoe,

Dr. Victor E. Green, Jr., Dr. James Soule, Dr. John A.

Koburger, and Dr. David H. Teem, for their help,

understanding, and patience in the realization of the

dissertation.

Appreciation is extended to Dr. Robert Franz, of the

University of Arkansas, and Mr. John Tollervey, of the

British Tropical Agriculture Mission in Bolivia, for their

help and support in designing the weed control phase of

this study.

The author is endebted to the Office of International

Programs at the University of Florida for the financial

assistance that made this study possible.

Special thanks are extended to the San Francisco

Xavier Rural School and to the people of Carmen Pampa for


iii








their support and commitment to the study. Brother Hugo,

Sister Damon, and Sister Cecilia have been true friends and

their laughter is inspiring. The friendship and dreams of

Brother Nilus are valued deeply. The untiring field

support of Professor Andres Pardo was indispensable in

completing the study.

Deep appreciation is extended to Dr. William G. Blue,

for his guidance and friendship. The use of his laboratory

was most valuable to the author. Thanks are extended to Mr.

Jorge Gonzalez for his help with the chemical analyses of

soil and plant samples.

Thanks are extended to Dr. Ramon C. Littell, for his

help with the statistical analysis of the research data.

Finally, appreciation is extended to the author's brother,

Rodger, for his companionship and assistance in sample

preparation and analysis and the author's brother, Jerry,

for his assistance with statistical design and analysis and

his encouragement.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ..................................... vii

LIST OF FIGURES .................................... x

ABSTRACT........................................... xi

INTRODUCTION....................................... 1

LITERATURE REVIEW.................................. 4

Agriculture in Bolivia............................ 4
Overview ..................................... 4
Yungas Soils...... ............................. 6
Agriculture in the Yungas..................... 13
Coffee Production in Bolivia.................. 15
Weed Control .................................. 20
Cover Crops .................................... 24
Grain Legumes.................................. 25
Tree Intercrops................................ 28
Coffee Intercropping Systems .................. 31
Malnutrition in Bolivia........................... 33

METHODS AND MATERIALS................................ 35

Site Description................................. 35
Selection. ..................................... 35
Climate and Soils............................. 37
Methodology...................................... 43
Philosophy..................................... 43
Recuperation and Weed Control................. 46
Cover Crops................................... 51
Grain Legume Intercrops ...................... 53
Shade Grown Coffee....... .................... 53
Laboratory Analyses............................... 54
Soil Sampling ................................ 54
Soil Chemical Analyses......................... 54
Foliar Sampling................................. 55
Foliar Chemical Analyses ..................... 55
Harvest Data .................................. 56







PAGE

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................. 57

Recuperation and Weed Control.................... 57
Weed Control .................................. 57
Coffee Recuperation...... ... .... ............. 59
Economic Considerations .. ..................... 63
Legume Cover Crops ............................... 70
Strategy ...................................... 70
Economic Considerations......................... 70
Grain Legume Intercrops .......................... 71
Strategy...................................... 71
Intercrops..................................... 72
Soil Analyses.................................. 74
Coffee Foliar Analyses................ ......... 79

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS... .......................... 86

APPENDIX........................................... 89

REFERENCES......................................... 96

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ 105














LIST OF TABLES


PAGE

1. Bolivian agricultural production (1979).......... 7

2. Some physical characteristics of soils from
6 selected areas in the Yungas of Bolivia....... 10

3. Organic matter, nitrogen, and pH of soils
from 6 selected areas in the Yungas of
Bolivia ....................................... .11

4. Some chemical characteristics of soils from
6 selected areas in the Yungas of Bolivia...... 12

5. Bolivian coffee production and exports
1971-1980 ....................................... 18

6. Production, area, and yield of parchment
coffee in Provinces of the Department of
La Paz, 1976..................................... 19

7. Summary of climatic factors at Carmen Pampa
and the San Pedro Agricultural Experiment
Station. (160 08' Latitude, 670 46' W.
Longitude)..................................... 40

8. Chemical characteristics, exchangeable
cations, and cation exchange capacity of a
soil sample from Coroico, North Yungas.......... 44

9. Summary of weed control treatments frequency
of applications, and rates of herbicides
applied........................................ 50

10. Summary of fertilization regime during
recuperation and weed control study............. 52

11. Weed distribution and density from unweeded
control plots at beginning of study............. 58

12. Summary of regression trend line analyses
for coffee production as a function of
treatment during the years 1976-1981........... 62


vii







PAGE


13. Comparison of coffee yield (qq parchment
coffee/ha) by treatment and year............... 64

14. Summary of labor requirements (mandays/
ha) for sun-grown coffee ...................... 65

15. Summary of production costs per hectare in
Bolivian pesos ($b) for sun grown coffee
1980-1981..................................... 68

16. Summary of expenses and returns for 1
quintal of sun-grown parchment coffee by
weed control treatment during the 1980-1981
growing season................................. 69

17. Yield, variation, relative yield totals
(RYT) and gross income equivalent ratio
(IER) of coffee intercropped grain legumes.... 73

18. Food, protein, and food energy produced per
ha. by various grain legumes .................. 75

19. Estimated gross income from grain legumes
intercropping and monoculture production
per ha......................................... 76

20. Soil nitrogen, organic matter, and pH in
soil before legume intercropping and weed
control......................... ............. . 77

21. Soil nitrogen, organic matter, and pH in
soil after legume intercropping and weed
control ................................... .... 78

22. Double-acid extractable macro-nutrients
in soil before legume intercropping and weed
control.................... ...... ............. .. 80

23. Double-acid extractable macro-nutrients
in soil after legume intercropping and weed
control.......... .............................. 81

24. Double-acid extractable micro-nutrients
in soil before legume intercropping and weed
control....................... .. ............ .. 82

25. Double-acid extractable micro-nutrients
in soil after legume intercropping and weed
control........... ................. ............ 83


viii








PAGE


26. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium levels in coffee
before and after legume intercropping
and weed control (1 year) ..................... 84

27. Foliar iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and
aluminum levels in coffee before and after
legume intercropping and weed control (1
year)...................... ................... 85

28. Nutritional status of Bolivian children
(1965-1974).................. ................. 90

29. Typical Bolivian foods........................ 94














LIST OF FIGURES


PAGE

1. Location of experimental site area in
Bolivia ....................................... 36

2. Mean monthly precipitation and extremes at
the San Pedro Experiment Station (1973-
1980)...... ..................................... 38

3. Mean monthly temperature and extremes at
the San Pedro Experiment Station (1973-1980)... 39

4. Mean monthly temperature and extremes and
rainfall at Carmen Pampa (1980-1981)........... 41

5. Coffee purchases (fruit) at the San Francisco
Xavier cooperative by month (1980-1981)........ 45

6. Coffee purchases (fruit) originating at
Chovacollo..................................... 47

7. Coffee purchases (fruit) originating at San
Cristobal ..................................... 48

8. Coffee purchases originating at Carmen Pampa... 49

9. Duration of weed control following treatment
application January-March, 1981................ 60

10. Linear regression trend lines representing
coffee production increase (qq/ha parchment
coffee) during the 5 year study................ 61














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



LEGUME INTERCROPS AND WEED CONTROL IN SUN-GROWN
COFFEE PLANTINGS IN THE BOLIVIAN YUNGAS


By


Lawrence John Janicki


December 1982


Chairman: Dr. Gordon M. Prine
Major Department: Agronomy


Small holder farmers in the Yungas of Bolivia can

increase production by applying intermediate technology to

sun-grown coffee plantings if marketing constraints are

removed and a just price is received for their product.

Natural vegetation cover adversely affected

recuperation of mismanaged coffee plants when compared with

conscientious weed control programs. Coffee plants with

weed control yielded an average of 150% more coffee than a

natural vegetation control after 5 years of intensive

management. Use of the chemical herbicides paraquat

(l,l'-dimthyl-4,4'bipyridinium ion) at 0.6 kg a.i./ha and

glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) at 5.0 kg a.i./ha,

applied 5 times a year, did not significantly increase







parchment coffee yields when compared to a glyphosate

treatment applied 3 times a year.

Use of chemical herbicides reduced weed control labor

requirements by an average of 74%. Although production

costs increased 188% with handweeding and an average of

237% with chemical weed control, increased net returns per

hectare (283% and 281% respectively) were sufficient to

offset the increased costs.

The legume cover crop, Stylosanthes guianensis Swartz,

did not adversely affect the recuperation of low-producing,

mismanaged coffee plants when compared to paraquat and

hand-strip weeding. In addition, dry matter production of

4.5 mt/ha/yr fixed approximately 120 kg N/ha/yr.

The grain legumes, lima bean (Paseolus limensis

Macf.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), soybean

(Glycine max L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and

pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) yielded 332, 91,

330, 308, and 573 kg/ha when intercropped with recuperating

coffee plants the first year. Parchment coffee production

and foliar content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and

Al were not significantly affected by the intercrop (.05

level) when compared to foliar nutrient levels from a

coffee monoculture control.


xii














INTRODUCTION


The two decades prior to the 1970's seemed to indicate

an increasing capacity for the world to produce more food

more efficiently. Food surpluses, stable or declining food

prices, large grain stores, and large amounts of food aid

substantiated the belief in this increased production

capacity.

In 1972, food prices rose sharply, food shortages

developed, food aid shipments declined, and grain stocks

fell to dangerously low levels. Diminished food surpluses

linked to the energy crisis and droughts sparked world

concern that agriculture might be approaching its capacity

to produce sufficient food for the growing world population.

By 1974, major studies had been undertaken to assess

the world food problem. Low yields were not the only

reason for deficient diets among the world's poor.

Post-harvest losses, lack of adequate marketing channels and

transportation, disease, cultural taboos, and low incomes

all were found to contribute to making needed nutrients

unavailable to hungry people (Harris and Lindblad, 1978;

National Academy of Sciences, 1978).

Many studies, including the United Nation's World Food

Conference in Rome, did not find the situation to be as

catastrophic as the popular belief of imminent mass







starvation. Conclusions were reached indicating more food

could be produced and the present supply problems could be

corrected over the next decade (Walters, 1975; Whittwer,

1975; Brady, 1977).

Today, starvation is still a serious concern in parts

of the world. One segment of the earth's population enjoys

a more than adequate diet, while millions more are

consigned to almost perpetual hunger due to protein and

calorie deficiencies. No simple reason can be given for

the current food problems facing a growing world

population, nor are the solutions to be found readily

(USDA, 1974; Brady, 1977).

It may be feasible to increase agricultural yields

with high energy inputs that are derived from fossil fuels,

but as energy and petroleum based agrochemical products

increase in price, their employment by developing countries

will become more difficult. Widespread implementation of

energy-intensive agriculture would be a quantum leap for

most developing countries and is not to be expected in the

near future (Heichel, 1980; Brady, 1981; Harwood, 1981).

Yields are higher in developed countries for all major

agronomic crops (FAO, 1980). However, increases have been

reported in developing countries when appropriate

technology has been employed (Sanchez, 1976).

Reaching the food producers with appropriate

technology will be necessary to achieve yield increases to

meet the needs of the world. Agricultural development





3

strategies that stress appropriate technology could

increase available food significantly in the developing

world (Bradfield, 1981; Harwood, 1981).

Cropping system research on small coffee holdings is

needed. Intercropping strategies for the small producer

that utilize coffee in wide row spacings as an upper story

crop with interplantings of annual subsistence, cover, and

cash crops can be of particular importance during the

establishment of a new coffee planting or during drastic

cultural pruning. Intercropping effectively diversifies a

establishment of a new coffee plan agricultural production

during non-productive coffee growing periods (Mwakka, 1960;

Lavabre, 1972; Oladokun, 1980).

Establishment of new or rejuvenation of older

plantings is difficult for the small coffee producer in

Bolivia. Objectives of this study were to investigate (1)

the economic feasibility of a more intensive coffee culture

that utilizes fertilizer and chemical weed control and (2)

the potential use of leguminous forage and grain crops with

sun-grown coffee on the sloping lands of the Yungas to

provide additional food and feed, enhance soil fertility,

and to aid in weed and erosion control.















LITERATURE REVIEW

Agriculture in Bolivia
Overview

Bolivia is a landlocked South American country located

on the Andean Cordillera and the slopes and plains to the

east. In 1978, its population was estimated at 5.2 million
2
people living on a land area of 1,098,581 km2

Historically, its economy has been based on exploitation of

non-renewable mineral resources. More recently

agricultural production has become more important as

mineral resource production decreases.

The country has varied ecological life zones,

determined principally by altitude and rainfall, and the

agricultural sector presents a diverse and flexible range

of possibilities for development. Bolivia is generally

divided into 3 agricultural areas: mountains, valleys, and

lowlands. Eighty four percent of the population inhabits

the mountain plateaus and valleys. Recent development

projects have concentrated their efforts in the flat

lowland areas where more intensive agricultural systems can

be utilized. The Bolivian government has initiated, with

foreign economic and technical assistance, colonization

programs in an attempt to encourage migration to the lower

altitudes and help in the development of arable lands in the

4





5

underpopulated eastern part of Bolivia (Barja and Gonsalez,

1971; Wennergren and Whitaker, 1975).

The valley areas are climatologically suitable for

fruit and vegetable production but small land holdings and

land and crop mismanagement account for low yields with

most small holder farmers producing at subsistence levels.

The implementation of agricultural development programs in

the lower mountain valley regions has not been a priority

because of interest in colonization and development of the

lowland regions. Population pressure and soil fertility

decline are encouraging people to migrate to the lower

altitudes.

The Yungas is an unusual agricultural area, lower than

the high valleys but more precipitous topographically. It

is located on the eastern slopes of the cordillera and has

climatic conditions favorable for the production of

tropical perennial and annual crops.

In the Yungas, major cash crops include coffee (Coffea

arabica L.), various citrus crops, and coca (Erythroxylum

coca Lam.). These crops provide cash income to the

farmers. Poor yields and low quality Cocaa excepted)

result in low incomes and poor nutritional status. The

basic diet consists predominately of root and tuber crops

such as cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), cocoyam

(Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott), taro (Colocasia

esculenta Schott), and the Andean carrot (Arracacia

xanthorrhiza Bancroft). Plantain (Musa spp. L.) and





6

squash (Cucurbita spp. L.) are also consumed in quantity.

Broad bean (Vicia fava L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), and

peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) together provide the principal

amounts of protein for the poor families of the area (Barja

and Gonsalez, 1971; National Academy of Sciences, 1975).

It is possible to grow maize (Zea mays L.), soybean

(Glycine max Merr.), peanut, pea, common bean (Phaseolus

spp. L.), and a variety of vegetables. These products

are, for the most part, supplied to the Yungas from other

agricultural areas of Bolivia via the markets of La Paz

(Knoerich, 1969; Guzman, 1976).

Annual production statistics (1979) for selected

agricultural products in Bolivia are given in Table 1.

Only peanut and pea have yields that are above the world

average. Overall, nearly 72% of Bolivia's arable land has

not been developed (Wennergren and Whitaker, 1975; FAO,

1980). Low yields, lack of productive agricultural land,

credit, and infrastructure development reduce Bolivia's

ability to meet its food production demands.




Yungas Soils

Soils of the Yungas are formed from Paleozoic

sediments that were uplifted during the formation of the

Andes Mountains in the Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era.

The Paleozoic Block or Eastern Cordillera, that rises to

heights of 6,000 m, towers above the Yungas, and igneous

intrusions and extinct volcanos contribute to the parent















Table 1. Bolivian agricultural production


Pro- Yield
Crop Area duction Bolivia World


(ha x 1000) (mt x 1000) (kg/ha) (kg/ha)
Grains
Rice 72 102 1420 2615
Wheat 87 87 646 1782
Maize 255 255 1298 3271
Quinoa+ (15) (10) (667) ---

Legumes/Pulses
Broadbean 11 11 991 1053
Pea (dried) 4 4 1048 1169
Bean (white) 3 3 800 580
Peanut 14 14 1321 1016

Roots and tubers
Potato 13 800 6154 15503
Cassava 25 300 6040 8748
Arracacha
Cocoyam (NO DATA AVAILABLE)
Taro


Estimated production figures (Wennergren and Whitaker,
1975).
FAO, 1980


(1979).








materials forming the soils of the Yungas. Time and

weather have converted this parent material to fine lutites

and sands (Schlater and Nederhoff, 1966).

The soil survey conducted by the British Agricultural

Mission in Bolivia and led by Thomas Cochrane include a

detailed mapping of land systems that is based on similar

characteristics of topography, vegetation, soils and climate

(Cochrane, 1973). It is a method that was developed and

used in Australia by Christian and Stewart (1953).

Montenegro (1979) considers the Yungas soil to be

fertile initially but nutrient depletion occurs rapidly

through mismanagement. The continuous cropping of the

steeply sloped lands contributes to severe erosion and loss

of fertility. He also mentions the constant burnings that

are practiced that prevent the establishment of shrubs and

other woody perennials, increasing the rate of erosion.

Several short term consultants for the University of

Florida/State Department Contract have commented on the

soils of the Yungas.

Abruna (1976) described the topography as undulating

to mountainous and classified the deep red, leached, acid

soils with good physical structure as Ultisols and the

severely eroded, shallow soils as younger Inceptisols. For

fertilizer trials in coffee he recommended additions of

nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium.

Guzman (1976), commenting on vegetable production in

the area, after reviewing available soil data, concluded









the soils would require liming to be productive because of

the low pH (4.6-5.2). Addition of nitrogen, phosphorus,

and potassium was recommended to enhance fertility and

improve production.

A more thorough study was conducted by Calhoun (1976)

in which soil samples were collected and analyzed at the

University of Florida (Tables 2, 3, and 4). The soils were

described as being derived from acid slates, shists, and

sandstones and classed as loams. Clay content was in the

20-25% range with an available water capacity of between 15

and 20%.

Exchangeable calcium was low, exchangeable magnesium

was not necessarily a problem except in one area sampled,

and exchangeable potassium was adequate for most field

crops.

The Yungas soils were found to contain about 700 ppm

total phosphorus; however, available phosphorus was low.

Soil reactions averaged about pH 5.0 in water and indicated

the need for liming.

Blue (1977) commented on the results of the soil

analysis and found indications of aluminum toxicity in

several of the Yungas samples. He also concluded reduced

solubility of phosphorus was due to high levels of aluminum

and iron. He recommended field trials that included

several levels of a 2-1-1 fertilizer ratio for nonlegumes

and suggested that K might not be needed initially.






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Fertilizer recommendations for sun-grown coffee made

by the British in the early 1970s were preliminary and not

based on actual field trials. Nitrogen and phosphorus

applied as ammonium phosphate (18-46-0) at a rate of 64

kg/ha of fertilizer was recommended for new plantings,

three months after transplanting to the field. Potassium

was considered to be present at sufficient levels for

proper growth. Subsequent applications of ammonium nitrate

in November and Februrary in increasing yearly increments

of 64, 128, and 256 kg/ha was considered an adequate

fertilization schedule until field trials in different

coffee growing zones in the Yungas could be performed

(Ballantyne et al., 1971; Penn, 1972).


Agriculture In The Yungas

Yungas is an Aymara word for valley and describes the

steeply sloped mountains cut by the Rio Coroico, Rio La

Paz, and Rio Beni. The Yungas area ranges from Subtropical

Premontane Wet Forest to Subtropical Lower Montane Moist

Forest according to the Holdridge classification of world

life zones (Unzueta, 1975). Ecological zone transitions

are sharp. Temperature and precipitation change with

elevation but moisture is also drastically affected by

precipitation shadow effects (McCloud, 1976).

Mean annual temperatures range from 18-25 C in the

lower areas and 15-20 C in the higher valleys. Crops are

grown at altitudes ranging from 600 m above sea level to

close to 2000 m (Barja and Gonsalez, 1971; Unzueta, 1975).









The agreeable climate attracts vacationers from the

higher altitudes and historically its mineral and

agricultural potential have been exploited. Landslides and

flooded land near rivers during the rainy season (November -

March) make transportation uncertain and, consequently,

agriculture production has evolved towards products that

are light in weight and stable. Citrus is an exception to

this general statement (Figueras, 1978).

Many of the small farms in the area appear relatively

prosperous with well-kept buildings but utilization of

agronomic crops in small multiple-cropped gardens appears

to supplement the household rather than be a source of

subsistence production (McCloud, 1976).

The development of small farmer agriculture in the

Yungas followed the National Revolutionary Movement (MNR)

revolution led by Paz Estenssoro in April 1952. The

Agrarian Reform Law of 1953 completely altered land tenure

by dividing the large pre-revolutionary period hacienda

land holdings among the Indian peasants (Heath, 1973;

Graeff, 1974; Leons, 1975).

Absentee land ownership predominated prior to the

revolution, with coca, coffee, and citrus as the main

agricultural cash crops. Labor to manage the extensive

coca crop was reduced and less coca was produced following

the revolution, as land was parceled to the Indians

(colonos) bound to the hacienda lands. The Bolivian

campesino, as the Indian was now called, lacking necessary









agricultural and marketing skills, found it difficult to

integrate successfully into the new posthacienda market

economy. Abuses by former hacienda owners confused and

alienated the recently freed Indians and seriously retarded

the development of a viable small farm agricultural system

(Heath, 1973; Graeff, 1974; Cullen, 1980).

Ten years after the agrarian reform, the situation had

stabilized with a new order of chollos and former hacienda

owners controlling the marketing of agricultural products.

Chollos were former colonos that had migrated to the towns

in the Yungas from the haciendas to become urban dwellers.

This new "chollo" class entered into business, trades, or

became domestics.

The new order did not improve the condition of the

campesinos, to any great extent. The Bolivian government

began efforts in the 1960s to improve the conditions of the

small farmer through organized development projects.



Coffee Production in Bolivia

The decision by the British Agricultural Mission in

1965, to organize and improve export crops in the Yungas

was of considerable impact. A survey was made in that year

to study the various cash crops produced in the area.

Originally tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and cacao (Theobroma

cacao L.) were considered to be the crops of emphasis. It

was decided, however, after coffee samples (C. arabica

cultivars) were processed and sent to London for evaluation





16

and found to be of premium quality, to develop the coffee

producing potential of the Yungas for export markets in

London, New York, and South Africa.

An ambitious coffee processing and marketing

cooperative program was initiated by the British and United

States governments that included technical assistance by

both British agricultural officers and cooperative training

by the US Peace Corps (Cullen, 1980).

Coffee, during the period 1962-1972, was the principal

agricultural export of Bolivia, averaging 31% of the total.

The Department of La Paz produced about 98% of the total

national production with about 80% coming from the North

Yungas Province (Figueras, 1976).

Coffee farming in Bolivia is exclusively a small

farmer operation with less than 2 hectares dedicated to the

enterprise on farms ranging from 1-5 hectares. The small

coffee producer in Bolivia is characterized as (1) lacking

technical knowledge on coffee culture; (2) producing a

final product of variable quality due to primitive

processing; and (3) receiving very little for his product

because of the marketing structure and its constraints

(Figueras, 1976; Buitrago, 1979; PRODES, 1979; Hanrahan et

al., 1980).

Over 65% of the coffee plantings are old and poor

producers with poor management the general rule. Figueras

(1976) surveyed the coffee situation and concluded that

yield data were extremely unreliable. Estimates range from





17

6 to 20 quintales (100 pounds in Bolivia, abbreviated qq)

of dry parchment coffee per hectare. Probably the most

reliable figure has been established by the Asociacion

Nacional de Productores del Cafe (ANPROCA) (a Bolivian

coffee growers association) from data obtained from its

members (Vera, 1980). ANPROCA membership includes about

50% of the farmers if one assumes that there are between

15,000 and 20,000 families actively involved in coffee

production in Bolivia. The average ANPROCA member farmed

1.7 ha and had a yield of 8.4 qq/ha of dry parchment

coffee. Presently, the lack of economic incentives

discourages cultural practice improvement (Buitrago, 1979;

Hanrahan et al., 1980).

The trend in coffee production and the amount exported

from Bolivia during the period 1971-1980 are shown in Table

5. The appearance of coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix

Berk & Br.) in 1978 could change the significance of the

trend in the future.

Coffee production statistics for the year 1976 are

summarized in Table 6 (Figueras, 1978). The North Yungas

Province produces more than half of the coffee grown in the

the La Paz Department. Yields are given in quintales of

parchment coffee per hectare. The yields appear somewhat

higher than more recent data (Vera, 1980) and more likely

represent corriente coffee (30-40% moisture).
















Table 5. Bolivian coffee production and
exports 1971-1980.


Year Production Exports

(mt) (mt)

1971 12,000

1972 13,000 -----

1973 13,000 ----

1974 14,000 3,164

1975 16,000 5,200

1976 18,000 4,798

1977 22,000 4,465

1978 22,000 5,750

1979 17,000 7,528

1980 23,000 5,500


Source: FAO Production


Year Book 1971-1980.














Table 6.


Production, area, and yield of parchment coffee
in Provinces of the Department of La Paz, 1976.


Province Production Percent Area Yield

(qq) ( ) (ha) (qq/ha)

North Yungas 147,000 56.5 8,300 17.7
South Yungas 97,200 37.4 6,400 15.2
Inquisivi 4,300 1.9 350 12.5
Franz Tamayo 6,500 2.5 550 11.8

Total 260,000 100.0 16,000

Source: Figueras, 1978.











Weed Control

It is estimated that weeds cause a loss of at least

11.5% of the world's food crop each year and these losses

are greater in crop production systems that are primitive

or intermediate in technology (Parker and Fryer, 1975).

Weed control has become one of the most costly cultural

practices in tropical agriculture. Effective control of

weeds is considered the major factor influencing crop yield

as compared to other forms of pest control. Competition for

needed nutrients, moisture and sun light by weeds can reduce

yields drastically. Experiments in Kenya and elsewhere

have demonstrated the importance of weed control in coffee.

Annual production in coffee was doubled (750 kg/ha) in weed

free plots compared to plots cleared twice a year (345

kg/ha) (Reynolds, 1968). Jones and Wallis (1963) found

similar reductions in yield and also a reduction in coffee

quality if weeds were not hand cleared during the rainy

season.

However, on steeply sloping lands where heavy rainfall

is common, erosion can be costly if weed control practices

bare the soil and allow precious topsoil to be carried

away. Soil-erosion experiments at Chinchina, Colombia

where designed to compare clean cultivation by hoeing,

slashing by machete, mowed pasture cover, and use of

terraces, silt pits and shade in coffee plantings of

varying slopes. Monthly clean hoeing produced the greatest









loss of topsoil when compared to the other strategies.

Erosion was less on mowed pastures and machete slashed

plots and also decreased when the interval between

treatments was increased to three months. Erosion was nil

in plots with well established shade and terraces and silt

pits loss only slightly more than the shade plots (Suarez

de Castro, 1951).

Grasses and sedges, particularly the former having

subterranean rhizomes (e. g. Imperata cylindrica Beauv.,

Panicum repens L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cyperus

esculentus L.) are weed problems that are not controlled

with traditional methods.

It is important to consider (1) the maintanence of an

adequate cover and (2) the composition of the weed flora

when implementing a weed control program. The program

should minimize weed competition but not at the expense of

good erosion control. Clean weeding around young plants

with mulching and slash mowing or a knock-down herbicide

around older plants are recommended (Ochse et al., 1961).

Manual weed control, in developing countries, can be

one of the most costly inputs made into a system, no matter

how primitive. While effective and generally always

performed, the manual removal of weeds depends on an

adequate labor supply. Labor conflicts during peak harvest

periods can reduce the ability to control weeds effectively

and therefore, be less effective (Parker and Fryer, 1975;

Figueras, 1978).





22

High rainfall conditions in tropical areas cause

serious problems with weed control. Traditional forms of

weed control may favor the growth of problematic perennials

(Rincon, 1961). Herbicides can help peasant farmers by

increasing yields from improved and more timely weed

control, releasing labor from time consuming manual weeding

for cultivation of other crops or increased land use

(Hammerton, 1974).

A small farmer, without sufficient funds or credit, is

denied access to intermediate technology now available in

weed control and other aspects of crop culture. Ignorance

and lack of proper training and advisement also keep him

from incorporating new research findings into his small

business enterprise. (Figueras, 1976; Hanrahan et al.,

1980).

Coffee culture in the Yungas is primarily a shade

culture. The utilization of shade reduces weed growth and

the need to expend much energy for their control. However,

shade culture is not as productive as coffee grown in the

sun. The use of higher technology methods becomes practical

when high yields are considered. Utilization of chemical

herbicides can free labor for other cultural practices such

as pruning and harvesting in addition to being more

effective.

So important is weed control in sun-grown coffee that

research in this area has become more prevalent during the

last 2 decades. The use of herbicides is being








incorporated into research programs at experiment stations

and universities in the major coffee producing areas of the

world. Labor cost is so high in some areas that more

efficient means of weed control are constantly being

sought.

Weeds are a problem in coffee plantations. Grasses

predominate in new plantings but give way to broadleaf

weeds as coffee trees mature. Wellman (1961) discusses

weeds of the Gramineae prevalent in Angola, India, Java,

and the Philippines and cites bermudagrass (Cynodon

dactylon (L.) Pers.) and Paspalum fasciculaum Willd. ex

Fluegge as serious weeds in Central America. Mitchell

(1968) categorized Digitaria scalarum Chiov. and Cynodon

dactylon (L.) Pers. as problem weeds in Kenya. Diuron

(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea) and linuron

(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-l-methylurea) (2.5 kg/ha)

were used to control Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. in

Brazil (Leiderman et al., 1968).

Wellman (1961) discusses the problem of erosion and

weed control. Evidence suggests chemical control of weeds

causes less disturbance of the soil than hand or mechanical

weeding (Uribe, 1971;Mondardo et al., 1977; Lavabre, 1978).

Herbicides have given very good results in controlling

weeds in established coffee plantings. Applications of

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) or simazine

(2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine) (2 kg/ha) gave

excellent control (90%) in Brazil. Reducing the quantity









by one-half and spraying on cleaned plots was more

effective than traditional weeding methods. Simazine was

twice as effective as 2,4-D (Medcalf and de Vita, 1969).

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) used at rates

of 0.62, 1.24, and 2.48 kg/ha controlled weeds effectively

and was especially effective in controlling Cyperus

rotundis L. in coffee plantings in Brazil. The medium rate

gave slightly better control than the higher rate (Siqueira

and Teixeir, 1977).

Foster and Green (1968) found paraquat

(l,l'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) effective against

Digitaria spp. and Portulaca spp. when a surfactant was

added. However, 90% of 4-year-old coffee trees died when

bromacil (5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methylracil) (5 lb/A) was

added to the paraquat (0.25 lb/A) (Blore, 1965).




Cover Crops

Lavabre (1972) reviewed the literature and concluded

that weeds could be controlled in coffee with the judicious

use of cover crops. However, the literature also shows

that cover crops can be detrimental to coffee culture

(Ochse et al., 1961; Wellman, 1961; Haarer, 1962).

Calopagonium and Centrosema retarded vegetative growth

of young coffee trees in Malaysia and Desmodium ovalifolium

(Prain) Wall. ex Ridley has been reported to be detrimental

to coffee production in Costa Rica (Wellman, 1961).

However, Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., Centosema pubescens









Benth., Calopogonium caeruleum Desv., and Mucuna

cochinchinensis Adans have been used successfully in rubber

(Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) and Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis

Jacq.) to control weeds (Teoh et al., 1978; Liu Sin, 1979).

Oladokun (1980) reported on the same legumes and Vigna

unguiculata (L.) Walp. used in the establishment of robusta

coffee.

Thirty-seven tropical legumes were screened for

tolerance to acid soil. Stilozobium deeringianum P.,

Dolichos lablab L., Cajanus cajan Millsp., and Crotalaria

spectabilis Roth were selected on the basis of adaptation

in Colombia (Suarez-Vasquez, 1975).

Trials performed in Cameroon with Arabian coffee

showed creeping covers did not significantly increase

coffee yields. In addition, Stylosanthes spp. did not

adequately control weed encroachment and Mimosa spp.

increased fire risk and competed for moisture (Bouharmont,

1979). However, earlier work showed the same cover crops

gave increased yields in robusta coffee over natural cover

(Bouharmont, 1978).




Grain Legumes

Protein deficiencies in developing countries are

common. Agricultural research has directed its energies

toward the cereal grains for the most part, which are lower

in protein content and quality. Research has been done on

certain grain legumes, e.g. peanut and soybean; however,









many less well-known crops could supply needed vegetable

protein in the diets of hungry people if research were

directed to their cultivation (National Academy of

Sciences, 1979).

Grain legumes (pulses) are surpassed only by the

cereal crops as sources of food. Nutritionally, they are

richer in protein than cereal grains and also may be

excellent sources of oil (peanut and soybean). Many grain

legumes are used as food in specific locations but they may

not be widely consumed (Berry, 1981). Dried common bean

(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is very common in Central and South

America. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), lima bean

(Phaseolus limensis Macf.), lentil (Lens esculenta Moench),

broad bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.),

chickpea (Cicer arietum L.), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan

(L.) Millsp.) are consumed in many parts of Latin America.

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is more commonly used in

the Oriente (Sanchez, 1976).

Successful growth of legumes under primitive

management conditions depends, to a great degree, on soil

conditions appropriate for growth of bacteria (Rhizobium

spp.) for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Highly leached

soils with toxic levels of aluminum (greater than 1 ppm)

are prevalent in the tropics. Munns and Keyser (1981)

studied the effects of acidity and aluminum on synchronous

cultures of Rhizobium spp. cowpeaa group) and found that

acidity and Al reduced the frequency of cell division. The









reduction in multiplication rate was the effect most

important for colonization of soils and roots. Variation

among strains of rhizobia is important when selecting for

tolerance to soil acidity.

Spain et al. (1975) studied tropical grain legumes on

Oxisols in Colombia and found varietal tolerance to acid

soils. Cowpea showed greater tolerance than either soybean

or field bean. However, black skinned bean showed more

tolerance than white or brown varieties. Pigeonpea was also

quite tolerant of the acid soil conditions.

Acid soils in the tropics may cause toxic levels of

manganese and aluminum to be present in the soil solution.

Soybean was found to be effected by high aluminum

concentrations but not by low calcium and low pH,

suggesting plant sensitivity rather than a rhizobial

problem (Munns et al. 1981). Variation among soybean

cultivars to managanese deficiencies and toxicities is well

documented (Heenan and Carter, 1976: Ohki et al., 1980).

Variation among cowpea cultivars in root growth under

nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium deficiencies suggest

certain cowpea cultivars can be selected for use in

low-technology situations in Nigeria (Adepetu and Akapa,

1977).

Zinc deficiencies are not generally a production

problem in peanuts, however, toxic levels of zinc have been

reported to reduce plant growth (Reid and Cox, 1973:

Keisling et al., 1977).









There was a tendency to higher yields in pigeonpea

when pH was raised by liming or adding phosphorus

fertilizers to acid soils in Brazil. No advantage to

adding nitrogen was found. This suggested yields can be

increased on acid soils by reducing the acidity. Zinc

uptake was also reduced (Dalal and Quilt, 1977).

The benefits of grass-legume associations for improved

pastures have been well documented (Shaw and Norman, 1970;

Sanchez, 1976). Results with other legume associations

have not been consistent. Nitrogen-fixing capacity, degree

of competition, and time of planting have been shown to

influence results (Sanchez, 1976).

The use of grain legumes as intercrops in coffee has

proven successful in several studies. No effect was

measured on coffee growth until the third planting when

stumped coffee (drastic pruning) was interplanted with field

beans and yields were higher with double-row plantings

between trees than single row plantings (Mwakha, 1980).

Pigeonpea has been intercropped successfully in new coffee

plantings, a good example of the use of a deep-rooted crop

between rows of a shallow-rooted one (Llorens et al., 1976;

Lugo-Lopez and Abrams, 1981).




Tree Intercrops

Intensive, high yielding agricultural production

systems are highly energy dependent and do not reflect the

native ecological communities in which they coexist.








Extensive, low-yielding cropping systems, more prevalent in

developing countries, mimic to a greater degree the natural

ecological communities that surround them.

Traditionally, sequential and intercropping strategies

have been used by small holder farmers in many developing

countries to survive under conditions of scarce land and

monetary capital, unfavorable price structures, and

unsophisticated markets and infrastructure. Growing

rain-fed crops in mixtures has proven to be a way for the

small farmer to maintain a relatively stable, low

production, marginal income enterprise while minimizing

economic risk.

Future food demand pressures require that these

relatively low producing farms supply more food to both the

rural and urban population centers. Research to upgrade

these farming systems requires emphasis at both the farm

and infrastructure levels to achieve stable increases in

the world food supply (Andrews and Kassam, 1976; Brady,

1977).

Understanding the basic plant interactions in these

mixed systems will be necessary to make sound

recommendations to the small holder farmer. The effects of

the interactions on the physiology of the crops recommended

will be the major influencing factor on crop yield (Andrews

and Newman, 1970; Andrews and Kassam, 1976; Schrader, 1980;

Bradfield, 1981).








The use of companion crops in perennial tree crops is

becoming a common practice in many parts of the world.

Probably the most studied crop is rubber. Long

establishment periods make it economically practical to

consider catch cropping, the simultaneous cultivation of

crops other than the principal stand. Banana and cassava

have been grown in young rubber plantings with success

(Pillar, 1974). On small holder lands in Malaysia, farmers

have economically grown peanut and maize with their rubber

(Chee, 1974).

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and cacao have been grown

with beneficial results in India (Nair et al., 1975) and

coconut and oil palm have shown promise together in

Malaysia (Denamany et al., 1979). Intercropping coconut

plantations with pasture grasses has been studied in the

Philippines and is considered a viable means of optimizing

land use (Creencia, 1979). Studies with coconut-cacao

associations have given good results in the Philippines,

also (Creencia, 1979).

Intercropping of citrus is becoming a popular

agricultural strategy in India (Sekhon et al., 1977;

Nijjar, 1980). Macadamia (Macadamia ternifolia F. Muell.)

is being considered as a possible shade and diversification

crop for Costa Rican coffee (CATIE, 1974). In California,

research is being conducted on guava (Psidium guajava L.)

as a companion crop for avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

(Sweet, 1979).









Coffee Intercropping Systems

Historically, coffee (Coffea arabica L.) has been

grown under shade at higher elevations in the tropics.

Generally, legume trees are utilized to provide shade for

the coffee plants (Coste, 1968; Wellman, 1961; Haarer,

1962).

Alternative strategies are being investigated that

incorporate non-Arabian coffee as an intercrop in taller

cultivated plants such as rubber, cacao, and coconut

(Coste, 1968; Creencia, 1979; Haarer, 1962; Lavabre, 1972;

Paillar, 1974). This plantation culture, however, is

directed to the large landed agriculturist, e.g. those with

10-30 hectare farms, in many developing countries.

Intercropping coffee during planting establishment and

drastic pruning could increase small holder agricultural

productivity not only of secondary "catch crops" but also

of coffee by improving coffee culture practices.

Low leaf area and small plant size allow considerable

solar radiation to reach the soil surface unproductively

once land preparation is complete and young coffee

seedlings are transplanted to the field. Weed control

becomes an important crop management problem at this time

to prevent competition with weeds for sunlight, moisture,

and nutrients. Cultural inputs to establish and maintain

the non-productive plants create a negative cash flow in the

farm budget, given the length of time (3-4 years) for the

young coffee plants to begin to bear a harvestable crop.









Agro-economic studies in Puerto Rico have shown coffee

can be intercropped with plantain (Musa sp.) at this stage,

generating sufficient returns to net the farmer income

after considering the cost of establishment of the

planting. The growth of this crop stabilizes the soil and

reduces weed management problems in addition to generating

a marketable product (Serra et al., 1971).

Root extension and plant size no longer permit

intercropping once the coffee planting has reached bearing

age. The area surrounding the coffee plants may be sown,

at this stage, to a legume cover crop for soil fertility

maintenance and erosion control. The cover crop also may

compete effectively with noxious weed species.

A second period of intercropping is possible after

7-10 years if a drastic pruning of old growth is performed

when production begins to decline (Coste, 1968; Chandler et

al., 1968). High coffee production per tree depends on

continued vegetative renewal of the coffee plant. Coffee

plant leaf area is greatly reduced, at this point, as in

the first 1-3 years of the planting. Lack of ground cover

allows the intercropping strategy to be repeated to

generate a "catch crop" allowing the coffee field to remain

agriculturally productive.

This agricultural system is similar to the small

farmers' traditional practices and effectively diversifies

his enterprise making him less dependent on coffee as a

cash crop. Added benefits include cultivation of vegetable








proteins to improve his protein/calorie deficient diet,

incorporation of nitrogen fixing plants into his cultural

scheme that enhance soil fertility and reduce soil erosion,

effective weed control, a reduction in plant pest and

disease problems associated with monocultures, and

increased production per land unit (Andrews and Kassam,

1976; Bouharmont, 1979; Enyi, 1973; Lavabre, 1972; Mwakka,

1980; Oladokun, 1980).




Malnutrition in Bolivia


Puffer and Serrano (1975) concluded malnutrition, in

developing countries, to be the principal cause of

mortality in 50% of child deaths before the age of 5. Both

gastro-intestinal disease and malnutrition form a vicious

cyclic pattern contributing to poor nutritional status and

subsequent death. Nutritional studies in Bolivia support

these findings and malnutrition is considered serious.

Several factors have been identified in Bolivia that

are considered instrumental in predisposing a given

population to malnutrition. Variations within a city or

rural area can be attributed to social class, eating habits,

or the availability of food. Lowland colonization areas

are noted for their lack of protein sources and

predisposition of children to intestinal parasites. The

economic condition of the family in most rural areas, even

though protein sources may be produced on the homestead and






34


available such as eggs, chicken, and meat, may force

nutritive production to be sold for cash or exchanged in

barter, rather than consumed at home (USAID/Bolivia, 1978).















METHODS AND MATERIALS


Site Description

Selection

This research study was conducted on land owned by the

San Francisco Xavier Rural School administered by the

Xavierian Brothers, a Roman Catholic religious order of

working men who devote themselves to education. The school

is under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Coroico.

The location of the Yungas area within Bolivia is

depicted in Figure 1. The school is located approximately

15 kilometers southwest of the town of Coroico, on a

secondary road that connects Coroico with another North

Yungas town, Coripata. The Coroico area is considered the

principal coffee growing center of Bolivia. Coripata,

located in a somewhat drier climate, is considered the

primary coca cultivation area of the Yungas.

The main reason for selecting this area was the

historical involvement of the school in coffee research and

the stability of the institution. The British Agricultural

Mission to Bolivia began its preliminary project in coffee

cooperatives at this site in 1963, and established

demonstration plots of sun-grown coffee and a coffee wet

processing plant. The demonstration plots deteriorated

















































A RGEN TINA


BRAZIL



















DARAGUA Y




Scale of Kilometers
I I I 1 I
0 500


Fig. 1. Location of experimental site area in Bolivia.








after 1972, due to a lack of fertilization but the coffee

cooperative has survived, in spite of the political and

financial problems that occurred after the departure of the

British.

Another reason for the selection of this site is the

availability of labor that is supplied through the rural

school. The young, predominately male student body has

scheduled field work in vegetable gardening and coffee

culture as part of its curriculum.

The school has one of the few producing coffee

plantings in Bolivia that is grown in full sun, a remnent

of the British attempt to establish sun-grown coffee

culture to increase production of the premium quality coffee

that can be obtained in the area.



Climate and Soils

The Carmen Pampa site is considered a Subtropical

Premontane Wet Forest according to the Holdridge

classification of life zones. The school and its

agricultural land is located, at an elevation of 1650 m to

2000 m, on the western slope of the mountain Uchumachi

(3,000 m). Annual average precipitation and extremes, and

average temperature and extremes recorded at the San Pedro

de la Loma Agricultural Experiment Station (1972-1980)

located approximately 2 kilometers from Carmen Pampa are

shown in Figures 2 and 3. The available climatic data are

summarized in Table 7.












400


E300
E Maximum


200-

S\Mean
U-OOM-

< 100oo-

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0 II --J I I I
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MONTHS

Fig. 2. Mean monthly precipitation and extremes at the
San Pedro Experiment Station (1973-1980).














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I I I I I I I I I I I


J FM AM J J ASO N D
MONTHS


Fig. 3. Mean monthly temperature and extremes at the
San Pedro Experiment Station (1973-1980).


I I I I I I I I I I I i













Table 7. Summary of climatic factors at Carmen Pampa and
the San Pedro Agricultural Experiment Station.
(16* 08' S. Latitude, 670 46' W. Longitude)


Factor Carmen Pampa San Pedro


Altitude 1660 m 1740 m

Mean annual temperature 21 C 21 C

Mean maximum 27 C 26 C

Mean minimum 15 C 15 C

Annual precipitation 1941 mm+ 1487 mmt


+Precipitation (Aug-Mar) is 91% of total.
TPrecipitation (Aug-Mar) is 85% of total.
Sources: San Pedro Experiment Station Annual Reports
(1979-1980); Hammer, 1980 (unpublished).











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Carmen Pampa may represent a slightly more humid

environment although located close to the experiment

station. Unofficial records kept at the school indicate

slightly more precipitation during the period of the study.

In addition, experience at the site suggests topographic

considerations influencing rainfall patterns. A nearby

ridge appears to prevent movement of rain clouds resulting

in rainfalls of longer duration. Travel from the

experiment station to the school demonstrated this

phenomenon frequently, as one went from sunshine following

a rain shower to a heavy rainfall.

Recorded temperatures and precipitation (1980-1981)

from Carmen Pampa are presented in Figure 4 and summarized,

along with data from San Pedro in Table 7. Differences do

not appear to be sufficient to consider different life

zones.

Soils in the area around the town of Coroico, capital

of the North Yungas Province, located near the area of the

present study have been sampled and analyzed. The land

system is described as moderately high valleys that are

moderate in slope and fine textured. This system (lil)

encompasses an area of 17,000 hectares with altitude

ranging from 1,400 m to 2,000 m. Ordovician period

sediments predominate.

The soils appear very uniform due to the homogeneous

nature of the parent material. Soil depth varies and

organic matter content is greater at higher altitudes.









Accelerated erosion was noted at the site. A soil sample,

taken approximately 6 kilometers from the study site, was

analyzed and the data summarized in Table 8 (Cochrane,

1973). Soils of the site were described in Tables 2, 3,

and 4.




Methodology

Philosophy

The main objective of the study was to determine the

agro-economic feasibility of sun-grown coffee culture in

the Yungas. Recuperation of the old demonstration plots

was attempted to obtain relevant cost and production

information. Superimposed over the recuperation attempt

was a weed control study. In addition, it was considered

important to evaluate the possibility of intercropping the

recuperating coffee trees during their vegetative growth

stage. Shade-grown coffee trees located alongside of the

sun-grown plants were monitored to evaluate production.

Records of coffee purchases by the San Francisco

Xavier Coffee Cooperative are presented graphically in

Figure 5. This is used as a indicator of the coffee

harvest period. The cooperative covers 3 communities,

Chovacollo, San Cristobal, and Carmen Pampa. Traditionally,

field preparation and planting of annual crops occurs in

the dry season months of July through September. The end

of the coffee season coincides with the traditional

planting period (Fig. 5). The bulk of coffee purchased,


















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however, is produced in Chovacollo located on the east

facing slope across the valley from Carmen Pampa.

Purchases by the cooperative by community are shown in

Figures 6, 7, and 8. Coffee in Carmen Pampa and San

Cristobal is harvested in the traditional planting period,

which compromises labor distribution and places a severe

constraint on diversifying small farmer production in these

communities.

An attempt was made in this study to determine the

possibility of a later planting, specifically of grain

legume crops, during the month of December. Rainfall data

suggest that, although the rainy season is beginning,

sufficient dry days are available to prepare land and

plant. A strong consideration for this late planting is

the availability of adequate moisture later in the growing

season. Cool weather prolongs pod filling periods in the

various legume crops.



Recuperation and Weed Control

Fifteen 16 X 16 m plots containing 16 coffee plants

spaced 3 x 3 m were assigned weed control treatments (5) in

a randomized block design. Treatment plots were replicated

3 times. Herbicides were applied using a CP3 backpack,

hand pumped sprayer with pressure guage. Field labor was

instructed in herbicide solution preparation procedures and

sprayer calibration. Treatments applied and frequency of

application are summarized in Table 9. All trees were

































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Table 9.


Summary of weed control treatments, frequency of
applications, and rates of herbicides applied.


+
Treatment Frequency Rate

(kg a.i./ha)

Hand weed Feb, Apr, Jun, Aug, Oct

Diuron Feb 1977 2.8

Paraquat Feb, Apr, Jun, Aug, Oct 0.6

Glyphosate I Feb, Jun, Oct 5.0

Glyphosate II Feb, Apr, Jun, Aug, Oct 5.0


Hand weeding was machete slashed; herbicides were applied
with a hand-pumped CP3 backpack sprayer.









fertilized according to rates given in Table 10. Plot

harvests were made on a periodic basis as sufficient coffee

ripened. Treatments were maintained and data collected over

a 5 year period (1976-1981).



Cover Crops

Initially, twenty 12 X 12 m plots containing 4 coffee

plants and bordered by 12 coffee plants were assigned

treatments (5) in a randomized block design. Treatments

were replicated 4 times. Treatments included a hand strip

weeding, a chemical herbicide (Paraquat 0.6 kg a.i./ha), and

3 leguminous cover crops (1) Stylosanthes guianensis

Swartz; (2) Desmodium heterocarpon, D.C.; and (3) Pueraria

phaseoloides (Willd.) Ohwi. Seeding rates were 5 kg/ha.

Land was hand stripped and lightly tilled before broadcast

sowing. Seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium spp. (Cowpea

type). Only Stylosanthes guianensis was established

successfully. A second planting was attempted but only a

few, slow growing plants were found after a year. Coffee

harvests were made periodically as needed. Trees were

fertilized according to the rates given in Table 10 during

the 1979-1981 growing seasons. The S. guianensis cover

crop was harvested after 11 months to obtain fresh and dry

weights.














Table 10.


Summary of fertilization+regime during
recuperation and weed control study.


Year N P205 K20 Formulation

(kg/ha)

1976 60 Urea

1977 30 30 30 15-15-15
90 Urea

1978- 50 50 50 15-15-15
80 100 Urea


+Supplemental foliar fertilizer (1 g/tree) 12-12-17-2 +
microelements (100 g/100 kg of Mg, S,B, Mn, Zn, and Co)
applied annually by spray in September.









Grain Legume Intercrops

Twenty-four plots containing 6 coffee plants

surrounded by 6 border trees were assigned treatments (6)

in a randomized block design. Each treatment was

replicated 4 times. Treatments included (1) non-cropped

coffee control; (2) 'Altika' Peanut, (15 cm X 30 cm); (3)

'Jupiter' Soybean, (15 cm X 30 cm); (4) 'Jackson Wonder'

Lima bean, (15 cm X 30 cm); (5) 'Pinkeye purple-hull'

Cowpea, (15 cm X 30 cm); and (6)) 'Prine selection'

Pigeonpea, (15 cm X 15 cm). Each legume was also sown as a

monoculture crop on plots 2 X 5 m. Seeds were inoculated

with Rhizobium spp. appropriate for the legume.

Coffee plants were fertilized at rates mentioned

previously. Coffee harvests were made as needed. Grain

legumes were maintained relatively weed free with

occasional hoeing. Grain legume harvests were made at

appropriate times for the given crop.



Shade Grown Coffee

Four plots containing 6 coffee trees and surrounded by

border trees were identified in a shade grown coffee

planting near the sun-grown coffee plots. No fertilizer was

applied. Weeds were controlled with periodic slashing.

Coffee harvests were made as necessary.








Laboratory Analyses

Soil Sampling

Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the above

studies and after one complete agricultural year which runs

from September to August). The recuperation and weed

control study was not sampled. Samples were taken at 0-20

cm and 20-40 cm depths, except in the cover crop plots

where only samples 0-20 cm deep were taken.



Soil Chemical Analyses

Soil pH was determined in water (1:2 soil:water

suspension) and in KC1 (1:2 soil: 1NKC1 suspension) using a

Corning Scientific Model 12 Research pH Meter with a Fisher

Microprobe combination electrode.

Organic Matter was determined by the Walkley-Black wet

oxidation method (Allison, 1955).

Extractable nutrients were determined using the

double-acid solution (0.05N HC1 + 0.025N H2SO4). Five

grams of air-dried soil were placed in a 25 X 150 mm

plastic centrifuge tube and mixed with 20 ml of the

double-acid solution. The suspension was shaken for 5

minutes and then filtered through Whatman No. 41 paper.

Solutions were analyzed for P colorimetrically. Potassium

was determined by flame spectrophotometry, and Ca, Mg, Mn,

Fe, Cu, and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Total nitrogen (%) was determined by micro-Kjeldahl.

Soil samples were oven dried and passed through a 1-mm









stainless steel sieve. The aluminum block digestion

method, similar to that described by Gallaher et al. (1975)

was used. Reagents and procedure were from Nelson and

Sommers (1973). A 0.5 g of soil was used for analysis.



Foliar Sampling

Coffee foliar samples consisting of the third or

fourth pair of leaves from the tip of primary lateral

branches were used with 10 pairs of leaves selected from

each plant for a total of 20 leaves per sample. Foliar

samples were taken from designated coffee trees in the

grain legume intercrop and the shade-grown coffee at the

beginning and end of the study and taken from the

designated covercrop trees only at the end of the study.



Foliar Chemical Analyses

Nutrients other than nitrogen were analyzed in the

foliar samples. One gram of oven-dry, ground leaf tissue

was ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 C for 8 hours, cooled,

20 ml of 5N HC1 added and the solution heated to dryness on

a hot plate. The residue was cooled, dissolved in 2.25 ml

of 5N HC1 plus 10 ml of deionized water, brought to

boiling, and immediately filtered into 50 ml volumetric

flasks, made to volume with deionized water and analyzed in

the same manner as the soil solutions.

Total nitrogen (%) was determined by micro-Kjeldahl in

the same manner as the soil samples. Foliar tissue was









oven dried (65 C) and ground to pass a 1-mm stainless steel

screen. A 0.2 g sample of foliar tissue was used for

analysis.



Harvest Data

Coffee berries were harvested at the red stage and

those from each tree or plot weighed. A conversion factor

of 5:1 fruit:dry parchment coffee was used to calculate dry

coffee production.

Grain legumes were air dried and weighed. The

production from single plants was weighed individually and

an average of 6 plants was used to calculate yield per

hectare.















RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Recuperation and Weed Control



Weed Control

Application of treatments during the years 1976

through 1981 resulted in an increase in coffee production.

Initially, weed density was observed to be 179 plants per

square meter. Species growing in the unweeded control plots

in early 1977 are listed in Table 11. These are

representative of the natural vegetation growing as cover

in the sun-grown coffee. Paspalum conjugatum Bergius

dominated the plant population at this time. The problem

species in chemical-controlled plots, after weed control

treatment were initiated, was the plantain, Plantago

hirtella L. which began to dominate regrowth.

First conclusions were this species was resistant to

herbicide treatments. Diuron was thought to be damaging

the coffee plant, in addition to not controlling the

Plantago. Diuron was abandoned and glyphosate was

substituted.

It was decided upon close observation Plantago

dominated due to the dessicating effect of the herbicide

and the tremendous seed production of the Plantago. The















Table 11. Weed distribution and density from unweeded
control plots at beginning of study.


Weed species Distribution



Paspalum conjugatum Bergius 19

Laviada spp. 18

Setaria spp. 12

Plantago hirtella L. 8

Bidens pilosa L. 7

Paspalum spp. 7

Richardia scabra L. 6

Ageratum conyzoides L. 5

Stevia spp. 5

Digitaria spp. 4

Phyllanthus niruri L. 3

Sida acuta Burm. f. 2

Euphorbia heterophylla L. 1

Borreria laevis (Lam.) Grisebach. 1

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. 1

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. 1


Total 100


Weed density 179/m2






59

herbicide eliminated competition and allowed the germinating

Plantago seeds to grow freely. The problem was corrected

by applying herbicide prior to seed set on the Plantago.

The use of glyphosate and timely applications prevented the

dominance of this plant.

Glyphosate performed exceptionally well under both

treatment regimes. Regrowth of vegetation over a two-month

period during the rainy season (Jan-March, 1981) is plotted

in Figure 9. Both glyphosate treatments effectively

controlled weeds during this period. Paraquat application

did not control weeds as well as the other treatments

during the heavy rains. It is assumed regrowth occurred

more rapidly since only above grown vegetation was killed.

Hand-weeded plots were observed to regrow more rapidly than

the glyphosate treated ones but more slowly than the

paraquat treated ones.



Coffee Recuperation

Simple linear regression trend lines for the pattern

of recuperation, as measured by coffee production during

the study are shown in Figure 10 where it is obvious

unweeded control plots did not recuperate as fast or to the

extent of other treatments. Statistical analysis of the

data (Table 12) shows that the slopes of the regression

lines of the weed-control treatments are all highly

significantly different from the unweeded control (.01

level). Intercepts were not different, indicating basically











100




Control


GLYPHOSATE II


GLYPHOSATE I


50 H


" PARAQUAT


45


60


30


Fig. 9. Duration of
application


Days
weed control following treatment
January-March, 1981.


I I I I















40

QQ
DRY
COFFEE
ha-'







0


GLYPHOSATE


GLYPHOSATE II /.
.,-/' .//.-
/.

/ "/ HANDWEED
/ 4 U
/ PARAQUAT

CONTROL


76


77


78


79


80


YEAR
Fig. 10. Linear regression trend lines representing coffee
production increase (qq/ha parchment coffee) during
the 5 year study.















Table 12. Summary of regression trend line analyses for
coffee production as a function of treatment
during the years 1976-1981.


Treatment+ Slope Intercept r**


Control 2.9a+ 0.4a 0.96

Hand weed 6.6b 0.8a 0.87

Paraquat 6.3b l.la 0.85

Glyphosate I 7.7b -0.la 0.79

Glyphosate II 8.7b -0.6a 0.86



+ Control was machete-slashed, handweeding was handhoeing,
herbicides were applied using a hand-pumped CP3 backpack
sprayer. Glyphosate I treatment was applied in months of
February, June, and October. All other treatments were
applied in months of February, April, June, August, and
October.

Data in the same column not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.5 level of probability
according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

** Indicates r-value significant at the .01 level of
probability.






63

that the plots were approximately equal at the beginning of

the study. Highly significant correlations (r) were found

in each instance. Significant differences were not found

among weed control treatments.

Production data from the weed control plots analyzed

on a year to year basis for statistical differences are

summarized in Table 13. Differences were not significant

during the first 2 years of the study but were significant

in later years. This was a recuperation attempt, thus the

coffee trees were not in a heavy bearing condition at the

beginning of the study. The coffee plants entered a

vegetative growth period upon fertilization and weed

control and began to flower appreciably after a year.

Yields were obtained by the end of the fifth year commonly

expected in sun-grown coffee managed under the cultural

conditions of this study.



Economic Considerations

The principal advantage of using chemical weed control

is the reduction of labor. There may be times of scarce

labor even in areas were labor is obtained at low wages and

this is true in the Yungas (Figueras, 1978). Altiplano

farmers will migrate to the Yungas during coca harvests and

be generally available during coffee harvest time, although

there is some overlap with coffee and coca harvests.

Labor requirements are summarized in Table 14. Three

categories of labor are compared, labor required to control



























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weeds, fertilization, and harvest. Control plots were

slashed with machete to keep weeds down. Machete cultural

practice is common all over the American tropics. Actual

hand weeding required the most time at 113 man-days per

hectare. Chemical herbicides drastically reduced the labor

requirements. Paraquat applications were needed more

frequently and greater care was required to cover

effectively the foliage of the weeds, resulting in a

greater time requirement. Glyphosate, on the other hand,

is more easily applied because of its systemic action.

Complete coverage of the leaf surface was not required and

the person applying the herbicide with a backpack sprayer

can move more quickly.

It should be noted the higher technology associated

with sun-grown coffee culture adds fertilization as an

additional labor component to the scheme. Coffee grown

under shade is not fertilized in the Yungas, hence this

labor requirement is an added cost of production. An irony

of increased production is the increase in labor

requirements for harvest. Higher yields require more time

and increases manpower needs. Coffee harvesting is more

efficient if the picker is gathering berries from

heavy-bearing plants, however. All chemical control

treatments required less labor than the hand weeded

treatment (Table 14). Labor requirements were lowest for

the control plot, but production was also lower.






67

Production costs including labor, for sun-grown coffee

during the 1980-1981 growing season when the plants gave

their greatest production are summarized in Table 15.

Chemical weed control is the greatest expense. The price

of imported commodities is high in Bolivia and it is

impossible to place bulk orders for fertilizers and

pesticides. Low usage and subsequent lack of demand

maintain prices at levels unaffordable by small farmers and

this problem is exacberated by lack of credit sources.

The small farmer in general receives a minimal price

for his coffee. This is attributed to 3 reasons (1) poor

quality caused by primitive processing (fermenting), (2)

lack of organization on the farmers' part, and (3) an

exploitation by coffee buyers.

A fair price must be obtainable to sustain higher

level cultural technologies. The experimental export of

the San Francisco Xavier Cooperative's coffee by Buitrago

(1979) showed a good price can be gotten for good quality

coffee.

Cost and returns are summarized in Table 16. Gains are

calculated based on a farm price of $b 1500 per quintal.

This amounted in 1981, to $US 60 per quintal of parchment

coffee. Net returns even at this low price are

substantially above current ones for coffee in Bolivia.







68







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EH 1C1 S E-4
+ ++






69




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mU cv a O 0 cv c Q U IL <
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Legume Cover Crops


Strategy

The success obtained in these weed control experiments

demonstrate sun-grown coffee could be a viable agricultural

enterprise in the Yungas if chemical inputs, i.e fertilizer

and herbicide, could be obtained at reasonable cost to the

farmer and, more important, the farmer could obtain a fair

market price for his coffee. The cooperative at Carmen

Pampa could play an important role in acquiring needed

agricultural products and equipment for members' use. The

farmers would depend upon the cooperative to obtain a fair

price for the coffee. It was pointed out in discussions

with cooperative officials, having sufficient funds to make

a first payment for coffee brought in for processing was a

real constraint. It has been estimated that at least five

hundred 60 kg bags of export coffee would be necessary to

make direct exportation of coffee by the cooperative a

viable consideration (Hanrahan et al., 1980).

A study was planned to help reduce production costs

that would incorporate legume cover crops into the cultural

scheme. Legume cover crops would reduce weed control costs

and possibly add nitrogen to the soil supplementing

chemical fertilization.



Economic Considerations

No significant differences were found among the 3

treatments with respect to coffee production. Production








was low on all plots.. Reduced production costs would,

however, favor the legume cover crop, Stylosanthes

guianensis, as an alternative.

The single harvest made of Stylosanthes dry matter

production indicated that approximately 4.5 mt/ha could be

grown annually. Results of chemical analyses of oven-dried

Stylosanthes showed approximately 120 kg N/year/ha would be

fixed and eventually become mineralized in the soil around

the coffee trees if the 2.65% nitrogen content is used as

an average value. Volatilization, leaching, and non-coffee

utilization over time would influence the amount of N that

would be available for use by the coffee plants.

An alternative strategy would be to use the legume

cover crop for animal feed. Dairy cattle, while not great

in number, are found in the area and seem to be

successfully grazed along roadsides and fallow fields.

They are not damaging to coffee trees if adequate pasture

is available.




Grain Legume Intercrops



Strategy

Establishment or recuperation of a coffee planting in

full sun is a non productive time. It was decided to try

to intercrop with annual grain legumes. Objectives were

(1) to utilize available space between plants to obtain

agricultural production that could be consumed or sold and






72

(2) to evaluate the economic and physiological benefits or

constraints of such a system.

Consumption of vegetable proteins contained in the

grain legumes would help supplement dietary protein that is

lacking in the rural poor peoples' diet in the Yungas.



Intercrops

Five annual grain legumes were selected for

incorporation into the study. They were peanut, soybean,

lima bean, pigeonpea, and cowpea. Peanut and soybean are

known in the Yungas. The remaining 3 crops were

introduced.

Comparisons of grain legume intercrop yields with

monoculture yields is given in Table 17. In all cases the

crop grown a monoculture yielded higher than when grown as

an intercrop. The reason for this is obvious since plant

populations were greater in the monoculture plots.

Relative yield totals (RYT) show when the yields for both

coffee and the legume are consider, the intercrop plots had

higher yields. The gross income equivalent ratios indicate

that the farmer can actually earn the same or a greater

income with all grain legumes with the exception of

pigeonpea. Care should be exercised in making strong

assumptions about the viability of the cropping strategies

because of the tremendous variability of among the

different experimental plots. It is important to consider

the benefits of growing legumes in regard to possible





































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74

vegetable protein and food energy (Table 18). Considering

the need to supplement the diet of the rural peasant, the

grain legumes grown in the study can produce considerable

amounts of nutrients for the farmer family.

Pigeonpea and soybean produced the most protein as an

intercrop and peanut and pigeonpea produced the most food

energy because of their oil content.

Estimated gross incomes from the various treatments

are compared in Table 19. Incomes do not include coffee

since production was minimal. Pigeonpea and peanut were the

best. Lima bean production was respectable but soybean and

cowpea produced the least with respect to gross income.

Yields observed for the grain legumes grown as a

monoculture were much higher demonstrating the possibility

of being a viable enterprise in the Yungas.



Soil Analyses

Comparisons of soil nitrogen, organic matter, and pH

before and after growing the cover crop and grain legumes

are shown in Tables 20 and 21. All 3 chemical

characteristic were increased after one year. The same

trends were noted in the handweeding and chemical weed

control treatments also. These differences were not

significant a the .05 level, however.

Double-acid extractable macro-elements P, K, Ca, and

Mg before the treatments were applied and after 1 year are

summarized in Tables 22 and 23. These soil nutrients
























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Table 19. Estimated gross income from grain legume
intercropping and monoculture production
per ha.

Gross income
Grain legume Price Monoculture Intercropped

($b/kg) -----($b/ha)------

Bean 16.80 35,028 ----

Peanut 24.50 13,108 7,546

Soybean 7.20 7,610 2,376
+
Cowpea (16.10) 4,959 1,465

Pigeonpea+ (16.10) 10,336 9,225

Lima bean+ (16.10) 11,560 5,345


Estimated price ($b/kg).
Source: Ministry of Agriculture, 1981.




















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demonstrate a decreasing trend in almost all cases. This

same trend is not as evident for the micro-elements (Tables

24 and 25).

Since the changes were not significant (0.5 level),

the data do not necessarily imply a loss of fertility.



Coffee Foliar Analyses

Comparisons of macro- and micronutrient levels in

coffee plants from the intercropped, weed-controled, and

control plots are summarized in Tables 26 and 27.

Differences between treatments were not significant at the

0.5 level. It is important that the coffee trees not be

stressed appreciably in the intercropping strategy. The

data suggest stress is minimal both from the standpoint of

foliar nutrient levels and coffee production during the

intercropping period.


















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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Sun-grown coffee can be grown in the Yungas of

Bolivia. Weed control is an important cultural practice.

Yields that justify higher technological inputs can be

obtained. Chemical weed control can reduce labor

requirements substantially and may be necessary if coffee

production increases cause a labor shortage during weeding

time.

Cover crops can be used to reduce weed competition

without significantly reducing coffee yields. They may

serve a supplementary role in nitrogen fertilization.

Grain legumes may be grown in association with coffee

trees during non producing years, establishment, or

cultural pruning. Peanut and pigeonpea yielded more than

cowpea, lima bean, or soybean when grown either as an

intercrop with coffee or as a monoculture. Coffee

production, although low, was not significantly reduced by

the intercropping of grain legumes. Black bean yielded

extremely well as a monoculture and may be adapatable to

intercropping. No apparent damage was done to the trees

when foliar nutrient levels were compared before and after

intercropping and additional income could be generated for









the farmer. The farmer may consume the production at home

and thus supplement his protein deficient diet.

The prime constraint to sun-grown coffee is the price

received by the producer. The farmer cannot obtain

sufficient income to justify his increased production costs

without a good marketing system. Although intercropping

can supplement his income with grain legume intercrops, it

is probably not sufficient to justify sun-grown coffee

culture.

Another difficulty in addition to low prices exists in

obtaining credit and agronomic inputs. This could be

resolved with a viable cooperative organization that could

purchase wholesale and sell at reduced retail prices. The

cooperative also could assist in processing and marketing

the coffee in addition to helping the farmer obtain his

agricultural inputs. It is estimated the cooperative would

require sufficient operating capital to purchase at least

500 bags (60 kg) of dried, exportable coffee to make direct

exportation of coffee a viable operation.

Initial results suggest further research in

intercropping sun-grown coffee in the Bolivian Yungas. For

the enterprise to be viable, the farmer must increase his

level of technification. This new technology will enable

the Bolivian coffee producer to continue to grow coffee

inspite of the threat of the coffee rust disease. Current

cultural practices will not effectively combat this

disease.






88

Research direction should concentrate on high

yielding, rust resistant coffee varieties. Proper spacings

and other required cultural practices could be the only

alternative if coffee is to continue as a major cash crop

in the Yungas.

While higher technology levels require more inputs,

research should be aimed at reducing these costs whenever

possible. Native covers should be more thoroughly studied.

Appropriate technology should be extended to the farmers on

a timely basis and marketing infrastructure and credit

facilities should be priorities in development schemes in

the valleys of Bolivia.




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