• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of the literature
 Materials
 Equipment and procedures
 Computations and results
 Discussion and summary of...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Appendices
 Bibliography
 Biographical sketch






Title: K0-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils during one-dimensional secondary compression aging and the quantitative prediction of the quasi-preconsolidation effect /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097404/00001
 Material Information
Title: K0-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils during one-dimensional secondary compression aging and the quantitative prediction of the quasi-preconsolidation effect /
Alternate Title: K-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils
Ko-behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils
Behavior of normally consolidated fine-grained soils
Physical Description: xiii, 139 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Randall Wayne, 1956-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Soil consolidation   ( lcsh )
Soil mechanics   ( lcsh )
Earth pressure   ( lcsh )
Civil Engineering thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 135-137.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: On t.p. "0" is subscript.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: AFESC/ESL-TR-85-45
Statement of Responsibility: by Randall Wayne Brown.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097404
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000878760
notis - AEH6519
oclc - 014911992

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Dedication
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Figures
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
    Abstract
        Page xii
        Page xiii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Review of the literature
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Materials
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Equipment and procedures
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Computations and results
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Discussion and summary of results
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Appendices
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Bibliography
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Biographical sketch
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


As might be expected for an effort so broad in scope and time,

the author has many people to recognize and thank. The author

expresses his sincere appreciation to

1) The National Science Foundation for its sponsorship of the

research;



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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................ii

LIST OF TABLES .................................................. vii

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................. viii

ABSTRACT ............................................................x

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION ............................................ 1

1.1 Problem Statement.................................. 1
I.? Purpose 3nd Scpe? ...................................
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LIST OF TABLES


Taole Page

4-1 Basic Functions, Design Parameters, and Performance
Specifications for the UF Ko-Consolidometer................26

4-2 Functional Analysis of Alternative Ko-Consolidometers......27

4-3 Correlation of Basic Functions to Test Cell Construction
Features.................................. ................35

5-1 Schedule of Tests..........................................57

5-2 Specimen Data.............................................. 58




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LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

2-1 Effective Stress Path (ESP) before, during, and after
the q-pc effect (Schmertmann, 1981, p. 479)................11

3-1 Vac-Aire Ceramic Extruder..................................19

3-2 Cutting Ring, Wire Saw, and Trimmed EPKW Specimen..........20

3-3 NOVW Specimen and Mold.................................... 23

4-1 Schematic of UF Ko-Consolidometer Mark II/Mark III
Systems .................................................... 29

4-2 UF Ko-Consolidometer Mark II Control Board.................30

4-3 1.1F K.-rnsnlidinmeter Mark ITN rontrol Board ................ 31

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B-i Test B: Ko with Aging Time.............................. 102

8-2 Test B: p'-q Diagram..................................... 103

B-3 Test B: e-log oF Plot ................................... 104

C-1 Test C: Ko with Aging Time................................108

C-2 Test C: p'-q Oiagram..................................... 109

C-3 Test C: e-log oj Plot....................................110

D-1 Test D: Ko with Aging Time............................. 114

D-2 Test 9: p'-q Diagram .....................................115

D-3 Test D: e-log oj Plot..................................116

E-I Test E: Ko with Aging Time...............................119

E-2 Test E: p'-q Oiagram................................ ...120

E-3 Test E: e-log al Plot ................................... 121

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L':Lr.-:.L -: :.', .Ir'T.ution Presented to the Graduate School
:.r Tr.e ur. -. .'- ,, .:.r Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
,: .Qj1,,r, r.i r.:.,r the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

S.-:.aii,,ii ..i r!iuIALLY CONSOLIDATED FINE-GRAINED SOILS
'" l!i i, .1iJE.-L'.ilirSIONAL SECONDARY COMPRESSION AGING
Irnl DiHE juANTITATIVE PREDICTION OF THE
ju ..i -PRECONSOLIDATION EFFECT

BY

RANDALL WAYNE BROWN

August 1985


Cr ,ir,m,,-. Dr. j.-.rir. L. .=.idson
rij.:.r L',..o rL.T,:rrt: i' i i Engineering


:J' .:*',r ,i.,',, ,,.] ii f .le experimental evidence exist in the

. .t-.:..:',ni.:iI .:.r,. r...:;ri,. communityy regarding Ko-behavior of normally

.:.:.r..l i.i2 r..J. rinr -.r-r, .nr. soils during one-dimensional secondary

.:.:Tp,'.-r:: i.:.r. .iair.-) ,r. Lr.- origin and magnitude of the quasi-

.r ." ,:,', : :, I .] r r r .

ai'icr r',1..,,r.. :.:,-ral concepts, a control volume triaxial-type

L:r. .:.illi i[r.n ;u-..:,rr :yAtems was developed. This equipment allows

ir., T.,.rin.crnr.:.& j-., ,,,:urement of the Ko-condition during

:.:I,':u.i. .jri,. uj:;' )r, :.:.nsiderations, development history, and

,'r io'.:. ,r.:r c, r r.- r. : r.:., the system are provided.

.. I r,, i I ,:.r.:n, .Jlated fine-grained specimens, three Edgar

aiu::: ,..:.l r.i .- Jr..i hrt.n.. Agsco novaculite, were allowed to age a

-rir -,-u,,, .,r iL 1i, ur,..:.r 2 2 tsf vertical stress while the


- I









Ko-condition was maintained and measured. The specimens were loaded

in small increments following aging to determine if the quasi-

preconsolidation effect had developed.

Results show Ko decreases during secondary aging in one-

dimensional compression for normally consolidated fine-grained

soils. Moreover, the quasi-preconsolidation effect develops in both

cohesive and cohesionless fine-grained soils. This suggests the

quasi-preconsolidation effect develops due to increased friction

rather than bonding as previously proposed. Finally, results

indicate the existing theory for predicting the magnitude of the

quasi-preconsolidation effect needs further refinement.


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,.l InI. ,u rn rr.n : r.-n.:. .:. r ^ 7 i-;,: -= t : ,; ., r i i

.,..<,',..j, l.i.] .-.], ri,- :.u.;n i ]r.;.-.,,.-r.[ ". 1 ',[ *)r ir] ,r.. ..rI jI in .

Iujrri. iI L..r.n -Irn.:.r. ; ir. ::.il tr r i: r. i'.:r,: : :. i.r. ,.T.na contend

r,:,r r.- :.0j .i', c i ,: rr,, : ,j: .:, r ,r -(.. .- . t, : I ,.: o f

,,..I.'r r.I..dlrI r..: r -. j trI.t ,- ,. r-.; t ,[ jr ; r., ., [. .-.1 it: ; practicall

j:. in Elt I. ir.. ri :j li.:uji ...rL.

) ri.'t r.n ,E l' IT..) lr.r.:, r. Ir i..- i .:.; .:. i ..:jr ., ), under

r. llre.:.r. : ., ::.,r r. r.; ..i , i i:,.r i ,- r.:. F.'.u' ] r. .', NSF) and

ri.;-l i i r ; :.:.ri, ..i' p:rii L, r.., i r : l. i ir,-,r in j rr.,] .,- e ices

I nIT.1 T .rt... L i .ru.] I r.n, L .in: i .j, c. .,r,, .: r.:.:.I i.j Led (NC)

ri ie-- r i 1 .. ; .]ur ..i : In l .. : r-" 1' ; .:.rn j.tr -. ir, .e-neral,










and the subsequent inferences regarding the q-pc effect, in

particular. This paper discusses that study and its findings.



1.2 Purpose and Scope



The purpose of this study was to provide answers to the

following questions:

1) For a normally consolidated fine-grained soil, does

Ko = o3/ a increase, decrease, or remain constant during

secondary aging in one-dimensional compression?

2) Is the existing quantitative theory for predicting the q-pc

effect (Schmertmann, 1981) accurate in light of the answer to

question I?

ir..: r : r T| L- r, r-. r i .,r,- j E'.: Z



p1 1 :'*-; ,1jri ir, .J:A'l.l i la[ j r jr ]: .'1,',: ; : ',.: i i : l '.l
V*-' ,r1. J : ,q,] ri ,.l I ,l ,],jl' r,.. -,rri .]iT, r. ; ,i:'.rii I





fr'-.;Cil ,-j, '\.1, T.],.,,| r.',i ", j ,la[. 14 :S ,f:, r ,-, -.ri] ,'
.:l ,, ". .1 i i i r,. .t , -. r in rIr [i ,T .



IhuOi rb)[ li r:(.. [ . ..r T i r i. -,,:,jr. [3 1 ,r ,.jl ':] t,,, .;, i r. T.h,.:

ri>.''t. *.L ,-:r. -: ES- r ,]r:I r,- Ti r,:,' j 1 1 A:r q, I 1 '. i J :,.J l

u3r., rr., :f.: rr ,3 ":1, 1 r.ri U









1 3 r,'T.:.i.:;r. History



Si)'ude,1 A nr'is.nr, ).. ,:i.:,.',int of a Ko-consolidometer and

-;ur.i :.n *:.f r... 1 ::,u T. r), r,..:) program was a time-consuming and

A nr..i,: ;.r':..,:i mn. Tr, s; ..: r..:.,', provides the prospective

r. ar,:rl..r inc. 1 e :.r i.,,, nti, i L,, 'DiAms and documents the

: rl-iruI.t .:r,; .:.r rh.: uiLr..:.r' : fr. 11:.. IJF researchers.

in liar:r. i :., : s:.F ,r:.. .-2. Lt"c. John L. Davidson and Dr. John H.

.:.c.Tr jrinn i )rriL I .EE-SLL r ,r' i study the behavior of NC fine-

*jr ,i i-..i i.: jurir) ;..n a ri.f ai. n.) ina to evaluate Dr.

hr.,.tr [i.irn :. lu n iL [iE tl...:.r r..r the q-pc effect. Under their

.j .r. :r...:n inr. in :.". ;uili [ .r. .i r., ur Frank Townsend, W. David

. 'i.:u. Tir. ime i.r,..-. .-: .i:.i ,..:.r.-... er test cell dnd control

,itEiT. fi i jir.) :..u.j[, ir'. rrsj.jition in December 1982, graduate

:r.u. 'nt ui .2." -.)n nr.- r i,:r Al..ation tests on the new

i.u.,' r,. i.,u,'ir ir,.j i -,; ,r.5-, r.ir. problem of temperature sensitivity

11, :-.:.- .. ; ) ..:n Ltr:r.:i r. or .:, r i :E.r., foam control room with

trh;r7.'.:L:[i. i..:.'. r, :.:-- : [Ar: ir icated unreasonably low Ko

',e 5 5r..i n... pi r. i.in .,, ; .:..r, j that time.

'i[ .- P i.,.,'r ur.:-. ..- L,.n.T..' i)83, the author became the

'ti nri ir,. .: i .., i.i] :ra.-r s student Michael Stefadouros.

. r.l]'t',ur : .;t:.,.- r.u .. r r ln.,:r.;in .,r me Ko-consolidometer while the

Sutnuii' pr pr.:,i re [Lb ti- : i.-. ) ,':.'rim, part of the original scope

:.r 5r. ;r.. ,.:.;r.. r. i r, u. r.:. ,mle .,",:,ress in achieving reasonable Ko

. iu -: :.., r.r T,71i.ninr. rnr. :.: 'T : Jesign to eliminate excess and

.5 ,' tu nr .,,n r. ..li.,,- .:r.,..j.-.; :r-, )ccur. The Mlark II control








board, built by Stefadouros in June 1984, reflected this simpler

design. However, a new problem arose--a loss of water from the

Volume Change Measurement Subsystem apparently unrelated to the

consolidation process. In July 1984, the author and undergraduate

assistant James Pool began a concerted effort to improve the

equipment's performance and the project's productivity by building a

mercury backpressure subsystem for each test cell and by continuing

development of the Mark II testing equipment.

On August 16, 1984, the research team met at the author's

request to review the progress, discuss the problems, and chart the

course of the project. The research team decided to 1) request an

extension to the project's deadline to allow more time for equipment

development and testing, 2) abandon the IDS test phase of the project

in light of dwindling time, money, and manpower resources, and 3)

test only two soils due to these limited resources. Specifically,

equipment development primarily dealt with the problems of low Ko

values and the unexplained water loss.

Since August 16, 1984, the M[r..r ;'.n .T,:T.r' L -' ,r. i:r,,rI.,

Manzione, aided by student assi :r-r,-r .r,j I.: r.,iri n.r r' r.:.] .ri

process of equipment refinement i.'] -:..il r.e r. r 7Tr : ri ,,i

iteration included completion c.r rr..- ir'i L [ I i1' -i- ,:,r.,

replacement of the Mark I contr.:ol c.:. 1, -'I, :-.-,.-: .:.r u ;- r.:.-, c..:

fine-grained soils. This report -r ::.r rr: r.- ; ir: ...r itri

refinement/testing process, the i i ,1 jl r. in...r.,r, nr..:,r

approximately 60 man-months anc ', ...j *:.r ::..Tf.biri.' ..:.1 .' '.]

UF funds.

















4"H E.i t .iF TH1L LliLT'aI'RE



. Irtr.:..]J.: i s.



ir,. r :.: r:, r. s,T. :.r,..u,:r.ie.i c,.? ,::,r i., literature reviews

,,r"ir. n. ,Crj.- : 1.:r. .U.-rr ';..:....in; specific objective

.irl,-.i.3 inr. '.l ,t.-r I EU-ar.T,,' i T. i le an extensive survey of

tr.E? l :..,i : r..:.r, c..:r.l.Ii .- : r.r .-.: Tm .in ,-'I. .i during one-dimensional

*..* 1,:.. lji .:r.n L- i.r. T 1 -r- 'na-..- r.r, '. i ,-.: ..solidometer equipment.

Tin iutr,.:.r pri.r ] A I ,, -,i ,: :'.f ctr:,i-: r.n.iings in Chapter 4. The

:- :.3n.3] 1i.Lr r.ir., c.-.. r- .;u:-.i ,a'.i pn.ri ,o.i and concurrent work on

tr-e f1- :Fr.: v~.-: '.:2i ,. [n : i i r.t.ure survey addressed



I' .*rin c I : A-I,. r .-. E ai.A1 r c ren-ories have been offered

r..' : l I it i T.

.1 ,i ,ir, ti t. rlr.,r1 i : ; ro.r Cr.'Jaicting the q-pc effect

.aIlt i .i] .:ir. -.o :, :,ptiopr.j: i,r.: rese theories based?

31i rir .i r -.:.a r.: r,. ; -ar'c:n ,i'.* ]-i.ne on the q-Pc effect and

rd , b ru ..r ,r ljr 'i.) :. r.) i,]r, compression aging?

Ti : *.;r r.ii r-a.' '.r: r-,r n .. tc.- :n j.estions.









2.2 Qualitative Theories for the Quasi-Preconsolidation Effect



2.2.1 General

The q-pc effect may be defined as the capability of an "aged"

soil (a soil left under a constant effective stress over time) to

carry "additional load without undergoing significant settlements"

(Bjerrum, 1972, p. 18). Since the first observance of this

phenomenon by Casagrande (1936), researchers have assumed the q-pC

effect existed only in cohesive soils and have predicated their

qualitative theories for the q-pc effect on this assumption.

Qualitative theories based on this assumption all share the idea that

temporary bonds are formed within the soil as the soil ages.

However. no single esolanation emerqcen as to how and why these bonds

e -:r r.:.rT l .rir,: r rja, nr, ti 1 11I r ur Tr i rr .] r, .. r r.:.. r ':.j

*j i.- ry.i - rr -:r. i. i ::r.: I t r rF r *i.:. Ir. arI.r ri.r.

I..:rl-,lil ,.- tli .i.:.r i lrr .rn [t,i :.:.'i inr.i l iu: ris i-.. T" ti. ; ) I l I.: ': I 1i

l- ; r r I .-. ::le 1 I ...*". .Tl. rr;rTarll. T.:.:.|, li.'' l; 'i*l

r- .' ,i r-. r ir.- r : i.ri l : :r, r ,- C..rif l.AJ I r.,, r.r i:. r.n .i .1 ,.

i r'.:.i I :.ir :*.c.r. .rn pr.; -. : i :..[r [..r 1..] iri.j r'r i .:.r. Lr=.:.r i :.









ra'.,i- r mi ri i.j : i .l '..:ri.] *r i i lI 1I.*4 1 :r. r .: i,

L', r r. i .. i : I j .,r -i i i | i I ,.:. I. .; l L I I. C-1 Jir l C

'. r ,-^r, .m.jl.j I I '.:.r.r t n : ir.1 n.Ii.L :r..i ..Il ju 'ir .l.Ih:. LiWeiI* n'I l










Eu4gi. ** '.. r..- iti.:. n .:.r.n d.4.w;l u. rr4 iiTt.: 4 .: ,r. i E i .i;s i rri .:

:.3 ur in r ,:r r. .:.,: r.r r' .: ., I1.- 1 j)..rr jir. i i, I lu iI i r J i I *:

i : .I l A T i,.in :I .: i 4 r n rirf i.', ". ; ] .;..T. ] L i 'i i ,,,-l ii: nu L .

0v'r ti, i I -rM rr Ii j rI r'r r ,r r I E rL -r.:.rE ....'ri.. jr.. r.- 3 L

.: n., r.nL r.i.,r l,: .,- r E : i: ; i 1 L i r 3.l.:.r Qu *:k .:i" a : r3 t i r. i En) Ir.

Q-I .r i.;:,: i. i. .: ir', I )' j rr' ui ,j,'I r Li. i *r ,. r ' .: r, L .,4 ,Eh

r. u' v ]i-.:r r.j,] .i r.-rr . .:52 iiu.TCi i. j r.i p1 i- luiu 'u

,3 I'Tiriu A., r-.:,rr : : F; r.irr. c r .r i '. *J'.T I r

re l j'ln i j] i J] a 3h or 3 ,,ur 1 n ;,-_' i al wr, 1.r r in ,

I .'J t- l I ', .:.,r,: r.n i ,. .TI r. r r.. -, .. r l.:

in i ., E' n r, r.:.rn .. r, La ,r L 'l i :1 ,- r it E:, r..- [ , 3r.]

SI r ; i ] i ,; lu ,li l ,: ,.-r. i ; c;. ..i irl ir.l i i r.1 r, w.

*:. r, i. : rIf ,r,"I r..j in Lf ,, E r. :,ir lc.jr.lu. A, Er.-r. ,, C i

rej.ri.-jd 0, L4 n v 1.. :ri .; i ] = 4 i: i 4 I ,ln.l r .E.ri r,. ] .,

U, i i i .. 1 I, 1 p lain; E r . I :..1i .:.r Cr., r E





lur in I i : .r I. C, r E . .4 :, i, L .iu 1b.i .C
.*: .n %Lir iE l43 :S 1 .. n ;. C[7r r i.-1i. 1 E.-.; :..r..
or Iln U 4.1 in L.N! 1 n i E. or r--- ] -- E..-r .- :.:.r, L3
PiaflE2:. 5.eEi.:I-. ;o i. .] i i Q .'r .:r.:-y~ inftu Lb
CO. E ii: i E r. irr ir,.-.i .rr p1 I nI iry.l r.. r ] .. in L
r -) i r -ri tr.." .. T .. Tii n.r i :k.i .:.n .: .'
Su .L3a r i pr z : jr I m-- r .-r a ll ..r, lEl-E i- ..rF3T r]...n
unti I ] i ri ] r .:ir r. I.: 1 i jr i ni Li t E l a h
i I -pr.-i n I 1 1 Ell i -n r ,r: r I L'li 1 ; r- I 1 . I


Fr'i ti. r, tnrior,. a; n7.4. L- 2 r 1 .l r, r..i r r.,. iii I I

u ,Ii c Ei. E ni 'r, r i'. r -- i t r.: i, .55 5 r .]i.:i l .1 1 Eur- rir.:..,

Er- re. i.. 4' 44 r I t :-r i aitrl 4 r., r .3 L L. DE.'.v t. j

. hiVT. .r ri n n rijI.Tr,. i :E : in01 i l: A:ir.r Du1 r.rj ...r









a clay can and will slowly readjust its fabric under
drained conditions, such as during long periods of time
at constant stress. The more easily dispersed (moved)
particles . yield sy particle-to-particle slippages
to those . with more rigidity and which probably also
have more strength and more resistance to
dispersion. . With time the soil becomes stronger
and stiffer as a result of the yield-transfer of applied
shear to those stiffer and stronger aggregates.
(Schmertmann, 1981, p. 477)




2.2.3 Summary

Until 1981, the q-pc effect was considered a phenomenon which

only occurred in cohesive soils and resulted from stronger oonds

being formed in the soil over time. No explanation as to how these

bonds form has been universally accepted. In 1981, Schmertmann

presented a new qualitative explanation of the q-pc effect. His

theory attributes the q-pc effect to an increase of particle friction

within the soil fabric and thus maintains the q-p- effect can exist

in all soils. An examination of the test data on the cohesionless

soil used in this study should di:Lc=. .n.; .:.r ,.. : tr..:.r.: .



2.3 Quantitative Prediction of :r.: Eu, :i-:i :n : .:.I:.,.[...,- Er' :[



2.3.1 General

Apparently, the uncertainty wr..:r. .. : ).er [n- ::,iij rA nr

q-pc effect has precluded attempt: ...r:. L i =a. in .iI].; 1..

Schmertmann (1981) is the only :eir:r.- E.) .cut.i ir. 1 j i-ir. iU Li.

theory for the q-pc effect. The r..i i ..i, ;.-.: .r i.'n :.: :;i r..









a L i i r 1 1 jn .rn .,ri 1 .;ri r. I K. r, i .-* r y] ad.i 1 i .r.-i :I ,-i w I r.A rj fur 7,.j I

r.:.r E.. r- r .; .




S, *.ij; 1 r ( .i i r Irjy

T ri jn r.].lr l i j E i.' t i r..-j rn.: r r. .n : .ju r. i Lj I l r..- ..r

. ,i rj r r i I I .:.r. .: ? L r :. : p* I j ... ir. .: r.i

L : i i 1 n. .-..' r rt..i,,r. j :,,. ,:3 I .. .i : .-:: I p I r.

1 .E ).r.. -I L V-ju r' 3 1 ..n E -1 L.. i i, .r -..] -r, r i r.,*- i,j i u

El. i r r ,-h ,i r ; .

Tr. E ,r',.... In.. l J '- i' ,. n. )r.-:r- : f ,.r n r i3 r ,

n.-r.T-. .j :.r i ;,j i i a- r i ..-i. .. : rjI L i. p..'..j.n I Ic .- ,. p .14 .




r-?p :n..TriT r.? 3I.a 1 , *..Cj u .r I. n. ]4ir .1 : .i i r,.- l I tr. .r. v.,n




n,1 pki,4.. n Ir I r .L-ii' ,41f r.. .:.il i uL *J-: C. rE ...rci.j I

t r-4 In.:r r ii: uri.]. L- .. -*:. .3 lI..n Lu Ic- 1 1 r .j W- .

-- t f..: .. 7 i f .: .1-. ;r- : ir '. T3 .i.n .irT r [r.: t. ^ rL 4.; : .:4'..n. .

j. 1 a r r r n.ni r. p,.irn 1 r.r.. 3 ] i r.1 ..*.i I ..iluir i..l :r r :Lr 3i ;

3 a C.:I .3 I: I I t'rjr : in.:rV -; .' r r.i ..-:; r ::: nr I ,l,

1-:LLyi. tn. e-:ial f r D i.r .3i7 r f :r E 1 ..i 1 n.:r f E-, L In-1

* r.: 2 n J .-Jlur in.) -A. -I 4 rij. n.n r.ri i r. . j 1A 1 r c- rV :

["- ? in ri tia l I -i r i2 i 7. ...i c 1 Ur..:. r- T riri. I i. 1. .1 .




F r<.: i II .;Ir Ir.r n- 3. . 3 t .:i n.



S: C. f -i t- i
-. U 1 1.'1 *









where Apgq = the magnitude of the q-pc effect;

p, = mj = the normal consolidation pressure;

S2 = the slope of the initial Ko-line;

S4 = the slope of the Ko-line after the q-p effect; and,

Aq = the net effect of the pore pressure parameter A over

the entire 2-4 ESP of the q-p process.



2.3.3 Summary

Schmertmann (1981) has published the only theory to predict the

magnitude of the q-pc effect. Schmertmann assumed a stress path

based on his qualitative soil friction-increase theory and derived a

formula to express the q-pc effect. Data from this research will be

important in evaluating his assumptions and theory.



2.4 Concurrent ..Trenrch nn th? Qliii-Pr .n.-.liti.in Eff-:t










I i. i ..T.r :;Li.,, Tr. rr .i L- i .,






,* .- i E- i .1 :, -. :..- ,h: ,-r : .' .n. ,, *r,, ,, .r, .: r.. : -, : j;.
'. 4.ii l : ,l ,i .S.. i' T- r.f i 9 r [. i i. ,






11














-. FECT (SLOPE=S1)





S* ME (SLOPE=S2)















I '


























F 'r .- r..r.A. rA :; ,ri ,,I r i r -. .ur i, and after the
: rr.:r 1.: i a .: ,,,-r L. .r., 1 81, p. 479)










1981 paper and that a "prominent reviewer" challenged this

assumption. This challenge prompted Schmertnann to poll 40

geotechnical engineers, renowned for their work in soil

consolidation, for their opinions. As reported in the technical

note, his survey indicated there was no consensus of opinion

regarding Ko-behavior during secondary aging.

Responses published subsequent to Schmertmann's technical note

revealed a broad interest and several research efforts toward

answering the Ko-behavior question. However, these research efforts

did not address the application of this answer to the development of

qualitative and quantitative theories for the q-pc effect. Section

2.4.2 offers the information presently available on concurrent

research efforts.



2.4.2 Concurrent Research

Kavazanjian and Mitchell (1984) concluded that K, would increase

for NC saturated clays and decrease for OC saturated clays. This

suggestion was based on "limited. thoijuh fairly conclusive" triYicil



i., n -. i . I I r, 5 .:.n | rLit)r ., i 1 i -i i u5.0 r. r,, ir, -

1 [l:r l r, i. ;. u ). ,' r-.:r .-' r, i ; : ; [ Ju r. I 1 . 1'r.






,5:-, r i i:. i.n 1r., i ,4_ r :.,r, r. : I ,.r,I.- r,.r .










" : .: ',']. I:. rj L'. t rE, r f.:.rli ,r.] r. :. ir.: n v :, t.. ; but no

C 'ii ir i t .. r: "; : E r, ." ir .*:-' r. l"T1 :I ..I

.u-,1. ..ir i 4 1 ,i:. .:2 r.,,:I uj. ] i ir..,:r : .rtr. ij ing for NC

.: .::, .. :.:' ii : .,,. ,.:-,.T r J rn,, jr:,..r :.. j 1T, r..:.Tia cal analysis

',r ,:. . -:oI: I .: ,T. 3 :', I r. r i: I r, r,] t.ri 1i .. 'i. )f

iT,.;.r-, rrc. r) r.: ;.;.l..,ir : ir:...:r i: -' ,i r in i: u.;i option of

i .:. :. 'l i, t : r ,.' ..:. i .- r -, ,,,n t.ri . ,:n r:. .

A:..,r,- E I~ -l .irr 'u t I r IriiI r...r i r.rI..:i .i. with aging

L i:.- u:.;e .:Our.ir, ci .r.: ...:..u.r u- .: r : i ;r ,.jj, transition

rr lT. i.i.;:r.:.,...re 2 T*. r.:,C .r .1 .., .] .lr, ir.,- n. l .r.,-, r tr.iinn, 1984,

p. t Jn I n. .- :. L. r .1 -r, i ,-.:,* n .;r :.:, ..: r. than

:.2n'-l tj. Iu.r. r I i ,, j i r j ( r .:.r r.: r C.. 3 rect

r T ;r., n I i J r... t- ;, ,..a r t ri : -x..T..r.i...r.

lii).r j ) L1 1 ,,j i c i 3 in.- ,r r.. 1 r i. 1 .Il-i | i ill with

: T.. r Lr;.- r : .: t,.- r, .' .r. Ir., r 1. 1. 1i'l : :. ,; J .r n r u i ng.

.':r: .r tr., a.Er i n :rnT. cr ie nr-. ; A mU Z :.nr 'i, 7 changes in

I l tr.j : 2 jr .jur si ri i n pr.:.jj.:p ,r r. .:r .i in :lay modulus

In. s r, iar r. r . .En t' r... u.:.; i ..-,:. ,,: 1 .. .r-. ,, : rain rate

rirn 4.;: 2 :. J.L- :r 3-. Jurir) 1.: ,.i. r. r:.I.-.. r r.T rr,. 7 .U, -p. 673).

)1 :CASi'j'nI 3 r- i i n rr i *n .1 e.:. r .:r 1 i jvurr. 1s depicted

n cow ccr.r4 i.rn .cver mr cr:.,r U. 7:r..-, cr nr.n : .u-- tion as in

ricnrl.: ., j..urri, I F.:.r ., .C.i.: j. Cr.: :.; r- i, r.;l..3 r : r ,nzawa (1983)

Sin r.] ,r il i :. r f.;r *r . r r.-. Fr .i J 1 :-i4.j : L-i the

-:-3r. rn:, r >. iti ir .) j. 1.:- j. r, r :',r,I L 51iJI ,.r. sents

r P.-ia- rh,,; L, 1 .i r.:. to :.j ; : r. C .i. :r :-: L r. i r ii j. Yasuhara

ari. u.i I l .r i 1 i: n.- r i r. v . J ri'i. .:.n. -.1. nensional









consolidation is very sensitive to methods and devices used to

measure it.

In the latest discussion of the Ko-behavior question,

Jamiolkowski et al. (1985) cited test results on undisturbed

Panigaglia clay using a square oedometer with a flush pressure

transducer at Studio Geotechnico Italiano of Milan and on two organic

silty clays using the MIT Lateral Stress Oedometer as evidence that

Ko is constant during secondary compression aging. Moreover, those

researchers say Kavazanjian and Mitchell's views "either do not apply

to all cohesive soils or are premature" (Jamiolkowski et al., 1985,

p. 33).



2.4.3 Summary

The UF research team, aided by published responses to

Schmertmann's 1983 technical note, gathered information regarding

:,ri,: r '- .1 :r. f, r )rt.: ',' ,, r., .4- ,. rf.-,:c E n.] i -,-r,, n ,:r .Jjr ,ii

:...' r .r . r r.-..- [ :rI. 1.1 r r : r..



II if,'., u ,ir, h.,,-,', r.r.,...,.r. ,T|.'t' :,rj. : r. ,-, ri j r,' ] -r i ,',.-r h ri r,irr l

L :. :i. r.. i r.J or I. l..r... l ) iN



.l. l : r- ." l, :i ,r .-i r -l::,r. .,r ir.,: Er p. l' iil i :'



ir..














Er>I rl i.TC.fL m'viip.





r-r .jr tiir.. r: n n
















CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS



3.1 Introduction



The three criteria for selecting the soils to be tested were

1) Was a large quantity of the material readily available for

the preparation of duplicate specimens as dictated by the

extended and iterative nature of the project?

2) Was some previous information on the soil's behavior

available as a guide for separating equipment and procedural

deficiencies from actual soil behavior during the

developmental phase?


...r, z j l-.-:. ri, -.)r .,-, ] ,-, r. I,' [ ,2 r'j- :Es I.. r,- ,


r r,: L .]



r... I i r ,.T, Er ,- I:' i' r r,, l I I. 1i I ...r. i 3 I, r

l...r l I ; .. 01-1: i .*Ii -: T : -p I |T, r ri, I *.r .IE l..










3.2 Edgar Plastic Kaolinite



3.2.1 General Properties

Edgar Plastic Kaolinite was a particularly attractive choice

: ir,.: . r. : ilibul, ir. i r 4us,.:i i l n., .u to the

.iru ,b r ,,,ra, ,:'. ..- ,.i. .rr,,r ,i .ri n, mn r if r.n: .' i .. vision of

F ;. i.1 ..rp r E ...r., .'. l.r-e .-r mr.i; .. i a, r ) i c.- ui :r used

rr -n E i i Erj :E :r. I. i :.-. r.: n T nr,- I .I ..r : 1, of Florida,

i l'j, i ) :, o r 1.,r. .; -r r ,r . l i :r ;., v .. ,i,. r,: several

.jur.-. :.ui] b: ~ l r. .a r.J .r at; jr.:r l .r',..:rr.a-: and

,r p" ') lIi .

r i :.m T. r. i 1.:.i .:.r u5:.. a ere i .i u i D.j i L.: 3 ta and

r.i ri.:i i i L ri': e .' . [i-r .:. r '..3 r 1 i :E : oh.i ie may be






L ,j-u l I- T r LL :4 .I

I Ei L Im it ., :L = L .2.

i ;[ r,. ., [ .i.. I": = L L -' l. = .. 'j

i r ..'1-.; I::: irn i =

: l I. l I .r"i, :1.. I :: rnrsr, .- -





:..I I ,- -.,r :r '


I '. : : i. A, :.r Er. : ar. :. ,,.-r. r C I Pic i : ..aolinite

fr: *i .:.n .r....: .ii, ,u :. i r. i'..] i .. ur,[ ,;: i i. E ,r.h









step-by-step instructions and photographs, is presented in a

companion report by Manzione (1985).

Edgar Plastic Kaolinite is received in dry, powdered form. This

powder is mixed with distilled water to a predetermined water content

of 404 and then cured overnight. Next, the mixture is circulated

through a Vac-Aire ceramic extruder (Figure 3-1) while under vacuum

to achieve thorough mixing and de-airing. At the end of the fourth

pass through the extruder, the specimen is cut, rolled in waxed

paper, and dipped in warm wax three times to prevent moisture loss by

evaporation. The UF research team also found wrapping the specimen

in cellophane after waxing an effective deterrent to evaporation.

The specimens, designated EPKW, are stored in a steel cabinet in the

temperature control room until needed. Immediately prior to the

start of a test, the cellophane and waxed paper are carefully removed

,I, .i -,, ~;: .C:. T ;. : I-1 rim- *:j r.i, :i n.1 rr i, ..-] F. Er,-




I: i r, 3 i,,- l r' i j. [ :r .::,- r .: -. :rn -.r ,r r : r'., rr,.-E


:' i., I r) r L. ).,- -: T',' .- i. ,-.:. 1r '. J ,r.i- ri -,r, . .-. :"h : rEr ''n.c




i [T, r" *jr' Er ,i. ,i : lr ,. 1 I:. . Ir Er :-r ,1_ ,,- in.E:

T: 3 l r. :. t ) l- l ] r :




19





muiiip









2 1


4 .4,, ,~ ,r,] rrr.dLI:L p-.













;. J. l ,', r'-f i ir :-p-rr r.1

*.-.. :u'i T. i: nr.)r. :.:il i', i-.. Cr-iiitional sense of the word.

. r.Ir, I,.,ji .;u. I i ; : ,1- [r l I i b,r,:ive created by grinding very

nr], I ]Jri : .-',- tur.J, 1 1 1 -L.- ,'rhig rock into fine

i:,,' :l . 1:. lvi:ui i ,j..] 1'1 rl- manufacturing of glass and

.,, r.;i.:.r.,-:. n.n .ijnjr:.J iT:..j r.3: :. ,.:. lite were purchased from

.i :.:., *.f.r '..:.,r '.'..' r.:,. m:> ; [n- : r.: i : lesss, fine-grained material

h. i11. "r- 'r.;.i. I r..u.an :.7-. .,:.r hl novaculite was done at UF

in r.r,: iri, : j' : in m ri, l.,r' li r.le was published and

i bri r...r' ', r:L?. f'uT [Eri ri e.r r..:Ihy. Consequently, the bulk

..., 1 ,r.,*T,, r, .:.-o n Ci' n.: 3:'i n] i Ei: c.'.- aration was found through

r r.- riinul ji urr r n .1 -i..-i- L ti E ri.

Tr.- ;.r ~, r.'. .:, .: '.:. ij, i i include

. :If '.- .*. , [i .-.i :, ll =,. = 2.65

.[ i : i ir.] 3 L = > .. ,.nr.lastic)

ri. .;i : i.. : : r.r i r, ,.*, : .:, (74o) = 98.12%

Uir.ili .1 it i : r. icrn ML





3.].. p:,a,: ii.-." m, -f, r i i o:,n

Tni .:[i .n un-iri rI .; r.n r. ,:.. lres for preparing novaculite

r.,.-.e-.. .c .- rn .. ,- :.,n. r .-: i jjId'- ses the intracacies of "how

r.c In nl; ri?uar{ .








Novaculite is also received in dry, powdered form. Fellow

researchers should use extreme caution when handling this material in

powdered form because exposure can result in silicosis and eye

irritation. Thus protected by dust masks and goggles, researchers

mix the powder with distilled water to a predetermined water content

of 33.58%. This water content is significant because the material is

easily handled as a paste which can be spooned into a specimen

mold. Water contents above or below this point make the material

difficult to handle. The paste is spooned into the mold in three

lifts with the mold moved across a glass plate 10 times after each

lift. The material is allowed to cure overnight in the mold.

Immediately before the test, tne mold is gently removed and the

specimen is weighed and measured before insertion into the test cell








7 i'- i: jr _.e. . .. .; .: ,:l m. T .. r1 l 0 .





F I : : .1 .i. 1 .,C. E1 3 F 3,' J ,

















































































r o' r "J J .- 3 : II "1 ,..- : . r I l .l1 1 1 I11
















CHAPTER 4
EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES



4.1 Introduction



This chapter examines the design and operation of the UF Ko-

consolidometer. Section 4.2 summarizes the initial design process.

Section 4.3 reviews the individual subsystems which comprise the

final system design. section 4.4 synopsizes the soil testing

procedures. Chapter 4 is not intended to be a handbook for the

. : ; r ir ] .:.t- r on t i .- :.:..; :. I ) l i L r i r. r.i I; I r

i li l : i i rie r.:.r.-,T, n. n .im '.] ::.,,.,i ,;."- r' ]:..jr l ir ,4 : n on :

l..- I. r in.ir I : ,:r ri ' iL i ,' E :r,- ....I, u ;i. r, .r tr,,- IJ -

- .:jll 'j ,l ]..1 ', L **' ,'L 1 )i1 ., 2 l] :,u i l l. ;'l ;.'.J.:- ,],'J' .



4 .. :1 r "I. f 5 O :-,':.. E I i, : : r. E,



I,; ., r :, I , ,,',[.).I r, '. f.I. n I.!, r 1: 13_:;_ : r-: rIIiiii, :.:,' n i : rI'l e

.r j.:., ir, -ifT .4 l ,'l; i.,:,;in ) in ini tii l jF:1 i r. :. .re J- ,

:o i iI.:...- : r". ;r:,]r ,T ir 11. 1 -- : 'il n.1 n E 'i, r :3. .1 L n. i : I 11 1i l

]' i' ,-,r' ,::::. T. 'i: :r '..: : In ,,:.j ,, r.:.ur : 1r n:. 11 l7Ji i n. E l.n ..

r alr. -] :.i l r..i l.nl : E1 i r ,tcih., : .f.iri. :'~I lj.fr.l iji-fti

..0 iT: 1 ir a 71, rt : an ] r .r l.ma .lS :Or.:i CiL.n:l., J l -..l f L Ei L

i Ii ; ': r : U UI fl II ( l ,ri 2 'ri'. E r.r. iI' "r L f. r i Jr,; i :










,rsi 4n1 h jil, .ir.n aj'.L'v. '.: '; r :1 --. I l.*raiE. : [-:L.ed in

1 1i .

L LTC- 1I, Lr : ,-r.;r .: ir. V er.- ... r. ri p u : i r.jn: I onS as

l' -1i' > e. L i I' L.. L ::, 3 i :I f-: r.r. 4 i r a in

r:.- iJ mi rn La n r-::, r.] i j r I : i n .;. r. n

S. r...AIr..J L.r .i.r: l ni r. r rr...: rir E..nr.; ..[. ]* i

a r3 .. r,- r:. Ir,.. r, f.5rm,,i. I :nc- r i r. 1 .:. fa i C -1 i : : -ach

r. r :.r. L u i A r. .L 5 .:.: '; r.- 1 1 : -*1-r i .3 .

i .. 3.': i. .lo:J g.ir- j fil-ril.3 i I1 -[ je ,I t, r l I' T.j to

:i l:r., r.ri. ] ji 3 r .:irV. iir.- :z .: i ., r ; r. : i .. r. *.: rn i cal

1i r. r .ur iTIr.j r [Lur 1 r *: LI IU I: C.J r V r ,. ; ri r i., cation

iat-,r i Ir : : j'Ji r i A. i ElI in j r- ri r r i .: r' ': ,rc.h team,

.r; L .Iil-: uijl] .. i i1 1 m .r. : 'lt -,,rri e ,: .:.. 1.j ra:. itS

Sl i i E .i L r. E r,: r.jr..; ..ni I r Q|uir --:.|r. Lj .n :r .r3 r -.:eived a

4;* rr..a,i I I.:, 1.. i r- j.r ,jli ; r- r :-.[EI y : E L.: 3 0 1 i ty to

l r I f r.. ru..i t. .,,' I r i r rr o I j .. pr .: r. r r.r results

.r [ri, . I ,ji r .

L.- I In. 1 .-3 *.nr, in Ia .* r;j i -ir n fr i, L. iected

..u..r.. i : j)i... Eri I :-Il :.:.n.:,.rC . e : .: 73 *Ajrrent UF

:.* -*: .:*:I -j r r.:r ; :L-. if. pr .. .] ', -:L n pr 1. -i 1] l r.:ione

S.'fi.*1. -,. : ,L.j r NO., ir.. : 1. r u...c..:.E : : a whole

._ i | r.:. r li t. :.- .- .. 3 .l .j i n e r. li .r ] l ut. I C % .

"17 Iv r :ci3 ..c- .-.n E r1.::?] .. r, E c -e : lI, rE. .. irmen is

*' ; p' ::: '.-.] tL:- r..r ;i uri Li.-r. dr..In r. :i:...:.1-1.: n.] system

rr; rull, A %r3 ;, rt. .: : r. :: i: ioci ... .. -;,l Iic,.' to the

-pe.:q' T 1 C cl- vi r i .: i :Lr. :: ,..r.-u i TI. :;u:.:. rn.: : p. A:in n to try











Table 4-1 Basic Functions, Design Parameters, and Performance
Specifications for the UF Ko-Consolidometer


Basic Function


Design Parameters and Performance Specifications


Prevent Strain 10*10-6 in/in lateral strain tolerance

Apply Stress 0-111 psi variable lateral stress capability

Measure Stress 0.1 psi lateral stress sensitivity
0.1 psi pore pressure sensitivity
222 psi pore pressure capacity

Drain Water Drainage without disturbance to the specimen or
other functions

Maintain Stress 0.1 psi stress tolerance over 30 days

Reduce Friction Reduce or eliminate skin friction on the
specimen without interference with other
functions













I u I . rf.jn.':ri An l '-.', li ; r* [l :rr ir '- ., .: ;,' .i ,.: r




I-j.: A i. E n

:r r. Al['c ; i -.. r. 1 3 F r.L- L 1 1 'ral T ,




1. ..Ti r I. i.
cr.tr i i .j '-. i r I 3 I 3'.








J. O.,in ,. I ) I


I i i i I r U



r. -Jri i ll [, .,
I ri r. L.:.r.,
Lr343 .i 3 TIIr I .. .1 1'



i..in l i J.Tli .; r r I 1 4 1 [I



.,iur. ;": .'r.)u .lTir--, L i3 -. ;4









to strain laterally (bulge) as indicated on the mercury manometer.

Lateral stress is applied until the manometer indicates the specimen

is neither bulging nor compressing laterally, the Ko-condition.

Following application of the last vertical stress increment and the

ensuing dissipation of pore pressures, the lateral stress is

regulated at frequent intervals to keep the specimen at the Ko-

condition for at least 14 days. The lateral stress required and pore

pressure measurements are recorded at every interval.

Three versions of the UF Ko-consolidometer system were built

during the project. The original system, Mark I, was dismantled for

parts in December 1984 after a history of inadequate performance.

The Mark II system, which began operations in September 1984,

performed well and featured a simpler, streamlined construction.

Salvaging some Mark I parts, the Mark III system was built after the

Mirl, II de:ign to double 'oil t?;ting :3;3Lbili t. Mirl, IT7 h3.5 i1-

;.r .jrT,:.] .. II. '.iure -L[ )j Tr?- : ;.: iTa [m, .jr [r 11 rb i ( 1i r'

I 1 -, :'.> '-. L Ijr' ,.J J cr:j [r,. i* ,i, [i ,ll lIrl, I|









E. Ir., l ., ] I r,'Ajl: : rr --



J I : T.: :



i Lrn., 1 E :C-iL. ,>I -:*: 4i r 4'J' -i. *4 ,r. A TiKr.'..































: 4Z~I












































































































































































-T. r


































































Fi jr: 1 Ur n I *.-A r.'.,II j)T.-, L, r i r .... r:l i


































































I ,. Ur.- J, -4 T ,: I.'r I...'.,' l ';,,.' r. ," T,: : ; .r : lj










3l ur I rJu 1:.' 1 in- ] a jn ] ;) i c. j i in iE : ir- : ; i Lr. 1 ri-l 3 r.r1 ; ...;

" T- in. : ',il i-l, [ u [rrri;: i |I.:,,< "i .pi.; .Ir ina. -r. ir :;ur,:




- 7r, ni e; : I: i. d.:rti.; 1 3 l a .r : .r L .l J crL, :,Zr....i ai a

II. ir .. h--. )I .. rt r tL .: r,.... r.. i r . -.] 'r... [r..: = .:.n. T r.:I L .-I

r.:. r i ,!3 in t.) i l n..' ;, r. ,nl. :: ; [ in lr.. r ball [uLr.ir, ; i nr

ll i .: .Srru i l4 ar:i..J :a u l l : :m r .r i.ji 3r. r.: r. i c- L* 1

in, i ; :, ,,.; r..- i r. ,il h.r,:. b: t i ; ita 'i ;.' : in: r,.- l .r, j,-:,

" 1] l ,r' .',,r,]. ] :,a i :. I r t : E -t,.r .a-tr, rn. ijur,: -', i.

i)1i : 1-;: i r ir, r... tr.. ,:.:.r. ;[r.u:, ..,n r, a ur r. ] iL b..-". .

',i- ita j.3 ruiri llr ir i r. l: r un,;ti. n3 .:.r rr.. ;, ., .I




4.* . ,':5' i'r,-:':ure .i.; -,lr'i,,,. .. b ;:. ,;ir. |B 'UlJ I

n r. i i.:.r .:...ir n.. n lt ,rf n. I 'j; i ji ur. i- r r.r -e .r. -;jur-

;Our.;- tr- ii r.,r ,r, r:r Lirk If r.] 4 n,.:.- : 11.,14i T 'i):

o-r-; iur.. Lr 4. lu. r F' r..] s 1.j .IS.r 1.. -1 I 12' I rr.:, ..-r i n.. ]. .:.i

1i .1*! In IFi. '-. 4 1L1. T ,,zr 7- ':r.-,: i.:. -]. I[' ".- plr : -. ur ra ri l.ju: ?r

ni i .1:i. : i or li4 :;l ir: ; .:.. "-ij.nr iti : r:, : riir.. :li .] r. r C :r.

.,r'.i-r .1.1 i. :h r : .:- i .. 1 : r.-:. u [E ,-3.] i 1 l i r 4 r ,

r iur- r., ,,',j. Tn,. fi s': r i" ou'.:- .;.T ,l .1 r i,: ; ;i. ,.:.r.]..i Cia

n Il. r ., : r, i r : ,:.r:.u Z r. r.E- ] : r. ] r, .:k i:.- :; ir.: .; .r.

r.. uij itIr 141 rr.in r.ie C r ..r..(. s;.)r Er.n ; .: i.; .] r..:. Er..: ...r:u ,

b :k ; i* : ur.: j :r.=-. .,-i.;n r'r.:. t.]- : n ..: : I lr; : L::lllu : r .:

'lI..nj pjr .,.]r ; l. ( a,., .

I r.. r r.,: i:... : I t b ? I U Ji ar 11 Ji : ... .:. : i [ .:.r ir i .. r.

a4.i,-r. ,i n.] A*:ri i i ad ..? j r r '-r 1 I L ". T'4'r. C. r.: l- r. j in i



















































Figure 4-5 Interior of Test Cell Showing --:.: ...u: .
Sealed in Rubber Membrane










Table 4-3 Correlation of Basic Functions to Test Cell Construction
Features


I .ur : E


: j,-; [ru. EI )' .: I ,ur


pr' -n r.r 3 .,


ji: pi a*:.I. r. .. t -3 E r f i .:r. a,,'i, r .:n r n.j.4
r,.r ur .T,. r...LT.. t:r* 1 I r rE n. i r. -r i rt r-
r.-.: I] LU. D- 1 .1 u, -l.v LO. prf -r 1 [ I E i r i Zr a1, .


3 '. i .j r '-, 1)1 Lin- . i f i.,jr 4-II li .1 .. ia [ r i *.r; ;,.jr



.' r3[1i:. i ; r1'': i i" -.r, I',i''T1 [1 1 ,] : u' ;r.;r
L ,ii'i -:,: : l l i ; : [ rn rr.l.T i [. : j. 1 ir ar,: -

.] iL i r.:r r 1 :.. :-. r. .rir r .: i .:n -r
I . i r r r .


i .lur [- r:;


LI .r v I i rijur 4 i i i ..:.nr. : ] r,:. L.',S |jrA : :.jr
[ri r iu.; ,T.) r r u ., l ;ur ir -i I i L-r 1


Lr i W r.r Hi.:' r r in: r.r....r, rh ip :r. i : :E[ .. I .. .;
r'i.] i,I. r.:,i 3I t, r. r r : L i': Ir i jr 4- l
11ip l I .*I"' a r-r' p,, tl A th I ).jl'- [.


, -U,.- r i .: i.n


L' Lir I 1 1f i .i r 4- I 1" :.,,r, : ,.:.l L1. i
.'l [ rj u. rcr, . l, j .1 ..I
i ;.Ily pr; .r. :.:ur.-1
- I Tr.- : :.r. [rar iT.i r 34 i1 I.*.. i ..1- A r.
*A. ['r I jl i i ir.; rr r. 3. ] I3 I.3 I;



li 3 r.rjL.- r T.T. rjr.i : u; rj.=, :urr..lu'. [Cr,-
: .: I;,:r, ( pr.:.;i, i Iul, ; i1- tr: :Ljr, r L r. ri, r

. [,,: ,.' 1 i n- ] T,1 r r.)] r ]..;: .,:, I E r q,,':.;.,'.
".L irI : .s: irii: r [ i iD i[ 3 'I j E i l .il.
r l : r ..r'i In 1 .:.i ] .;.; r. r i.; i [ .
.31 .i l I: p..Lii'r: '.] 1:. .Ti rr.rjr I, r n I
.; i E: ] i" r.:, ,l i, i r. r .. . a.t ,n.
:lr- ..i r.I :i r j i.i :- r n ].;.n .









begins and 2) provide a constant backpressure after loading begins.

Each of these functions relates to the system's ability to measure

stress and maintain stress.

The backpressure may be adjusted to any pressure desired by

adjusting regulator RI or by turning the winch (Figure 4-6) to adjust

the height of the mercury pot, depending on the pressure source in

use. The maximum backpressure available is 100 psi using regulator

R1 and 111 psi using the mercury backpressure system. A tandem pot

arrangement (Figure 4-1) was necessary to achieve the 111 psi

capability on the mercury backpressure system. The Doric allows the

backpressure to be read to the nearest .01 psi, as measured by the

Srn otec frsIJur? transducer.



4 .. .:'l- I '. : :1 ;L I I 1 *J 1i 1E,. .- I 1 E l.T ,



..ir3 .1 r.. .:.cm.;:i r rv i r i .j ... i : 1 -:-II 1 -. p ],c tre
1-.1] 4 r: i,:, L,..-J t i jI .3.:, ,'j r. .: -- Lh, 1 :. ,'liT 1_ : I

r,,j.1L ,^ l r I:, i f:,:.:.,T,,,.lir. [n." *- n.' n j '-. ,:t.ll V., ,r l :L l i ,: i ,.i I .1a





.i r :. in : r : ; 1 ....: ..] ;. r ] l 4 .

L r : r' r. K an r i i a La



F: i. -' r: l *I> I.-.:r. :.n; .; 9 ...: r..1.1 ... a .T iiI jI a L u *i

ir ..1 .11.11 1 ..r. -,. i i r -l "... i 'C r4 .,r .a L li l i .11 i.





















K -


F i. 1 -r'e r- IInr .r r 43] ju: r.ri n. r. :ur. -- r-. . ; :





















II


Figure 4-7 Vertical E r',. : 1%; -i:.p i: ..!.:.nr. ''T i'. ; I










4. 3.4 L5-tr.cr i r i.i uil .Ub j ,I,. I L L.A I

Tr..: L -I1 h 1 i Tpi, a 'U' -.:.' j.r. pirtil, i, 1 l i r.r. Tj,.:r urj.

L,:',,r r.inTn ; r.t rr ., C:, a 5 TiT ijf" ;r ..- .er l 'jr'., 4-T 1. i.lrri.-

r,r r..:n :. t r.- 1.1 i .:.:.r.r,.::rA .3 r.u r.r e .:.1l : p:''p :r.,,r,bcr iJ l. r.

. 3i I rC -."- .,Iil.- .) 1 l. lir .;.jpp.r r.ubl, i'rl E r..; .:. [L. Er-

Li3E r3I Ir- I: Appi 1 :I i n ..jUbi l. I LLA, I ; ;r.wr. hi 1. i f jur. 4-1.

hr: L. r.,i -- [I .,; i'. p ,,-Ir. [Er I ri,. l ,Er. jird.

iTni j r.- [icr< ;. l, :.D ri-iEi [h. T,,r.:.r, .- i r. r., 'I, r.E -

r :,r.;rn r .:,r .J- l .: r. rr .:.tr :.:T Il f...r *..j.1 c- li lcr

.r -ii .)j ,:t Lil i., j I np-.: 1 i 1 : I r h .T.-'r :ujry 1.,, ] ill ,.

r Ilt 1.1 : E it Li: U li ll.: r. r r, [ le.. 1,, irt. i lr.,ril

reiiLjr n irn i.pl ..] ..-.i3 E .I rie : i ir j ar E.-l r. -.: :.. rr. :.r.

,Lfnl .r .-I ,. i r r.. h.. ] hi .].:. .:.r r i.. r r... :.r Tr.-.

*- .-:,iJILi.:ril Tr,.. r? r cri r ui-; [11- L i:. i : i i.1 i.] ,r lp ii-.I

rI' ' i n ] ; i -i I -1 i .' r.C ,r .i r .j: r l u ,,i .: ) ,: ,u : ] r .:.




*) rif Lr o i .:i i.:i.. f l ..-Ir. riirr i [ *. l un. n. Th.a r

I. li3 Lit [r *:L r *..r .r -r; r mr..,,, r i 1 .1. irj (. j 3 T1 T hr I, I rr

T13 -il1 E.r .:-1. .T ] r ] f ra U I"i riT ri- iT : .r,: I' in j 1 i 'n

rin.. i iL, il r i r.cr ai : s. ii ,:I 1 t ir. inl. r ir. .- in ] .

Ir r .. : ; L ri l p.:l' n"r, r I.' .l rC n.3 .3 i r,:- r re ,3i.t .



4 ..i L Lcri Etr .:: i :p 1 1 iAji i 1 -:, I L .i

Ti ri. m i r .:..irp.).'-,r, LI ar r r L A 3r4 r.', ir'f:iir ri..:. : r..]

T'.r i> r -; l:. i fj x prr Er 3 -r.1 .Ji :,-r i.3 r. i L.:riC : .103 1 J

Tr s.1 S u: r iu.: n : E jr ( r. 1 ri n i jur. - .1 3 II r.n, r.-r. .tc.: C .-.3 I


















































































j T L I .. I









TJE/708 pressure transducer has a capacity of 150 psi. During the

first hour of each load increment, the lateral pressure is adjusted

using regulator R2 since frequent and rapid adjustments are required

(Figure 4-1). At other times, the mercury pot system serves as the

-our.:.e r lIteril cpre--urJe ,: :u i r t lii t, to maintain

pr--,ur: -ENi iiLI fliu: Ltuilt.e C,-.r luirj p'r'os of time (Figure

J-Ij. oiocrn :.re :ur ;.:..jar.:-: ire .:u.o'r .::r.E] r-. ire LSNS, and hence to

rie- Lr--r .:. ii. ,.i t. .. in.:n-Ou.i. d.. .Ii T,-tr.r ri)liflow pressure



Tr.: L A' fuli lll: tU- i i;.: f .1ti.:.ri o .t ip lying, maintaining,

i i] i-i;uri'..) :I[r- :.

Th,: i.eriii iT.r ;" TO, L- i i. j, r.., r.*. i,', pressure necessary by

i.]3iu:'T.1.t -.tjulaI :.r o .,r b, r. rn int tr. e air,.:rn I:igure 4-9) to adjust

in. ..il r.r. .rt tr.r..- ,i.r.:ur; put, i.i. .-linj) .)n tr. pressure source in

us' Tn.- ,, icu,, i,.-rI n l.r ';:Jrf r, i ti i 'i ; '.DO psi using

r.e ul a r i ,a..] liil 1"i u:Ir,,) tr.E. e.T r-.ur, pot :,stem. The Doric

IIo.-: r.-n i ir.ril pre..ure r.C. L! r.-i ] L to r..rest .01 psi, as

,n iiure.] r. t.e n i r.ri .: r. :::jr i-r .ci, ],.:.-r.



4. .6 P..re r r 'r l 4.ur.. irer iut: x.r ii i.1. I

r or.- T .i.:.r o.: p,,r,.,i; Cr r.ri .. i'. ..i n:.:.,.c Model TJE/741

11t :rer,Cn ii c.r-.- Ar- Ecrin.jAuc r ir.j] i L'',r't.: Model 420

Tri,-.iu.:er i.].icitor ,I:,T ir. F.. jur-e I-i. Trie ~ensotec Model TJE/741

.]itf -r..-nti i pre :jre tr .:.lu.:,r hi, i .:i i.c-: lt .f 50 psi. This

uti n.3uC.mr *Tiei,.r.; the or .:'a.r.: Jirreren,.: Lec -en the pore water

ure-n ure i t rr c-.LtO,.T, of trie s pe:..Tr, ar,] i r.e applied lateral

































4--























Figure 4-9 Winch for Adjusting La .:r I r -:: C*C.i,.: ,...r. ,. ...-
(LSAS)





43



stress. Subtracting the DTD value and the RTD2 values from RTD

I. l i [,I .::. o.:re pr.:'ur vrr. l fi r r .-f r r. li r B.i: lu.:. r I|

L.: .r..: ten l r: r.;j .j U ir r r-, Su ., Z.l n ; Ir. . r n- u .-

. i Ti: L, r Y, i i.:. r.JJ[ i.r', '. 1.A 3 r.r. L I r.L ) T.L l [i.:.ri .:.r ..

i n:.' -: t 1. 11 i ,l l ,l T,B r pJ, i r l.:. ir :0L, I Lr i rn. .

.iur' -1'.' l.:.n" i '1 i r r.-' c tr .,;.r ,j .:.r: urc.] r, [1'r 'J J ..-

,:,:.r.:.:.i ..:,,TSR L r ., L- Tr.. ir f r.-': r.l l r' ri:.l.: r : r..: ir g- body

ir. [rp .-rn i r :, r r.. .r. tI.:..r,pr. ii r.;,' Lr,-ii. .: ,r T.:..r.r,-:d

ri .I: i i 'or C ,:lir v.: .l.I L it L r. .. i r:.-~-i ; n r i r.- I C

imirl,-. LE. h r- e. : I ,r -.. .,h :, i .: :.rr : i.:..: .

ir-, Pi .: tri L r i b u :L 7.;3 r i.-.: ; r., I re' S r .:. r .:. :r En.



7ir i ,).I r c l i ... r.,- li r I', r 1 ;.r- i:ur. U, I ., ri ] L, r



ri, ,t .- .5, :r, : ilu ,:r' r trr T.- i[ ,: l .;ri.. r '.i,. I r rl r. ,

4.A., 5?iur.m- :... : n r :u-: L,. I *'i1.

S n; .-lC. -i : r. i E : )r Ji. T. | r :,.:,r, E.ur ; ..l nri,- ,t i r.j Ir ,, r ,. r

1 ,:s..: er. i ln r i.r .: p ir .: r r.n L, r .: l 1 1 i .:.r.i r dr. iOn r 'i

i rir-.?u .3 *J i M. a *:*1.'p 1. 3r, ,l 0 p ri..* lj rnr ; (1 i.1ur -r I Tir.2

:r :' i- w- i 1 r-= :. r r .- r .jrzL ar ,L.1 i j i n r.] ..L'[ 1r rf.:.r she

"ir k rl i r lrl Ik 1 l. 1 Ti; -L i w1 .- i, -i..r. 4-11 ;--Is: I

0;iOS -u? :1r Uri, : 1Ti r..r I cEr. r, i Ir.., ..-., r f l .w b.r t. I'.T lrk

I L rM p S.:'S r. r It .Of .:....pp r nr.. r ...r :l l i o io Eu rin.-.. .irk

I iClli 'i: ni i.*')i ci ; S. r. : er C.i r .J r :. i l ,I :.w

[uDi i.r '..lp.per Lubir .. IS: 11.j I I .1.] 3 .r.. O i I uI LO i a rfi...w's



















































Figure 4-10 Pore Pressure Measurement Subsystem i il i.:r..,,
Sensotec Model TJE/741 Jifferential ir: uj'. Tri],j;..,
(Center) and Sensotec Model TJE/708 r '::'. T'.r:.u:.=r
(Left and Right)

















































F r'.- 4-11 Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS)










aosorption/evaporation characteristics, a topic which will be

discussed in detail later in this report.

The function of the VCMS is to drain water. In addition, the

VCMS provides a check on the LSNS since the water expelled from the

specimen should equal the vertical change in specimen height times

the specimen area for the Ko-condition.

The divisions on the VCMS are .05 inches and may be estimated to

the nearest .01 inch. Therefore, the change in volume may be

calculated to the nearest .00018 in3 and .00016 in3 for the Mark II

and Mark III systems, respectively.



4.3.8 Temperature Control Subsystem (TCS)

The three components of the TCS are the temperature control

r.B. -an Omen. th-rmin:t3t. ind in Arvin port.abl electric heater.

Tn,: L .c .;- r ,aur- :.:.rr.r i r,.;..:..Tl. E,.)ui ': J- l. .:." r ir.r j.,:r,;.l .:ir i,..;r -

'.**,,: :[ir:,r ' c.Sri ll": i t rn p..' rI', ': ,-. *'l j r. ri, ,



.,*ij ]"- r.r,.- r'.j.T,. Tr,- jr,.-. a tr,. r,7 :." r,;. L r ., '. :.. r. r.:., ans

T .- ,'C [ r ,.t- .' r. r..3] I. l ..u,*'. : 4-l' wri.-'r r.r,-

r-.T'i. Jr' [ r' ''. ".:.i Li I,.' r.rn, r, .: : ir .:.1, t.r, Lti.-r',T : T, r r. r " ,:.r -r,.

:I. Lr' : r [ r l l' l. u -. 1[4 1 r' ; i: r -.n r, ...i Tr,-i .-r [1r,..



1 ..,i ; rr r. r : ,:, ir .1.,, .- .. ; :, 1 'r.:., i-1.-.] .:.r r,-.- ,.. .

r ,- r.. ri.r. .r r .- .; n.r. r, Irij 5 .:prr rrr. r T, c. iur.:

1 :Lr*:; jnr. r-,.:-r rijr.- .-; : ir,' :.j r.r.. s rr.c- .:an Crr ..r .: i :


























- w -


F 4 r I: T r r.r~r n * 31 ,,. tC-.17fmi i controll



































Figure 4-13 Temperature Control Subsystem(TCS)--Omega Thermostat


Vdk"







































































III ur. .4 T,.iC, ?r I T.jjr ; ...I. r, rr IT r. .:,r
t I TX i r r









chamber, tubing, and water to expand or contract. Moreover, sealed

systems act as thermometers. Hence, all tests were conducted in the

temperature control room.

The divisions on the Omega thermostat are 1F and may be

estimated to the nearest .1'F.



4.4 Soil Testing Procedures



This section presents a synopsis of how to test a soil in the UF

Ko-consolidometer. Again, Manziona (1985) should be consulted for

step-by-step details. The test is conducted in these five phases:

1) Prepare the specimen. This entails trimming, measuring, and

weighing the specimen before placement in the test cell.

21 Backpressure the specimen. The specimen is placed under a





[.:.r.:iil.,l r. :* *. 1 C. C I ]1 t.; r, i-. n.i ni [- .ri.l

r n.. .j 'li ., ri .: :[C I IJ l r k ,' .-,:.nNu.: ,] [.k

inrjijr r.rv,: v:i.:- ,,T nr, 1 .l l "] .,iT.r ] ?r:,rr- L.r...: ,1.in) wi r.





i,.:r.:r.-r ,, .*., I. .n.3 rr Th: n -.:.:.r. r, L u,'I i:





Slii.* C.:..li::i,.2,2 r: r. IiosIr.I 4 ifr *,:.,.3 ir..r ,T,,*r,[.L L.,. cr,:,e [,










ni,- [ in.:r.iT r i EPL 4,i d. ,u 1 1E i r[,n T,Li' il r I .Li. l I:-El

r...ur: r.:.r k% ilinl hrl, ,-J ..:.jr i.,r" rio? :i].'li r .

1 ** t rri E ..,; ir Tr n .. :.; T n I ,i )lo ..El :1i[ juri, r Erie

: Wn: r.t .r [.:r h 'I r.r ;: LU r I.:.r .T n i frliuT, [ 4 j 3 .

Llur U % lr : thu.r Ir1 : tEfr l :r. r '. i . ])'j: ;-: 7 i riLn inr

h.r P. -.:.r E i ti. onr. : ir.i i.: a Lc -3 r [ .'i r i'r.l:ur. i.r.:..T.4 [ r

L I . f Ti, r.:'n, : r. i: r i an1 L .rip .r i ,u r. :ir

tr. ;, ruEri Ir Tin! r] r,.] iE rr3.1 r.L inE r. .i *u u 4 i,

r-..4 -J r.our:.




.rilO i [ r,- : I .r i. I- ; .] in .r) i i ;-r. 1 .-1 L.O ,rTi,,.

S 1' riu L, de L :*' lhi *-r. p. iC t..

rI r.n..u n r r.2r4I i n [.:,.) tr., pi r i Ai llic.-I h*-i *i ) i *] irn.

.jn.3-?rSL in3 .1n3 r .31 1 in 1ri. i lr i to i *rlin.CH .















CHAPTER 5
COMPUTATIONS AND RESULTS



5.1 Introduction



This chapter reviews the data gathering/reduction process and

presents the test results. Section 5.2 discusses the observed

data. Section 5.3 explains how new information was developed by

reducing the observed data. Finally, Section 5.4 offers the test

results.

The data and results presented in this chapter are for six K -


., I 5-1 'i i tLr :.: riVI .l. r.n CJ . tri",, li *r. -[i. t. .r; .u.'r. rr:r


;r .' r..:.l r i i rri.. .p t"- rF :. t [. f-r f .,[ T,: i ,.L ih. t

r. :I f,' fr'uT ir,, kr,.wr. .,', rir. .. ij ',.:.'.ljur.I ] r i r,,: i - r,.:

I'.',Tni iri.].i" ,)r ',"^. i, r,.- n I in r.- : [.. 1l r'rj ur (: .r.- r *,. .: i l.,:.A i ,.- ,

: :'-n l ., i ir. r.r r i- 'l i jr n. r.:.: .luri: *i : : : 1





3 n U *,: r. Ki rIJ ir.





n-4 ". (,1 j3 .. ."I- jr" ur ni. n.i

.-'_i ,.-.1. .l'-. .,',nii. 11 ,'r i, ,ri',ni ,.i F. j t .- ; l j r.- ], ...' r, ..jr'1,:,!. a n,1 .s ri: 3









3iJ r., 1 :riTiir,..i r. h.: i E .-r r.) -Lr TI. uI n. -: IT... i I I,3 ; Lcr

3n] nj] n i r. r, .:r, r Tri a ;jr'., r r. i W i L .,- nr 3'r.;- .1)UL .T1 L :1 n

li [j[ o i T.l :r. T [- r Tri :pr :irET.-n bi: I1r., ] rl I r., r..' r ;L .ul 9

u I r i etti r. Ei r Di l n.: Tn-. "i : i ..I ir ; 'l ]: j Er 1,n

13r j-)r IT i., L r i l.




,. .. Juring T, ;T,

ri r ni jul r. n.5 -,: E.h i lE n ,E lij f..1 :A 1 1 Irf.5rr.i i[ .ji

,r. rno[.]. Wr.i . .3 ar 3 r i nl .;rair, .?r L ri.: urc r ri, r.r i

r. ;n r*.., Ci kr-. ; n r. ., 7 T.. *I i rt r. r. *I.. l, ir.j Dur, r. t i. l,

,ThIric ii.- [er I l.'- j i j1A3 rE.l n), .r,.] [:,Ti-nr' rr, I r ..l jr -. .jf

i':; .ur' j :r-.r .i Mt |TB : r Titi fi 11 si a z. ] i3 1 n Cpr..r 4'




'. i ,, ..], ;. ] U 'l Lj



* . I .- -r : U

U e in. .h D ,-r.,- ] li IT. r 1 ..-l p. r O Ji i.] rin i nt O

t- lidt, Irli 1Il ..); .] r i ;), inr l, nr. L.L! i u ni < i3t7. T i 1:-

:ompuTEle i; :r,..dn irn f jur'. '- .




;. .;' Liur rinj Te'L

I tfn..ir h I, e Ti Li E B 'r'....,1 D.1 3 r'. 1 Ulur' in] r, :r[ r.] [t.

reclu. d ;r- t1 l iti. u.i ; .7. i. rL c''TinE .] rL -.; ; p.;..

.r: sure, fTr'iJE p-.Sr E pr.3:.r .p I, i.. ii 7r -i-:. Li r, ii:i

e .:T: .. [s r I' , u , ,r.:rn Lj n:. .: rT. i'l r. ,int n.l] ., I1

riLtio. After'r :.ai.:ulitin] rn.I. uija.: r.or k an1 a.i.] ritE.j,












SYMBOLS: w
W
d
H
Gs
A
V

Ws
Vs
Hs
eo
Y
Yzw,


= water content
= weight of specimen
= diameter of specimen
= initial height of specimen
= specific gravity of solids
= area of specimen
= volume of specimen
= weight of solids
= volume of solids
= height of solids
= initial void ratio
= total unit weight
= unit weight of water


E. C', -:, -. I .1 I





: w I ii ,


,* i j~ir.: ".'' I r, r r r.-.r ;. E.l, j [ t ,.,,-, r t ."r.r T L r L., 3









correlations such as aged K. values as a percentage of the pre-aging

Ko value and void ratio as a percentage of initial void ratio may be

found. Figure 5-2 shows the data reduction sequence.



i5. T5r. results s



Tr': : .:r.ir., pre.-,i; r.rii :i.-:.:n data and test results for the

:i
;,.r ,i,.u:I, .ii:u:'.'.. ilbi- l -1 -ir.:.v.ides information regarding the

.,-eu inr .:r.-..ui.:. Tirli- -. .:r.r.:::rizes the specimens tested.

,gujr..: '-; ,n.]i *-l "iT,. rr. ber. .ior of Ko with aging time for

CLr' i lJJ,' .J "p :.r:nj. r. ..r:'.i -i.;. Figures 5-5 through 5-10 are

p'- -..i ii)rim.; f:.r Ln, ;i ,i : ,E rk:] with Schmertmann's

u r ti r.J [i ,. Lr.,.,ry n.:.u T.- L ;. i iure 2-1). Figures 5-11 through

-i ir, .--i,:,) :L .i.3 : rri..:,iqg ir..- graphical solution for the

,-t.. .rr,.: l. A.i',.'l.-.:; thnr.j.) r. F include tables and raw plots for

i:t: A trr.,uri f, r.-;-.:ti ,-i.,. ibl-is 5-3 and 5-4 summarize the

i.,r) r-r, LI.:.r. pr- ;-,, e. in 'i :-. : :li.ri and Appendices A through F.

('.c.-n0i' H r pe;;n[ :.,r,.I. :aicuI~ia .:. r. showing step-by-step

:o,,p u r o.,.-. a r.i .r.ror r i tic.:. i, i3.L e 5-4. These tables should

l.r.jj.1i Eri r,..j.,r Cri -,., r-r.ir.in - ror the discussion of results in

*.~r.iur r,.









SYMBOLS: H
H
s
e
0
3
DTD

BP
DR

1

a
u


3
K
0


= initial height of specimen
= height of solids
= initial void ratio
= chamber pressure
= differential pressure between the chamber and the
pore pressure at the bottom of the specimen
= backpressure
= dial reading
= vertical stress
= average pore pressure
= vertical effective stress
= lateral effective stress
= lateral stress ratio for one-dimensional strain


AH = change in height
e = void ratio





*J.- EbL' l: LI U, 1: Lh,







? -,i




", -
i I .



*j


,:1.].jr' '-. ,:t.r n r h..]u.:;1:,,, .:,t r ,j ',r II., T : : 'r." L:i ..


















o LP I 1 tl r *. ii rJ :4

L Ei., ill I FE JIA H . i

L !'IJ i i i 4IA *. .i i&

ruisij i i 7 1 K* i il A4 :.

E juj.w ii A .I AL 1 .7 .A

F riu iiI 1- *.L ai i. 1146 ii


T itI- i-1 *:r..: r ]. ui jr f l-i









Table 5-2 Specimen Data


Test A B C D E F
Units Soil + EPKW EPKW EPKW NOVW NOVW NOVW


w % 37.22 40.43 43.64 20.97 20.97 20.97


W g 182.42 173.87 170.58 172.35 173.71 184.19


d cm 7.600 7.617 7.736 7.683 7.747 7.722
in 2.992 2.999 3.046 3.025 3.050 3.040


H cm 2.226 2.245 2.197 2.041 2.098 2.229
in 0.876 0.884 0.865 0.804 0.826 0.878


Gs 2.59 2.59 2.59 2.65 2.65 2.65


A cm2 45.359 45.573 47.003 46.361 47.136 46.827
1- -., "..i.4 -..j' i L'J ,. \ .- ':'





Luu. S... L 11. Jr. I '" .- 1. i' .' -



j. l ,I ; '4 4.j, 4 ,J. .i : .'. I











I. .,.',., ',. j i. '."[".' I ''J') U .. ' j. "."J





59








a










: '"



















~ <"




1






60











II
Lt






+




I-









0)
S +F-i












-
















I 50




'.1































K - -




































I.

















1~





I - -. -
-.7.-.,































V




66







0




0

\ -.1 -
\ *v *I-


. \ {:







1 \ \l
\ \ 1^















I I =
I I I I
I I I I:.
I I I
I-

I I
I I





I I


I F












____Z__ -1





I



I -
























I I I -
I I

.1' I








I I

I I I j








I I I I


I.




70










I 0 i
i i i i





I c i i ;
I I




I I


|0
i S*
| J U


1 i |





| |,I




















I j
















Ii










































I -





7r7


* oI;\


-? Lt)
~ C




no



















- '. a-,





- -. -7 30
* -. -















-4- 40 a


>4

>4 V

44 'tnto
04444-

140


C 4-~44












44-

to





>4
















4.- 0 -4

(40

to I











~0

to


oN C m to


04 tO 0 40
C i- 0 C
LO1.LO l


to C


44' 441 444 444 '4' -44
44 -- '44 to 44 to 44 to
0. a to to to to to to
N N N N N N




44 to to = (4 U


a a C to a
444 a N a C


>4






tn-c
V 00
-4 -V
o 444-i

tntn-0

0.0J C





a on,

444 444,,a
+ ~0t0

4-- VVC
4.4 ~-4444
C a 44
44 44 0*
o 4.4 44 44 a
a V 0 to
4.4 4-
a o o aco
a C 444-a
o a 4.4 44
,,e a ~
+ 14 44tn

444 I 44440
4 44. CVV
44-4
N ~ 44 -Vt.
-V Qac
-4 4, -4 -~V0

-4 44~ 44 44
a o

a 4- 4.0 .~-4-4
44 -4 tn4444
444 4.4 a 44
V 4 a CV40
C -tn I N a-tn.-
V -~ 44~ V~-tn
-4 0 V
-4 44 V C -
V .44 *- a
4- V -4 4-' V4
a o 44 44-4444
C 0 *- to
44 44 4-0.43
44 I -4 44 44-44-
44 4- ~C
4.4 V 444
V >444*-
-d 44 C 44Lt.
44 44 V a44-
- -- V 4444
o 4-' 44
44 .- I --4-
44 44 0 to 4.44-4
o "- 4e --4444

44 44 0
*44 4~4 -4 -4
C 44.~ 4- V


44 44 V I,
. 0 0 4' C I

44 44 -a
II 44
-4- ~ + K
444 44 44 I

0 ~ -4 4-4 =


o N a 0~ 44
a to to to


>4

















l. 1.i .,I J, I L. r1.1,.i., i,.if :- E JLTS



I. 1 rt.' iu,: T.I.)r



i-rn .r..'r ",ilu : Er.,,- ;: r al j ,ited in the previous

.:r.~,r.e n] r.n.- ,-r .-,,rnjn;. .:.r tr,; O.f" ,-.: .n:.:..i dometer during the

ri::;;. ..:- .rn:. .. .-,. i r r i= ...: r:, tie K,-behavior and

,.ir.E r LI. tr.'. .,r,. .j, l :, pI.'-, 3 in .- : i :,. L.2. Section 6.4

- ,iI. L: nr., pr' .:,r'mrn.: ui r.n- f ... -,:,r. : i..)l neter in light of the

,:r'r.r i .- r i1. i,, *. r;;., r I. .- :r.,-, .', i liresses questions

:.'n i .-'-.] t, r.r.. JF r r r :n r.- ,] in,-. i i..- arise in a critical

r, i., or r.ni.: u., F .i ll,, .:- ,r." .) :.,,r.-arizes these

I E:'jj ; i :, .

Pr i...r r, ru ner :: :ilr.:, :..T, .: iTn-:ir on Test F seem

i.r.:..ri1.: ,i... g F iuTr.r e '.-1., F i ur I Table 5-3 and Table

4- ihe r.i..Er i: l la, r c,. -.E: Te:r. F re:u are inconsistent

., in TE:t;: 1. an] C. rTn .:.D.i.j: qjui: r ,. ; nr Perusal of the

p.-.i -;e .*iT =rr] I :..rr.r, r.. r.: I ;.- .; .:- r,.:, procedural or equipment

ii :ienr.:i :. I .r. f....-r, ,.nre ; r ,' '.:' E ,:i. : indicate no sample

1i jurr,, rn: .ujrir. : r. 'Tin). 1i .r, r.r.. I- ,)re-aging friction

nile ae] l ,r.* e :r.,.e: .,h ..0:,.1 r Li 16-' .: Zr- the sample may have

D-Cir a .r.,r fjl. Con:. ,~J rel, tn., TE r. F re i cs were not used in

J- L-r.lir.ir.j .1. .:rnr -.:- i r.i.::. J.: ..r Lr. .:1 ::, Test F results are









important to this study because they allow the evaluation of the

quantitative prediction theory for the Apcq = 0 case.



6.2 Ko-Behavior During Secondary Compression Aging



6.2.1 Discussion

As previously noted in Section 1.2, this study sought to answer

hnow Ko behaves during secondary aging in one-dimensional compression

for NC fine-grained soils. Figure 5-3, Figure 5-4, and Table 5-3

summarize the information gathered during this project to answer that

question.

Ko-values for the EPKW specimens decreased an average of 3U.08%

over a nominal 15-day aging period. Ko-values for the NOVW specimens

decreased an average of 37.43% over the same period.



J 'IT ,, ll .' _" i : i lu.' I ,. i '_" l l. '. '*I l' r I T 3 rl


I., .,' , ; [ ; : ,.,*i".. : r , r '. .,: .J r,, 4l t j .'r ,.












,' ., ,a .J *:' 1 l ',, ,,,' ,': ', Itr' l: '" L ,' ,,-I 'P" i I i, ,,
..'Q I










I.i L3[ i .I r., -r: U. r E r _I L r -


:,r' : l. l.l r. 4-E. r : r-.; ;li r AT.-nr :" Li.

T; *.] : ,'j l in r ;, r. :, ,. -. j. .: 1 ., r' rrnr, : r*ij. .En [l..i [ni .;.r

r.rj ..I l i : .]-r i. .] r.*.,.,, in i::ln'i' .3 E ".r-' ; i r, Vi:.r,._ :l : [ ] 1.:1 Ir.i


1 i l r.. : .:.t c in.:re. i: ;- Li ,.r ,,. r rh- r.: r j "t- : r .,r r :.. a .

i i l r - [i W )r, ,-j l- i 2 r y:r. .:n : ) .. :3 tr, :E 1 r, iFi.j r -

.- i, L:ir rii i .pr*i:.r-; a,-] : i r i..Ei a-ir .ri..: Er r, :. E jL.

.r 31 .l _.]. fr,.:, l ,i .' jr ';-j' [ :iu-r. *-l [rr,- I u [nor

i 3E r. 1 [n.- I. r.-:I i l3 .i rr, l ,, i -. ...r l,.:r. :.r .r,- [r ;

1. rnE ,.. ., r Er,.? ;-4 p.:.r E ji r 3 r.. i r, .. rr..] r : .- .
.r :r, .i jlr.r l i .11 irr : E- i. l : r n. Li n. v : -




re j ir'e.3 i, r :., r 3 . .:,n .:.44u ri :.r. ., : : j i. a ] .]: .. r' a.r .

Ti3 l.; 4 i,,.I iaLE a [:,] ir. ", .p, r,] i I i[r,:r [rin ;r, ,, .In-,

. ia.aI '.ni J- r i...] .n.. r ir ,-i r.; .ar ..:nr s ;.. ] a l :,T, -] a r, LL

rliE u :l 3, ; L i: . .:t.. r i V; r al Er.,- .1r :..a: I r" i .]

]*I i. jfl .3 i: '.E 1 ,, i ir-i J r, 3:' E.. r r -E iar L. 1r,,

I n a l(31 Iii i .3.1 t(r,. I 'l .. p u-. ].-ir *r.-- ;T ij I l.:.,. 3 .

j ,. Cl 1 c i : ar: .:. 1.:. i-lr l I r E i 1 .n . L j

]3 i r, ul t I I.V . U: 3, h3 i j i. Tn :. ; ,- :r 3.r ;[r : ..,, ; E ,,.r

In .n .l r 4 ,1 j i.r i, i .. r. 5,.. E ; E L r. n- i ji rE..- [ .. r.r

ail ; r i i iF.; i rr fr 1 .; r. (.(..r r r.r.r i 'I, [ r 3I.n. .:1.- 1 -1 : T: 1 j








theory and thus the assumptions underlying the quantitative theory

formula.

The next step was to examine the capability of the derived

mathematical expression to accurately predict the q-pc effect. As

shown in Figure 2-1, the magnitude of the q-p. effect may be obtained

graphically from an a-log Oi plot. For purposes of evaluation,

values computed from Schmertmann's expression were compared to those

obtained graphically from Figures 5-11 through 5-16. These values

for APcq were then divided by the consolidation pressure po to

compute the percentage of additional load which could be carried due

to the q-pc effect. Table 5-4 summarizes the q-pc effect

calculations.

To achieve a common basis for comparison, the author defined the

end of the q-pc effect as the first departure from the post-aging

slope S4 and the first departure from a straight line through the

small load void ratios for the mathematical and graphical techniques,

respectively. Clearly, the entire aging effect is not destroyed

until the stress path returns to tne original Ko-line and some

analysts may include points beyond the first deparr,,. ., rr,. .-..

effect. This caveat should aid the reader in foll)..r. rrn.- ul..r' :

analysis.

Schmertmann's quantitative theory predictions i. ,:'r..:11 :t d

graphical values by an average of 14.97: for the tr, ....E. i' 4: r.

The average value for APcq/Po for EPKW was 9.00% a-5. ;..:.;; ,j:..Ij ui:

mathematical and graphical procedures, respectively .

Average mathematical and graphical Ap /p vaiej: r:,, i.i.,.

based on Tests D and E, were 11.84% an ...'. :. r':,.... :r,. .









mentioned in Section 6.1, Test F was analyzed to determine if the

,..h nertminn '.'prci .n ) 3f '.,lid when t Ip .. i known to be zero.

T . : r,-. nn r .rr ; .4 r. i .. a l ..j r.1 r. L.*r .j .. l J 0.,r.

.rn -.. -rr .;:r. ri,: r,-.. r ].: tr -u ; J.

irn r t, r.:.. : r- :; ] L : :'' : j4u ri : t r.

.',r.:..:.-],j ;; :r,', . I '-. r r. r', .. jTr,,r ,i r. :., l rh '- ] j: r ai' .

F ,.j* ':, ii r r.:.,j~a r, A ,- .1, r, -] r,,-, [r,- .., :l:. f ., jr,. -11




r r r, 1 .1 3Ir J Lr j




Tr,: l- :.r [n. :r r. ; l ; r. [ n. n ] T.:.r J1. i L., A I

I'E irl -, r ... ;: r.r :, li, l. ) r.. : rr ...r 2,ir. [ Il- r i :- , r r.cr

irti: 4 fr ,r.i:. : i ; :. ;...:.r r.., :.11 trl .:r.i :.r.-....r. t- ,

rin. [ru .r j Ti i.:.r ; ur .-r i, i, p.. r,,,.: r air. r. rT tL i = r.. :.r ,

r.r rn t -. -r r u C jJ nin t 4i Li 4 h r-..r i 3,.- r. i :.r-

r,. r.r .] ..r: h I :r l .: i l ,Ca I Lr'...:. r.r. : - h:. r. ,', i :

.:7f 1 .4.':& ...r L r n.] :. :.r .i j .' ... r ;r I; i.. r.i, r,: r ,.' : r'

,Lu aj. r .x rr-, V. I K, E,'"- E.




1 i i pF I.. r. r. i'. : r r:rTj.....- E .r






*j;:n,. r 1 LIur i. rr,.- i iEI ; m ir. 1 I -.:. I .J..|TI L:i

,r I.:.ri 1 : 3, .. r, r j n .: c u r .1 -: a .; r 1 .] ir '. i r, -. 4 I , : : r i .:.n

m, r i , r. ri Ec.:, j[ .:.i : r-.T: ,...:r 1 :-,.; ) .. r r t :, Tijr... 4. r,-

iT j :jr ] ni n n r I .. LI r. : ,- 3 l r, a I .: :.lu 1 ., I

rr'l : L n n c n r'j : r.a l.t .:.r n.- r. ..:. I r., :r, Iil i ). ,..l ,









Section 6.5, the performance of the other six subsystems is measured

qualitatively as functional or dysfunctional. Each of these six were

functional throughout the testing program.

Volume Change Measurement Subsystem (VCMS). The function of the

VCMS is to drain water. Moreover, the VCMS provides a check on the

mercury manometer since the water expelled from the specimen should

equal the vertical change in specimen height times the specimen area

for the Ko-condition. The primary function of draining water was

easily achieved. However, an extensive investigation was necessary

when the agreement between the mercury manometer and the VCMS began

deviating after primary consolidation in each test due to water loss

in the VCMS.

The first step was to insure water was not "backing up" into the

specimen during aging. If this occurred, the constant volume



J 1 I,, :: L ,_ a'T r r.r':r :, yr I [':.' l 1..:: *.i .'1.'- r, 1


















,:..l. i n . l [| *'.i i' E ''I .' ari .. j, ;r' i r i [1-1 r t.'..F ;C









cri .,\r.-r i.:.': r :.:.jn r. iru:1. in r.4 c :.r:. n.,iperature effects on the

v,..1 :., nr. 1 i gi i .

i T.ir. 3 ir..) .. :K j:.,' i.e ik in.i r.-mperature as possible

';, : rr, n. :r.,.n-., T 'ri I .... r.. .:-r-elated phenomena--

i,)yr,.,rt .:.. ,-.i] L,-:.rp hinr. in ir, rE :.7.,'r. to prevent evaporation and

a...r bt',:.-,. ir. .:,I' .:.j.-r : pal : .] n r.,ri of the water in the small

rOrj L[ r.] .j i..r. r.ubr r.. pi.:..: ., n :.'pper tubing where

i .:,.:l i* i- :oIr i rr,:: .r rr..rt: trn.: ,.il continued to lose water.

i, ip .. i -.ri:: ..,T ist: ., -r. : *:.:.rulucted at various

c .: i :: ur--: r.: .- i: . r i.:: i.: b i, tions for each VCMS.

+.:.:,-.r. Er' Ari, .:.,,':i:rTr.t r ,eI irnr r in lata was that the volume

j:; rn i.tr,-si 3 I. n .*:n :A .:.c ,u.riT. u/ent on the system,

r4y1,r j ii ; A if I|r.; ::,rn .

iF,-uI Er.. r-:T r.:r. .-3.. L,.:-, ntr ]ita to Or. David E. Clark,

pr.jf:;:..- r. n r. i f u uin r -erE *,:..t iuLe'-iils Science and Engineering

:'l :1c..T.; 1if i 'ri tn r.ir ir.T.,r.nL i -: ;,;itivity of materials and

r. ;.r..p r ,-; r .j i- j :: ir i= rk ,,u i- Erne following statements

*,j- ..:. ,- i,,] E r 1I.:. -: i r. A, . 1.

II .:,:,rpci:r. n] .j ....' ri.n ].:i .*.'.: r through nylon tubing.

Ir.. 1- r i.-.:..r i.r. ri. ,,--r,f r i;rc. is a function of humidity

irE., [rn .-r'Ti ., .ili ..,f r.n, ..1 -;ri l,

i n tr.-, Ir .-.:r.. : . .:l..r-.e i. : is consistent with

] .;:r.- ,: I rb.a.T.,.i Ic E] u Lri n- I i..ratory air conditioner

[.inr.. u- ] -m:.r- "; rr,: :.Tr .: r..-r ,r.)gresses.










3) The trend of increased volume loss is also consistent with

increased permeability of the lines resulting from age and

environmental interaction.

4) Some of the water lost may be absorbed by hydrated products

formed inside the copper tubing due to basic nature of the

water expelled from the EPKW specimens.

To sum up, the VCMS still performs its basic function of

draining water. The secondary function of providing a check for the

mercury manometer is achieved until the end of primary consolida-

tion. At this point, the absorption/evaporation of water through the

nylon tubing, masked by large volumes during primary consolidation,

bir, ,-'r..r T, i, -, .l Ir,," .,::' .31.:. 1: r. ] [r,, .r ., -



I I. [.r i l] :.r rr, ,: ;r..



T ,i',[.., r' ., ,i ,:,I .r': E j, .(r. T iT .ri : -i n : r : ,-. T:. 1"
11.']. [ir r l, I: jr. ,Lri, L. "v-r .,'1," j 1I. ; l llT I r '-; I J lIn 'T : h,1










(,Cr i.u,..i r" rr,,^ ,', i,-, T ,i ..i ':.-1. I :',.*,. rhi 1 ,,.1: r Eur.; ,. Ti| l., ,-,
L' :I ll l r T I,) i l 'r r.: 'l r,- T' I: ,I r, i -'J i





83





7, il. : -i T ,-.-r .r, .ur- ,'.i.;r.:l .u :r m (TCS) Data



in, r. : - B C E F


.. ;r-I T:, ..-r, f 5.' 80.1 80.1 80.1 80.1 80.1

1, 1 TouiT 1.1 l, .:I i .A
:iI r; l I.;..EI,;ur 1.2 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6



1;.4 ar,3 1.= er ar, -. 3 01,1"

.-, ....1 :.r,;.-r~ url I i.. 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1


,.. : rj.]' TeT, r..; : i.5 1.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1









6.4.2 Summary

The UF Ko-consolidometer performed each primary function for

which it was designed. A water loss in the VCMS due to

absorption/evaporation in the nylon tubing prevented the secondary

function of mercury manometer checks beyond primary consolidation.

This water loss did not compromise the Ko-condition or the validity

of the tests. The TCS was successful in maintaining a constant

temperature for each test.



6.5 Questions/Answers Regarding Results



6.5.1 Discussion

This section addresses three questions considered by the UF

research team and likely to arise in a critical review of this study.

1) QUESTION: Is the test cell piston subject to horizontal

eccentricity whicn would reduce the vertical stress felt by

the specimen and thus alter Ko?

S'l;EP" Fir-t th. UF V .-psnc1idromTter t (elt cell 's

lji r.i-. r.j (,r.,:'l.1.]- h.rT:.1nr*i ,-,ir rra.ir .:.r. En:



..- ..i r- n r. ...: : E,





.' 3 ',. .*.rl .ir 11: *:. .J.u r.:r:3 r. ) r. .;u r.r l:. i I, 3 i

rj: rr5 n .r : .].:.i.-r. l '-s ); .L ;5r7.' 3 5 : IEl ] )ju irJ L,.

r r r. j i,-r 5 iuj ll.:, rin.3 l.:..l ] -ihri-. : f r.; ;.j r. 1











r.:.r .:.- r. 1 l., ] :;, i I [rE r, ] r'.] rhA j ;3 Z ) t[,:.i- r L .; r,

r -ri r. Li'l al, r.h. .r : i I.:. 1 '-. :. r / r. T ',1 L.

:i; r, :...- : C. 3a r ? -p,:'r.. r r r. I d E .:. I I: 1.: -;r .r. : .:.r

*.ui La .II, I r1 i I !i p i C.:. A r:.. ] .n .> ; r L l.ri r. r. :r

C-:- LE A E I ... l I i p E .1 .- U r r : 1 i- -" r L

n],,l l i.T 1al -.- ).


.) ,J.U :I 'J : 1C ; m r. h 1 t 1:, il s ro Ill C- I r .)r Il:

7.- : ,ur. ,7i. r . r i i : Cr I ;r r.:-,. r I. i :, ~. r I..: r .: j r.

or nLi .1: Cu y

.lI El1: r. Il I rrl i lu r.i n .:..Ij i r..:. u. .. i. r. Aj

r 3n r' if-.r Ei I V L L I; ? 1 : r* I .. :, J :I 'i .

*r.-l .'1 i 'I C ula 1. 'J1j *. E. r.1, a i l'I, [1.r.. ir. I

,' r ai'a r.- i.; Ir ]i. r r I ar.:r. 3..r L- L- rT .i ] r. r.:. ci. *..t

ii i 1.C 1 r 1 1 3 I 1 1 |,i. t i >1 'l r .

3' r: 5 r n ilt .:.r : ,) 1 I4 : .. r t. r.

L r. 1 ]I Ch a -:r3 L- j3 :ri. 'l rr l ;r, '.C :ras .; i :

(.i r.c.r. *a... i.-.m4r4C. ar : *. riL I* ii ;ri. ,: .:.i ., (.i ], rC T...

a.rc: i i r vt n.1 r +.*t l i r.11 .i :;.i'ir r.. 'Ur: r,, it r.

-"iCi ; 1*:-,: ] Cr.:A : L.ar*i G la Ia c.J 1ca fr.:..Ti. .j r: i.,

.]Jil V ..1I j .C:-uill r : l 1 .:.:.r": Lira t Cr ..:.]- r:.i '.- .: l ir.

l['r-L.C J I *:| i-i. -.. i i I .1 ,a.j: r,-i Ic..-. s :: .iC

l. : a l n a 3ri. r. r C r ..: : i l .- : a.i.r, .: ir. a C : .. .
.I.rl- r-.Lj r ; r.. :r rE: rLl r..










Table 6-2 Investigation of Eccentricity Effects in Test Cell



Horizontal Vertical Load to Eccentricity Horiz. Load
Load, g Move Piston, g Eccentrici Vert.Load @ Horiz.Load=o


0 1611.2 (Piston Weight) 0

70.6 1611.2 4.38

170.6 1611.2 10.59

270.6 1611.2 16.79

370.6 1611.2 23.00

470.6 1611.2 29.21

570.6 1611.2 35.41

1811.9 1611.2 112.46













C i i i r i* ;[ n rjf. r.l.r 1, l,1




.Jr i c '. n i i ..:. I r



II iLa 1 a
Lt t (., r ; :.j,.: [ ". : . .





r..)r. Ct i *t : r. iTi. I r.,. f,



cr' r 1 1 3 ,.. r. i .n'


Iii 4st *-.. II






.3 *.:l) 11.1] Ij*



- r. ,~.*I




.Jr~




I).-- K'. 'A




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