• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Organization chart
 Introduction
 Canal traffic
 Canal operations
 Supporting operations
 Administration and staff
 Financial report
 Statistical tables
 Back Cover






Group Title: Annual report, Panama Canal Commission
Title: Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097367/00005
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Panama Canal Commission ( 1980-<1994> )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 1992
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
statistics   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Fiscal year 1980-
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends Sept. 30.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Vols. for 1992- distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1998.
Statement of Responsibility: Panama Canal Commission.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097367
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07777425
lccn - 96645119
issn - 1936-5306
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Preceded by: Annual report, fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Organization chart
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Canal traffic
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Canal operations
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Supporting operations
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Administration and staff
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Financial report
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Statistical tables
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
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        Page 153
        Page 154
    Back Cover
        Page 155
        Page 156
Full Text
i


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION




ANNUAL REPORT


0


FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1992


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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreport1992unit












PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Balboa, Republic of Panama
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR







FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR

It is a pleasure to submit the annual report of the Panama Canal
Commission for Fiscal Year 1992. This marks the thirteenth year of
successful operation under the Panama Canal Treaty. The Canal
organization also celebrated the seventy-eighth anniversary of the opening
of the waterway.

This year most major elements of Canal traffic and tolls revenue
registered slight declines from prior year levels, primarily due to a return to
more normal trade patterns following the end of the Persian Gulf crisis,
and the economic slowdown affecting the United States and Japan.
Oceangoing commercial transits declined by one percent and average ship
size fell, resulting in a 1.5 percent drop in Panama Canal net tonnage.
Correspondingly, tolls revenue declined 1.6 percent to $368.7 million from
the $374.6 million collected in the prior year. Although the average size of
transiting vessels in terms of Panama Canal net tonnage declined, transits
by vessels in the 100-foot beam and over category, the largest ships the
Canal can accommodate, increased to a record 3,013, or nearly 24 percent
of total oceangoing transits. Average Canal Waters Time for transiting
vessels remained below the agency's 24 hour standard, at 22.1 hours.

Significant investments continued to be made in Canal maintenance,
modernization and improvement programs. These included the near
completion of the Pacific entrance widening program for improved
navigational safety; accomplishment of a four-phase overhaul of rising
stem and cylindrical valves at Miraflores Locks; final installation of highly






durable flat fenders at all locks; initiation of dry excavation, under
contract, in connection with the major multi-phase program to widen
Gaillard Cut; major overhaul of the floating crane Hercules and the dipper
dredge Christensen; and acquisition of three new 53-foot aluminum hull
launches.

In the spirit of the Panama Canal treaty, advances were also made in the
development and placement of Panamanian personnel at all levels of the
agency. Of notable importance has been the ongoing training of
Panamanian Canal pilots who by year-end numbered 100, or 43 percent of
the pilot force. Overall, Panamanians comprise nearly 88 percent of the
Canal's total permanent work force.

I wish to commend all Canal employees for their praiseworthy
performance. Their commitment and dedication have been exemplary and
will unquestionably contribute to the future success of the organization and
the continued confidence of world shipping using the waterway.



GILBERTO GUARDIAN F.
Administrator

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Page
ORGANIZATION CHART ......................................... vi

INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION .................................................. 1
TH E CANAL ...................................................... 1I
TOLL RATES ..................................................... 2
BOARD OF DIRECTORS ......................................... 3
OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA .................... 3
OFFICIALS IN WASHINGTON, D.C. .............................. 3

CHAPTER I-CANAL TRAFFIC
CANAL TRAFFIC ............ ................... ................. 5
COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS ................. 6
COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES ........................... 7

CHAPTER Il-CANAL OPERATIONS
TRANSIT OPERATIONS .......................................... 15
MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS ...... 17

CHAPTER Ill-SUPPORTING OPERATIONS
LOGISTICAL SERVICES .......................................... 23
FACILITIES MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT DIVISION .......... 24
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES .......................... 26
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY ................................ 27
FIRE PROTECTION ............................................... 27
CANAL PROTECTION ............................................ 28
HEALTH AND SAFETY.......................................... 28

CHAPTER IV-ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF
PERSONNEL FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL................ 31
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM ............................... 31
PUBLIC AFFAIRS ............... ............................. ... 32
OM BUDSM AN .................................................... 33
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ...................................... 33
GENERAL COUNSEL ............................................. 35

CHAPTER V-FINANCIAL REPORT
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ....................................... 37
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS ...................................... 37
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES ........................................ 37







CONTENTS



Financial Tables
Page
TABLE I.-Statement of Financial Position .............................. 38
TABLE 2.-Statement of Operations ..................................... 40
TABLE 3.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States
Governm ent.............................................. 41
TABLE 4.-Statement of Cash Flows ..................................... 42
Notes to Financial Statements .............................. 43

CHAPTER VI-STATISTICAL TABLES
Shipping Statistics

TABLE 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1983 through 1992 .......... 50
TABLE 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1992
and 1991 ................................................ 52
TABLE 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1992 ............... 53
TABLE 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1992 56
TABLE 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1992..... 60
TABLE 6.-Segregation of Transits by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal
Year 1992 ............................................... 62
TABLE 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped through Canal by Fiscal Years 1990
through 1992 ............................................. 66
TABLE 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama
Canal from Atlantic to Pacific during Fiscal Year 1992 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ...................... 70
TABLE 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama
Canal from Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1992 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ...................... 76
TABLE 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific-Fiscal Year 1992 ........................ 84
TABLE 11.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to Atlantic-Fiscal Year 1992 ........................ 117
TABLE 12.-Principal Canal Commodities by Direction-Fiscal Year 1992 ..... 149

Other Statistics

TABLE 13.-Water Supply and Usage ..................................... 151
TABLE 14.- Dredging Operations ........................................ 151
TABLE 15.- Electrical Power Generated ................................... 152
TABLE 16.- Fire Division Statistics....................................... 152







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES



SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
SECRETARY OF THE ARMY

I
CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD
BOARD OF DIRECTORS



ADMINISTRATOR
INSPECTOR GENERAL ....-............ ASST TO THE CHAIRMAN AND SECRETARY
--- ~ DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR

I


FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION
EXECUTIVE PLANNING
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
GENERAL COUNSEL


CANAL IMPROVEMENTS
PUBLIC AFFAIRS/INFORMATION
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY


4


I
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
ENGINEERING
INDUSTRIAL
MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
DREDGING
CONSTRUCTION


MARINE BUREAU

BOARD OF LOCAL INSPECTORS
PILOT DIVISION
ADMEASUREMENT
LOCKS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
CANAL SERVICES
MARINE SAFETY
CANAL OPERATIONS
MARITIME TRAINING


I
GENERAL SERVICES
BUREAU
LOGISTICAL SUPPORT
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
FIRE
CANAL PROTECTION
FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
AND SUPPORT
PRINTING OFFICE
LIAISON OFFICE












INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION

The Panama Canal Commission is an agency of the Executive Branch of
the United States Government, provided for by the Panama Canal Treaty
of 1977, and established by the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 452; 22
U.S.C. 3601 et seq), enacted September 27, 1979. The authority of the
President of the United States with respect to the Commission is exercised
through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army. The
Commission is supervised by a nine-member Board. Five members are
nationals of the United States appointed by the President with the advice
and consent of the Senate. Four members are nationals of the Republic of
Panama who are proposed by the Republic of Panama for appointment by
the President.
The Commission was established to carry out the responsibilities of the
United States with respect to the Panama Canal under the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977. In fulfilling these obligations, the Commission manages,
operates, and maintains the Canal, its complementary works, installations,
and equipment, and provides for the orderly transit of vessels through the
Canal. The Commission will perform these functions until the treaty
terminates on December 31, 1999, at which time the Republic of Panama
will assume full responsibility for the Canal.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis.
The Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all
costs of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest,
depreciation, capital for plant replacement, expansion and improvements,
and payments to the Republic of Panama for public services and annuities,
in accordance with paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraphs 4(a) and (b)
of Article XIII, respectively, of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.
Revenues from tolls and all other sources are deposited in the U.S.
Treasury in an account known as the Panama Canal Revolving Fund. The
resources in this fund are available for continuous use and serve to finance
Canal operating and capital programs which are reviewed annually by the
Congress.
THE CANAL
The Panama Canal is a lock-type canal approximately 51 miles long from
deep water to deep water. The minimum width of the navigable channel is






INTRODUCTION


500 feet. Navigable channel depth can vary according to the amount of
water available in Canal storage areas; however, the normal permissible
transit draft is 39 feet 6 inches tropical fresh water.
Vessels transiting the Canal are raised in three steps to the level of Gatun
Lake, the principal source of Canal water, then lowered to sea level again in
three steps. The three sets of Canal locks are paired so as to permit
simultaneous lockage of two vessels in the same or opposite direction.
Since August 15, 1914, th6 official date of its opening, the Panama Canal
has been serving world trade. Through this fiscal year, a total of 745,932
vessels of all types have transited with 631,429 or 84.6 percent of the total
being of the oceangoing commercial class.
TOLL RATES
Toll rates during FY 1992 were: (a) on merchant vessels, Army and Navy
transports, hospital ships, supply ships, and yachts, when carrying
passengers or cargo, $2.01 per net vessel ton of 100 cubic feet of actual
earning capacity, as determined in accordance with the "Rules of
Measurement of Vessels for the Panama Canal;" (b) on such vessels in
ballast, without passengers or cargo, $1.60 per net vessel ton; and (c) on
other floating craft, $1.12 per ton of displacement. These rates have been in
effect since October 1, 1989.
A 9.9 percent increase in toll rates was approved to take effect October 1,
1992.
By treaty, the United States continues to provide to Colombia free
transit through the Canal of its troops, materials of war, and ships of war.





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Ending Fiscal Year 1992


Honorable MICHAEL P. W. STONE
Chairman, Board of Directors
Panama Canal Commission
Washington, D. C.

Honorable CECILIA A. ALEGRE
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable LUIS A. ANDERSON
Mexico, D.F., Mexico

Honorable WILLIAM E. CARL
Corpus Christi, Texas


Honorable ROBERT R. MCMILLAN
Garden City, New York

Honorable ALFREDO N. RAMIREZ
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Annapolis, Maryland

Honorable JOAQUIN J. VALLARINO, Jr.
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable JOHN J. DANILOVICH
London, England


OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Administrator ................ Honorable GILBERTO GUARDIA F.
Deputy Administrator. .......... Honorable RAYMOND P. LAVERTY



OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C.
Assistant to the Chairman and Secretary ........ MICHAEL RHODE, Jr.




















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The luxury cruise ship REGAL PRINCESS, registering 63,841 Panama Canal net tons, is visible in the west lane of Miraflores Locks during
a southbound transit. The vessel paid a record toll of $128,320.41 on April 23, 1992. The Panamax-size containership EVER GIVEN can be
seen transiting in the east lane. Nearly 160 million long tons of cargo passed through the Panama Canal this fiscal year.


.11


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Chapter I



CANAL TRAFFIC


TRAFFIC
Most major elements of Canal traffic and tolls revenue declined slightly
in fiscal year 1992 due to a return to more normal traffic patterns,
following the end of the Persian Gulf War, and the economic slowdown
affecting the U.S. and Japan.
A total of 12,636 oceangoing vessels, or an average of 34.5 daily,
transited the waterway, declining 1.0 percent from the 12,763 transits or 35
daily registered in the prior year. Transits by commercial vessels totaled
12,454, 0.9 percent less than the 12,572 transits reached in fiscal year 1991.
Oceangoing transits by vessels owned or operated by the U.S. Government
declined to 167, falling 3.5 percent from the 173 transits of the previous
year. Free Colombian vessels accounted for 15 transits in fiscal year 1992
versus 18 in fiscal year 1991.
A decline was also experienced in the average Panama Canal net tonnage
of transiting vessels, although transits by the largest vessels capable of
passing through the waterway increased to an all-time high. Transits by
vessels with beams of 100 feet and over reached a record 3,013 or 23.8
percent of total oceangoing transits compared with 2,947 and 23.1 percent
in fiscal year 1991. Those in the 80-foot beam and over category fell to
5, 698 transits or 45.1 percent of total oceangoing transits from 5,825 and
45.6 percent in fiscal year 1991. Average ship size, in terms of Panama
Canal net tonnage, declined 0.8 percent to 15,142 tons from 15,260 tons in
the prior year.
The decline in transits and average ship size resulted in Panama Canal
net tonnage of 190.2 million tons, a 1.5 percent drop from the 193.1 million
tons registered in fiscal year 1991. Correspondingly, tolls revenue fell 1.6
percent to $368.7 million from the $374.6 million collected in fiscal year
1991.







6 CANAL TRAFFIC


Total cargo tonnage carried by transiting vessels decreased 2.2 percent to
159.6 million long tons from 163.2 million tons in fiscal year 1991. A
number of commodities declined during the year including manufactures of
iron and steel, phosphates, and ores and metals.

A two-year summary of the key elements of Canal traffic and tolls
revenue is shown in the table below, followed by a more detailed
description of cargo movements by trade route.


COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS


Oceangoing Transits:
Commercial ...............................
U.S. Government ...........................
Free ...........................................
Total ............................... ........

Daily Average ..............................

Small Transits:
Commercial ................ .. .............
U.S. Government................................
Free ........................... ..... .....
Total ........................... .......


Total Cargo:
Commercial ....................................
U.S. Government.............................
Free ............................ . .....
Total ....................... .............


Total Panama Canal Net Tons and Reconstructed Displace-
ment Tonnage ....................................

Transit Revenue:
Commercial Tolls ...............................
U.S. Government Tolls...........................
Tolls Revenue .................................


Harbor Pilotage, Tug, Launch, and Other Services .......
Total Transit Revenue ...............................


Fiscal Year
1992 1991 I

12,454 12,572
167 173
15 18
12,636 12,763


1,260
231
21
1,512



159,273,868
341,337
19
159,615,224



190,203,395


$365,853,774
2,808,731
$368,662,504


1,079
248
18
1,345



162,696,423
516,130

163,212.553



193,101,533


$372,398,248
2,226,489
$374,624,737


$ 92,439,154 $ 97,792,243
$461,101,658 $472,416,980






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES
Fiscal year 1992 was characterized by declines in many commodities
traversing the waterway. Commercial cargo dropped 2.1 percent to 159.3
million long tons from 162.7 million long tons in fiscal year 1991. The
downturn was driven by a resumption of normal traffic patterns following
the end of the Persian Gulf war and to the weakness affecting the U.S. and
Japanese economies. Tonnage declines were experienced in manufactures
of iron and steel, phosphates, ores and metals, refrigerated products,
automobiles, chemicals and petroleum chemicals, minerals and grains.
These losses were only partially offset by gains in a few trades such as
petroleum products, lumber, coal, and containerized cargo.
Grains, constituting the largest tonnage utilizing the Canal, declined 0.5
percent to 32.7 million long tons from the 32.9 million tons registered
during fiscal year 1991. The decline in this commodity group was due to
lower corn and wheat exports from the U.S. to the Far East. Corn tonnage
was down 4.5 percent to 14.4 million long tons from the 15.0 million long
tons of the previous year, primarily due to a drop in corn shipments to
Japan. After recovering modestly for three consecutive years, corn tonnage
destined for Japan declined 8.9 percent to 10.1 million tons. Wheat,
accounting for the second largest tonnage in the group, decreased 4.6
percent to 7.6 million long tons from the 8.0 million tons registered in fiscal
year 1991, mainly as a result of lower shipments from the West Coast
U.S./Canada to North Africa and from the U.S. East Coast to West Coast
South America. The decline offset a modest increase in wheat exports to
China, which had been falling for the last two years. Wheat tonnage
destined for mainland China from the U.S. via the Canal increased 8.1
percent to 4.2 million tons. Soybeans, the third most important component
of the group, rose 14.7 percent to 7.2 million long tons from the 6.3 million
tons of fiscal year 1991, sustained mainly by higher volumes of shipments
from the U.S. to Japan and South Korea.
An upturn was registered in the petroleum and products commodity
group. After falling to about 24.0 million long tons in fiscal year 1991, the
commodity group increased 5.0 percent to 25.2 million tons in fiscal year
1992. The improvement registered in the commodity group was mostly
fueled by high gains in residual fuel oil, diesel oil, jet fuel and petroleum
coke. Those gains, however, were partially reduced by losses in gasoline,
kerosene, and liquefied natural gas. Crude oil shipments were up
marginally, increasing 0.5 percent from 8.2 million long tons in fiscal year
1991 to 8.3 million tons in fiscal year 1992. Increases in crude oil
movements from Mexico and Venezuela to West Coast Central
America were offset by declines in oil flows from Ecuador to the U.S. East
Coast and West Indies. Ecuadorian oil flows have continued on a
downward trend as a result of shifts in that country's export patterns and






CANAL TRAFFIC


limited production levels.
The important container trade rose 3.2 percent from 21.2 million long
tons in fiscal year 1991 to a record high of 21.9 million tons in fiscal year
1992. The increase occurred despite the poor performance of the Canal's
principal container trade-between the U.S. East Coast and the Far East-
which dropped 4.2 percent from prior year levels. Total U.S. containerized
imports and exports via the Canal showed a decline, reflecting the effect of
the U.S. and Japanese economic slowdowns, combined with the increased
impact of the competition exerted by the U.S. intermodal movement. U.S.
exports to the Far East through the Canal declined 6.7 percent to 6.1
million tons and imports from the Far East dropped 0.1 percent to 4.8
million tons. Although the container cargo on this route declined, the
movement still accounts for over half of the Canal's container tonnage. The
U.S. West Coast-Europe route, the second most important route in the
container trade, remained flat at 2.7 million tons. The lackluster
performance of these main routes contrasted with the gains displayed by
most other smaller container routes, particularly the trade to and from
West Coast South America. The movement between the U.S. East Coast
and West Coast South America increased 29.9 percent to 1.8 million tons
and trade between Europe and West Coast South America was up 23.7
percent to 1.4 million tons.
The nitrate, phosphates and potash commodity group, the fourth in
importance, dropped 6.3 percent to 13.8 million long tons in fiscal year
1992. A 10.1 percent decrease in phosphates shipments, from 9.5 million
long tons to 8.6 million tons, explains most of the group's decline. The
downturn was evident in U.S. exports to the Far East and is attributed to a
return to more normal trade patterns following the end of the Persian Gulf
crisis. The U.S. East Coast Far East route, the principal phosphate trade
lane, showed a 4.9 percent decline to 5.8 million long tons, mainly as a
result of a drop in shipments to China, Japan and South Korea. Shipments
from the U.S. East Coast to West Coast Mexico were down 82.9 percent to
about 100 thousand tons.
The lumber and lumber products commodity group reached record
levels for the second consecutive year, increasing 3.5 percent to 9.9 million
long tons from 9.5 million tons in fiscal year 1991. Significant gains in
pulpwood tonnage account for the high performance of the commodity
group. While lumber and lumber products, excluding pulpwood, declined
6.0 percent to 6.1 million tons, pulpwood shipments increased 22.6 percent
to a record 3.8 million tons. Flows from the U.S. East Coast to the Far East
rose significantly in both segments of the commodity group. Shipments on
that route, excluding pulpwood, increased 19.2 percent to 3.1 million tons
and pulpwood rose 85.7 percent to 1.3 million tons. West Coast Canada,






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


which in the past was the major source of lumber and products at the
Canal, exhibited a decline for the fourth consecutive year, with shipments
to Europe falling 23.6 percent to 1.2 million tons.
A steep decline was observed in the tonnage of ores and metals. The
commodity group accounted for 9.6 million long tons, declining 15.9
percent from 11.4 million tons in fiscal year 1991. Both the ores and metals
components of the group sustained declines. The poor performance of the
ore segment was driven by a decline in shipments of aluminum/bauxite,
despite a substantial improvement in copper ore flows. Alumina/bauxite
fell 50.3 percent to 0.9 million long tons from 1.9 million tons, with
shipments from Oceania to the U.S. East Coast almost disappearing as
U.S. imports shifted to Caribbean suppliers. As a result, the ores group
declined 12.2 percent to 6.3 million long tons in fiscal year 1992. The metals
component of the group dropped 22.2 percent to 3.3 million tons, primarily
induced by a decline in scrap metal, which fell 32.1 percent to 1.4 million
tons. This downturn in the scrap metal trade was due to lower shipments
on the U.S. East Coast Far East trade, with tonnage destined for South
Korea, the main recipient, showing a drop of 28.3 percent to 1.1 million
tons.
The coal and coke trade showed an improvement relative to fiscal year
1991 levels, increasing 6.2 percent to 8.9 million tons. The main trade route,
consisting of U.S. coal exports to the Far East, displayed an increase of 5.4
percent from 3.7 million long tons in fiscal year 1991 to 3.9 million long
tons in fiscal year 1992, with shipments to Japan and Taiwan totaling 1.9
and 2.0 million long tons versus prior year flows of 1.5 and 1.8 million long
tons, respectively. In contrast, coal exports exiting Hampton Roads en
route to the Far East via the Cape of Good Hope on ships too large to
transit the Canal declined from last year's record high of 7.4 million long
tons to 6.8 million tons in fiscal year 1992. The second major coal route
comprised of Canadian exports to Europe also showed an increase, with
shipments up 8.3 percent to 2.6 million tons. Contributing to the overall
tonnage gains of the commodity group was a 62.5 increase in coke
shipments from the Far East to the U.S. East Coast which reached 1.3
million tons.
Although tapering off, the downward trend in the automobile trade
which began in 1988 continued, with automobile tonnage dropping
marginally by 0.9 percent from 1.6 million tons in fiscal year 1991 to 1.5
million long tons in fiscal year 1992. Increases in minor trade routes offset
somewhat the continued decline exhibited by the principal automobile
shipments, those emanating from Japan to the U.S. East Coast. Japanese
automobile imports into the U.S. via the Canal dropped this year another
6.9 percent to 1.0 million tons. This compares with imports of 1.8 million
tons in the Canal's automobile peak year of 1987.






CANAL TRAFFIC


A number of other commodity groups, such as refrigerated products,
manufactures of iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, other
agricultural commodities, and miscellaneous minerals also registered
declines during the year. The drop of 4.0 percent sustained by the
refrigerated products group was almost entirely due to a drop in fish
tonnage moved from the U.S. West Coast and West Coast South America
to Europe. Fish shipments were down 40.8 percent, with this loss exceeding
the slight gains registered in the bananas and fruits trades. Manufactures of
iron and steel registered a substantial decline in fiscal year 1992, falling 19.2
percent to 6.7 million long tons. The decline in this commodity group was
particularly evident in the movement from the U.S. East Coast to Asia,
which was unusually high in the prior year. Shipments of manufactures of
iron and steel on the important Far East to U.S. East Coast route also
deteriorated. The downturn in the chemicals and petrochemicals group is
explained, in part, by the return to more normal patterns in world trade
following the end of the Persian Gulf crisis. The other agricultural
commodities group declined 3.2 percent to 5 million tons with the main
component, sugar, showing a drop of 9.7 percent. The miscellaneous
minerals commodity group decreased 9.1 percent to 4.5 million long tons
with sulfur tonnage accounting for a loss of 11.9 percent.
Trade between the Far East and the U.S. East Coast continued to
dominate Canal traffic, accounting for 38.5 percent of total commercial
cargo passing through the waterway compared with 38.6 percent in fiscal
year 1991. Cargo moved on that trade route, however, registered a 2.4
percent decline to 61.3 million long tons from 62.8 million tons in the prior
year, reflecting the effect of the recession in the U.S. and Japanese
economies.
The following tables show the principal commodity groups moving in
oceangoing commercial vessels during fiscal year 1992 and a comparison of
the major trade routes in fiscal years 1992 and 1991.







PRINCIPAL COMMODITY GROUPS
TRANSITING THE CANAL
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL CARGO FY 1992

PERCENT OF TOTAL CARGO


GRAINS

PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS
CONTAINERIZED CARGO
NITRATES, PHOSPHATES, POTASH
LUMBER & PRODUCTS
ORES & METALS

COAL & COKE
CHEMICALS & PETROCHEMICALS
MFRS. OF IRON & STEEL
CANNED & REFRIGERATED FOODS
MISC. AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
MISC. MINERALS
MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT

ALL OTHER
C


115.8%
1 13.7%


8.7%
S6.2%
6.0%
1 5.6%
I 4.9%
4.2%
3.7%
S3.1%
2.8%
1.2%
] 3.6%


1 20.5%


I I


I I I I I~ ~~~I____


5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50


MILLIONS OF LONG TONS






Major Voyage Trade Routes in Canal Traffic


Fiscal Year Percent of
I----------------------- -i Percent of
1992 1991 Increase or
(Decrease)
Panama Panama Panama
Canal Long Canal Long Canal Long
Net Tons Net Tons Net Tons
Tons Cargo Tons Cargo Tons Cargo
Trade Route [In thousands of long tons]
East Coast United States-Asia ................................................... 66,080 61,302 67,920 62,822 (2.7%) (2.4%)
East Coast United States-West Coast South America ............................... 17,088 10,410 17,140 11,257 (0.3%) (7.5%)
Round the World ........... ........ ............ ...... ... .. ..... ........... 13,889 8,016 14,127 7,948 (1.7%) 0.9%
Europe-West Coast South America ............................................ 13,602 8,025 13,983 8,348 (2.7%) (3.9%)
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada ........................................ 12,084 15,040 11,549 15,022 4.6% 0.1%
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America .............................. 6,829 6,396 5,920 5,785 15.4% 10.6%
Europe-Asia .................................................................. 6,646 4,614 6,672 4,684 (0.4%) (1.5%)
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania ........................................ 4,588 5,144 5,215 6,196 (12.0%) (17.0%)
United States Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) ............................ 4,552 2,608 4,942 2,031 (7.9%) 28.4%
South America Intercoastal ..................................................... 4,272 3,956 3,519 3,163 21.4% 25.1%
West Indies-Asia .............................................................. 3,309 2,334 3,478 2,310 (4.9%) 1.0%
Europe-West Coast Central America ............................................. 3,084 1,638 3,204 1,423 (3.7%) 15.1%

Subtotal ................................... ............................ 156023 129,483 157669 130,989 (1.0%) (1.1%)

All other routes ........................................ ................. ....... 32,493 29,790 34,118 31,707 (4.8%) (6.0%) >
z
Total ................................................................ 188,516 159,273 191,787 162,696 (1.7%) (2.1%) r




21




CANAL OPERATIONS


&~7j;
'1


Contract workers look on as the Commission's dipper dredge RIALTO M. CHRISTENSEN
(foreground) and Floating Caisson #2 (background) undergo one phase of a major overhaul at
the Balboa drydock. The other phase of the overhaul work was performed at the Industrial
Division at Mt. Hope.














Chapter II


CANAL OPERATIONS


Canal operations are comprised of Transit Operations, Maintenance,
and Related Canal Projects. The various functions are divided among a
number of operating bureaus within the Canal agency.
TRANSIT OPERATIONS
Daily average transits by oceangoing vessels averaged 34.5 per day
during fiscal year 1992. Average time in Canal waters increased slightly
from 22.0 hours in fiscal year 1991 to 22.1 hours in fiscal year 1992.
The following table indicates the number of large oceangoing vessels (by
beam and length) that transited the Canal during the last 13 years:

Percent Percent
Vessels of total Vessels of total
of 600-foot oceangoing of 80-foot oceangoing
Fiscal Year length and over transits beam and over transit
1992 ........................ 3,982 31.5 5,695 45.1
1991 ........................ 4,008 31.4 5,825 45.6
1990 ........................ 3,772 31.3 5,545 46.0
1989 ........................ 3,913 32.4 5,734 47.5
1988 ......................... 4,047 32.9 6,027 48.9
1987 ................ .... .... 4,005 32.5 5,902 48.0
1986 ........................ 4,131 34.4 5,898 49.1
1985 ........................ 3,862 33.1 5,514 47.3
1984 ....................... .. 3,865 33.9 5,496 48.3
1983 ........................ 4,157 35.1 5,869 49.5
1982 ............ ............. 5,534 39.5 7,226 51.1
1981 ........................ 4,855 34.7 6,364 45.5
1980 ........................ 4,598 33.8 6,089 44.7

The number of vessels transiting at more than 36-foot draft decreased
4.4%: 1,853 vessels during fiscal year 1992 compared to 1,938 during fiscal
year 1991. The maximum allowable draft remained at 39 feet 6 inches
during the entire fiscal year.
Total jobs performed by Commission tugs decreased from 40,580 in
fiscal year 1991 to 38,134 in fiscal year 1992.








CANAL OPERATIONS


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PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Fiscal Year
1992 1991
Oceangoing transits ............................ ............... 12,636 12,763
Tug jobs:
Balboa ............... ..... ............................ 29,159 28,332
Cristobal .................... ........................... 8,975 12,248
Tug operating hours ................ ........ .................. 60,604 62,535

MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS
Planned maintenance, scheduled overhauls, and general improvements
to the Canal and appurtenant structures were accomplished throughout the
year as programmed. The various divisions and units of the Engineering
and Construction Bureau are responsible for the overall physical
maintenance and improvement of the waterway. The Marine Bureau
operates and maintains the locks and related facilities.
Channel Improvements: Channel dredging activities during fiscal year
1992 focused on the Pacific Entrance Channel Widening, where 2,138,465
cubic yards of material were removed by the suction dredge MINDI. A
total of 9,482,000 cubic yards of material has been dredged to-date on the
widening project which began in September 1988 and is scheduled to be
completed in 1993. The MINDI also performed maintenance dredging of
Miraflores Lake and at the Pacific Entrance, alongside the U.S. Navy piers
at Rodman. Additionally, taking advantage of the temporary presence of a
commercial dredge at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, a contract was
awarded to dredge a flared area west of the west prism line at the beginning
of the Pacific entrance to the canal. The dredged area will provide a greater
degree of safety to vessels entering and exiting the southernmost tip of the
channel. The contract also required that dredging be performed at the
Balboa ship holding area west of pier 18.
Two new navigation range towers with lights were purchased and
installed. The towers, one located off-shore and the other on-shore along
the newly widened south west end of Balboa Reach, will provide proper
target alignment at the widened Pacific entrance.
Locks: A four-phase valve overhaul of Miraflores Locks was conducted
during fiscal year 1992, which included the conversion of all rising stem
valves from "roller train" type to "sliding bearing surface," repairs to 19
cylindrical valves and replacement of 21 others.
At Gatun Locks, a turntable was installed and adjacent track work
performed. The project was completed 64 days ahead of schedule. The
turntable at Pedro Miguel north approach is awaiting final pit design and
will be the last of five units to complete the turntable replacement program.
The Maintenance Division completed installation of new forebay/tail-
bay sandwich type fenders at all three locks. The Locks Fenders System
Committee (LFSC) evaluated 1,200 feet of experimental approach wall
sandwich type fenders installed at Pedro Miguel southeast approach wall






CANAL OPERATIONS


and has recommended further improvements to incorporate more energy
absorption capabilities.
A project is underway to install a new marine foam-type fire protection
system at Pedro Miguel Locks. Scheduled for completion in fiscal year
1993, this system will be similar to the one installed at Miraflores Locks.
The replacement of the loadbreaking switches and power feed cable at
Gatun Locks is presently in progress. This phase of the project should be
completed during fiscal year 1993. Subsequent phases of the project include
similar work at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks. The new switches are
an improved type that allow switching under a load, thus improving
lockout operation with an added margin of safety.
At all locks, the 565 CFM and 1200 CFM air compressors are being
replaced with 1500 CFM oil free units. The first three new air compressors,
one for each set of locks, have been delivered to Pedro Miguel Locks.
Installation should be completed by the middle of fiscal year 1993.
Gaillard Cut Widening: Preparatory work was initiated early in the fiscal
year to provide the design, drawings, specifications, and estimates
necessary to solicit bids on the dry excavation work to be conducted at the
north end of the west bank. Individual bids were solicited and contracts
awarded on 5 separate projects to remove approximately 1,140,300 cubic
meters (1,482,400 cubic yards) of dry material.
The subaqueous portion of the Cut widening program is scheduled to be
performed by the Dredging Division beginning in the latter part of fiscal
year 1994.
Bank Improvements: A section of canal bank at the northwest wingwall
of Miraflores Locks was protected from erosion by construction, under
contract, of an anchored sheet pile.
Following earth movement and drainage improvement work at Cocoli
Hill and along East Culebra and East Lirio reaches, reforestation of these
areas was performed under contract with the planting of approximately
16,000 fast-growing acacia mangium trees.
Pilot, Tug and Launch Facilities: A new, modern pilot reporting station
was inaugurated in Diablo on August 12, 1992. It is equipped with
comfortable waiting rooms and computer terminals which display ship
arrival and departure times, so that pilots can monitor their schedules.
Construction of a tug landing at Gamboa was completed under contract
on June 11, 1992. A tug and launch landing was also constructed under
contract at Paraiso and completed August 25, 1992.
A sheltered work area at the Launch Repair Facility in the Industrial
Division was built. The sheltered area consists of three finger piers capable
of docking six launches and provides all utilities necessary to accomplish
24-hour launch repair operations.





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Dams, Spillways and Power Stations: Six of the fourteen spillway gates
at Gatun Dam were completely rehabilitated and overhauled at the
Industrial Division in Mt. Hope. Additionally, two 10-foot diameter and
36-foot high stacks were fabricated at the Industrial Division and installed
at the Miraflores power generating station.
Communications: A multi-year program to upgrade telecommunications
service Commission-wide was concluded in May with the placement in
service of a new telephone switch at Gamboa. Together with the previously
installed switches at Balboa, Miraflores, and Gatun, the Commission now
has a modern computerized digital telecommunications network through-
out the agency. The improvements include state-of-the-art business
communications features, uniform dialing and signalling, full compatibility
with the Republic of Panama's telephone system, adherence with
international standards, and integrated voice-data transmission capabilities.
Floating Equipment Maintenance: Overhaul of the floating crane
Hercules was initiated at the Mt. Hope, Industrial Division complex.
Primary work included refurbishing crew quarters, installation of a bilge
and ballast system, installing a new auxiliary generating system composed
of two 125 KW generators, complete change of rendering from wood to
synthetic rubber units, mechanical and structural work on the main boom
and gears which included rebuilding the boom rotation drive mechanism,
refurbishing and repairing the electrical system, and complete painting and
testing.
The dipper dredge Christensen was overhauled in two phases beginning
with work at the Balboa Drydock. The work included repairs to the hull
and spud guides, refurbishment of the dredge's sea chest, valves, and the
engine bilge and fuel tanks. The second phase of the overhaul was
performed at the Industrial Division and consisted of installing new fenders
and accomplishing repair work to the hull and other areas above the
waterline.
The drill barge THOR was towed to Mt. Hope in June to receive its
scheduled major overhaul. A new diesel-driven generator system for the
drill-barge was purchased and is being installed. Overhaul work should be
completed during fiscal year 1993.
Rehabilitation of the tug GUIA was completed. Satisfactory sea trials
were conducted and the tug was returned to service in November.
Major overhauls were conducted at the Industrial Division's synchrolift
facility on the tugs ALIANZA, GAMBOA, MORROW, ESPERANZA,
and PARFITT, and repairs were made to the PAZ. Preventive
maintenance was performed on the tugs BURGESS, McAULIFFE,
AMISTAD, GUIA, PROGRESS, ALIANZA, MEHAFFEY, and
SCHLEY during the year.
Floating Caisson #2 was repaired and refurbished at the Mt. Hope
syncrolift facility by the Industrial Division. The caisson was afterwards






CANAL OPERATIONS


towed to the Balboa Drydock for repair and painting of the hull below the
waterline by the contractor.
Acquisitions and Contracts: Three new 53-foot aluminum twin screw
pilot/linehandling launches, the SIERRA, SWORDFISH and SABALO,
were received on August 29, 1992. Each has a capacity for 34 passengers.
A contract was awarded to expand the existing Partial Task Simulator
to a Full Mission Bridge Simulator. This new equipment will improve
Canal pilot training capabilities.
A new Grit Blasting Facility at the Industrial Division, Mt. Hope, was
inaugurated at the beginning of the fiscal year. The structure consists of
three environmentally-controlled chambers for blasting, painting, and
curing. This facility will enable top-of- the-line service to be provided and
will significantly reduce airborne grit particle dispersion. Construction of
the facility was performed by a contractor.
Cleaning, painting, and minor structural modifications to various
railroad track span towers and replacement of associated insulators,
hardware, and conductors on sections of the 44 KV line was completed
under contract.
During the year, the Engineering and Construction Bureau awarded 141
construction type contracts for a total of approximately $29 million.







SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


A contract was awarded to upgrade the former floating wooden landing at the Paraiso tug
and launch facility. Construction work can be seen in progress (upper photo) as the
Panamax-size vessel BELFOREST transits in the background, heavily laden with lumber
products. The new permanent concrete facility (lower photo), which was completed on
August 25, 1992, requires little maintenance.













Chapter III


SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


Supporting units of the Panama Canal Commission provided essential
support services for the operation and maintenance of the waterway and
the Agency's facilities, as well as to other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus and
to employees and their dependents. These operations included logistical
services, community services, sanitation and grounds management,
transportation services, public utilities, fire protection, security, health and
safety and other employee services.
LOGISTICAL SERVICES
The Logistical Support Division provided centralized procurement,
inventory management, distribution, contract administration and supply
and property disposal support to Panama Canal operations. A total of
$82.5 million in goods and services were procured during fiscal year 1992,
including $29.3 million from sources in Panama. This includes $5.5 million
for light diesel fuel oil purchased from Esso Standard Oil, S.A. Bunker "C"
oil purchases for thermoelectric power generation totalled $10.4 million
(one purchase from a U.S. firm and two from Refineria Panama). Major
contracting obligations included $2,990,440 for catastrophic insurance
coverage; $1,186,550 for power transformers; $996,000 for rewinding and
uprating hydroelectric generators; $973,660 for trash rakes/racks at
generating stations; $900,717 for fire trucks; $862,533 for bridge (ship)
simulator upgrade; $628,800 for fender parts; $580,217 for centralized
security patrol; $529,600 for drilling equipment; $513,470 for a 40-ton
hydraulic crane; and $499,896 for a pilot/linehandler launch.
Approximately $21.1 million in inventory items were issued for
Commission use and $20.6 million were obligated for new inventory
purchases during the year. A total inventory of 36,338 line items with a cost
value of $30.8 million was on hand at year end.
Activities of the Excess Disposal Unit included no-cost transfers to other
U.S. Government agencies of excess equipment having an original
acquisition value of $3.7 million. Surplus property sold to the Government






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


of Panama at current fair market value amounted to approximately $5,022.
Sales to others totalled $340,635.
The New Orleans Branch in Louisiana expedited urgent purchases and
coordinated all Commission cargo shipments from the United States to
Panama. A total of 18,315 measurement tons of containerized and
breakbulk cargo were shipped from Louisiana ports to the Republic of
Panama.
FACILITIES MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT DIVISION
During fiscal year 1992, the Community Services and Sanitation and
Grounds Divisions were merged into one, the Facilities Management and
Support Division. This division managed Commission housing, Commis
sion-owned buildings, the Furniture Pool, the Technical Resources Center,
the Employee Fitness Program and the sanitation and grounds activities.
Sanitation operations provided comprehensive environmental health
support to Commission employees and Panama Canal operating units.
This responsibility extended to protecting the work force from epidemic
tropical diseases, such as dengue, malaria and encephalitis, which are
transmitted by mosquitoes and other insect and arthropod vectors. Over
the past several years, mosquito surveillance and control measures have
intensified since the Panama City metropolitan area became heavily
infested with the dengue fever vector. No dengue cases have occurred yet,
but the threat of a widespread epidemic of this disease continues to exist. In
fiscal year 1992, only 28 active breeding sites were found and controlled
within Commission housing areas, a three-fold decrease compared to last
year's findings.
The Entomology Unit, in coordination with the Sanitation Office,
maintains an extensive surveillance network to monitor mosquito
populations throughout the Canal area. While most routine mosquito
control measures involve mainly hand labor to maintain some 130 miles of
drainage ditches, in early fiscal year 1992 a sophisticated tide control
structure was installed at the Farfan River spillway. This system of four
counter-balanced metal gates blocks the influx of seawater into the marsh,
yet allows accumulated fresh water from rainfall to flow out of the marsh
into the bay. This has brought about long-term nonchemical control of
sand flies and has greatly reduced the emergence of the migratory salt
marsh mosquitoes.
The program to control Africanized "killer bees" continues to function
well by eliminating all Africanized bee colonies reported to the Division.
Due to very dry conditions favorable to bee reproduction, the division
workload to control these insects increased from 202 calls in fiscal year
1991 to 289 control operations in fiscal year 1992, including ten swarms
aboard transiting vessels.





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Atlantic and Pacific Commission sanitary landfills continue to provide
for disposal of solid wastes for the Canal area, including that from U.S.
military installations and Government contractors. The net refuse disposal
workload increased by 10 percent this fiscal year, while refuse tonnage
from U.S. military posts fell by 2 percent compared to figures for the
previous fiscal year.
Grounds agronomists provided technical support for the long-term
Gaillard Cut reforestation project, managed by the Engineering Division.
The 64,000 fast-growing Acacia and Gmelina trees have continued to be
effective in stabilizing several slopes along the Canal where massive
landslides had occurred in the past. Wildfire suppression through the
clearing of weeds and other dry vegetation in addition to the application of
fire retardant chemicals through the coordinated efforts of both grounds
crews and Commission fire fighters, did much to reduce severe fire damage
to these tree plantations over the past two years.
The Technical Resources Center provided responses to 3,330 mission-
supported information and research questions to units of the Commission
and other U.S. agencies. It also continued to maintain a collection of
library and tridimensional materials relating to the history and operation
of the Panama Canal. This unit supported the professional development of
the pilot understudies and other employees through workshops, scanning
6,604 technical journals, providing 2,434 current awareness services, as well
as bibliographies and conference information.
The buildings management activity maintained and operated Commis-
sion buildings and structures (not specifically assigned to other
Commission units) and a centralized custodial service. As an ongoing
project, this unit continued to modify facilities to comply with OSHA
standards for handicapped personnel and increased physical security of
buildings. During the year, Pier 16, Cristobal, with appurtenances, fuel and
utility lines, and the Commission's portion of Gatun Tank Farm including
nine fuel storage tanks with the fuel and utility lines connecting from the
tank farm to Pier 16, Cristobal, were transferred to the Government of
Panama. The branch also operates the Commission's furniture pool, which
coordinates the procurement of new office furniture and related furniture
requirements such as inventory, transportation, storage, maintenance and
repair.
The housing portion of the operation allocated its resources to
managing, maintaining, repairing, performing preventive maintenance,
bringing up to standard the safety and security aspects of the quarters
inventory. On February 28, 1992, a Letter of Authorization was issued
granting Panama's Ministry of Housing (MIVI) the control and
administration of four housing units (halves of duplexes) located in Diablo
at no cost to the Government of Panama until the entire structure is
formally transferred to Panama.






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


Under the multi-year housing management plan to transfer housing units
to the Government of Panama (GOP), the division identified 73 housing
units in the townsites of Balboa, Diablo, Gamboa and Margarita for
release by the end of calendar year 1992. Seven of these units have already
been released. Housing inventory was reduced by 140 units (137 transferred
to Panama and 3 demolished because they were beyond economical
repair), decreasing the total inventory from 1,490 to 1,350 units. This
represents 31 percent of the inventory of approximately 4,300 units owned
by the Panama Canal Company prior to entry into force of the Panama
Canal Treaty in 1979. A total of 69.26 percent of those units have
transferred to the GOP in 13 years since treaty implementation.
The preparation of housing units for transfer under established safe,
sanitary and secure guidelines is now being performed by contract forces.
This preparation, which was formerly performed by hired labor, should
result in savings for the Commission.
The Employee Fitness Branch administered a variety of duty-related as
well as off-duty fitness programs and recreational facilities. The branch
operates 12 facilities throughout the Canal area. Regular year-round
activities are swimming, weight training, aerobics exercises (regular, low-
impact) and water exercises, racquetball and jogging. Seasonal sports are
tennis, softball, volleyball, soccer and basketball. There are certain
programs specially created for Commission employees' dependents such as
youth baseball, swimming classes, youth soccer, archery, gymnastics, ping-
pong, basketball, etc. Training was provided to Commission units in
rescue, water safety, advanced life saving and survival floating. The branch
continues to be responsible for certifying swimming proficiency of job
applicants and employees.

MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES
The Motor Transportation Division operated and maintained a
consolidated motor pool of 939 vehicles designed to meet the vehicular
transportation requirements of the Commission. The vehicle fleet in fiscal
year 1992 included 643 trucks of various types, 208 passenger-carrying
vehicles, 41 special purpose vehicles and 47 special equipment. Fleet
mileage decreased from 8,032,112 last year to 7,716,454 this year. Fully
equipped shops, including a tire retreading facility, light and heavy duty
repair shops, and specialized transmission, diesel and machine shops
provide facilities for overhauls, preventive maintenance and repairs to the
Motor Transportation Division fleet and equipment of other Commission
units. The vehicle inspection facilities located within the Motor
Transportation Division were used again during the year for inspection of
POVs belonging to Department of Defense and Commission personnel.
These facilities were also used for the inspection of all Commission





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


vehicles. The Transportation Section is staffed with a total of 145 motor
vehicle operators in both districts, and manages a motor pool of 383
vehicles, consisting of 178 general pool, 102 replacement and 103 special
purpose vehicles and equipment. This section performed an average of
4,618 monthly transportation trips during fiscal year 1992 for services
ranging from transisthmian pilot trips to heavy equipment operation.
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY
Panama Canal Commission facilities include electric power generation
and distribution systems, communication systems, water purification and
distribution systems, and a central chilled water air conditioning and
distribution system for certain public buildings in the Pacific area.
Total Canal area energy demand during fiscal year 1992 was 538
gigawatt hours, a 0.9 percent increase from the 533 gigawatts used last year.
The peak hourly demand of 85.53 megawatts, reached on April 8, 1992,
shows a slight increase from the 85.1 megawatts peak reached in fiscal year
1991. Electrical power consumed for Commission operations was 65.6
gigawatt hours, 2.5 percent below the previous year. Gasoline and
petroleum distillate fuel usage by the Commission during fiscal year 1992
(excluding fuel for power generation), was 5.1 million gallons, 21.4 percent
higher than in fiscal year 1991. Combined fuel and electrical energy
consumption by the Commission, calculated in btu's, also showed an
overall increase, 14.3 percent, in comparison with fiscal year 1991.
The two water treatment and distribution systems operated by the
Commission provide potable water for the Canal area including all potable
water for the Commission and the U.S. military. The Pacific side system
also serves portions of Panama City and suburban areas while the Atlantic
side system serves the Colon metropolitan area. During fiscal year 1992,
both systems supplied 3.32 billion cubic feet of potable water to consumers.
Water supplied to the Republic of Panama averaged approximately 56.0
million gallons (7.5 million cubic feet) per day.
FIRE PROTECTION
The Panama Canal Commission Fire Division and the Bomberos of the
Republic of Panama, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977, are responsible for providing fire protection, fire fighting and
emergency rescue services in Canal operating areas, defense sites, and
military areas of coordination, including shipboard fire fighting on all
vessels in Canal area waters.
Commission responses for fiscal year 1992 totaled 7,707 compared to
6,519 for fiscal year 1991. The marine stand-by program for hazardous
ships at the locks accounted for about 41 percent of the responses this year.
This service is provided by Fire Division personnel with foam apparatuses
on stand-by at the locks as a marine safety measure for those vessels





SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


designated by the Marine Bureau as carrying dangerous cargos. The critical
period is considered to be when a vessel is entering the locks.
There were 2,103 responses for ambulance service compared to 1,707 in
fiscal year 1991. This division also responded to a total of 39 bomb threats
during the year, the same number as last year. Excluding ship fires, there
were 481 fires this year, an 8 percent increase over fiscal year 1991. Most
incidents were grass and brush fires, which frequently occurred during the
vulnerable dry season. Additional fire statistics appear in Table 16 of this
report.
In accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, formal joint
training was conducted on 4 occasions with the Bomberos of the Republic
of Panama as compared to 6 for last year. This figure is in addition to
regularly occurring joint responses to fires and other emergencies.

CANAL PROTECTION
During fiscal year 1992, the Canal Protection Division provided security
for equipment, installations, facilities, and personnel devoted to the
operation, maintenance and management of the Panama Canal.
The Division also jointly patrols remote canal areas with the Panama
National Police.
Considerable resources were expended safeguarding navigational aids
and related equipment along the waterway. Security hardware improve-
ments at critical installations and support facilities were made. A contract
for a centralized security control system was issued.

HEALTH AND SAFETY
The Occupational Health and Safety Divisions are components of the
Office of Personnel Administration. The Personnel Director is the
Designated Agency Safety and Health Official. The Panama Canal
Commission is committed to ensuring a safe and healthful workplace for its
employees, an objective which enjoys support from all levels of Com-
mission management.
During fiscal year 1992, the Commission experienced 354 performance-
of-duty injuries/illnesses for which employees required medical attention
beyond first aid, a decrease from the 375 cases in fiscal year 1991. Hearing
loss cases were included in the agency statistics for the first time in fiscal
year 1992, bringing the total number of performance-of-duty injuries/
illnesses to 385 and the incidence rate for fiscal year 1992 to 4.4 per 100
employees; this compares to a fiscal year 1991 rate of 4.5. There were two
fatalities in fiscal year 1992.
Existing workplace health and safety programs were strengthened during
fiscal year 1992. Formal workplace inspections were ongoing; compliance
with all aspects of the Hazard Communication Policy was stressed and the





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Hazardous Materials Inventory and Material Safety Data Sheets library
were computerized; the Seat Belt Policy was revitalized; and the periodic
physical examination program was reinforced. The agency received a
Department of Transportation award for high seat belt usage in fiscal year
1991, having achieved 85 percent, and qualified for another award in 1992.
Special training and/or media information on AIDS, cholera and dengue
fever were provided to employees. The joint labor/management Safety and
Health Committee continued to meet regularly to maintain its valuable role
in the agency's overall health and safety program. The agency's program
was formally evaluated by the Federal Occupational Safety and Health
Administration during fiscal year 1992.
The Commission's Drug-Free Workplace Plan continued in full effect,
with incident, accident, reasonable suspicion, random and applicant drug
testing; counseling, rehabilitation and referral services through the agency's
Employee Assistance Program; and strict penalties for those who refused
the services offered or did not refrain from drug use. Public awareness of
drug and alcohol abuse prevention, identification and rehabilitation was
intensified.
Counseling and clinics relating to stress management, nutrition, weight
management and smoking cessation continued, resulting in a compre-
hensive work site health and safety promotion program for the Panama
Canal Commission.
The Commission awarded a contract to assess the risks of, and prepare a
contingency plan for, a hazardous materials emergency. As an outgrowth
of that, the contractor conducted a workshop for managers from the
various Commission elements performing health, environmental and safety
functions, with the objective of developing recommendations for
improving coordination, optimizing use of resources and enhancing
performance in these areas.











Chapter IV


ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


PERSONNEL
FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL
At the end of fiscal year 1992, the total Isthmian force of the
Commission was 8,548 compared to 8,740 in fiscal year 1991. Of the total
Isthmian force, 7,301 were permanent and 1,247 temporary. Of the
permanent Isthmian work force, 6,411 (87.8%) were Panamanians, 825
(11.3%) were U.S. citizens, and 65 (0.9%) were third country nationals.
Seventeen persons, all U.S. citizens, were employed by the Commission in
New Orleans and Washington, DC.
The total Commission payroll was $227.2 million in fiscal year 1992
compared to $229.5 million in fiscal year 1991. Of the total Commission
fiscal year 1992 payroll, $174.6 million was paid to non-U.S. citizen
employees and $52.6 million to U.S. citizen employees.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM
The agency's fiscal year 1991 Affirmative Employment Program Report
for Minorities and Women (EEO-MD-714) and the Report for the
Employment of People with Disabilities (EEO-MD-713) for the U.S.
citizen work force were submitted to the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission during fiscal year 1992, as required.
Formal EEO complaints continued to be processed. Black History
Month, National Hispanic Heritage Month, and National Disability
Employment Awareness Month were commemorated. Six-hundred and
ninety employees attended Women's Week training during March.
Continued emphasis was placed on the training of supervisors and
managers in the EEO complaint process. One-hundred and seventy
supervisors and employees attended workshops on the prevention of sexual
harassment in the workplace, including attendance at a special video
conference sponsored by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management.
Additional training was provided to EEO counselors on the new 29 CFR
1614 regulations to become effective October 1, 1992. The Panamanian






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


Preference Program monitoring continued to reflect increased participa-
tion of R.P. nationals at all levels. The composition of the work force by
sex, minority group and citizenship at the end of fiscal year 1992 is reflected
below:
Sex
M ale ............................. ............................... 87.0%
Female ....................... .. ................... .............. 13.0%

Minority Group
Hispanics Blacks Whites Orientals Indians
66.9% 21.1% 9.7% 1.8% 0.5%


PUBLIC AFFAIRS
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for handling all public affairs,
orientation services and informational activities of the Panama Canal
Commission, both locally and internationally. In this connection, through
the Commission publication The Panama Canal Spillway, local and
international press releases (including simultaneous worldwide distribution
by computer), video news releases and documentaries, press releases
(including simultaneous worldwifilms and exhibits, and matters of interest
were disseminated to the work force, the public at large and the shipping
industry. A digest of items in the local press of interest to Commission
managers was compiled and distributed daily.
The Graphic Branch supports the public affairs effort by providing a
broad range of still photo and audiovisual support services throughout the
Commission. This year it continued to expand its program of producing
audiovisual presentations to fill an accelerated need by Commission
officials who provide briefings to Panama government officials on matters
related to the turnover of the Canal to Panama in 1999 and to Commission
board members on current operations and future plans.
Local and international news media interest focused on the turnover of
the Canal to Panama in 1999, the Gaillard Cut widening project and the
transit of hazardous cargo through the Canal. Other areas of interest were
general Canal operations, the tolls increase, the Canal watershed and the
linehandler scheduling study.
The Office of Public Affairs designed, produced, and operated
Commission exhibits for a number of activities and functions during the
year. "Meeting the Challenge" was the theme used to highlight the
maintenance, modernization and improvement programs at the Canal
designed to ensure its continued safe and efficient operation, both in the
near term and post-2000. EXPOCOMER, a business exposition held in
Panama City, and the David International Fair, held annually in the
Chiriqui Province of Panama, were among the more noteworthy local





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


exhibits. This office also participated with exhibits in two cruise shipping
conferences and exhibitions in the United States, one for owners and
operators and one for the travel industry.
The Canal's 78th anniversary was highlighted with a photo exhibit on the
construction of the Canal Administration Building displayed in the
building's rotunda, and a special feature-length video was produced
relating the history of Gaillard Cut construction with the current Cut
Widening Program. Support was provided for Panama's participation in
Spain's Expo Sevilla with informational materials and videos, as well as
briefings on Canal operations for Panamanian exhibit hosts.
The Orientation Service, located at Miraflores Locks, welcomed 395,937
visitors to Miraflores and Gatun locks this year and conducted 976 VIP
tours.
OMBUDSMAN
The Office of the Ombudsman was established pursuant to implementing
legislation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The office responds to
employees' and dependents' complaints, grievances, and requests for
information; and channels many issues to the proper authorities for
processing under existing statutes or administrative regulations. Generally,
the Office of the Ombudsman investigates administrative problems,
inefficiencies, omissions and policy conflicts existing within the various
offices of the Panama Canal Commission, and between the Commission
and other U.S. Government agencies on the Isthmus of Panama resulting
from the treaty. The office provides the widest latitude possible for
handling problems affecting employee morale and the quality of life.
The office maintains close contact with officers of the three Residents
Advisory Committees as a means to assure close communication between
the Commission and these community groups on matters of concern to
residents in Commission housing areas.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
A new three-year collective bargaining agreement covering employees in
the firefighters bargaining unit was negotiated between April and July
1992. Additionally, the non-professional collective bargaining agreement,
which covers 87 percent of the Commission's work force, was renewed for a
three-year period commencing September 16. This occurred pursuant to an
automatic renewal provision when neither party served notification during
the contractual window of an intent to amend or modify the agreement.
In January, the FLRA ruled on exceptions the Commission filed to an
arbitration award rendered in February 1991 involving firefighters. The
Commission succeeded in overturning the largest of the two major cost
items of the award. Costs saved (not including interest payment required
under the Back Pay Act) were estimated at $640K. The remaining cost item






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


was estimated at $170K. Subsequent efforts to obtain FLRA reconsider-
ation were unsuccessful and compliance with the award was ongoing at
fiscal year end. The total cost including interest payments approximated
$225K.
Last year, it was reported that exceptions were pending to an FLRA
administrative law judge decision which dismissed an unfair labor practice
complaint against the Commission for unilaterally terminating access by
nonpreference-eligible employees to the agency's administrative procedure
for appealing adverse actions as an option to the negotiated grievance
procedure. (Access to the negotiated grievance procedure was not affected
by the Commission's action.) In February, the FLRA issued a decision
finding, contrary to the judge, that the disputed action constituted an
unfair labor practice. The ordered remedy includes a retroactive
requirement which could result in hearings for over 300 employees at a cost
to the Commission of over $150K. Equally important, the FLRA also held
that as a matter of law such Commission employees do not have the right
to challenge adverse actions under the negotiated grievance procedure. The
Commission filed a motion for reconsideration and a stay of the decision.
The motion was denied in early September. The Commission requested the
Department of Justice to seek judicial review and that request was pending
at fiscal year end.
Two notable union initiatives this year generated a considerable amount
of work for the Industrial Relations office. One concerned a request from
the exclusive representative of the nonprofessional unit to increase the
amount of official time. It was argued that an increase was necessary to
facilitate more effective union participation in discussions with public
officials in Panama concerning the future of the Canal -- an activity which
was urged by the Personnel Committee of the Board of Directors at a 1990
meeting with labor organizations in Miami, Florida. A 3-phase trial plan
was conceived to increase incrementally the amount of official time and the
number of participating stewards. Progression from one phase to another
was contingent upon the Commission's satisfaction. The fiscal year ended
during the third phase of the trial period.
The other union initiative concerned a demand in February by the pilots
union to negotiate an increase in basic pay. The union's proposal would
provide the highest step pilot with a base pay of "at least $175,000." The
Commission declined on the basis of a current decision by the U.S. Court
of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit which holds that, in such circumstances
as exist in the Commission's case, unions do not have the right to initiate
midterm bargaining. The Commission also expressed good faith doubts
about the negotiability of the union's proposal. Although the union did not





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


formally challenge this decision, it continued through the end of the fiscal
year to vigorously pursue in a variety of arenas the matter of obtaining a
pay raise.
Three different exclusive representatives invoked arbitration a total of 10
times this fiscal year. Only one decision was rendered, however, and it was
favorable to the Commission. Adverse and disciplinary actions were split
evenly at 4 apiece. One of the disciplinary cases was eventually settled. The
remaining case involved the performance evaluation of an employee who is
also the subject of one of the disciplinary cases. The former case was held in
abeyance at the union's request pending the decision of the latter, which was
still pending at fiscal year end. Several other disputes were settled during the
year but at a point before arbitration was invoked. Three other cases carried
over from the prior fiscal year were disposed of this year. One was settled
and the other two were dismissed when the union failed to prosecute them
after the employee who was the subject of both cases retired.
GENERAL COUNSEL
During fiscal year 1992, twenty admiralty claims totalling $17,533,576
were settled in the amount of $11,293,533. The single largest claim ever
paid was for the ITB MOKU PAHU in the amount of $6.5 million. Thirty-
eight unsettled marine accident claims, in the amount of approximately
$20,376,165, remained at the close of this fiscal year.
Currently, four cases are pending in U.S. District Court for the Eastern
District of Louisiana. The total of the amounts claimed is $7.8 million.
The new Standards of Ethical Conduct promulgated August 7, 1992 are
being implemented locally through an aggressive training program
scheduled to completely train all Commission employees by February 3,
1993. Additionally, the Commission has initiated the Confidential
Financial Disclosure Reporting System.
The General Counsel's office monitored approximately 150 cases
involving garnishment for alimony and child support, and 130 vehicle
accident cases of which approximately 50 may result in claims against the
Commission.
Despite the August 30, 1991 decision of the Corps of Engineers Board of
Contract Appeals that denied all claims brought by Sosa y Barbero
Constructores, S.A. and Compafifa Internacional de Seguros, S.A., the
contract appeal continued during the entire fiscal year. The co-appellants
filed a motion for reconsideration with the Board, which the Commission
opposed and the Board denied in December 1991. With over $9 million
dollars at stake, the co-appellants appealed the Board's final decision to the
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in January, 1992.
Shortly after the fiscal year's end, on October 14, 1992, the court issued a
final decision affirming in all respects the ruling by the Board of Contract
Appeals. No further appeal is anticipated.












Chapter V


FINANCIAL REPORT


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1992
The financial statements of the Panama Canal Commission, appearing
as Tables 1 through 4, with accompanying notes, present the financial
position of the Commission at September 30, 1992 and the result of its
operations for the fiscal year then ended.
The accounts and statements of the Panama Canal Commission have
been examined by the United States General Accounting Office. Detailed
audit reports of the United States General Accounting Office are directed
to the Congress and are presented as Congressional documents.
Summary information concerning the operating results and capital
expenditures follows:
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Commission ended fiscal year 1992 with a net operating loss of $3.6
million, compared to net operating revenue of $3.6 million for fiscal year
1991. The net operating loss for 1992 was deferred as unearned costs to be
recovered from subsequent revenues.
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
Accued capital expenditures for the year amounted to $26.3 million. The
principal expenditures were $8.2 million for replacement and improve-
ments to facilities, $3.1 million for the widening and straightening of
Gaillard Cut, $2.9 million for improvements to the electrical power and
communication systems, $2.0 million for the replacement of motor
vehicles, $1.9 million for the replacement of launch and launch engines,
$1.1 million for water system improvements, and $1.1 million for replace-
ment of an anchor barge.






FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 1.-Statement of Financial Position
September 30, 1992 and 1991
(Dollars in thousands)


Assets

PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT:
At cost ............................. .......
Less accumulated depreciation and valuation
allowances ................................










CURRENT ASSETS:
C ash ............................................
Accounts receivable ...............................
Inventories:
Storehouse, less allowance for obsolete and excess
inventory of $6,200 and $6,467, respectively .........
Fuel ............................................
Other ...........................................










DEFERRED CHARGES:
Early retirement benefits .......... ................
Compensation benefits for work injuries..............
Retirement benefits to certain former employees .......
Unrecovered costs due from subsequent revenues ......


TOTAL ASSETS .................. ............


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


$ 824,350 $ 856,110


1992


$1,038,128

548,905

489,223









124,542
9,567


28,708
3,479
235

166,531









106,008
54,346
4,673
3,569

168.596


1991


$1,022,626

525,303

497,323









127,135
11,687


28,732
5,168
205

172,927









121,152
59,530
5,178


185,860






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 39


Table 1.-Statement of Financial Position
September 30, 1992 and 1991
(Dollars in thousands)


Capital and Liabilities 1992 1991

CAPITAL:
Investment of the United States Government:
Interest-bearing (9.786% and 9.949%,
respectively) ............................... $122,271 $120,557
Non-interest-bearing .......................... 349,980 352,622

472,251 473,179
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable:
Commercial vendors and other .................. 14,484 17,706
U.S. Government agencies ..................... 2,172 1,905
Republic of Panama ........................... 9,060 8,827
25,716 28,438
Accrued liabilities:
Employees' leave ............................... 54,257 50,590
Salaries and wages ............................ 6,767 4,826
Early retirement benefits ....................... 15,144 15,144
Compensation benefits for work injuries .......... 9,093 8,460
Retirement benefits to certain former employees ... 626 692
Employees' repatriation ........................ 731 785
M arine accident claims ........................ 12,593 21,034
Net operating revenue payable to Republic of
Panam a ................................... ....... 875
O their ....................................... 2,148 1,969
101,359 104,375
Other current liabilities:
Working capital contributions .................. 2,000
Capital contributions-unexpended ............... ....... 9,079
Other ....................................... 1,200 2,100
3,200 11,179

130,275 143,992
DEFERRED CREDIT:
Capital contributions being amortized ............... 62,507 57,760

LONG-TERM LIABILITIES AND RESERVES:
Early retirement benefits ........................... 90,864 106,008
Compensation benefits for work injuries .............. 45,253 51,070
Retirement benefits to certain former employees ....... 4,047 4,486
Employees' repatriation ............................ 5,762 6,121
Lock overhauls ................................... 2,082 1,957
Marine accidents and casualty losses ................. 8,000 8,000
Floating equipment overhauls ...................... 3,309 3,537

159,317 181,179

TOTAL CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES ................ $824350 $856110


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.






FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 2.-Statement of Operations
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1992 and 1991
(Dollars in thousands)

OPERATING REVENUES: 1992

Tolls revenue ................................... $368,663
Less Working capital contributions .............. (2,000)
Capital contributions .................... ........
Net tolls revenue ............................ 366,663

Other revenues................... ............. 138,913

Total operating revenues ..................... 505,576


OPERATING EXPENSES:
Payments to Republic of Panama:
Public services .............................. 10,000
Fixed annuity ................. ............. 10,000
Tonnage ....................... .......... 66,563
86,563


Maintenance of channels, dams and spillways ......
Navigation service and control ...................
Locks operation ................................
General repair, engineering and maintenance
services ...................... ... ........
Supply and transportation services................
Utilities ........................... ........
Administrative and general......................
Depreciation............. . . ............
Fire and facility protection.......................
Interest on interest-bearing investment.............
Other ............... .....................

Total operating expenses.....................

Net Operating Revenue (Loss)........................
Recovery of prior year losses.....................



NET UNEARNED COSTS TO BE RECOVERED
FROM SUBSEQUENT REVENUES ..............
NET OPERATING REVENUE PAYABLE TO
REPUBLIC OF PANAMA .....................



The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


40,338 35,628
84,768 86,221
51,766 53,778

25,098 25,775
19,425 23,851
35,932 31,772
80,812 78,576
27,535 22,685
14,707 13,351
11,492 11,544
30,709 32,059

509,145 502,833

(3,569) 3,588
.(2,713)
875



$ ( 569 ........


S 875


1991

$374,625

(5,929)
368,696

137,725


10,000
10,000
67,593
87,593







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Table 3-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1991 and 1992
(Dollars in thousands)


INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER I, 1990...........



CHANGES IN INVESTMENT:
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Panama
Canal Revolving Fund.....................
Net change in undeposited receipts............
Adjustments for properties previously transferred
to Republic of Panama....................
Property transferred to other U.S. Government
agencies .............................




INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30, 1991 .......








INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER 1, 1991...........


CHANGES IN INVESTMENT:
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Panama
Canal Revolving Fund.....................
Net change in undeposited receipts............
Property transferred to the Republic
of Panam a ...............................
Adjustments for properties previously transferred
to Republic of Panama ....................
Property transferred to other U.S. Government
agencies ................... ............


1991
Invested Capital
Interest- Non-Interest-
Bearing Bearing
$133,176 $340,663




503,009 (503,009)

(515,001) 515,001
......... (33)

(63) .........

(564) .........


(12,619)


$120,557 $352622 $473.179


1992
Invested Capital
SInterest- Non-Interest-
Bearing Bearing
$120,557 S352.622


Total
$473,179


511,772 (511,772) .........


(509,091) 509,091
......... 39


(812)

(6)

(149)


(2,642)


39

(812)

(6)

(149)

(928)


INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30, 1992.......


$122,271 $349_980 $472 251


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


Total
$473 839


(33)

(63)

(564)


11,959 (660)






FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 4.-Statement of Cash Flows
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1992 and 1991
(Dollars in thousands)


CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: 1992 1991

Net operating revenue (loss) ...................... S (3,569 3,588

Working capital contributions .................... 2,000

Adjustments to reconcile net revenue (loss) to net cash
provided by operating activities:
Depreciation...................... ... ..... 27,535 22,685
Net change in reserves and other ............. (840) 2,455
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Decrease in receivables .................... 2,120 1,644
Decrease in inventories .................... 1,713 6,100
(Increase)/decrease in other assets .......... (29) 14
Increase/(decrease) in liabilities ............. (5,727 4,453
Total adjustments ....................... 24,772 37,351

Net cash provided by operating activities .... 23,203 40,939


CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

Capital contributions ................ ....... .. ......... 5,929
Capital expenditures.................... ......... (25,796) (34,214

Net cash used in investing activities ......... (25,79 (28,285

Net increase/(decrease) in cash ....................... (2,593) 12,654

Cash, beginning of year .............................. 127135 114,481

CASH, END OF YEAR ........................... $124,542 $127,135


SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW
INFORMATION:

Cash paid during year for interest ................ $ 11,691 $ 11.562


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

The Panama Canal Commission ("Commission'") is an agency of the
Executive Branch of the United States Government, provided for by the
Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, ("Treaty") and established by the Panama
Canal Act of 1979 ("Act") enacted September 27, 1979. The Commission
was established to carry out the responsibilities of the United States with
respect to the Panama Canal under the Treaty. In fulfilling these
obligations, the Commission manages, operates, and maintains the Canal,
its complementary works, installations, and equipment, and provides for
the orderly transit of vessels through the Canal. The Commission will
perform these functions until the Treaty terminates on December 31, 1999,
at which time the Republic of Panama will assume full responsibility for
the Canal, which shall be turned over in operating condition and free of
liens and debts, except as the two Parties may otherwise agree.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis.
The Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all
costs of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest,
depreciation, working capital, capital for plant replacement, expansion and
improvements, and payments to the Republic of Panama for public
services and annuities. Revenues from tolls and all other sources are
deposited in the U.S. Treasury in an account known as the Panama Canal
Revolving Fund. The resources in this fund are available for continuous
use and serve to finance Canal operating and capital programs which are
reviewed annually by the Congress. Information on obligations and outlays
of the Commission's Revolving Fund are included in the Budget of the
United States Government.

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
A summary of significant accounting policies follows:
a. Accounting and Reporting. The accounts of the Commission are
maintained pursuant to the Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950. Under
this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States prescribes the
principles, standards and related requirements to be met. The Commission
maintains its accounts in accordance with generally accepted accounting
principles and follows STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
STANDARDS NQ 71, "Accounting for the Effects of Certain Types of
Regulation."
b. Reclassifications. Certain amounts for fiscal year 1991 have been re-
classified to conform with the current financial statement presentation.
c. Cost Recovery. The basis for tolls rates ("statutory tolls formula") is
prescribed in section 1602(b) of the Act and provides:

"Tolls shall be prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues
to cover as nearly as practicable all costs of maintaining and





FINANCIAL REPORT


operating the Panama Canal, together with the facilities and
appurtenances related thereto, including unrecovered costs incurred
on or after the effective date of this Act, interest, depreciation,
working capital, payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to
paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraph 4(a) and (b) of Article
XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, and capital for plant
replacement, expansion, and improvements. Tolls shall not be
prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues sufficient to
cover payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to paragraph
4(c) of Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977."

Unrecovered costs for any year are to be recovered from revenues in
subsequent years.
d. Property, Plant and Equipment. Property, plant, and equipment are
recorded at cost. The cost of minor items of property, plant, and equipment
is charged to expense as incurred. Administrative and other related general
expenses are recovered currently and not capitalized.
Depreciation of Commission property, plant, and equipment is pro-
vided using the straight-line method over the estimated service lives of the
depreciable assets. Composite depreciation is provided for premature plant
retirements. Provisions for depreciation, expressed as an annual percentage
of the cost of average depreciable property, plant, and equipment in
service, were 3.41 percent in 1992 and 2.90 percent in 1991.
The recurring costs of dredging the waterway are charged to expense.
Non-recurring dredging costs for substantial improvements and better-
ments to the waterway are considered additions to plant and are capitalized
and depreciated over their estimated service lives.
e. Capital Contributions. The Board of Directors may program a
portion of tolls in excess of depreciation for plant replacement, expansion,
or improvements. Such funds are considered capital contributions from
Canal users. Upon utilization, these contributions are amortized through
an offset to depreciation expense in an amount calculated to approximate
the depreciation on assets acquired with such contributions. In fiscal year
1992, no amount was programmed. For fiscal year 1991, $5.9 million were
programmed.
f Working Capital. The Board of Directors may program a portion of
tolls as contributions for working capital. Such funds are used to finance
increases in amounts for storehouse inventories, primarily as a result of
inflation. Working capital contributions in fiscal year 1992 were $2.0
million. No contributions were programmed in fiscal year 1991.
g. Accounts Receivable. Uncollectible accounts are recognized as a
reduction in revenue when written off.
h. Inventories. Operating materials and supplies are stated at average
cost, plus cost of transportation. Allowances are provided for the estimated
cost of obsolete and excess stock.





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


i. Retirement Benefits. Employer contributions to the United States
Civil Service Retirement System, the Federal Employee Retirement
System, and the Republic of Panama Social Security System are charged
to expense when paid. The Commission has no liability for future
payments to employees under these systems.
Non-United States citizen employees, who retired from predecessor
agencies prior to October 5, 1958, receive benefits under a separate annuity
plan. Payments made under this plan are recorded as a current year
expense. Annual amounts expended for this plan were $1.0 million and
$1.1 million in fiscal years 1992 and 1991, respectively. The liability for
future annuity payments is reflected in the Statement of Financial Position
as "Retirement benefits to certain former employees" and an equal amount
is recorded as a deferred charge.
As required by the Act, the Commission is liable for the increase in the
unfunded liability of the United States Civil Service Retirement Fund for
benefits payable to employees and their survivors under the early
retirement provisions of the Act. The deferred charge and liability re-
corded in these statements reflect the payments due to the Office of
Personnel Management over the life of the Treaty. The annual installment
of $15.1 million to liquidate the increased liability is determined by the
Office of Personnel Management. The gross amount to be recovered from
tolls over the remaining life of the Treaty was $106.0 million as of fiscal
year 1992 and $121.2 million as of fiscal year 1991.
j. Reserves. Reserves required to normalize expenses for incorporation
in the tolls process are provided for through annual charges to operations.
These reserves cover such irregular costs as lock overhauls, floating
equipment overhauls, probable losses from marine accidents, fire, damages
other than fire, public liability, and other casualties.
k. Housing Use Rights. No monetary value is assigned to the rights
granted to the United States Government by the Republic of Panama to
use Canal Area housing transferred to the Republic of Panama under the
terms of the Treaty. The cost to manage, maintain and provide livability
improvements to these quarters is charged to expense. Rental income is
included in other revenues.
1. Compensation Benefits for Work Injuries. The Federal Employees'
Compensation Act (FECA) provides compensation for performance of
duty injuries for eligible employees. The costs of the FECA program are
recognized over the remaining life of the Treaty.

2. Budgetary Resources.
a. Cash, accounts receivable, and the borrowing authority are the
resources used by the Commission to determine its solvency position.
Incurring obligations in excess of the solvency position would be a
violation of the Antideficiency Act.
b. The Commission has authority to borrow funds from the U.S.





FINANCIAL REPORT


Treasury up to $100.0 million. No funds were borrowed during fiscal years
1992 and 1991.

3. Unrecovered Costs due from Subsequent Revenues.
The $3.6 million net loss from fiscal year 1992 operations was deferred
as an unearned cost to be recovered from subsequent revenues. As such, it
must be deducted from any future net operating revenue due the Republic
of Panama.

4. Net Revenue Payable to Republic of Panama.
As of September 30, 1989, cumulative unrecovered costs from prior
years operations were $9.7 million. Of that amount, $7.0 million was
recovered in fiscal year 1990 and $2.7 million was recovered in fiscal year
1991. The balance of net operating revenues earned in fiscal year 1991 of
$0.9 million was paid to the Republic of Panama in April 1992.

5. Allowances for Obsolete and Excess Stock.
The allowances for obsolete and excess stock provide for: (1) the spe-
cific disposal of individual inventory items likely to occur; and (2) the
systematic cost recognition for inventory items retained for possible use,
but whose actual use most often does not occur. During fiscal year 1991, a
comprehensive evaluation of inventory items that are infrequently issued,
but retained for possible use, was completed. This evaluation indicated a
requirement for an allowance of $5.6 million for these items. The
evaluation completed for fiscal year 1992 indicated reduced requirement of
$5.2 million and the allowance was adjusted accordingly.

6. Compensation Benefits for Work Injuries.
The Commission administers a program to compensate certain em-
ployees for death and disability resulting from performance of duty injuries
or illnesses as set forth in the Federal Employees' Compensation Act. All
United States citizen employees are eligible for coverage, as are non-United
States citizen employees hired prior to October 1, 1979. As provided by
FECA, employees and certain dependents are beneficiaries for various
periods that can extend to life.

The liability and deferred charge recorded in these statements reflect the
payments due to a Department of Labor fund established pursuant to
Public Law 100-705. The Department of Labor will be reimbursed from
this fund for all expected future payments for accidents, adjusted for
inflation and interest earned. An evaluation, as of September 30, 1991, was
prepared by an independent actuarial firm. The values in that report were
used to adjust the assets and liabilities at year-end 1991. The report also
served as the basis for determining the adequacy of the assets and liabilities
at year-end 1992. The gross amount to be recovered from tolls over the
remaining life of the Treaty to retire this liability is $54.3 million in fiscal
year 1992 and $59.5 million in fiscal year 1991.





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


7. Interest-Bearing Investment of the United States Government.
The interest-bearing investment of the United States Government in the
Panama Canal is determined based on section 1603(a) of the Act. The
interest-bearing investment of the United States Government was $122.3
million at September 30, 1992 and $120.6 million at September 30, 1991.

8. Contingent Liabilities and Commitments.
The Commission is a defendant in certain legal actions related to
personal injury, employment disputes, and other matters related to the
Commission's business. In the opinion of management, the settlement of
these legal actions will not have a material adverse effect on the financial
position of the Commission.
Commitments under uncompleted construction contracts and unfilled
purchase orders amounted to $44.4 million at September 30, 1992 and
$31.7 million at September 30, 1991.
Cash and negotiable securities held by United States depositories for the
Commission to guarantee payment by third parties of their obligations
were $15.3 million and $14.5 million at September 30, 1992 and 1991,
respectively.
The Treaty provides that an annual amount of up to $10.0 million per
year be paid to the Republic of Panama out of operating revenues to the
extent that such revenues exceed expenditures. If the operating revenues in
any year do not produce a surplus sufficient to cover this payment, the
unpaid balance shall be paid from operating surpluses in future years. The
balance contingently payable to the Republic of Panama amounted to
$120.2 million and $110.2 million at September 30, 1992 and 1991,
respectively. However, as set forth in the Treaty and in the Act, nothing
shall be construed as obligating the United States Government to pay, after
the date of the termination of the Treaty, any unpaid balance accumulated
before such date.








Chapter


VI


STATISTICAL TABLES

Shipping Statistics







STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1983 Through 1992

Traffic assessed rolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
Number Long tons I Number Panama I INumber Displace-
of of of Canal net of ment
transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC '


1983 .............. 11,707 $285,983,805 145,590,759 11,668 169,503,918
1984.............. 11,230 286,677,844 140,470,818 11,199 162,335,342
1985 .............. 11,515 298,497,802 138,643,243 11,498 168,941,997
1986 .............. 11,925 321,073,748 139,945,181 11,901 182,750,830
1987.............. 12,230 328,372,714 148,690,380 12,206 186,416,485
1988 .............. 12,234 337,866,211 156,482,641 12,209 191,506,903
1989.............. 11,989 327,850,613 151,636,113 11,964 185,769,083
1990 .............. 11,941 353,725,982 157,072,979 11,904 181,604,268
1991 .............. 12,572 372,279,573 162,695,886 12,544 191,786,855
1992 .............. 12,454 365,716,456 159,272,618 12,425 188,516,426
OCEANGOING U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC '


1983 ..............
1984 ..............
1985 ..............
1986 ............ .
1987 ..............
1988 ............ .
1989 ..............
1990 ..............
1991 ..............
1992 ..............


1983 ..............
1984 ..............
1985 ..............
1986 ..............
1987 ..............
1988 ............ .
1989 ..............
1990 .............
1991 ... ......... . .
1992 ............ .


1983 ........ ....
1984 ........ ....
1985 ........ ....
1986 ..............
1987 ..............
1988 ..............
1989 ..............
1990 ..............
1991 ............ .
1992 ........ ....


125 $ 1,721,925 354,873 77
137 2,388,272 329,607 88
129 2,223,938 259,524 85
85 1,553,037 176,853 53
78 1,384,125 205,701 46
69 1,361,393 296,140 46
74 1,806,539 224,121 62
91 1,707,864 248,442 63
173 2,214,170 516,130 69
167 2,790,452 341,256 96
FREE OCEANGOING TRAFFIC 2
14 ......... 2,504 9
17 ......... ......... 4
10 ......... 20 4
13 ......... ......... 1
5 ......... 5 4
15 ......... ......... 6
12 ........ ............... 6
20 6 4
18 ......... ......... 4
15 ......... ......... 4


812,840
1,131,865
1,148,311
708,616
662,286
714,055
994,711
821,340
902,085
1,295,153


9,119
2,224
2,731
556
2,224
3,312
3,312
2,218
2,218
2,206


TOTAL OCEANGOING TRAFFIC
11,846 $287,705,730 145,948,136 11,754 170,325,877
11,384 289,066,116 140,800,425 11,291 163,469,431
11,654 300,721,740 138,902,787 11,587 170,093,039
12,023 322,626,785 140,122,034 11,955 183,460,002
12,313 329,756,840 148,896,086 12,256 187,080,995
12,318 339,227,604 156,778,781 12,261 192,224,270
12,075 329,657,153 151,860,234 12,032 186,767,106
12,052 355,433,846 157,321,427 11,971 182,427,826
12,763 374,493,743 163,212,016 12,617 192,691,158
12,636 368,506,908 159,613,874 12,525 189,813,785


132,431
116,335
86,623
73,631
130,129
106,599
101,710
153,514
120,375
117,403


350,699
410,682
248,967
309,161
239,023
129,545
103,020
193,160
458,899
405,986


5,986
21,025
8,771
20,759
1,300
16,765
9,709
30,530
24,702
18,508


489,116
548,042
344,361
403,551
370,452
252,909
214,439
377,204
603,976
541,897







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 51


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1983 through 1992
(Continued)
Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
\Number Long tons INumber Panamal Number Displace-
Fiscal of of of Canal net of ment
year transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage
SMALL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 3


1983 ................. 810 $ 73,887 669 810 48,033 ....
1984 ................. 802 76,921 652 800 48,008 2
1985 ................. 793 73,710 468 792 45,694 1
1986 ................. 912 89,577 3,704 904 55,249 8
1987 ................. 852 90,829 3,282 852 55,827 ....
1988 ................. 844 79,805 1,422 842 49,245 2
1989 ................. 997 96,158 8,311 996 60,156 1
1990 ................. 1,017 115,180 1,497 1,016 66,999 1
1991 ................. 1,079 118,675 537 1,077 67,982 2
1992 ................. 1,260 137,318 1,250 1,258 77,747 2
SMALL U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC 3


1983 .................
1984 .................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................
1989 ................
1990 ................
1991 ................
1992 ................


1983 ............... .
1984 ................
1985 ............... .
1986 .................
1987 .................
1988 ............... .
1989 .................
1990 .................
1991 ............... .
1992 ............... .


242 $ 11,406 5 12
241 11,998 .......... 8
273 12,464 .......... 15
316 17,840 .......... 20
236 11,106 .......... 25
246 11,917 .......... 21
287 12,316 .......... 13
240 8,931 ......... 23
248 12,319 .......... 12
231 18,278 81 28
SMALL FREE TRAFFIC 2 3
56 .......... 8 39
96 .......... 59 86
46 .......... 3 32
27 .......... 80 20
43 .......... 57 26
33 .......... ........... 15
30 .......... 3 14
16 .......... ........... 5
18 .......... ........... 13
21 .......... 19 II
TOTAL PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC


145
110
470
64
430
98
64
304


11,177
11,282
11,113
16,407
9,572
10,375
11,018
6,684
10,065
11,753


2,010
1,360
1,103
674
1,012
1,189
1,141
800
545
792


1983 ................. 12,954 $287,791,023 145,948,818 12,615 170,376,563 339 502,303
1984 ... ....... 12,523 289,155,035 140,801,136 12,185 163,522,412 338 560,829
1985 .. ..... 12,766 300,807,914 138,903,258 12,426 170,141,227 340 356,687
1986 .. ....... 13,278 322,734,202 140,125,818 12,899 183,517,249 379 421,102
1987 ... ...... 13,444 329,858,775 148,899,425 13,159 187,139,260 285 381,036
1988 ................ 13,441 339,319,326 156,780,203 13,139 192,275,497 302 264,537
1989 .............. 13,389 329,765,627 151,868,548 13,055 186,828,878 334 227,028
1990 ... ...... 13,325 355,557,957 157,322,924 13,015 182,495,977 310 384,786
1991 .. ...... 14,108 374,624,737 163,212,553 13,719 192,760,362 389 614,650
1992 ................. 14,148 368,662,504 159,615,224 13,822 189,895,491 326 554,746

1 Oceangoing traffic includes ships of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Free traffic includes ships of the Colombian and Panamanian Governments and ships transiting for repair by the
Commission.
3 Includes vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement tons for vessels assessed on
displacement tonnage).






Table 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1992 and 1991


Number of Transits Panama Canal Net Tonnage Long Tons of Cargo Tolls
I 1991-92 1990-91 1 1991-92 1990-91 I I 1991-92 1990-91 I I 1991-92 1990-91
October ................................... 1,005 1,057 16,128,253 16,707,635 12,898,296 13,958,989 $ 31,195,525 $ 32,363,567
November.................................. 959 1,031 15,594,411 16,880,588 12,792,743 13,450,705 30,200,942 32,624,748
December .................................. 1,007 1,012 15,754,891 16,476,713 13,718,866 13,990,720 30,603,865 32,203,919
January ................................... 1,102 1,069 16,616,079 16,380,900 13,989,270 12,765,155 32,148,424 31,672,292
February.................................. 1,042 1,082 15,253,832 16,238,059 12,715,319 12,973,905 29,655,425 31,441,967
March ..................................... 1,186 1,177 16,632,396 16,753,382 13,947,358 14,224,070 32,287,473 32,544,260
April ..................................... 1,107 1,065 15,923,614 15,176,965 14,155,296 13,192,667 31,114,174 29,673,759
May...................................... 1,061 1,042 15,880,697 15,492,825 13,342,166 13,511,448 30,791,717 30,126,362
June ...................................... 998 1,015 15,103,200 15,042,574 13,094,757 13,665,432 29,289,724 29,168,535
July ...................................... 1,003 1,021 15,301,563 15,803,262 13,948,067 14,441,553 29,892,181 30,954,441
August .................................... 1,006 1,021 15,708,951 16,072,796 12,032,957 13,649,501 30,159,514 31,004,138
September ................................. 978 980 14,618,539 14,761,156 12,637,523 12,871,741 28,377,492 28,501,584
Total ............................... 12,454 12,572 188,516,426 191,786,855 159,272,618 162,695,886 $365,716,456 $372,279,573

Average per month ......................... 1,038 1,048 15,709,702 15,982,238 13,272,718 13,557,991 $ 30,476,371 $ 31,023,298

NOTE: The above includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and over on vessels paying tolls on a
displacement tonnage basis. Statistics on these vessels, except as relates to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 53

Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1992
Measured tonnage
Num- I Panama I Long
ber of Canal Registered tons of
Flag transits net gross 2 Tolls cargo
Antigua-Barbuda............... 30 117,228 132,862 $ 234,762 76,081
Argentina .................... 2 8,420 12,502 15,198 190
Australia ...................... 1 37,253 44,154 74,879 19,497
Austria ....................... 6 142,306 171,334 274,382 47,888
Bahamas ...................... 792 9,907,617 11,588,244 19,474,237 7,265,859
Bahrain....................... 2 24,518 30,244 49,281 21,521
Barbados ..................... 2 5,836 7,778 11,730 5,172
Belgium ....................... 3 ....... 17,802 20,824 ....
Belize............. ........... 13 20,458 15,486 38,092 10,329
Bermuda..................... 1 11,988 15,092 24,096 15,160
Bolivia........................ 5 41,955 49,185 84,330 53,783
Brazil........................ 28 491,919 588,797 967,754 602,200
Bulgaria ...................... 3 40,085 46,843 80,571 52,523
Canada ............. 11 42,873 53,305 87,872 3,076
Cayman Islands................ I1 21,327 23,081 42,867 35,277
Chile ............. 96 940,837 1,050,098 1,870,863 1,133,994
Colombia ..................... 112 693,319 665,361 1,365,460 262,447
Cuba ......................... 71 487,337 559,888 968,272 511,796
Cyprus ....................... 709 8,205,435 9,508,778 15,903,640 8,922,657
Czechoslovakia ................ 15 237,384 286,854 453,582 255,113
Denmark ...... ....... 268 5,634,332 6,959,314 11,229,494 4,087,308
Dominican Republic............ 2 1,120 598 2,251 52
Ecuador ...................... 331 2,462,527 2,793,930 4,784,385 1,161,445
Egypt......................... 4 74,293 92,062 140,271 86,825
Estonia ....................... 2 13,411 17,137 26,716 20,668
Faroes ........................ 1 1,494 1,521 2,390
Federal Republic of Germany .... 337 4,377,658 5,241,081 8,709,597 3,046,315
Finland ....................... 1 11,257 13,974 22,627 17,784
France ....................... 54 942,416 810,138 1,848,601 639,718
Greece ........................ 689 11,316,941 12,796,664 22,032,232 14,442,307
Honduras ..................... 20 34,314 39,861 66,009 17,738
Hong Kong ................... 29 570,174 696,220 1,125,227 912,981
Hungary ...................... 1 2,680 3,416 5,387 796
Iceland ....................... 1 565 684 1,136
India ......................... 38 808,298 976,716 1,561,687 973,866
Iran .......................... 4 44,308 57,516 84,518 8,810
Ireland ....................... 2 2,962 3,166 5,954 1,448
Israel ......................... 64 1,842,990 2,268,920 3,704,410 1,291,787
Italy ........................ 94 1,795,569 2,266,063 3,582,789 2,166,072
Japan ....................... 390 7,356,083 5,317,596 13,808,588 2,020,320
Kuwait ............. 3 43,270 58,190 86,973 36,959
Latvia .............. ......... 11 153,380 205,655 282,712 116,623
Liberia ....................... 1,479 27,142,946 28,280,049 52,295,220 21,824,232
Luxembourg .................. 63 803,686 1,013,434 1,586,476 717,187
Malagasy Republic ............. 1 9,389 11,531 18,872 4,180
Malaysia ...................... 31 476,432 544,795 938,109 706,464
Malta ........................ 241 3,283,540 3,823,547 6,281,073 3,331,821
Marshall Islands ...... .... 23 332,724 389,198 661,844 486,278
Mauritius ..................... 1 17,966 22,311 36,112 30,182
Mexico ....................... 65 995,643 1,224,546 1,815,817 601,641
Morocco ...................... 10 156,381 194,844 296,788 183,200
Myanmar ..................... 50 848,497 980,803 1,657,626 836,263
Netherlands ................... 237 2,657,039 3,034,620 5,198,869 1,851,034
Netherlands Antilles ............ 45 450,390 490,470 894,253 166,213
New Zealand .................. 1 501 650 802 .......
North Korea................... I1 7,852 9,012 15,783 12,809
Norway............. 702 11,861,502 12,585,759 23,268,353 12,494,362
Panama......... ....... 2,214 32,380,787 33,247,949 61,990,806 22,593,531
Paraguay ..................... 1 1,740 2,281 3,497 2,352
People's Republic of China ...... 268 4,736,761 5,807,998 9,358,773 5,727,876







STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1992-Continued
Measured tonnage
I----------I


Num-
ber of
Flag transit
Peru .................. 98
Philippines .... ..... 433
Poland ................ 80
Portugal............... 3
Qatar ................. 3
Romania .............. 13
Sierra Leone ........... 1
Singapore ............. 186
South Korea ........... 161
Spain ................. 9
Sri Lanka ............. 46
St. Vincent & Grenadines 133
Sweden ............... 65
Switzerland ............ 12
Taiwan................ 153
Thailand .............. 1
Toga.................. 3
Turkey ................ 26
U.S.S.R. .............. 303
United Arab Emirates ... 6
United Kingdom........ 253
United States .......... 414
Vanuatu ............... 202
Venezuela ............. 146
Yugoslavia ............. 22
Total .......... 12,454


I Panama
Canal
net
1,093,338
6,500,444
785,250
33,938
36,154
95,897
3,176
3,840,659
4,502,348
44,771
442,468
1,415,492
2,020,763
300,097
5,054,355
9,273
40,941
344,463
2,793,009
72,020
4,831,193
5,294,941
3,001,576
506,701
321,246
188,516,426


Registered
gross 2
1,089,196
7,386,665
924,592
44,776
45,210
114,102
1,385
3,860,163
4,880,956
51,096
507,311
1,644,657
1,610,161
368,302
5,935,137
8,477
17,994
415,302
3,316,680
90,408
5,756,454
5,337,951
2,806,754
581,481
377,508
204,324,625


Tolls
$ 2,100,659
12,799,741
1,555,895
63,274
72,670
188,915
6,384
7,320,752
8,784,575
$ 89,125
854,512
2,773,643
3,997,111
582,021
10,159,254
14,837
76,696
678,421
5,388,400
144,760
9,432,524
9,945,766
5,597,111
996,634
617,061
$365,716,456


Long
tons of
cargo
905,020
8,320,774
681,173
27,650
10,392
132,346
1,181
3,220,923
3,617,684
63,136
157,316
1,368,232
756,386
429,188
4,253,838

2,162
470,139
2,133,243
72,849
4,142,468
4,014,829
1,816,917
407,098
353,664
159,272,618


I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Includes 11 transit where no registered tonnage was reported.
NOTE.-In Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as transports, supply ships, tankers, etc.,
with a measurement of 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) and over, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons and over, are classified as oceangoing commercial vessels. Statistics on
these vessels, except as related to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above. As
displacement tonnage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table shows statistics covering 29
vessels which transited the Canal during fiscal year 1992 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.


Belgium .............................................
Canada ............................................
Chile ..............................................
Ecuador ............................................
France .............................................
Italy ...............................................
M exico ............................................
Netherlands .........................................
Panam a ...................................... ......
People's Republic of China ...........................
Portugal ............................ ...............
U .S.S.R ...................... .....................
United Kingdom ...................................
United Kingdom ...................................
United States ................ ......................
United States .......................................
Total ................ ..................


Type
Dredge
Naval
Naval
Naval
Naval
Naval
Naval
Dredge
Dredge
Dredge
Naval
Naval
Naval
Dredge
Naval
Dredge


Num-
ber of
transit
1
2
3
2
2
2
2
1
3
1
1

2
2
3
29


Displace-
ment
tonnage
5,730
7,882
9,470
2,384
4,067
14,700
3,662
9,486
9,474
20,123
1,800
2,899
5,394
12,863
2,100
5,369
117,403


Tolls
$ 6,418
8,828
10,606
2,670
4,555
16,464
4,101
10,624
10,611
22,538
2,016
3,247
6,041
14,407
2,352
6,013
$131,491







Table 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic' by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1992


Ballast
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Total Pacific Atlantic


CARGO AND CARGO/PASSENGER SHIPS:
Bulk Carriers:
Dry Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits .......................... ... ... 1,597 1,047 2,644 14
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 33,221 18,462 51,683 165
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $66,747 $37,108 $103,855 $265
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 55,442 28,101 83,543 ......
Dry/Liquid Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits ......................... 12 7 19 2
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 372 185 557 44
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $748 $371 $1,119 $71
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 508 273 781 ......
Vehicle Carriers:
Number of transits ................................. 110 280 390 248
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 4,290 10,947 15,237 9,655
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $8,622 $22,003 $30,626 $15,449
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 153 1,227 1,380 ......
Vehicle/Dry-Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits .................................. 56 59 115 1
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 1,079 1,270 2,349 30
Tolls (thousands of dollars) .......................... $2,168 $2,553 $4,721 $49
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 1,668 1,075 2,743 ......
Container Cargo Ships:
Container/Breakbulk Ships:
Number of transits ............................ ... 329 283 612 7
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 4,582 3,975 8,557 50
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $9,210 $7,990 $17,200 $81
Cargo (thousands of long tons)................... 3,457 3,105 6,561
Full Container Ships:
Number of transits ............................... 540 560 1,100 2
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 13,779 14,366 28,145 26
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $27,695 $28,876 $56,571 $42
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 9,897 8,831 18,728 ......


Grand
Total Total


494 508 3,152
9,988 10,153 61,837
$15,981 $16,246 $120,101
...... ...... 83,543


1 3
24 68
$39 $109


22
625
$1,228
781


9 257 647
104 9,759 24,996
$166 $15,615 $ 46,240
..... ...... 1,380


11
209
$334



33
321
$514


12 127
239 2,588
$382 $5,104 on
...... 2,743


40 652
372 8,929
$595 $17,795 n
...... 6,561 E-

2 1,102 >
26 28,171 W
$42 $56,614 r
... 18,728 to


?ype of Vessel


Laden
| Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic






General Cargo Ships: 0
Number of transits .................................. 778 667 1,445 49 101 150 1,595 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 6,104 5,469 11,573 313 600 913 12,486 Z
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $12,270 $10,992 $23,262 $501 $959 $1,460 $24,723 >
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 5,316 4,091 9,407 ...... ..... ...... 9,407
Passenger Ships (2): >
Number of transits .................................. 91 52 143 2 3 5 148 n
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 1,966 1,061 3,028 8 15 23 3,051 >
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $3,952 $2,133 $6,086 $13 $24 $37 $6,123 Z
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
Refrigerated Cargo Ships:
Refrigerated Cargo Vessels: C
Number of transits .................................. 605 1,253 1,858 622 36 658 2,516 0
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 4,628 8,782 13,410 4,001 184 4,185 17,595
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $9,302 $17,653 $26,954 $6,402 $294 $6,696 $33,650
Cargo (thousands of long tons)....................... 728 4,014 4,742 ...... ....... ...... 4,742
Fishing Vessels:
Number of transits .................................. 136 189 325 51 7 58 383 0
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 110 161 271 55 9 65 336 Z
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $221 $324 $545 $89 $15 $104 $649
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 15 96 111 ...... ...... ...... 111
Tank Ships:
Tankers:
Number of transits ................................. 711 485 1,196 108 213 321 1,517
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 11,019 7,512 18,531 2,125 3,025 5,150 23,681
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $22,149 $15,098 $37,247 $3,400 $4,840 $8,240 $45,487
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 17,564 11,315 28,879 ...... ...... ...... 28,879
Liquid Gas Carriers:
Number of transits .................................. 115 15 130 4 75 79 209
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 1,299 186 1,486 50 883 934 2,419
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $2,611 $375 $2,986 $80 $1,413 $1,494 $4,480
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 1,339 154 1,493 ...... ...... ...... 1,493







OTHER TYPE SHIPS: 00
Naval Vessels:
Number of transits .................................. ...... ..... ...... 10 8 18 18
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ...... ............. 26 28 54 54
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... ...... ..... ...... $29 $32 $61 $61
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ ...... ...... ...... .... .. ..... ..... .. ......
Barges, Dredges, Drydocks, Tugs, etc.:
Number of transits .................................. 135 102 237 39 90 129 366
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 778 461 1,239 55 509 564 1,803
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ...... ...... ......52 11 63 63
Tolls (thousands of dollars) .......................... $1,563 $928 $2,491 $145 $827 $973 $3,463
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 759 145 904 ...... ...... ..... 904
SUMMARY:
Total Cargo and Cargo/Passenger Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 5,080 4,897 9,977 1,110 983 2,093 12,070
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 82,449 72,377 154,826 16,525 15,362 31,888 186,713
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $165,723 $145,477 $311,200 $26,441 $24,580 $51,020 $362,220
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 96,086 62,282 158,368 ...... ...... 158,368
Total Other Type Ships:
Number of transit .................................. 135 102 237 49 98 147 384
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 778 461 1,239 55 509 564 1,803
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ...... ...... ..... 78 39 117 117
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $1,563 $928 $2,491 $175 $859 $1,034 $3,524
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 759 145 904 ...... ...... ..... 904
Grand Total Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 5,215 4,999 10,214 1,159 1,081 2,240 12,454
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ....... ..... 83,227 72,838 156,065 16,580 15,872 32,451 188,516
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ...... ...... ...... 78 39 117 117 V)
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $167,258 $146,405 $313,663 $26,615 $25,439 $52,054 $365,716 _1
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ...................... 96,846 62,427 159,273 ...... ...... ...... 159,273 >

I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels paying tolls on net tonnage basis, or of 500 displacement tons and over for -]
vessels paying on displacement tonnage. n
2 Vessels certificated for more than 12 passengers. >


r
Cl







60 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1992
Laden Ballast
I Hum- 1 I Num-
ber Panama her Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
Antigua-Barbuda .............. 29 115,116 S 231,383 1 2,112 S 3,379
Argentina ................... I 4,210 8,462 1 4,210 6,736
Australia .................. I 37,253 74,879 .... ...... .......
Austria .. ..... . . .... ... 5 113,885 228,909 1 28,421 45,474
Bahamas .... . ....... . ... 665 8,834,268 17,756,879 127 1,073,349 1,717,358
Bahrain .................... 2 24,518 49,281 .... ...... .......
Barbados ................... 2 5,836 11,730 ..... ....
Belize . . . . . . . . . ... 8 13,072 26,275 5 7,386 11,818
Bermuda ................... 1 11,988 24,096 .... ...... .......
Bolivia..................... 5 41,955 84,330 .... ...... .......
Brazil .......... ........ 25 440,691 885,789 3 51,228 81,965
Bulgaria .................... 3 40,085 80,571 ..... .....
Canada .................... 5 25,482 51,219 4 17,391 27,826
Cayman Islands .............. 1 21,327 42,867 .... .
Chile .......... ............ 84 865,652 1,739,961 9 75,185 120,296
Colombia .......... ......... 93 624,754 1,255,756 19 68,565 109,704
Cuba .......... ............ 62 459,837 924,272 9 27,500 44,000
Cyprus ..................... 577 6,768,155 13,603,992 132 1,437,280 2,299,648
Czechoslovakia ............... 13 179,920 361,639 2 57,464 91,942
Denmark .. .......... ....... 236 5,401,372 10,856,758 32 232,960 372,736
Dominican Republic .. . ........ 2 1,120 2,251 ... ... .. ..
Ecuador .. ....... ........... 264 2,052,858 4,126,245 65 409,669 655,470
Egypt ............ . . . ... 3 52,200 104,922 1 22,093 35,349
Estonia .................... I 12,825 25,778 1 586 938
Faroes ..................... ... .1.. ....... 1 1,494 2,390
Federal Republic of Germany ...... 314 4,159,377 8,360,348 23 218,281 349,250
Finland ..................... I 11,257 22,627 ..... ...
France ........... . . . .... 39 819,953 1,648,106 13 122,463 195,941
Greece ............ . . . . 563 9,573,479 19,242,693 126 1,743,462 2,789,539
Honduras ................... 16 27,089 54,449 4 7,225 11,560
Hong Kong .................. 26 519,388 1,043,970 3 50,786 81,258
Hungary .................... 2,680 5,387 .... ...... .......
Iceland .................... 565 1,136 .. . .. ...
India .... . ...... . . . .... 30 654,659 1,315,865 8 153,639 245,822
Iran . . . . . . . . . ... 3 33,231 66,794 1 11,077 17,723
Ireland..................... 2 2,962 5,954 ... ...... .......
Israel....................... 64 1,842,990 3,704,410 ..... ......
Italy . . . . . . . . . ... 87 1,691,256 3,399,425 5 104,313 166,901
Japan .............. ......... 317 4,972,720 9,995,207 73 2,383,363 3,813,381
Kuwait .................... 3 43,270 96,973 . . .
Latvia ................. .. 7 90,985 182,880 4 62,395 99,832
Liberia ..................... 1,227 21,693,943 43,576,815 252 5,449,003 8,718,405
Luxembourg ................ 52 733,117 1,473,565 II 70,569 112,910
Malagasy Republic ............. I 9,389 18,872 .....
Malaysia .................... 28 428,823 861,934 3 47,609 76,174
Malta . .................. 186 2,505,875 5,036,809 55 777,665 1,244,264
Marshall Islands .............. 22 315,818 634,794 I 16,906 27,050
Mauritius .... ............... 1 17,966 36,112 ...
Mexico .................... . 39 533,382 1,072,098 24 462,261 739,618
Morocco ................... 7 113,606 228,348 3 42,775 68,440
Myanmar ................... 42 731,782 1,470,882 8 116,715 186,744
Netherlands .. . .. .... . 195 2,285,323 4,593,499 41 371,716 594,746
Netherlands Antilles ............ 42 423,486 851,207 3 26,904 43,046
New Zealand ............... .. .......... I 501 802
North Korea . . . . . ...... . 7,852 15,783
Norway .. .............. . 609 10,463,292 21,031,217 93 1,398,210 2,237,136
Panama ............. ..... 1,709 24,807,161 49,862,394 502 7,573,626 12,117,802
Paraguay ......... ......... 1 1,740 3,497 ..... ...... .... .
People's Republic of China. ....... 240 4,286,385 8,615,634 27 450,376 720,602
Peru .......... ........... 81 856,874 1,722,317 17 236,464 378,342
Philippines ...... ............ 367 5,851,293 11,761,099 66 649,151 1,038,642
Poland ....... . ............ 71 730,475 1,468,255 9 54,775 87,640
Portugal ....... .. ........... 1 16,969 34,108 1 16,969 27,150
Qatar ... .............. 3 36,154 72,670 ... ...
Romania .......... ......... 11 86,535 173,935 2 9,362 14,979
Sierra Leone ................. I 3,176 6,384 .
Singapore ................... 149 2,867,555 5,763,786 37 973,104 1,556,966
South Korea ................. 142 3,855,653 7,749,863 19 646,695 1,034,712
Spain ..................... 7 42,663 85,753 2 2,108 3,373
Sri Lanka ................... 37 357,471 718,517 9 84,997 135,995
St. Vincent & Grenadines ......... 117 1,241,112 2,494,635 16 174,380 279,008
Sweden ... ............... 58 1,863,147 3,744,925 7 157,616 252,186
Switzerland .................. 10 248,454 499,393 2 51,643 82,629
Taiwan . ................ 153 5,054,355 10,159,254 .... ......
Thailand .. .............. ... ....... ....... I 9,273 14,837
Toga ............ .......... 2 27,294 54,861 1 13,647 21,835







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 61


Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1992-Continued
Laden Ballast
I N Nu m- I
ber Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
Turkey..................... 23 310,439 S 623,982 3 34,024 $ 54,438
United Arab Emirates ........... 6 72,020 144,760 .....
United Kingdom .............. 206 4,137,984 8,317,348 46 693,209 1,109,134
United States ................ 275 3,574,379 7,184,502 134 1,720,562 2,752,899
U.S.S.R...................... 244 2,234,973 4,492,296 58 558,036 892,858
Vanuatu.................... 145 1,938,023 3,895,426 57 1,063,553 1,701,685
Venezuela ................... 123 453,446 911,426 23 53,255 85,208
Yugoslavia .................... 18 251,384 505,282 4 69,862 111,779
Total ................. 10,214 156,065,008 $313,662,696 2,211 32,451,418 $51,922,269
Above table involves only commercial vessels of 300 net tons or over, Panama Canal measurement.








Table 6.-Segregation of Transits' by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal Year 1992


Antigua-Barbuda ................
Argentina ......................
Australia .......................
Austria ........................
Bahamas .......................
Bahrain ........................
Barbados .......................
Belize .........................
Bermuda .......................
Bolivia ............... ........
Brazil .........................
Bulgaria .......................
Canada ........................
Cayman Islands..................
Chile ..........................
Colombia ......................
Cuba..........................
Cyprus ........................
Czechoslovakia ..................
Denmark.......................
Dominican Republic ..............
Ecuador .......................
Egypt .........................
Estonia ........................
Faroes.........................
Federal Republic of Germany .......
Finland ........................
France ........................
Greece .........................
Honduras ......................
Hong Kong .....................
Hungary .......................
Iceland ........................
India..........................
Iran ...........................
Ireland ........................
Israel..........................
Italy ..........................
Japan .........................
Kuwait ........................


Under
2.000
8



24


13




2
8
61

38
65
2
30



2
5
74
15




2

1
151


2,000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 15,000 20,000 30.000 40,000
to to to to to to to to and
3.999 5.999 7.999 9.999 14,999 19,999 29,999 39,999 over
9 7 2 ...... 4 ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... 2 ...... .... ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 5 1 ......
48 70 74 109 194 25 202 34 12
... .. . I .. ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ......
I I ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... 5 ...... .... ...... ..... ......
...... ...... ...... 6 5 4 7 ...... 6
...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... I ...... ......
3 1 ...... 1 2 ...... ...... ...... ......
.... ...... ...... .... ..... ...... 1 ...... ......
I ...... ...... 9 73 ...... 2 ...... ......
4 ...... 1 ...... 46 ..... ...... ...... ......
24 ...... ...... 15 29 2 ...... ...... ......
30 42 47 146 163 114 87 36 6
.... ...... 3 ...... 4 ...... 4 4 ......
10 8 4 7 39 8 15 6 106
...... ...... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... ......
20 1 125 47 74 21 11 ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 4 ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ... . . ...... .... . ......
7 23 I1 72 72 69 62 19 ......
... ... . ... ... ...... I1 ...... ...... ... . ......
7 4 ... ... ...... 2 18 11 2 2
...... 9 49 81 125 80 67 204 ......
...... ...... 5 ...... ...... ... . ...... ... . ......
...... 1 ...... 1 3 11 ...... 13 ......
I ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

...... ...... ...... ...... 2 15 9 3 9
...... ...... ...... ...... 4 ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ... ... ...... ... ... .... .. ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 8 56 ......
...... 3 ...... 11 10 3 26 38 ......
8 21 27 12 2 28 76 25 40
.. ... .. .. .... ...... 2 1 ...... ......


Registered
gross
tonnage
132,862
12,502
44,154
171,334
11,588,244
30,244
7,778
15,486
15,092
49,185
588,797
46,843
45,494
23,081
1,047,183
665,361
559,888
9,508,778
286,854
6,959,314
598
2,792,062
92,062
17,137
1,521
5,241,081
13,974
810,138
12,796,664
39,861
696,220
3,416
684
976,716
57,516
3,166
2,268,920
2,244,281
5,317,596
58,190


Average
gross
tonnage
per
vessel
4,429
6,251
44,154
28,556
14,632
15,122
3,889
1,191
15,092
9,837
21,028
15,614
5,055
23,081
11,260
5,941
7,886
13,412
19,124
25,968
299
8,487
23,016
8,568
1,521
15,552
13,974
15,885
18,573
1,993
24,008
3,416
684
25,703
14,379
1,583
35,452
24,394
13,635
19,397







Latvia .........................
Liberia ........................
Luxembourg ....................
Malagasy Republic ...............
M alaysia .......................
M alta .........................
Marshall Islands .................
M auritius ......................
M exico ........................
Morocco .......................
Myanmar ......................
Netherlands .....................
Netherlands Antilles ..............
New Zealand ....................
North Korea ....................
Norway ........................
Panama .......................
Paraguay .......................
People's Republic of China .........
Peru ..........................
Philippines .....................
Poland ........................
Portugal .......................
Qatar .........................
Romania.......................
Sierra Leone ....................
Singapore ......................
South Korea .....................
Spain .........................
Sri Lanka ....... ..............
St. Vincent & Grenadines ..........
Sweden ........................
Switzerland .....................
Taiwan ........................
Thailand .......................
Toga ..........................
Turkey ........................
U.S.S.R........................
United Arab Emirates .............
United Kingdom .................
United States....................
Vanuatu .......................


.. .. .. ...... 4 .....
4 15 32 45 219
..... ...... ...... 33 ......
..... 2 ...... ...... 2
2 3 14 20 35


22 ...... I I ......

..... ...... ...... 2 7
4 39 36 22 3
3 7 4 ...... 15
1 ...... ...... ...... ......
. .. ...... ...... ...... 1
30 1 15 71 127
46 270 318 328 166
..... I ...... ...... ......
..... ...... ...... ...... 43
1 4 13 ...... 2
4 3 75 45 39
..... 1 3 10 23

..... ...... 3 8 ......
1 ...... ...... ...... ......
. . . 2 4 ...... 20
4 ...... ...... ...... ......
7 ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... ...... 30
8 8 7 20 27
..... ...... ...... 6 ......
5 ...... ...... ...... ......
..... ...... ...... ...... I
.. . ...... 3 ...... ......
... 3 4 ...... I1
2 14 25 54 90

13 3 18 4 4
85 25 17 28 17
53 8 ...... 38 11


424 179
...... I
I ......
...... 24
77 28
11 8

5 2
2 2
13 12
69 ......
7 1


41 114
320 160

38 21
72 6
48 62
33 6
...... 3
3
1 ......

62 6
5
1 ......
14 2
13 30
8 16
3
2
...... 3
...... 2


5 7
48 40
...... 66
68 8
72 45
16 25


7 ...
252 232 77
28 1 ......

2 1 ......
29 31 2
4 ...... ......

I 30 ..
6 ...... ......
2 14 ......
45 18 ......
8 ...... ......

215 85 3
182 302 119
122 43 ......

84 73 ......
...... 1 3
2 ...... ......

...... I ......

35 48 9
65 81 6
...... 1 ......
18 2 ......
15 II 9
2 4 3
5 56 85


2 2 2
22 7 ......

26 86 22
66 34 11
17 26 8


205,655
28,280,049
1,013,434
11,531
544,795
3,823,547
389,198
22,311
1,221,746
194,844
980,803
3,026,670
490,470
650
9,012
12,585,759
33,242,350
2,281
5,793,670
1,089,196
7,386,665
924,592
43,260
45,210
114,102
1,385
3,860,163
4,880,956
51,096
507,311
1,644,657
1,610,161
368,302
5,935,137
8,477
17,994
415,302
3,314,396
90,408
5,750,973
5,332,844
2,806,754


18,696
19,121
16,086
11,531
17,574
15,865
16,922
22,311
19,706
19,484
19,616
12,825
10,899
650
9,012
17,928
15,035
2,281
21,699
11,114
17,059
11,557
21,630
15,070
8,777
1,385
20,754
30,316
5,677
11,028
12,366
24,772
30,692
38,792
8,477
5,998
15,973
10,975
15,068
22,821
13,332
13,895








Table 6.-Segregation of Transits' by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal Year 1992 (Continued) oa
Average "
gross
2.000 4.000 6,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20.000 30.000 40.000 Registered tonnage
Under to to to to to to to to and gross per
2,000 3,999 5,999 7.999 9,999 14.999 19.999 29,999 39.999 over Totalt tonnage vessel
Venezuela ...................... 117 ...... ...... 2 ...... 15 8 ...... 4 ...... 146 581,481 3,983
Yugoslavia ..................... ...... ...... ...... 1 8 4 3 3 3 ...... 22 377,508 17,159
Total ....................... 917 582 783 1,092 1,413 2,344 1,239 1,865 1,638 541 12,414 204,227,382 16,451
Percent of Total .............. 7.4 4.7 6.3 8.8 11.4 18.9 10.0 15.0 13.2 4.4 100.0
1 Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement.
2 Excludes 29 vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage basis and I 11 transits where no registered tonnage was reported.
























>
CO




CO







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped through Canal by Fiscal Years 1990 through 1992
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
I 1990 1991 1992 I Commodity I1992 1991 1990 I
701 830 806 Canned and Refrigerated Foods..................................................... 5,018 5,229 4,796
30 18 33 Canned Foods ......................................... ........................... 124 140 128
2 2 1 Fish ............................................. ........................ 6 24 21
3 3 4 Fruit ......................................................................... 24 15 4
9 11 23 M ilk ......................................................................... 66 68 80
16 2 6 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 29 32 23
671 812 773 Refrigerated Foods .............................................................. 4,894 5,089 4,668
6 8 8 Bananas ...................................................................... 2,145 2,115 1,621
1 1 9 D airy Products ................................................................ 68 48 11
209 238 166 Fish .......................................................................... 397 714 927
55 145 135 Fruit, excluding bananas ...................................................... 1,342 1,288 1,154
11 10 15 M eat ......................................................................... 102 117 63
389 410 439 Other and unclassified ......................................................... 841 808 891
5,770 6,888 6,327 Chemicals and Petroleum Chemicals ...................................................... 1,446 1,181 962
918 1,014 734 Caustic Soda ...................................................................... 96 29 ......
3,566 3,869 4,277 Chemicals, unclassified............................................................. 1,192 1,061 871
1,286 2,005 1,316 Petroleum Chemicals, miscellaneous ................................................. 158 92 91
5,065 4,636 4,424 Coal and Coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............................................... 4,484 3,756 3,051
27,998 29,584 29,684 Grains ................................................................................ 3,034 3312 2242
10 110 91 Barley ............................................................................ 112 595 292
14,012 14,985 14,329 Corn ............................................................................. 29 48 3
2 99 37 O ats .............................................................................. 7 1 1 n
224 162 138 Rice.............................................................................. 580 419 432
2,029 1,734 1,947 Sorghum ......................................................................... ...... ....... 9 -
6,059 6,265 7,207 Soybeans .................................. .................................... 20 39 97 p
5,425 5,828 5,435 W heat ..................... ................................................... 2,189 2,161 1,363 1
237 400 501 Other and unclassified ............................................................. 98 49 45 -
2.608 3.665 4,663 Lumber and Products .................................................................. 5,222 5,883 6,861 >
18 152 70 Boards and planks .............................................................. 1,832 2,779 3,695 r
18 14 5 Plywood, veneers, composition board ............................................... 801 667 748 ]
980 1,006 1,518 Pulpwood ...................................................................... 2,272 2,058 2,063
1,592 2,493 3,070 Other and unclassified ........................................................... 316 379 355 rt
514 396 517 Machinery and Equipment .............................................................. 1,417 1,537 1,558






50 32 27 Agricultural machinery and implements ............................................... 4 11 17
310 235 277 Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ............................................ 1,323 1,378 1,384 >
86 71 99 Construction machinery and equipment .............................................. 35 59 106 Z
33 21 22 Electrical machinery and apparatus ................... ............................... 9 26 9 >
1 1 54 M otorcycles, bicycles and parts ..................................................... 23 24 2
35 36 37 Other and unclassified .................................. ......................... 23 39 40 >
4,248 5,445 3,854 Manufactures of Iron and Steel .......................................................... 2,817 2,808 2,950
241 229 152 Angles, shapes, and sections ...... ......................................... ....... 91 96 67 >
3 7 17 Nails, tacks, and spikes ..................................... ...................... 34 28 52 Z
2,351 3,435 2,022 Plates, sheets, and coils .......................... ..... .......................... 1,357 1,242 1,471
147 259 225 Tubes, pipes, and fittings ................. .......................................... 323 337 333
900 950 735 W ire, bars, and rods ................................................................ 226 197 166
606 565 702 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 786 908 863
204 124 88 Minerals, miscellaneous ........................................................... .... 4398 4,814 4,733
7 28 12 Asbestos .. ..................................................................3 ..... 3
3 1 1 Borax ... ....................................................................... 368 398 424
2 ...... Infusorial earth ..... ...................................................................
33 29 36 Salt .. ................................................................................ 830 1,139 1,374
96 63 31 Soda and sodium compounds ..................................................... 602 323 222 Z
65 ...... 8 Sulfur ............................................................................ 2,596 2,954 2,710
11713 13,156 12,460 Nitrates, Phosphates, and Potash ....................................................... 332 1,562 2079
480 778 648 Ammonium compounds.......................................................... 19 25 28
1 13 ...... Fishm eal .......................................................................... 658 795 1,281
8 20 58 Nitrate of soda...................................... 388 296 383
7,957 9,210 8,354 Phosphates ........................................................................ 227 339 268
442 783 827 Potash............................................................................ 2 32 52
2,826 2,352 2,573 Fertilizers, miscellaneous ....................................... 39 75 67
3,772 3,652 942 Ores and Metals ............................................................... ........ 6616 7,714 8,686
798 787 738 Ores ............................................................................ 5,547 6,375 7,410
229 162 159 Alumina/bauxite................................... ............................ 769 1,706 3,040
6 73 62 Chrome........................... ........................................ 28 19 46
67 26 28 Copper ....................................................................... 1,037 488 471
182 161 120 Iron .......................................................................... 407 295 413
8 15 5 Lead ............... ..................................................... 182 243 224
86 92 140 Manganese ............. .................................................. 130 172 313
...... 2 Tin... ................................................................... 2 4 12
30 24 34 Zinc......... ........................................ ................ 1,159 927 763
189 234 188 Other and unclassified .................... ....... ............... 1,833 2,521 2,128
-Ji







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped through Canal by Fiscal Years 1990 through 1992-Continued a
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
1990 1991 1992 I Commodity I1992 1991 1990 I
2,974 2,865 2,204 M etals..................................................................... .... 1,069 1,340 1,275
409 503 465 Aluminum ......................... ..................... .... ........ ....... 9 12 13
8 3 7 Copper ....................................................................... 704 978 892
291 194 243 Iron .......................................................................... 43 19 14
15 1 2 Lead ......................................................................... 66 104 80
2,186 2,102 1,424 Scrap ......................................................................... 2 ...... 28
11 12 17 Tin, including tinplate .......................................................... 8 8 11
7 8 4 Zinc .......................................................................... 165 178 220
48 41 42 Other and unclassified ......................................................... 71 40 19
1,803 1,848 1,768 Other Agricultural Commodities ........................................................ 3,201 3,287 3,634
78 11 10 Beans, edible ...................................................................... 106 63 56
4 2 2 Cocoa and cacao beans ............................................................ 38 44 40
7 ...... 6 Coffee, raw and processed ........................................................ 281 318 421
2 ...... ...... Copra and coconuts ................................................................ 7 6 7
51 67 41 Cotton, raw ....................................................................... 77 61 64
13 17 12 M classes .......................................................................... 647 633 714
122 97 236 Oilseeds .......................................................................... 61 33 88
12 11 3 Peas, dry ....................................................................... 53 36 11
4 2 7 Rubber, raw ....................................................................... 44 36 47
3 ...... I Skins and hides .................................................................... ..... 2 27
1,508 1,640 1,450 Sugar ......................... .................................................. 1,885 2,053 2,153
1 ...... W ool, raw ........................................................................1 3 6
11709 13,036 13373 Petroleum and Petroleum Products ....................................................... 11826 10964 13521
25 70 108 Asphalt ........................................................................... 10 1 .>
2,687 3,215 4,346 Crude oil ..... ................................. ............................... 3,936 5,024 6,575 -
1,430 1,368 1,300 D iesel oil ......................................................................... 538 141 98
1,891 2,506 2,055 Fuel oil, residual .................................................................. 3,287 2,037 3,620
1,938 1,804 1,640 Gasoline ......................................................................... 661 1,162 310
912 819 1,031 Jet fuel ........................................................................... 53 26 70
101 200 33 Kerosene .................................................................... 115 ............
999 1,338 1,085 Liquefied gas .................................................................... 155 41 147 >
612 578 566 Lubricating oil............................. ..................................... 213 129 171 W
784 748 895 Petroleum coke ................................................................... 2,610 2,365 2,447 r
331 390 313 Other and unclassified ............................ .. ............................ 247 38 82






14,861 16202 15,940 M miscellaneous .................... ................................................. 11615 11189 11034
11 13 26 Bricks and tile ..................................................................... 11 4 11 >
28 81 113 Carbon black .................................................................... 2 11 1 Z
543 948 318 Cem ent ........................ ................................................... 2 5 5
623 708 724 Clay, fire and china................................................................ 16 21 87 >
2 1 2 Fibers, plant ....................................................................... 6 3 12
149 194 272 Flour, wheat ...................................................... ............. 59 ...... 2
11 5 8 Glass and glassware ............................................................. ... 4 5 5
54 48 46 Groceries, miscellaneous ........................................................... 42 52 22 >
7 2 2 Liquors and wines ................................................................ 22 9 14 r
69 93 127 Marble and stone ............................................................... 1 ...... 3
6 8 1 Oil, coconut ...................................................................... 17 46 70 O
I ...... O il, fish ........................................................................... 115 144 213
176 235 202 Oil, vegetable .................................................................... 214 191 232
944 1,069 1,078 Paper and paper products .......................................................... 494 551 448
1 6 10 Porcelainware ..................................................................... ...... 1 1
75 81 87 Resin ............................................................................ 1 I 1
21 11 7 Rubber, manufactured ............................................................. 5 5 16 6
4 ...... 71 Seeds, excluding oilseeds ............................ .............................. 20 24 13 Z
146 240 52 Slag, clinkers, and dross...................... ..................................... 12 5 28
75 126 117 Tallow ............................................................................ 32 28 36
7 8 8 Textiles.......................................................................... 7 18 15
Tobacco and manufactures .......................................................... ..... ...... I
15 3 11 W ax, paraffin .................................................................. 32 11 13
11,347 11,628 12,039 Container cargo................................................................... 9,837 9,567 9,375
547 691 618 All other and unclassified ................ .......................................... 662 487 412
90,966 99.460 96,846 Total .................... ............ ........................................... 62427 63236 66107










S%








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal from Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1992

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]


To West Coast United Stat,


Main-
Alaska Hawaii land


To W. C.
Canada


To West Coast Central America


Total


II II Central
Costa El Sal- Guate- Nica- Pan- America Balboa,
Total Canada Rica vador mala Mexico ragua ama (other) R. P.2


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ...............
South Atlantic ports ...............
Great Lakes ports .................
Gulf ports ......................
United States (other)' ..............
Total United States ..............

EAST COAST CANADA

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Mexico ..........................
Panama ..........................
Central America (other)' ...............
Cristobal, R.P.2 .. .......... ........
Total Central America ...............

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ..........................
Colombia ........ ................
Venezuela ........................
South America (other)I ... .............
Total South America ................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ............................
Jamaica ..........................
Netherlands West Indies ..............
Trinidad/Tobago ...................
West Indies (other) I .................
Total West Indies ......... .........


..... 4,190
1,838 .....



1,838 4,190


41,259 45,449
22,265 24,103


1,496,549
52,798
1,612,871


1,496,549
52,798
1,618,899


..... 69 89,627 89,696


1,045 .....
12,460 108,643
. .... 193,422
4,568 .. . .
18,073 302,065




. . . 30,961
.. ... 27,780

. . .. 58,741


3,223

150
1,944
5,317


785,319
85,066
1,798,201
47,103
2,715,689


3,223

150
1,944
5,317


786,364
206,169
1,991,623
51,671
3,035,827


2,618 2,618
151,175 182,136
178,427 206,207
164,999 164,999
497,219 555,960


19,298
5,472

10,676

35,446


5,164
6,054

598,852
85
610,155


36,419
6,513

621,735

664,667


85,386
20

402,892
28,686
516,984


705 3,965 9,095 .. ...


43,064
9,795
13,271
5,954
72,684


10,051
29,658

18,834

58,543


1,299


15
1,314


24,545
131
79,448
8,870
112,994




178
55,508
64
55,750


354,532



354,532


7,025
4,076
460,008

471,109




13

1,494
1,507


9
9


34,861
15,737
326,765
4,082
381,445




5,696
25,708
6
31,410


108,134 20,606 2,819 4,920
84,118 4,100 28,448 486

1,355,254 115,704 71,020 132,727
28,828 .... 432 2,764
1,576,334 140,410 102,719 140,897


276,527 5,121 2,218 . .. ..... . 296,926


681,853 ..... ..... .....
...... ..... 5,632 .....
...... ..... 169 150

681,853 . ... 5,801 150


20,062 5,014 ..... 46,316
182,177 1,949 430 34
106,250 651,934 12,906 19,786
47,533 ..... 443 1,754
356,022 658,897 13,779 67,890


...... 130 ..... 12,054

1,236 8,589 ..... 177
. . . . .. 14,919 12,200
69,853 .... . . 29,567
71,089 8,719 14,919 53,998


11,077 274,525
12,894 142,633

578,033 3,876,217
5,524 66,319
607,528 4,359,694


1,280
394,332
65
10,790
406,467


839
25,527
72,563

98,929




57,432
15,611
2,385
75,428


1,038,964
399,964
384
10,814
1,450,126


138,662
230,061
1,729,660
62,682
2,161,065


12,184

73,321
123,946
103,369
312,820


es








EUROPE:
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . .
France ......................... .
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . .
Norway ..........................
Spain-Portugal .....................
Sweden ..........................
United Kingdom ....................
U.S.S.R. ..........................
Europe (other)' ....................
Total Europe .......... ...........

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST)

AFRICA


. .. .... 327,862 327,862
537 ..... 178,931 179,468
. . . .. 319,313 319,313
.... ..... 254,524 254,524
.... ..... 320,939 320,939
.... ..... 156,644 156,644
. . . .. 116,172 116,172
.... ..... 51,596 51,596
.... ..... 114,677 114,677

3,059 ..... 851,067 854,126
3,596 ..... 2,691,725 2,695,321


23,597 11,311 13,329 48,418 60 21,327 63 9,446
18,373 22,013 ...... .. ... ...... 5,914 ..... .....
31,940 3,107 6,950 16,541 66 3,298 714 4,850
25,466 12,465 595 13,179 ..... 1,126 12 . . .
38,274 17,155 1,248 31,875 29,658 10,654 ..... 4,586
108 750 ...... 10,005 ...... 6,514 ..... .....
6,412 6,696 48,373 ...... 1,224 6,303 44 213
322 ..... ...... ...... ...... ..... 69 .....
10,883 ..... ...... ...... ...... ... 9 .....
...... 9,352 88,847 13,090 30,294 663 15 2,604
131,467 14,134 17,395 6,749 217,645 25,360 ..... 52,176
286,842 96,983 176,737 139,857 278,947 81,159 926 73,875


9,578 ..... 71,014 80,592 ...... .. .. 13,779


936 ...... 5,463


. .. 315 45,206 45,521 850,602 ..... 29,653 ...... 193,482 .... .....


1,125 105,079
6,741 34,668
2,927 38,453
3,509 30,886
3,270 98,446
..... 17,269
23,015 85,868
..... 69
1,540 1,549
..... 144,865
4,411 337,870
46,538 895,022


GRAND TOTAL .................. 33,085 365,380 7,728,668 8,127.133 1.304,222 881,161 1,721,079 1,070,641 3434254 899,769 140,370 336,824 1.234,890 9,718,988


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ........... .... 0.0 0.4


8.0 8.4 1.3 0.9


1.8 I.I 3.5 0.9 0.1 0.3


8 ..... ... 20,186


14 . .. 223,149


1.3 10.0








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal from Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1992

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ............. ......................
South Atlantic ports .... ..... .........................
Great Lakes ports .............. .......................
Gulf ports .. ........................................
United States (other ) ............................ .......
Total United States ........... .. .......................

EAST COAST CANADA

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ........ .....................................
Panama ...............................................
Central America (other)' ................................ ....
Cristobal, R.P.2 .............................. ...... ......
Total Central America ................................. .

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil .................................... ............
Colombia ..............................................
Venezuela .......................... ...................
South America (other)' .....................................
Total South America .....................................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba .................................................
Jamaica ...............................................
Netherlands West Indies . . .... .........................
Trinidad/Tobago .................... .....................
West Indies (other)' .......... ..............................
Total West Indies ......................................


Chile Colombia Ecuador


129,291
125,118

1,241,675
132,575
1,628,659


41,655
35,421

403,499
22,603
503,178


103,973
289,438

496,044
56,591
946,046


South I
America
Peru (other) I Total


134,933 61,072
108,426 37,566
453 .....
1,109,831 128,898
55.572 70,868
1,409,215 298,404


470,924
595,969
453
3,379.947
338,209
4,785,502


170,476 581 62,970 60,836
150,353 3,105 205,589 41,919

1,675,946 ..... 276,602 131,398
194,192 959 35,239 29,806
2,190,967 4,645 580,400 263,959


9,631 141,510 48,711 22,220 8,419 230,491 43,479 ..... 32,807 3,418 79,704


36,643


8,916
45,559


395
55,878
796,139
7,625
860,037




161,250
64,057
201
225,508


87,477
2,182
7,267
129
97,055


23,713
481,816
12,463
17,338
535,330


140,537

1,396
11,600
153,533


63.734
10,668
180,521
39,330
294,253


56,738 22,288
25,542 1,037
1,400 1,585
3,129 9,439
86,809 34,349


343,683
28,761
11,648
33,213
417,305


3,139 5,744 96,725
1,080,404 25,648 1,654,414
427,872 44,258 1,461,253
7,816 15,733 87,842
1,519,231 91,383 3,300,234


128 550


24,707
15,819
40,654


47,597
53,846
25,488
127,481


94,432 51,176
2,769 5,673
51,736 .....
148,937 56,849


678

354,455
151,052
93,244
599,429


1,202 ..... 2,063 .....
...... ..... ..... 14

30.
...... ..... 30 .....
1,202 ..... 2,093 14









...... ..... 51,177 ....
215 ..... ... ...392
9,963.. .......... .....






10,178 . . 51,177 392


To West Coast South America


To Oceania


Aus- French New Oceania
tralia Oceania Zealand (other) I Total


294,863
400,966

2,083,946
260,196
3,039,971


3.265
14

30
3,309


...... -




51,177
607 >

9,963

61,747
(T
(/2







EUROPE:
Belgium ............................................ .. 181,333 41,081 59,926 98,059 25,571 405,970 3,993 32,547 58,128 45,561 140,229
France ............. ... . ............................. . 21,388 6,329 5,061 26,098 7,746 66,622 2,153 109,910 5,628 39,393 157,084
Germany ............................................ .. 126,801 32,491 49,601 52,217 7,556 268,666 45,025 6,664 11,343 25,072 88,104
Italy .... .............................................. 15,108 10,190 5,793 18,688 8,999 58,778 275 7,625 5,117 2,849 15,866
Netherlands ............................................ 88,014 4,840 3,697 15,405 9,011 120,967 64,480 15,030 45,850 20,537 145,897
Norway ............................................... 24,536 ...... ...... ...... ...... 24,536 19,164 ..... ..... ... 19,164
Spain-Portugal ....................................... .. 49,838 3,104 22,794 19,492 9,159 104,387 5,250 148 ..... 179 5,577
Sweden ........... .......... .................. .......... 39,867 5,770 16,612 7,674 786 70,709 78,317 ..... 8,561 130 87,008
United Kingdom ............... ............................. 50,781 4,094 4,941 14,435 149 74,400 872 919 15,584 12,492 29,867
U.S.S.R .................................................. 12,381 30,678 51,188 13,400 11,786 119,433 .. ..... ..... ... ..
Europe (other)I .......... ............................... 134,408 69,132 76,786 70,390 99,310 450,026 58,161 54,943 4,353 99,183 216,640
Total Europe ............... .... ... ........................ 744,455 207,709 296,399 335,858 180,073 1,764,494 277,690 227,786 154,564 245,396 905,436


ASIA (MIDDLE EAST)

AFRICA


90,273 ...... 19,310


395 ..... 109,978


1,240 10,885 44.,072 6,167 1,266 63.630


6 ..... .....

32 . .. 157,514


I 7

24 157,570
r0


GRAND TOTAL ......................................... 3,605,362 1,536,321 1,929,805 3,528,832 670,743 11,271,063 2,523,554 232,431 978,555 513,204 4,247,744


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ................................... ..


z


3.7 1.6 2.0 3.6 0.7 11.6 2.6 0.2 1.0 0.5


z



0

z

r
C-)


A A









Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal from Atlantic to Pacific during Fiscal Year 1992

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


To Asia


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ........... ....
South Atlantic ports ...............
Great Lakes ports .................
Gulf ports .....................
United States (other)' ..............
Total United States ........ ......

EAST COAST CANADA

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ..........................
Panama ..........................
Central America (other)' ...............
Cristobal, R.P,2 .....................
Total Central America ...............

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ...........................
Colombia .........................
Venezuela .........................
South America (other)' .... ............
Total South America ........ ........

WEST INDIES:
Cuba .......................... .
Jamaica ..........................
Netherlands West Indies ... ........ . .
Trinidad/Tobago ....................
West Indies (other) . .................
Total West Indies ..................


Hong
China Taiwan Kong


202,038 617,200
243,249 570,996
...... 20,966
8,708,960 6,739,979
115,951 529,222
9,270,198 8,478,363


Philip-
Indo- pine Singa- South Thai- Asia
nesia Japan Islands pore Korea land U.S.S. R. (other) I


308,386 7,671 1,349,824 5,085 138,128
339,469 58,547 1,930,752 29,967 122,250
...... ..... ...... 105 .....
82,595 224,655 22,168,184 511,739 371,914
288,860 9,553 965,263 36,960 72,702
1,019,310 300,426 26,414,023 583,856 704,994


1,194,125 52,994 . . .
313,960 31,094 .....
19,535 ..... .....
3,812,789 302,279 123,630
433,713 11,677 12
5,774,122 398,044 123,642


236,292 260,528 88,084 ... 332,722 19,489 12,601 164,505 16,797 .. ... 147,992 1,279,010 1,976,532 2.0


66,962 6,200
4,571 ......

.. .... 200
71,533 6,400


3,954 5,041
11,022 3,143
9,731 45,066
16,654 667
41,361 53,917


794,658 ......
...... 30,275

18,208 21,436
. . . 20,176
812,866 71,887


31,062 .....


1,000 .....
32,062 .....


20,030 . . .

27,573 .....
1,237 ....
48,840 . . .



39,598 .....
364 .....
1,423 9,261

41,385 9,261


7,255 1,490 11,605
. .. .. .. ... 157
4,729 ..... .....
1,503 ...........
13,487 1,490 11,762


579,407 .. .. 474
60,396 ..... ....
899,556 .. ... 38
69,863 . .. 1,911
1,609,222 . ... 2,423


342,054 ..... .....
26,360 ..... 12
109,681 ..... 6,507
65,547 ..... 93
13,094 . . .... .
556,736 . .. 6,612


32,769 60,037 .....


500 ..... ......
33,269 60,037 .....


38,655 15,000 ..... 14,761


67,747 . . ..... .
11,077 .... .... .
117,479 15,000 .....


51,671 ..... 97,311
14,499 ..... .....
38,654 . . ..... .
133 . . .... .
66,360 .... ..... .
171,317 . .. 97,311


Total


Percent
of total
Pacific-
Grand bound
total cargo


5,483,862
5,052,489
55,883
55,888,952

70,032,155


503,352 4,378,803
243,062 3,883,346
14,824 55,430
1,994,893 45,041,617
369,534 2,833,447
3,125,665 56,192,643


33,258


3,247
36,505


250,638
4,728
4,729
6,450
266,545


677,322
74,561
1,064,137
101,785
1,917,805


14,426
376
29,563


1,639,773
433,467
16,911
52,451
2,142,602


1,742,137
2,175,000
6,259,944
309,934
10,487,015


1,417,957
146,005
766,797
626,756
483,478
3,440,993


58,173 1,343,867
2,378 113,122
1,679 156,885
653 116,754
22,236 121,866
85,119 1,852,494







EUROPE: 1'
Belgium .... ....................... .. 1,016 1,150 286 2,739 . . 1,392 66 ... ... . .. ...... 6,649 1,009,386 1.0 >
France .......................... .... 3,350 1,122 81 6,251 ..... 74 5,947 . ... . .. ...... 16,825 473,040 0.5 Z
Germany ................... ..... 1,036 ...... .... 125,781 .. . 14 3,242 ..... .... ...... 130,073 876,549 0.9 >
Italy ............................ ...... ...... 18 .... ................ ..... ..... ..... 1,849 1,867 387,387 0.4
Netherlands ............... ........ .... 11,039 111 .... 29,485 ..... 20 4,958 ..... ..... 5,793 51,406 775,929 0.8 >
Norway .......................... ..... ...... ....... 154 42,219 ..... .... ............... . ...... 42,373 260,094 0.3
Spain-Portugal ...................... ...... 773 21 .... 37,374 .... ..... 44 ..... ..... ...... 38,212 356,628 0.4
Sweden .......................... .......................................... 15 ...... .......... 143 158 209,862 0.2 >
United Kingdom ........ .. ....... 400 24 . . . .... .. 24,084 .. .. 24 1,478 ..... ..... 8,875 34,885 266,261 0.3 Z
U.S.S.R. ....................... ............................................................................... 264,298 0.3 >
Europe (other)' ..................... 6,305 7,995 783 621 180,724 34 731 7,038 ..... ..... 58,126 262,357 2,252,486 2.3 r
Total Europe .............. ...... .... 6,705 25,233 3,205 1,142 448,657 34 2,270 22,773 ..... ..... 74,786 584,805 7,131,920 7.4 (

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) ...... 18 4,412 2,958 ...... ..... 2,437 4,865 ..... ..... 9,531 24,221 234,984 0.2

AFRICA ...... ...... . . 56,512 .. ... 375 ...... .... 100 2,111 59,098 1,399,570 1.4 -

GRAND TOTAL .................. 10,438,955 8,896,346 1,237,298 313,787 29,431,359 604,869 743,474 6,288,330 489,878 221,053 3,511,272 62,176,621 96,845,771 .....

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo .............. 10.8 9.2 1.3 0.3 30.4 0.6 0.8 6.5 0.5 0.2 3.6 64.2 100.0% Z


Includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
Includes both local and transshipped cargo.








Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal from Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1992
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes
[Long tons]
To E. C.
To East Coast United States Canada To East Coast Central America
North South Great United [ Central
Atlantic Atlantic Lakes Gulf States America Cristobal
ports ports ports ports (other)' Total Canada Mexico Panama (other) I R.P. 2 Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ........................... 3,927 ......... ......... 274,310 ......... 278,237 10,418 ........ ......... ...... ......... .........
Hawaii........................... 29,196 ......... ......... 33,690 ......... 62,886 236 ........ ......... 89 ......... 89
Mainland ........................... 216,012 86,694 ......... 553,272 31,481 887,459 276,492 24,726 13,509 ......... 58,650 96,885
Total United States ................. 249,135 86,694 ......... 861,272 31,481 1,228,582 287,146 24,726 13,509 89 58,650 96,974

WEST COAST CANADA ................. 291,277 209,499 ......... 572,424 165,483 1,238,683 3,065 138,215 ......... 16,238 ......... 154,453

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ........................... ......... 989 ......... 89,471 21,071 111,531 ......... 8,263 ......... ......... 176 8,439
El Salvador................ ............ 25,237 ......... ......... 70,591 13,975 109,803 ......... 4,010 ......... ......... 413 4,423
Guatemala .......................... .. 128,149 60,704 ......... 279,955 127,084 595,892 ......... 35,177 ......... ......... 960 36,137
Honduras ............................. 596 ......... ......... 9,883 ......... 10,479 ......... ......... 1,452 ......... 1,892 3,344
Mexico ............................. 346,531 220,683 31,885 645,457 8,044 1,252,600 ......... 369,058 ......... ......... 39,845 408,903
Nicaragua ............................ 6,Q27 24,610 ......... 63,360 21,872 116,769 ......... ......... ......... 20 ......... 20
Panama ............................ .. 30,612 218 ......... 42,827 3,205 76,862 ......... ......... 750 ......... 6,000 6,750
Central America (other) ................... 24,500 ......... ......... 24,510 ......... 49,010 ......... ......... ......... ......... 350 350
Balboa, R.P ........................... 2,271 1,484 ......... 3,050 498 7,303 ......... ......... ......... 601 3,940 4,541
Total Central America .............. .. .. 564,823 308,688 31,885 1,229,104 195,749 2,330,249 ......... 416,508 2,202 621 53,576 472,907

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA: -
Chile ................................ 682,902 176,109 ......... 470,277 221,719 1,551,007 23,240 59,019 ......... 25,250 6,291 90,560 >
Colombia ............................ 98,127 35,292 ......... 123,187 33,869 290,475 ............ ... 26,956 247 28,660 -
Ecuador ............................. 883,325 167,860 ......... 708,219 93,353 1,852,757 53,222 5,864 995,285 52,068 1,229 1,054,446
Peru ............... ................ 710,885 191,355 ......... 116,439 160,091 1,178,770 4,593 87,655 17,720 984 409 106,768 -]
South America (other) ........ ........... .. 142,994 61,350 ......... 50,677 50,188 305,209 ......... 12,469 .......... 1.956 3,935 18,360
Total South America ................... 2,518,233 631,966 ......... 1,468,799 559,220 5,178,218 81,055 166,464 1,013,005 107,214 12,111 1,298,794 >
r

>
r







OCEANIA:
Australia ............... ..... ... 533,384 120,174 22,638 980,218 156,693 1,813,107 399,562 41,951 ......... .......... 214 42,165 >
British Oceania ....... ..... ............ ...... ...... 15,501 ......... 11,200 ......... 26,701 ......... ........ .... . ........ ....... .. ........
French Oceania ................................................................................ ....................................................... >
New Zealand .......... .................. 160,890 40,848 ......... 53,864 85,280 340,882 12,440 31,749 ......... ......... 1,210 32.959 S
Oceania (other)I .......................... 82,119 28,923 ......... 9,362 5,467 125,871 10,810 ........................... 667 667 >
Total Oceania ............. .... ... 776.393 205,446 22,638 1,054,644 247,440 2,306,561 422,812 73,700 ......... ......... 2,091 75,791 "

ASIA: z
China ....... ....................... 231,137 26,045 14,218 961,320 35,013 1,267,733 123,178 12,879 ......... ......... ......... 12,879
Taiwan ................. .............. 375,876 235,350 ......... 82,835 218,676 912,737 47,429 ......... ......... 787 38,305 39,092
Hong Kong ..................... ... 413,506 299,001 ......... 2,129 168,802 883,438 56,411 ........................... 126,868 126,868
Indonesia ............... ....... . 134.195 29,383 33,265 201,554 97,446 495,843 96,498 ......... .................. .... .........
Japan .............................. 1,901,632 921,133 241.665 2,167,673 578,488 5,810,591 33,719 112,537 3 5,282 46,570 164,392 0
Philippine Islands ....................... 40,446 50,732 ......... 43,642 36,269 171,089 5,905 984 ......... ......... 132 1,116
Singapore .. .......................... 204,112 127,897 .......... 47,785 64,503 444,297 21,749 ........................... 34,551 34,551
South Korea ....... .. ............... 170,838 86,496 ......... 566,966 231,624 1,055,924 24,087 3,543 ......... ......... 49,238 52,781
Thailand .............. .. ........ 23,248 ......... ......... 33,169 ......... 56,417 ......... 15,983 ......... ......... ......... 15.983
U.S.S.R ....... ......................... 1,336 ......... ......... ........ ..... ..... 1,336 ........ . ....... ......... ......... ......... .........
Asia (other) ............................. 767,753 459,709 ......... 250,989 280,363 1,758,814 2,004 61,675 1,033 6,296 178,556 247560 0
Total Asia ......... ................... 4,264,079 2,235,746 289,148 4,358,062 1,711,184 12,858,219 410,980 207,601 1,036 12,365 474,220 695,222 Z

GRAND TOTAL ..................... 8,663,940 3,678,039 343,671 9,544,305 2,910,557 25,140512 1,205,058 1,027,214 1,029,752 136,527 600,648 2,794,141

Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ............... 13.9 5.9 0.6 15.3 4.7 40.3 1.9 1.6 1.6 0.2 1.0 4.5



See footnotes at end of table.








Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal from Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1992 --
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]
To East Coast South America To West Indies
I I I Haiti/ Nether-
South Domini- lands Trini- West
Colom- Vene- America can West Puerto dad/ Indies
Brazil bia zuela (other) I Total Cuba Republic Jamaica Indies Rico Tobago (other) I Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska .... ................................ ....... 343 ......... ...... 343 ........ ....... ....... ......... 5,072 ....... ....... 5,072
Hawaii ..... .................... ....... ....... 45944 ... 45944 ........ .............. .......45,944 .................. ............. .........45944.......
Mainland ............................. 193,983 9,305 123,781 2,863 329,932 ........ 483 7,975 409,382 39,122 27,551 148,609 633,122
Total United States ............. .......... 193,983 55,592 123,781 2,863 376,219 ........ 483 7,975 409,382 44,194 27,551 148,609 638,194

WEST COAST CANADA ....................... 684,928 110,497 155,833 ....... 951,258 32,505 37,744 20,644 ......... 57,912 ....... 4,007 152,812

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica .................................. 171 ....... 6,907 192 7,270 ........ ....... 691 29 ......... 119 ....... 839
El Salvador.................................. 210 145 34,602 ....... 34,957 ........ .... ...... ......... 18,454 ....... 30,560 49,260
Guatemala ............... .................. 482 56 8,770 17,475 26,783 2,245 12,355 470 532 8,179 8,863 18,495 51,139
Honduras ............................... .... .. ..... 1,697 ......... 190 1,887 ........ ....... ....... ........ ........ ....... 9,034 9,034
Mexico .................................... 9,972 47,328 52,419 37 109,756 253,802 ....... ....... 87,276 69,868 152,449 46,326 609,721
Nicaragua................................... .. ..... 3,765 40,746 ....... 44,511 2,622 3,937 ....... ......... ......... 4,429 ....... 10,988
Panama .................................... . ..... 3,113 ......... ........ 3,113 ........ ...... ........ 3,000 ......... ....... 1,234 4,234
Central America (other)' ........................ ....... 26,195 38,927 1,192 66,314 21,711 4,429 ....... ......... 9,101 4,921 492 40,654
Balboa, R.P.2 ............ ... .. ...... ......... ...... 792 800 ....... 1,592 ........ 109 53 ......... ......... ....... 178 340
Total Central America ..................... .. 10,835 83,091 183,171 19,086 296,183 280,380 21,076 1,214 90,837 105,602 170,781 106,319 776,209

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ................ ............ ....... 1,969 8,227 107,498 2,908 120,602 10,966 28,479 ....... ........ 13,310 19 10,534 63,308
Colombia ................................ .. ... 675 351,494 154,225 488 506,882 ........ ....... ....... ......... 3,357 ....... ....... 3,357 t
Ecuador ..................... ............ 50,992 5,792 23,548 50 80,382 343,873 6,965 ....... 229,029 261,578 ....... 204,578 1,046,023 Cr
Peru .................................... 15,828 4,712 81,223 3,856 105,619 ........ ....... ....... 243,271 49,630 109,957 94,855 497,713 ]
South America (other)' .......................... .. 57 24,109 20,912 1,865 46,943 9,283 ....................... 4,187 ....... 5,079 18.549
Total South America ......................... 69,521 394,334 387,406 9,167 860,428 364,122 35,444 ....... 472,300 332,062 109,976 315,046 1,628,950 >



r

Ca







OCEANIA:
Australia ..................................
British Oceania ..............................
French Oceania ..............................
New Zealand................................
Oceania (other)' ..............................
Total Oceania ................. ............

ASIA:
China ....................................
Taiwan ...................................
Hong Kong...................................
Indonesia ..................................
Japan ...... ..................... .......
Philippine Islands. .............................
Singapore ..................................
South Korea ...............................
Thailand ..................................
U.S.S.R. ..................................
Asia (other) ...............................
Total Asia ................ ...............


....... ..... 6,989 .......


........ 1,227 28,759 .......
........ ....... ......... 49
........ 1,227 35,748 49


521 28,790
550 554
351 1,273

26,122 22,348


95,214 .......
3,803 1,260
5,732 508

78,809 23,433


47 III 913 .......
1,018 1,100 8,485 2,422
........ ....... 18,405 .......

19,261 8,388 63,653 41,628
47,870 62,564 275,014 69,251


6,989


29,986
49
37,024


124,525
6,167
7,864

150,712

1,071
13,025
18,405

132,930
454,699


........ ....... 4,704 35,313 ......... 45 61 40,123
........ ....... ....... ......... 16,355 9,450 6,200 32,005

33,351 4,136 7,864 ......... ......... 1,383 708 47,442
..... .. ....... 84 ......... 34,941 106 1,647 36,778
33,351 4,136 12,652 35,313 51,296 10,984 8,816 156,348


404,742 ....... .......
........ ....... 29,674
.... .. .. ....... 60,386
........ 1,723 .......
9,707 10,193 49,823


20,991 .........
317 .........
1,215 .........
......... 950
3,204 68,499


978
1,017

10,172


3


37,768


........ 57 ....... 96 ......... 359 ........
31 419 32,382 90 6,602 377 2,814
10,000 ....... ....... .. ....... 47,485 ........ ........
13,485 ....... ....... ......... ...... .................
42,233 36,766 500 4,814 11,126 9,821 6,222
480,198 49,158 172.765 30,727 134,662 22,724 46,807


425,733
30,972
62,618
2,673
189,366

512
42,715
57,485
13,485
111,482
937,041


GRAND TOTAL ............................ 1,007,137 707,305 1,160,953 100,416 2,975,811 1,190,556 148,041 215,250 1,038559 725,728 342016 629404 4,289,554


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ......................


1.6 1.1 1.9 0.2 4.8 1.9 0.2 0.3


1.7 1.2 0.5 1.0 6.9


See footnotes at end of table.







Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal from Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1992

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]

To Europe
I Den- Nether- Spain/ United Yugo- Fed. Rep. Europe
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA: Belgium mark Finland France Italy lands Portugal Sweden Kingdom U.S.SR. slavia of Germany (other)' Total
United States:
Alaska ................. 74,04 ....... ....... 174,014 ..917 62,298 ......... 175,759 ....... 32,173 ......... ....... 13,149 130,374 588,684
Hawaii ...................... ......... ....... .... ........ .....
Mainland .................... 1,336,809 24,711 ....... 240,844 530.123 1,388,018 302,062 128992 312,771 148,091 75,932 429,230 1,427,134 6,344,717
Total United States............. 1,510,823 24,711 ....... 241,761 592,421 1,388,018 477,821 128,992 344,944 148,091 75,932 442,379 1,557,508 6,933,401

WEST COAST CANADA ............ 603,700 56,508 ....... 269,423 683,530 777,480 689,626 ....... 1,567,840 40,996 5,506 303,157 1,594,148 6,591,914


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica .......................
El Salvador ......................
Guatemala .......................
Honduras .......................
M exico .........................
Nicaragua .......................
Panama ........................
Central America (other)'...............
Balboa, R.P.2 .....................
Total Central America ..............


2,074 ....... ....... 591 4,168 386 ......... ....... 8,526 ......... ....... 60,411 3,025 79,181
4,877 ....... ....... ....... ......... 888 1,014 ....... ......... 8 6 5,607 12,637 25,037
70 ....... ....... ....... ......... 4,767 ......... ....... ......... 11,996 ....... 3,096 12,351 32,280
1,725 ....... ....... ................ ......... 858 ....... ......... ..... ......... 18 ......... 2,601
69,723 ....... ....... ....... 6,024 ......... 31,367 ....... 4,925 3,859 ....... 983 133,000 249,881
43,960 ....... ....... ....... 13,539 116 1,299 ....... ......... 16 I 6,801 37,021 102,753
9,110 ....... ....... ....... 87,242 10,537 ......... 50,167 ......... ......... ....... 159,555 30,791 347,402
3,437 ....... ....... ............... 1,705 ......... 2,496 ......... 10 ....... 28,946 10.419 47,013
......... ..*.* ... .... 170 ......... 194 ......... ...... 202 17 ....... 1,345 20 1,948
134,976 ....... ....... 761 110,973 18,593 34,538 52.663 13,653 15,906 7 266,762 239,264 888,096


WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ............. ............. 472,557 .............. 96,538 250,467 519,900 253,858 28,528 207,119 84,253 73 451,365 785,077 3,149,735
Colombia ...................... 12,489 ....... ....... 4,389 77 22,459 4,601 8,278 1,856 ......... 3,084 134,641 25,627 217,501
Ecuador ................ . .. .... ..... 221,195 ....... ....... 14,335 313,047 37,837 41,744 796 9,090 4,869 1,567 501,428 206,465 1,352,373
Peru .......................... 188,654 ....... ....... 102,307 143,555 36,137 68,767 2,797 54,561 6,666 22,077 193,330 134,882 953,733
South America (other)' .............. .. 11,287 ....... ...... 50,820 90,579 46,803 31,530 2,179 25,208 19,849 3,937 54,420 146,140 482,752
Total South America ............... 906,182 ....... ....... 268,389 797,725 663,136 400,500 42,578 297,834 115,637 30,738 1,335,184 1,298,191 6,156,094








OCEANIA:
Australia ........................
British Oceania ....................
French Oceania ...................
New Zealand .....................
Oceania (other)1 ...................
Total Oceania ...................

ASIA:
China ..........................
Taiwan .........................
Hong Kong ......................
Indonesia .......................
Japan ..........................
Philippine Islands ..................
Singapore .......................
South Korea .....................
Thailand ........................
U.S.S.R .........................
Asia (other)' .....................
Total Asia .....................


12,643 ....... 2,424 20 969


183,725 ....... ....... 349 7,355
17,399 ....... ............ ... 93
213,767 ....... 2,424 369 8,417


27,923 3,744 42 10,575
......... ......... ... ... 222,389

13,346 17,694 6,200 59,681
790 3,057 ....... 32,911
42,059 24,495 6,242 325,556


1,392 ....... ....... 7,334 ........ ......... 363 .......
......... ....... ....... 2,300 ......... 347 1,701 28

7,298 ....... ....... 18,677 124 74,924 2,431 309
......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 3,678 ......... 2,952 ..
2 ....... ....... 73 ......... 861 ......... 18
2,460 416 ....... 2,000 45 4,147 596 .......

......... .... ... ..... 1,336 ......... ......... 1,968 .......
801 ....... ....... 5,134 ......... 6,035 ......... 187
11,953 416 ....... 36,854 169 89,992 7,059 3,494


3,697
36

25,088

150
123

94
3,754
32,942


GRANDTOTAL................. ..3381,401 81,635 2,424 817,55 2,193,235 2,979,278 1,634,039 233,969 2,582,769 32239 12,83 2,445,259 4,96296 21,748,936


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ............


5.4 0.1 0.0 1.3


3.5 4.8 2.6 0.4 4.1 0.5 0.2 3.9 7.9 34.8


See footnotes at end of table.


32,317 39,389


26,749
13,860
72.926


91,570
5,836
136,795


3,868 20,947
261 869
604 320

8,470 68,868


....... ......


95 ......





1,666 ......
1,761 ......


1,130
1,881

6,799
1,838
24,851


106
1,176

8,472
36,132
136,890


130,046 >
222,389 2

406,669 4
73,946 >
833,050
>

24,815
13,916 >
5,336 r

206,284 0
6,630
2,340
12,844

18,669
55,547 0
346,381








Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal from Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1992 on
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]
To Asia
(Middle
East) To Africa Percent
FU -1 of total
-Asia ] II Atlantic-
(Middle South Africa Grand bound
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA: East) Algeria Egypt Morocco Africa Tunisia (other) I Total Total cargo
United States:
Alaska .................................................... 6,455 ....... 3,333 ......... ...... ................ 3,333 892,542 1.4
Hawaii ................................................... .. ...... ....... ........ ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 109,155 0.2
Mainland .... .................. ............................. 195,781 86,937 1,387,480 33,417 43,304 46,149 148,485 1,745,772 10,510,160 16.8
Total United States .......................................... 202,236 86,937 1,390,813 33,417 43,304 46,149 148,485 1,749,105 11,511,857 18.4

WEST COAST CANADA .......................................... 148,744 ...... 119,688 1,248,378 5,421 298,792 192,033 1,864,312 11,105,241 17.8

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ..................................................... .. .... ....... ....... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 207,260 0.3
El Salvador ............................................ ......... ....... ....... 27,881 ......... ....... ...... ........ 27,881 251,361 0.4
Guatemala ..................................................... ....... ....... 14,272 ......... ....... ....... 15,289 29,561 771,792 1.2
Honduras ............... ..................................... .... ...... ....... ........ ......... ....... ....... 7,854 7,854 35,199 0.1
M exico ................................... ... .. ............. .. ....... ....... 10,740 ......... ....... ....... 9,747 20,487 2,651,348 4.2
Nicaragua ..................................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 275,041 0.4
Panam a .................................................... ... 1,091 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ...... ... 439,452 0.7
Central America (other) ............................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 267 267 203,608 0.3
Balboa, R.P.2 ................................................................... 15,724 0.0
Total Central America ............................................ 1,091 ....... 52,893 ......... ....... ....... 33,157 86,050 4,850,785 7.8 2

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA: >
Chile ..................................... ... ............. .. ...... 18,659 33,298 ......... ....... 10,300 16,524 78,781 5,077,233 8.1 I -]
Colombia................................................ ...... .. ........ ....... ....... ......... ....... ......... 70 70 1,046,945 1.7
Ecuador ...................................................... 16,320 ....... 2,514 ......... ....... ....... 1,725 4,239 5,459,762 8.7 -
Peru ......................................................... 31,593 38,713 ......... 5,904 ....... ....... ....... 44,617 2,923,406 4.7
South America (other)] ............................................. 4,607 ....... ....... ......... 84 ....... 74 158 876,578 1.4 >
Total South America ............................................. 52,520 57,372 35,812 5,904 84 10,300 18,393 127,865 15,383,924 24.6


ts








OCEANIA:
Australia ......................................................
British Oceania ................................. ...............
French Oceania ..................................................
New Zealand ......................... .......................
Oceania (other)' .................................. ...............
Total Oceania ...... ........................... ............

ASIA:
China ........................................................
Taiwan .......................................................
Hong Kong ....................................................
Indonesia.... ...................... ..............................
Japan ........................................................
Philippine Islands ................................................
Singapore .....................................................
South Korea ....................................................
Thailand ..................................... ..............
U.S.S.R. .......................................................
Asia (other)' ....................................................
Total Asia ....................................... ............


3,795


591
385
4,771



49
36

1,532

29





1,646


4,279

4,279


4,481 ....... ....... 9,791
........ ..... ....... 4,500
4,481 ....... ....... 14,291


....... .......
....... .......
....... .......
....... .......
178 .......
....... .......
....... .......


5,766


........ ..... . .... .. .......
........ ...... ....... 5,500
........ 178 ....... 11,266


18,551
4,500
23,051


2,435,787 3.9
281,095 0.5
......... 0.0
889,520 1.4
253,006 0.4
3,859,408 6.2


........ 1,978,863 3.2
........ 1,050,362 1.7
........ 1,142,571 1.8
........ 595,014 1.0
5,944 6,562,540 10.5
........ 184,740 0.3
........ 504,549 0.8
........ 1,201,376 1.9
........ 148,290 0.2
........ 33,490 0.1
5,500 2,313,837 3.7
11,444 15,715,632 25.2


GRAND TOTAL .................... ........................... 411,008 148,588 1,599,206 1,292,180 48,987 355,241 417,625 3,861,827 62,426,847 .......


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo .................. ......................



I Also includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.


0.7 0.2 2.6 2.1 0.1 0.6 0.7


6.2 100.0%






84 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1992 199 1990
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 6 1 .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 968 603 541
Caustic soda .................................. 105 78 119
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 725 397 332
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 138 128 90
Grains ..................................... .... .... ....... 57
Soybeans .................... .... ....... ..... ....... ....... 57
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................. 43 ....... .......
Machinery and equipment................... 19 1 .......
Automobiles, parts and accessories .............. 4 1 .......
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 15 ..............
Manufactures of iron and steel...................... 4 2 .......
Angles, shapes and sections ..................... 1 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 2 .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... ....... 6 .......
Petroleum and petroleum products .................. 407 387 801
C rude oil .................................... ... ........ 91
D iesel oil .................................... 10 ......... .....
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 40 68 29
Gasoline ..................................... 128 77 339
Jet fuel ...................................... 15 ....... 35
Lubricating oil ............................... 185 212 271
Petroleum coke .......................... .. ....... ........ 36
Other and unclassified ....... .................. 29 30 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 168 73 40
Carbon black ................................. 43 ....... .......
W ax paraffin ................................. 7 ....... .......
Container cargo .............................. 97 37 29
All other and unclassified ...................... 21 36 11
Total ...................................... 1,615 1073 1439

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. .. 10 59 48
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 4 30 4
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 6 29 44
Lumber and products............................... 20 ....... .......
Pulpwood ................................... 20 ...... .......
M achinery and equipment............... ........... 5 ...... ......
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 5 ....... .......
M manufactures of iron and steel................. .... ....... 16 .......
Plates, sheets and coils .................... ........ 10 .......
W ire, bars and rods ........................... ....... 6 .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ..................... ....... 79 194
Phosphates ............... .... ........... ....... 79 194
Total ................. . .................. 35 153 243

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 77 21 17
Caustic soda ................................. 8 8 5
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 68 13 12






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 85


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1992 1991 1990
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals-Continued
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. I ......
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke).............. 36..... 36 ..
Coal ..................... . ........ .... ........ 36 .......
Grains........................................... 2,448 1965 2014
Barley ....................................... .. I ....... .......
Corn ........................................ 651 998 1,229
Rice ........................................ 54 17 .......
Sorghum .................. ................ 729 218 272
Soybeans .................................... 410 202 152
W heat.................... .. ............. 463 528 361
Other and unclassified ......................... 140 2 .......
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 2 ....... I
M achinery and equipment.............. ........... 2 ...... .......
Construction machinery and equipment .......... I ..............
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 1 ....... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... ....... 8 9
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 10 2 .......
Soda and sodium compounds................... 3 2 .
Sulfur ................. ...... ............. 7 .
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ..................... 542 1,091 1,328
Ammonium compounds ....................... 136 164 181
Phosphates ................. ..... ........... 191 799 989
Potash ................ ..................... 34 23 4
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 181 105 154
Ores and metals .................... ............ 75 27 113
Ores, miscellaneous ................ ........... 3 6 .......
M etals ...................................... 72 21 113
Scrap ......................... ....... 72 21 113
Other agricultural commodities ...................... ...... 4 38
Oilseeds .................... ..... ..... ....... ..... 4 26
Sugar ............... .................... .... ...... ....... 12
Petroleum products ........ ........................ 470 370 363
Diesel oil .................................... 259 173 144
Fuel oil, residual ................ ............. 21 ....... ........
Gasoline .... .. .................. .............. 139 143 196
Jet fuel ...................... .............. 27 15 8
Kerosene .................................... 4 2 8
Liquefied gas .............................. 14 6 5
Lubricating oil .................. ............ 6 2 .
Other and unclassified ...................... ....... 29 2
M miscellaneous .................................... 126 146 83
Carbon black ...................... .......... .......
Flour, wheat ................. .. ............. 20 .
Groceries, miscellaneous ................ .. .... ....... 3 .......
Oil, vegetable................................... 20 24 17
Paper and paper products ...................... 26 49 28






86 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1992 1991 1990
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Tallow ...................................... 42 69 37
Container cargo .............................. 5 ....... .......
All other and unclassified ...................... 12 1 1
Total...................................... .. 3.752 3670 3966
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 13 7 4
Canned foods ................................ 2 ....... .......
M ilk ........................... .... 2 ....... .......
Refrigerated foods .............................. 11 7 4
M eat ................................... 1 .
Other and unclassified ..................... 10 7 4
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 299 273 275
Caustic soda ...................... .......... 116 113 81
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 143 136 181
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 40 24 13
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............ 24 173 525
Coal ......................... .. ............ 24 173 525
Grains........................................... 1,349 1,615 1,514
Corn ...................................... 695 504 349
O ats .............................. .......... 7 ....... 1
Rice ........................................ 50 59 174
Sorghum ................. ....... .. ........ 68 54 30
Soybeans ........ .............................. 57 24 90
W heat ....................................... 467 949 865
Other and unclassified ......................... 5 25 5
Lumber and products .............................. 3 9 4
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ ........I...... 1
Pulpwood ................................... 2 8 2
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 1 1
Machinery and equipment .......................... 107 61 74
Agricultural machinery and implements .......... 6 12 15
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ........ 79 31 28
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 10 11 18
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 2 2 7
Other and unclassified ......................... 10 5 6
Manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 89 61 45
Angles, shapes and sections ..................... 3 11 5
Nails, tacks and spikes ......................... 11 ..
Plates, sheets and coils ......................... 3 3 4
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 10 16 5
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 44 31 28
Other and unclassified ...................... .. 18 ....... 3
Minerals, miscellaneous ............................ 15 17 22
A sbestos ..................................... .... 2 .
Soda and sodium compounds ................... 15 15 18
Sulfur ....................................... ..... ... 4
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ..................... 632 583 452
Ammonium compounds ............... 23 28 14
Fishmeal ........................ ......... .. .... 13 .......
Phosphates .................................. 335 178 197






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 87


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1992 1991 1990
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Nitrates, phosphates and potash-Continued
Potash ................ ..................... 61 33 35
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 213 331 206
Ores and metals ............... ................... 117 107 63
Ores ............. ................... ..... 20 17 18
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 7 ....... I
Other and unclassified ..................... 13 17 17
M etals ...................................... 97 90 45
Alum inum ............... ................ 3 1 18
Iron ........................... ........ ....... ...... 1
Scrap ................................... 94 89 26
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 101 89 51
Beans, edible ................................. 7 8 6
Copra and coconuts ........................... ....... ....... 1
Cotton, raw ................. ............... 2 ....... 1
Oilseeds ................................ ............ .......
Peas, dry .................................... 3 5 3
Rubber, raw ................................. 1 1 1
Skin and hides ................................ 1 ....... 3
Sugar ....................................... 87 74 36
Petroleum products ............................... 428 387 352
Diesel oil ............................... .... 110 220 202
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 77 37 .......
Gasoline ..................................... 70 73 39
Jet fuel ...................................... 29 ....... 42
Kerosene .................................... 29 ....... 27
Liquefied gas ....................... .......... 64 37 7
Lubricating oil ............................... 21 20 34
Other and unclassified ......................... 28 ....... 1
M miscellaneous ............................. ...... 1,609 1,327 979
Bricks and tile ........................... ..... I ....... 1
Carbon black................................. 1 ....... .......
Clay, fire and china ........................... 2 6 5
Fibers, plant ................................ ....... ....... I
Flour, wheat ................................. 59 82 73
Glass and glassware ........................... 1 ....... I
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... ....... 1 2
Liquors and wines ............................ 1 ....... .......
M arble and stone ............................. 10 ....... .......
Oil, coconut ........... ...... ................. 1 6 6
O il, fish ..................................... ....... .
Oil, vegetable................................. 33 34 30
Paper and paper products ...................... 268 248 187
Resin ....................................... 20 16 19
Rubber, manufactured ......................... 4 5 3
Seeds, excluding oilseeds ....................... 2 ....... .......
Tallow ...................................... 63 54 34
Textiles ...................................... 5 4 3
Container cargo .............................. 1,014 766 548
All other and unclassified ...................... 124 104 66
Total ...................................... 86 4,709 4360
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... ....... 2 5






88 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1992 1991 19901
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA, R.P.-
Continued
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 19 10 11
Caustic soda ......... ........................ 4 4 4
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 14 5 6
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 1 1 1
Grains............................. ............. 242 182 113
Corn ........................................ 108 62 32
Soybeans .................................... 48 36 25
W heat ....................................... 81 84 55
Other and unclassified .................. ....... 5 ....... 1
M inerals, miscellaneous............................. ..... ....... 2
Nitrates, phosphates and potash.................... 3 3 .......
Potash ............................... ..... ...... 2 .......
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 3 1 .......
Ores and metals .................................. 7 4 9
Ores .......................... ............ 7 4 9
Alumina/Bauxite ......................... I .. .......
M anganese ............................... .. .. ........ 3
Other and unclassified ..................... 6 4 6
Petroleum products ............................... 296 263 249
Diesel oil .................................... 91 97 84
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 181 160 143
Gasoline ..................................... 22 2 20
Jet fuel .................................... ....... I
Kerosene ................................. . ..... 3 ......
Other and unclassified ......................... I I 1
M miscellaneous .................................... 41 36 41
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... I1 5 2
Oil, vegetable ................................. 13 10 4
Tallow ...................................... 7 I 2
Container cargo .............................. 13 19 27
All other and unclassified ...................... 7 I 6
Total ................... ... .............. 608 500 429

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO HAWAII:
M achinery and equipment .......................... ....... ....... 9
Electrical machinery and apparatus.............. ....... ....... 9
Petroleum products ............................... ...... ....... 31
Jet fuel ...................................... ... ....... 31
M miscellaneous .................................... 4 ....... .
All other and unclassified ...................... 4 ....... .......
Total ......................................4 ....... 40
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 22 10 16
Refrigerated foods ............................ 22 10 16
Other and unclassified ..................... 22 10 16
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 659 828 648
Caustic soda ................................. 433 688 517
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 188 132 116
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous.................. 38 8 15
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............ ....... 14 32
Coke .......... ............... ...... .... ...... .. .. 14 32






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 89


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons)
Fiscal year
1992 1991 1990
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA-
Continued
G rains........................................... 169 131 94
Corn ........................................ 2 11 18
Sorghum .................................... .. .. ........ 3
Soybeans ..................................... 167 115 60
W heat ....................................... ..... 5 .
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 13
Lumber and products .............................. 18 14 22
Pulpwood ................. .......... 18 14 22
Machinery and equipment .......................... 6 7 15
Agricultural machinery and equipment ........... 2 2 2
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ........ 2 11
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 3 2 1
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... 1 1
Manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 2 42 11
Angles, shapes and sections ..................... I 1 I
Plates, sheets and coils ......................... ....... 39 6
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... ....... 2 3
W ire, bars and rods ........................... ....... ....... I
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 ......
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ ....... 18 39
Soda and sodium compounds .................. ....... 18 39
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 1,106 905 885
Ammonium compounds ....................... 67 13 9
Phosphates .................................. 814 623 483
Potash ....................................... 33 35 42
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 192 234 351
Ores and metals .................................. 31 39 15
O res ........................................ 29 39 8
Alumina/bauxite ......................... ....... 2 3
Lead .............................. ..... ...... 15 ......
Zinc .................................... 29 6 5
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... 16 .......
M etals ..................................... 2 ....... 7
Aluminum ............................ 2 ....... 2
Z inc .................................... ... ... .... 5
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ....... ....... 9
Petroleum products ............................... 280 377 274
D iesel oil .................................... 33 ....... ......
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 3 46 3
Gasoline ..................................... 36 66 35
Liquefied gas ................................. 54 60 35
Lubricating oil ............................... 13 28 25
Petroleum coke ............................... 140 173 133
Other and unclassified ......................... I 4 43
M miscellaneous ....................... ....... ...... 747 618 632
Bricks and tile ................................ 5 ....... .......
Carbon black.......................... ..... ....... 3 .....
Clay, fire and china ........................... 25 29 37
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 3 ....... .......
Oil, vegetable ................................. 1 2 1
Paper and paper products ...................... 19 12 11
Porcelainware ................................ 9 ....... .......






90 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1992 1991 1990
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA-
Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Resin ....................................... 10 13 3
Rubber, manufactured........................... ...... 6
Container cargo ...........................641 535 555
All other and unclassified ..................... 34 24 19
Total ... .................... ............. 3.040 3,003 2,692

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 438 408 298
Canned foods ............................... 4 ....... 12
Fruit .................................... 2 ....... 2
Canned food, miscellaneous ................ 2 ....... 10
Refrigerated foods: ............................ 434 408 286
Bananas .............................. ........ .......
Dairy products ........................... 5 ....... .......
Fish..................................... ... ....... 1
Fruit, excluding bananas ................... 130 136 44
M eat .................................... 7 10 2
Other and unclassified ..................... 292 261 239
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 3,734 4,377 3,605
Caustic soda ................................. 38 75 138
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 2,718 2,652 2,262
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 978 1,650 1,205
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke)............ 3,849 3,651 4,205
Coal ....................................... 3,841 3,377 4,153
Coke ........................................ 8 274 52
Grains........................................... 25,074 25,085 23,835
Barley ....................................... 56 ....... .......
Corn .................. ..................... 12,868 13,404 12,348
O ats ........................................ 14 16 .......
Rice ........................................ 8 6 13
Sorghum .................................... 1,143 1,426 1,718
Soybeans .................................... 6,508 5,847 5,625
Wheat ...................................... 4,206 4,024 3,934
Other and unclassified ......................... 271 362 197
Lumber and products .............................. 4,341 3,350 2,301
Boards and planks ............................ 65 147 9
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ 1 ..............
Pulpwood ................................... 1,257 744 728
Other and unclassified ......................... 3,018 2,459 1,564
Machinery and equipment .......................... 142 69 45
Agricultural machinery and equipment ........... 6 2 8
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts........ 19 13 8
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 41 31 19
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 7 3 3
Motorcycles, bicycles and parts ................. 53 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ......................... 16 20 7
Manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 718 2.140 1,203
Angles, shapes and sections ..................... 64 117 85
Nails, tacks and coils .......................... 1 ....... .......
Plates, sheets and coils ......................... 391 1,466 900
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 92 77 10
Wires, bars and rods .......................... 16 236 100






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 91


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1992 1991 1990 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Manufactures of iron and steel-Continued
Other and unclassified ......................... 154 244 108
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 2 12 65
A sbestos ..................................... ....... 1 2
Soda and sodium compounds ................... 2 11 9
Sulfur ....................................... 54
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ..................... ,924 5,361
Ammonium compounds ....................... 95 240 8
Phosphates ......... ............ ........ 5,834 6,134 4,956
Potash ...................................... 166 228 93
Fertilizers, unclassified .......................... 536 322 304
Ores and metals .................................. 1,401 2,050 1,958
O res ........................................ 60 67 56
Alumina/bauxite ....... .................. 12 12 9
Copper .................................. 18 20 31
Lead .................................... 5
M anganese................................ ....... 14 .......
Zinc .................................... 5 5 7
Other and unclassified ..................... 20 16 9
M etals ...................................... 1,341 1,983 1,902
Alum inum ............................... ....... 1 .
Copper .............................. .... I ....... 6
Iron ..................................... 105 52 3
Lead ..................................... ...... 3
Scrap ................................... 1,200 1,917 1,853
Tin, including tinplate ..................... 2 ....... .......
Zinc .................................... ....... 5 .
Other and unclassified ..................... 33 8 37
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 66 86 125
Beans, edible ................................. 2 67
Cotton, raw ..................... ............ 25 62 45
M olasses .................................... 6 15 11
O ilseeds ..................................... 35 1 2
Peas, dry ................................... ...... 6 .......
Petroleum products ............................... 2096 2,921 1,836
Diesel oil ......................... ........... 163 269 273
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 78 383 93
Gasoline ..................................... 341 381 55
Jet fuel ...................................... 217 448 289
Kerosene .................................... ....... 194 66
Liquefied gas ................................. 360 535 319
Lubricating oil ............................... 174 129 104
Petroleum coke................. ........ 755 575 591
Other and unclassified ......................... 8 7 46
M miscellaneous .................. .. ............... 7,701 7,934 7,229
Bricks and tile ................................ 8 ....... .......
Carbon black ................................. 59 38 21
Cem ent ...................................... . . ....... 4
Clay, fire and china ........................... 589 542 535
Flour, wheat ................................. 96 37 .......
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 35 31 43
M arble and stone ............................. 32 35 16
Oil, vegetable............... ...... ........... 91 64 67






92 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of Long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1992 1991 1990o
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Paper and paper products ...................... 495 473 292
Porcelainware ............................... .... 5 .......
Resin ....................................... 10 13 14
Rubber, manufactured.......................... .. ... ....... 6
Seeds, excluding oilseeds ....................... 55 ....... .......
Tallow ...................................... 5 2 .......
W ax, paraffin ....................... ...... ...... ........ 8
Container cargo .............................. 6,057 6,495 6,117
All other and unclassified ...................... 169 199 106
Total................... .............. . 56 193 59.007 52.066
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST UNITED
STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... I ....... 1
M miscellaneous .................................... 89 49 53
Container cargo .............................. 89 45 53
All other and unclassified ...................... ....... 4 .......
Total...................................... 90 49 54
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 3 4 2
Canned foods ................................ 3 1 _
Fish ..................................... I.. .......
Milk .................................. ....... I .......
Vegetables, canned ........................ 2 .. .......
Refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ............... ....... 3 1
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............ 275 33 .......
Coal ........................................ 275 33 .......
G rains ........................................... 10 14 8
Corn ........................................ 4 5 8
W heat ........................... ......... 6 9 .......
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................. ....... ....... 4
M manufactures of iron and steel................. ..... ....... 30 .......
W ire, bars and rods ........................... ....... 30 ......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ..................... ....... 14 6
Other agricultural commodities ..................... ___
Beans, edible ................................. I 1 1
M miscellaneous .................................... 8 13 8
Flour, wheat ................................. 2 2 2
Oil, vegetable ................. ............ ....... 2 1
Paper and paper products ...................... 5 9 4
All other and unclassified ...................... I ....... I
Total...................................... 297 109 28
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST SOUTH
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ..................... 2 3 1
Canned foods .................... ............ 2 3 1
Fish........................... .......... ....... 1
M ilk .................................... 2 2 1
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke)............ ....... 77 98




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