• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Organization chart
 Introduction
 Canal traffic
 Canal operations
 Supporting operations
 Administration and staff
 Financial report
 Statistical tables
 Back Cover






Group Title: Annual report, Panama Canal Commission
Title: Annual report /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097367/00004
 Material Information
Title: Annual report /
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Panama Canal Commission ( 1980-<1994> )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 1991
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Fiscal year 1980-
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends Sept. 30.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Vols. for 1992- distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1998.
Statement of Responsibility: Panama Canal Commission.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097367
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07777425
lccn - 96645119
issn - 1936-5306
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Preceded by: Annual report, fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Organization chart
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Canal traffic
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Canal operations
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Supporting operations
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Administration and staff
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Financial report
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Statistical tables
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
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    Back Cover
        Page 141
        Page 142
Full Text
Y~3


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION



ANNUAL REPORT


FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1991


7-
























Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreport1991 unit














PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Balboa, Republic of Panama
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR







FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR

It is a pleasure to submit the annual report of the Panama Canal Com-
mission for Fiscal Year 1991. The past year was a very successful one for
the Panama Canal. Total vessel transits rose substantially after two years
of decline, primarily due to events in the Persian Gulf. Increased Canal
traffic, combined with growth in average ship size, boosted Panama Canal
net tonnage to 193.1 million tons, the second highest level in Canal history.
The resulting record tolls revenue of $374.6 million represented a 5.4
percent increase over the prior year. Despite the heavier transit load, Canal
efficiency remained high with average Canal Waters Time, at 22 hours,
held below the agency's 24 hour standard.

During Fiscal Year 1991, important maintenance and improvement
projects were accomplished and key decisions were made regarding
programs to ensure the long-term efficiency of the Canal. Major projects
undertaken included: the overhaul and refurbishment of Gatun Locks
miter gates; the widening and deepening of the Canal's Pacific channel
entrance; substantial rehabilitation of rail and conductor slot for the locks
locomotive tow track system; the ongoing replacement of locks fendering
systems with new, substantially improved fenders; and the overhaul of the
suction dredge MINDI. Of special significance was the approval by the
Commission's Board of Directors of a major multi-phase program to widen
and straighten the narrow eight-mile Gaillard Cut area of the Canal. This
significant construction effort will begin during the early part of Fiscal Year 1992.








When completed, it will allow virtually unrestricted two-way transit
throughout the waterway of even the largest PANAMAX vessels.

The Commission also continued to fulfill its treaty obligations to work
toward the orderly transfer of the Canal to the Republic of Panama at the
end of this century. An essential aspect of this obligation is the major
ongoing effort to hire and train Panamanians in all the various areas
necessary to operate and maintain the waterway. Already 87% of the work
force, including over half of the Commission's managers and professionals,
are Panamanian citizens.

The achievements of the Canal organization attest to the extraordinary
contributions made by the dedicated men and women who comprise the
Commission work force. Their performance has been a key element in
preserving the high quality of service and sense of purpose which represent
the legacy of the Panama Canal. As we look to the future, I am confident
that the Canal will build on these past accomplishments and continue to
provide world shipping with safe, efficient transit service at competitive
ra s through and beyond the year 2000.



GILBERTO GUARDIA F.
Administrator















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Page
ORGANIZATION CHART ......................................... vi

INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION .................. ................. ........ ... 1
THE CANAL ................ ..................... .......... 1
TOLL RATES ......................... .... ....... .. ............. 2
BOARD OF DIRECTORS .................... ..... ............. 3
OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA ...................... 3
OFFICIALS IN WASHINGTON, D.C................................. 3

CHAPTER I-CANAL TRAFFIC
CANAL TRAFFIC ................................................. 5
COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS ................... 6
COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES ............................ 7
CHAPTER II-CANAL OPERATIONS
CANAL OPERATIONS............ ............. .. ................... 15
MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS ....... 17
CHAPTER Ill-SUPPORTING OPERATIONS
LOGISTICAL SERVICES.................. ..................... 21
COMMUNITY SERVICES ..................... ............ ....... 22
SANITATION AND GROUNDS MANAGEMENT .................... 23
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES ......................... 24
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY ................................. 24
FIRE PROTECTION ................ ....................... 25
CANAL PROTECTION ............................. 25
HEALTH AND SAFETY .............. ........................ 26
CHAPTER IV-ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF
PERSONNEL FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL ................. 27
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM................................ 27
PUBLIC AFFAIRS .............. ................ ............ 28
OMBUDSMAN ...................... .............. ............. 28
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ....................................... 29
GENERAL COUNSEL.......................... ............ .... 29
CHAPTER V-FINANCIAL REPORT
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ........................................ 31
SCHEDULED TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION .............. 31
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS .......................... 32
ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND CAPITAL ........................... 32







CONTENTS



Financial Tables
Page
TABLE I.- Statement of Financial Position ............................... 34
TABLE 2.- Statement of Operations ................... .... ............ 36
TABLE 3.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States
Government................ .............. .............. 37
TABLE 4.- Statement of Cash Flows................ ........... ......... 38
Notes to Financial Statements ............... ..... ........ 39

CHAPTER VI-STATISTICAL TABLES
Shipping Statistics

TABLE 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1982 through 1991 .......... 46
TABLE 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1991
and 1990 .............................. . ........... .. 48
TABLE 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1991 ............... 49
TABLE 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1991 52
TABLE 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1991 ..... 54
TABLE 6.-Segregation of Transits by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal
Y ear 1991 ....................... ....................... 56
TABLE 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped through Canal by Fiscal Years 1989
through 1991 .................... ..... ....... .. .......... 58
TABLE 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama
Canal from Atlantic to Pacific during Fiscal Year 1991 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ...................... 62
TABLE 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama
Canal from Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1991 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ...................... 68
TABLE 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific- Fiscal Year 1991 ....................... 76
TABLE II.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to Atlantic- Fiscal Year 1991 ........................ 106
TABLE 12.-Principal Canal Commodities by Direction-Fiscal Year 1991 ..... 135

Other Statistics

TABLE 13.- Water Supply and Usage ..................... .... ........ 137
TABLE 14.- Dredging Operations ..................... ..... .............. 137
TABLE 15.- Electrical Power Generated ................................... 138
TABLE 16.- Fire Division Statistics........................ ............ 138






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
SECRETARY OF THE ARMY


FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION
EXECUTIVE PLANNING
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
GENERAL COUNSEL


CANAL IMPROVEMENTS
PUBLIC AFFAIRS/INFORMATION
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY


ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
ENGINEERING
INDUSTRIAL
MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
DREDGING
CONSTRUCTION


MARINE BUREAU

BOARD OF LOCAL INSPECTORS
PILOT DIVISION
ADMEASUREMENT
LOCKS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
CANAL SERVICES
MARINE SAFETY
CANAL OPERATIONS
MARITIME TRAINING


I
GENERAL SERVICES BUREAU

LOGISTICAL SUPPORT
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
FIRE
CANAL PROTECTION
COMMUNITY SERVICES
SANITATION AND GROUNDS
PRINTING OFFICE
AREA COORDINATION













INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION

The Panama Canal Commission is an agency of the Executive Branch of
the United States Government, provided for by the Panama Canal Treaty
of 1977, and established by the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 452; 22
U.S.C. 3601 et seq), enacted September 27, 1979. The authority of the
President of the United States with respect to the Commission is exercised
through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army. The
Commission is supervised by a nine-member Board. Five members are
nationals of the United States appointed by the President with the advice
and consent of the Senate. Four members are nationals of the Republic of
Panama who are proposed by the Republic of Panama for appointment by
the President. Also, as mandated by the treaty, a Panamanian now serves
as the Administrator and a United States citizen as the Deputy Administrator.
The Commission was established to carry out the responsibilities of the
United States with respect to the Panama Canal under the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977. In fulfilling these obligations, the Commission manages,
operates, and maintains the Canal, its complementary works, installations,
and equipment, and provides for the orderly transit of vessels through the
Canal. The Commission will perform these functions until the treaty
terminates bn December 31, 1999, at which time the Republic of Panama
will assume full responsibility for the Canal.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis.
The Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all
costs of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest,
depreciation, capital for plant replacement, expansion and improvements,
and payments to the Republic of Panama for public services and annuities,
in accordance with paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraphs 4(a) and (b)
of Article XIII, respectively, of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.
Revenues from tolls and all other sources are deposited in the U.S.
Treasury in an account known as the Panama Canal Revolving Fund. The
resources in this fund are available for continuous use and serve to finance
Canal operating and capital programs which are reviewed annually by the
Congress.
THE CANAL
The Panama Canal is a lock-type canal approximately 51 miles long from
I






INTRODUCTION


deep water to deep water. The minimum width of the navigable channel is
500 feet. Navigable channel depth can vary according to the amount of
water available in Canal storage areas; however, the normal permissible
transit draft is 39 feet 6 inches tropical fresh water.
Vessels transiting the Canal are raised in three steps to the level of Gatun
Lake, the principal source of Canal water, then lowered to sea level again in
three steps. The three sets of Canal locks are paired so as to permit
simultaneous lockage of two vessels in the same or opposite direction.
Since August 15, 1914, the official date of its opening, the Panama Canal
has been serving world trade. Through this fiscal year, a total of 731,784
vessels of all types have transited with 618,975 or 84.6 percent of the total
being of the oceangoing commercial class.
TOLL RATES
Toll rates during FY 1991 were: (a) on merchant vessels, Army and Navy
transports, hospital ships, supply ships, and yachts, when carrying
passengers or cargo, $2.01 per net vessel ton of 100 cubic feet of actual
earning capacity, as determined in accordance with the "Rules of
Measurement of Vessels for the Panama Canal;" (b) on such vessels in
ballast, without passengers or cargo, $1.60 per net vessel ton; and (c) on
other floating craft, $1.12 per ton of displacement. These rates have been in
effect since October 1, 1989.
A temporary 20 percent surcharge on all tariff rates for tug and
linehandling services, implemented on April 1, 1990, was terminated on
February 28, 1991. The surcharge, which had been approved by the
Commission's Board of Directors, was to offset a variety of unbudgeted
extraordinary costs incurred by the Commission as a result of the actions
and political decisions of the former Panama regime of General Manuel
Noriega.
By treaty, the United States continues to provide to Colombia free
transit through the Canal of its troops, materials of war, and ships of war.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Ending Fiscal Year 1991


Honorable MICHAEL P. W. STONE
Chairman, Board of Directors
Panama Canal Commission
Washington, D.C.

Honorable CECILIA A. ALEGRE
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable LUIs A. ANDERSON
Mexico, D.F., Mexico

Honorable ANDREW E. GIBSON
Short Hills, New Jersey


Honorable ROBERT R. MCMILLAN
Garden City, New York

Honorable ALFREDO N. RAMIREZ
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Annapolis, Maryland;

Honorable JOAQUIN J. VALLARINO, Jr.
Panama, Republic of Panama;

Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.
Brevard, North Carolina


Executive Committee
Honorable MICHAEL P. W. STONE
Chairman
Honorable ALFREDO N. RAMIREZ
Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Honorable JOAQUIN J. VALLARINO, Jr.
Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.


OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Administrator ................ Honorable GILBERTO GUARDIA F.
Deputy Administrator ........... Honorable RAYMOND P. LAVERTY



OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C.
Assistant to the Chairman and Secretary ........ MICHAEL RHODE, Jr.







CANAL TRAFFIC


Two of the more than 12,700 oceangoing vessels receiving high quality transit service in
FY 1991 were the CGM PASTEUR (upper photo), on a maiden transit from a Korean
shipyard, and the GLOBAL LINK (lower photo), a new AT&T ship specially designed
to lay and repair deep-sea telecommunications cable.













Chapter I



CANAL TRAFFIC


TRAFFIC
Tolls revenue and the most important components of Panama Canal
traffic rose substantially in fiscal year 1991, reversing a two-year declining
trend. Record tolls revenue was registered during the year and oceangoing
transits, Panama Canal net tonnage, and commercial cargo reached the
highest levels since 1982, the last year before the Alaskan oil trade was
diverted from the Canal to the trans-Panama oil pipeline. This unusually
strong performance mostly occurred during the first half of the year and
can be primarily attributed to events in the Persian Gulf, which produced a
disruption in world trade patterns.
A total of 12,763 oceangoing vessels, an average of 35.0 daily, transited
the Canal during fiscal year 1991, representing a 5.9% increase from the
12,052 or 33.0 transits per day registered during 1990. Oceangoing
commercial transits totaled 12,572, rising 5.3% from the 11,941 transits
registered last year. Transits by vessels owned or operated by the U.S.
Government rose 90.1% to 173 from 91 in the prior year, but tolls paid by
these vessels only increased 29.6%. Free Colombian and Panamanian
Government vessels accounted for 18 transits compared with 20 in 1990.
A turnaround was also experienced in transits by large beam vessels and
average ship size. Transits by vessels having beams of 80 feet and over
increased 5.0% to 5,825, accounting for 45.6% of total oceangoing transits
versus 5,545 and 46.0% in 1990. The increase was primarily the result of a
rise in transits by vessels in the 100-ft beam and over category, the largest
size ships the Canal can accommodate. After two years of decline, transits
by vessels in that category increased 7.4% to a record 2,947 from 2,745 in
the prior year, raising this category's share of total oceangoing transits
from 22.8% in 1990 to 23.1%. Correspondingly, the average Panama Canal
(PC) net tonnage of oceangoing commercial vessels rose 0.3% from 15,217
to 15,260, resuming an upward trend after two years of declines.







6 CANAL TRAFFIC


The rise in both transit numbers and average ship size generated an
increment of 5.7% in total PC net tonnage to 193.1 million tons, the second
highest tonnage in the history of the Canal after the 1982 peak of 204
million tons. As a result, tolls revenue reached a record $374.6 million, up
5.4 percent from the amount collected in 1990.
Total cargo moved by transiting vessels increased 3.7% to 163.2 million
long tons, the fourth highest cargo tonnage in Canal history. The increase
was primarily concentrated in dry bulk-type commodities.
A two-year summary of the key elements of Canal traffic and tolls
revenue is shown in the table below, followed by a more detailed
description of cargo movements by trade route.

COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS

Fiscal Year
1991 1990
Oceangoing Transits:
Commercial .......................... .......... 12,572 11,941
U.S. Government................................ 173 91
Free ................ ..................... ..... 18 20
Total ....................................... .. 12,763 12,052

Daily Average .................... .......... 35.0 33.0


Small Transits:
Commercial ............................ ........ 1,079 1,017
U.S. Government .......................... ...... 248 240
Free .......................... 18 16
T otal ............................... ........ 1,345 1,273


Total Cargo:
Commercial ....................... ........... 162,696,423 157,074,476
U.S. Government................................ 516,130 248,442
Free ....................... ........... ............. 6
Total ................................. 163212,553 157,322 924


Total Panama Canal Net Tons and Reconstructed Displace-
ment Tonnage .................................. 193,101,533 182,709,533


Transit Revenue:
Commercial Tolls .............................. $372,398,248 $353,841,162
U.S. Government Tolls................. ........ 2,226,489 1,716,795
Tolls Revenue ................................. $374,624,737 $355,557,957


Harbor Pilotage, Tug, Launch, and Other Services ....... $ 97,792,243 $ 78,113,078
Total Transit Revenue ................ .............. $472,416,980 $433,671,035






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES
Commercial cargo grew in 1991 for the second consecutive year, rising
3.6% from 157.1 million long tons in fiscal year 1990 to 162.7 million long
tons. As with other elements of traffic, most of this growth occurred during
the first half of the year and is attributed to events in the Persian Gulf.
Despite the slowing pace during the second half of the year, 1991 registered
all-time highs in a number of commodities, including phosphates, lumber,
refrigerated products, chemicals and petrochemicals and containerized
cargo. The gains in these and other commodities more than offset the losses
registered in a few trades, including petroleum and petroleum products,
automobiles, and ores and metals.
Grain, which accounts for the largest volume of cargo utilizing the
Canal, continued to improve in 1991, increasing 8.8% from 30.2 million
long tons in fiscal year 1990 to 32.9 million long tons. The rise in this
commodity group was mainly generated by higher U.S. exports of corn to
the Far East via the waterway and a sharp increase in U.S. wheat shipments
to northern Africa. Corn shipments increased 7.3% to 15.0 million long
tons from 14.0 million long tons in the prior year, sustained almost entirely
by increased shipments to Japan, which accounted for nearly 74% of the
total corn trade. Wheat tonnage, which had fallen sharply in 1990, was up
17.7% to 8.0 million long tons, primarily as a result of increased shipments
from the U.S. West Coast to Africa, which rose 91.3% to 1.7 million long
tons. Wheat shipments to mainland China, the largest recipient of the
wheat tonnage, dropped for the second consecutive year to 3.8 million long
tons from 3.9 million long tons in 1990. The fall in shipments to China
during the two years was due to record wheat harvests registered by that
country. Soybeans, an important component of the grain category, rose
marginally to 6.3 million long tons from 6.2 million long tons and sorghum
declined to 1.7 million long tons from 2.0 million long tons.
Petroleum and products resumed the downward trend of the past few
years that was temporarily reversed in 1990. Total petroleum tonnage
decreased 4.9% to 24.0 million long tons from 25.2 million long tons in
1990 mainly as a result of a decline in crude oil shipments. Crude oil flows
dropped 11.1% to 8.2 million long tons, with a sharp decline in Ecuadorian
shipments offsetting moderate gains in Venezuelan oil flows. The two main
destinations of Ecuadorian crude oil via the Canal, the U. S. East Coast
and the West Indies, suffered steep declines of 25.9% and 43.7%,
respectively. The lower imports from Ecuador suggest some shift in
sourcing by the U.S. and several West Indies countries. Ecuadorian oil
production in recent years has remained stable, with no new reserves of
crude oil discovered. The small increase in crude emanating from
Venezuela was mainly concentrated in shipments to the West Coast of
Central America and Chile. Petroleum products, the other component of





CANAL TRAFFIC


this commodity group, also dropped in 1991. This trade totaled 15.8
million long tons, falling by 1.3% from 16.0 million long tons in 1990. The
largest decline occurred in the residual fuel oil movement, which was down
17.6% to 4.5 million long tons, reflecting substantial declines in shipments
from Peru and Ecuador to the U.S. East Coast.
The nitrate, phosphates and potash commodity group moved up in
importance this year with a total tonnage of 14.7 million long tons. This
tonnage represented a 6.7% increase over the 13.8 million long tons
registered in 1990. Fueling the increase was a 16.1% rise in phosphate
shipments, which brought this component of the commodity group to a
record 9.5 million long tons. The surge in phosphate shipments was evident
in several routes, but was particularly strong in the U.S. East Coast-Far
East route, the major route of this trade. This route, which accounted for
64 percent of the total phosphate tonnage, exhibited a 23.7% increase to 6.1
million long tons due to a sharp rise in shipments to China. China received
3.6 million long tons, up from the 2.5 million long tons imported last year.
The strong phosphate movement seen this year might be attributable to a
certain extent to source substitutions of Jordanian phosphate resulting
from the Middle East conflict.
The tonnage of ores and metals fell 8.8% to 11.4 million long tons from
12.5 million long tons in the prior year. The decline was mainly due to the
poor performance of aluminum/bauxite, which plunged 42.9% to 1.9
million long tons. Aluminum/bauxite shipments from Oceania to the U.S.
East Coast and to the East Coast of South America-the major routes for
this trade-displayed the largest declines. As a result, total ores, accounting
for 63% of the commodity group's tonnage, declined 12.8% to 7.2 million
long tons from the 8.2 million long tons registered the year before.
Shipments of metals remained at the 1990 level of 4.2 millions long tons.
Scrap metal, the major component of the metals segment, dropped 5.0
percent to 2.1 million long tons despite increased movement on this metal's
principal route, U.S. East Coast to the Far East.
The lumber and products commodity group, accounting for 9.5 million
long tons, increased less than one percent, but reached a record level. The
movement of lumber products-excluding pulpwood-from the U.S. East
Coast to the Far East rose sharply from 1.6 million long tons in 1990 to 2.6
million long tons. In recent years, this route has emerged as an important
route in this trade, with the main product consisting of woodchips, material
destined for papermaking. West Coast Canada, the major source of lumber
via the Canal, registered a decline for the second consecutive year to 2.3
million long tons from 3.1 million long tons in 1990.
Coal and coke displayed, as a whole, an improvement of 3.4%,
increasing to 8.4 million long tons from the 8.1 million long tons of the
previous year. The increase was due to a 59.0% rise in the coke component





PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


of the group. Coke shipments were up from 1.0 million long tons to 1.6
million long tons. Coal shipments, however, deteriorated a further 4.3% to
6.8 million long tons from 7.1 million long tons in 1990 as a result of the
continued decline of U.S. coal exports to the Far East via the Canal. Coal
to the Far East fell from 4.2 million long tons to 3.4 million long tons, with
shipments to Japan and Taiwan totaling 1.5 million long tons and 1.8
million long tons versus prior year levels of 1.6 and 2.5 million long tons,
respectively. U.S. coal tonnage from Hampton Roads bypassing the Canal
on ships too large to transit the waterway reached another record this year
with 7.4 million long tons.
For the fourth consecutive year, the important automobile trade,
included in the machinery and equipment commodity group, experienced a
decline. The downward trend, however, appears to be tapering off.
Automobile tonnage was down 4.8 percent to 1.6 million long tons from
1.7 million long tons in 1990, with shipments from Japan to the U.S. East
Coast, the major route, showing a marginal decline of 34 thousand long
tons.
Containerized cargo reached a record 21.2 millions long tons, increasing
2.4% from 20.7 million long tons in 1990. Most of the increase was
registered on the movement between the U.S. East Coast and the Far East,
which accounted for over 53% of the total trade. U.S. exports to the Far
East continued to increase reaching 6.5 million long tons compared with
6.1 million long tons in the prior year. U.S. imports from the Far East,
however, fell from 4.9 million long tons to 4.8 million long tons reflecting
sluggish U.S. demand and the continued competition from the U.S.
intermodal system.
Most other commodity groups experienced gains in fiscal year 1991.
Record levels were reached in the movement of refrigerated products,
which increased 10.6 percent to 5.9 million long tons from 5.3 million long
tons in the prior year, and in chemicals and petroleum chemicals, which
rose 19.9 percent to 8.1 million long tons from 6.7 million long tons in
1990. Bananas from Ecuador and refrigerated fruits from Chile were the
main trades accounting for the increase in refrigerated products. The
marked increase in chemicals and petrochemicals was particularly evident
in flows from the U.S. East Coast to the Far East and is attributed, in part,
to shifts in source markets resulting from the Middle East conflict.
Manufactures of iron and steel also recorded significant gains in 1991,
reaching 8.3 million long tons, the highest level since 1978. The
improvement was due to increased U.S. exports of manufactures of iron
and steel to the Far East. The gains achieved in these commodities were
offset to a small degree by declines in other agricultural products.
The dominant trade route in Canal traffic continued to be between the
U.S. East Coast and the Far East. The route accounted for 62.8 million
long tons, or 38.6% of total commercial cargo, with this tonnage






10 CANAL TRAFFIC

representing an increase of 9.5% from the 57.4 million long tons registered
in the prior year.
The following tables show the principal commodity groups moving in
oceangoing commercial vessels during 1991 and a comparison of the major
trade routes in fiscal years 1991 and 1990.




PRINCIPAL COMMODITY GROUPS
TRANSITING THE CANAL
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL CARGO FY 1991

PERCENT OF TOTAL CARGO


GRAINS
PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS
CONTAINERIZED CARGO
NITRATES, PHOSPHATES, POTASH
ORES & METALS
LUMBER & PRODUCTS
COAL & COKE
MFRS. OF IRON & STEEL
CHEMICALS & PETROCHEMICALS
CANNED & REFRIGERATED FOODS
MISC. AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
MISC. MINERALS
MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT
ALL OTHER


I I I I


]9.0%

'- l 17.0%
15.9%
5.2%
S 5.1%
5.0%
3.7%
3 2%
=~3.0%
]1.2%
3.7%
1 1


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50


MILLIONS OF LONG TONS


I I


114.8%
J13.0%

















I 1 I I I I


]20.2%





Major Voyage Trade Routes in Canal Traffic


Fiscal Year Percent of
1991 1990 I Increase or
(Decrease)
Panama Panama Panama
Canal Long Canal Long Canal Long
Net Tons Net Tons Net Tons
Tons Cargo Tons Cargo Tons Cargo
Trade Route [In thousands of long tons]
East Coast United States-Asia ..................................................... 67,920 62,822 62,994 57,354 7.8 9.5
East Coast United States-West Coast South America ................... .............. 17,140 11,257 19,348 13,486 (11.4) (16.5)
Round the World ....................... .................................... 14,127 7,948 13,826 7,680 2.2 3.5
Europe-West Coast South America............... .......................... 13,983 8,348 12,125 8,406 15.3 (0.7)
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada ......................................... 11,549 15,022 11,777 15,433 (1.9) (2.7)
Europe-Asia ......................... ...................................... 6,672 4,684 5,359 3,602 24.5 30.0
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania ........................................ 5,215 6,196 5,249 6,459 (0.6) (4.1)
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America ................................. 5,920 5,785 5,052 5,508 17.2 5.0
United States Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii).................. ............ 4,942 2,031 4,489 2,410 10.1 (15.7)
West Indies-West Coast South America.................... .. ................... 3,340 3,158 4,094 4,193 (18.4) (24.7)
West Indies-Asia ....................... ........ ...... ........ .. ..... 3,478 2,310 3,863 2,586 (10.0) (10.7)
Europe-West Coast Central America .................. .. ........................... 3,204 1,423 3,052 1,651 5.0 (13.8)

Subtotal ..................................... ............................... 157,490 130,984 151228 128,768 4.1 1.7

All other routes ............................. ............................... 34,297 31,712 30,377 28,305 12.9 12.0

Total ................ ............................... ................. 191,787 162696 181,605 157,073 5.6 3.6 >

'-1
-I
C








S

* t.


The suction dredge MINDI, visible with its cutter head removed, underwent a $3.5 million overhaul at the Industrial Division
in Mt. Hope. The project involved complete renovation of the dredge's main engines, installation of new equipment and
machinery, as well as general maintenance work.















Chapter II


CANAL OPERATIONS


Canal operations are comprised of Transit Operations, Maintenance,
and Related Canal Projects. The various functions are divided among a
number of operating bureaus within the Canal agency.

TRANSIT OPERATIONS
Daily average transits by oceangoing vessels averaged 35.0 per day
during fiscal year 1991. Average time in Canal waters decreased from 24.4
hours in fiscal year 1990 to 22.0 hours in fiscal year 1991.
Unseasonably high levels of traffic were experienced during the first
quarter of FY 1991. Canal traffic performance strengthened further
following the outbreak of the war in the Middle East and continued
through the third quarter of the year.
Percent Percent
Vessels of total Vessels of total
of 600-foot oceangoing of 80-foot oceangoing
Fiscal Year length and over transits beam and over transit
1991 ........................ 4,008 31.4 5,825 45.6
1990 ........................ 3,772 31.3 5,545 46.0
1989 ........................ 3,913 32.4 5,734 47.5
1988 ........................ 4,047 32.9 6,027 48.9
1987 ........................ 4,005 32.5 5,902 48.0
1986 ........................ 4,131 34.4 5,898 49.1
1985 ........................ 3,862 33.1 5,514 47.3
1984 ........................ 3,865 33.9 5,496 48.3
1983 ........................ 4,157 35.1 5,869 49.5
1982 ........................ 5,534 39.5 7,226 51.1
1981 ........................ 4,855 34.7 6,364 45.5
1980 ........................ 4,598 33.8 6,089 44.7

The number of vessels transiting at more than 36-foot draft increased
8.9%: 1,938 vessels during FY 1991 compared to 1,780 during fiscal year
1990. The maximum allowable draft remained at 39 feet 6 inches during the
entire fiscal year.
Total jobs performed by Commission tugs increased from 37,072 in fiscal
year 1990 to 40,580 in fiscal year 1991.







CANAL OPERATIONS


IW


''II..

~ ILK


From the comfort of a luxurious cruise ship passengers view dry chamber work in the
west lane of Gatun Locks during an overhaul. This $7.4 million project included
removal, rehabilitation and reinstallation of four miter gates; maintenance work on rising
stem valves and the locomotive tow track system; and repair or replacement of rendering
and cathodic protection.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Fiscal Year
1 1991 1990
Oceangoing transits .............................................. 12,763 12,052
Tug jobs:
Balboa .................... ............................. 28,332 26,191
Cristobal ................... ............................ 12,248 10,881
Tug operating hours ........................ ................. 62,535 58,215

MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS
Maintenance and improvements to the Canal continued as scheduled
throughout the year. The various divisions and units of the Engineering
and Construction Bureau are generally responsible for the overall physical
maintenance and improvement of the waterway. The Marine Bureau
operates and maintains the locks and related facilities.
Channel Improvements: Channel dredging activities during fiscal year
1991 focused on the Pacific Entrance Channel Widening, where 701,500
cubic yards of material were removed by the dipper dredge RIALTO M.
CHRISTENSEN. A total of 7,343,136 cubic yards of material has been
dredged to date on the project which began in fiscal year 1988 and is
scheduled for completion in 1992.
In August 1991, a small landslide at Culebra Reach deposited 15,075
cubic yards of rock into the Canal. Vessel traffic continued; however,
transit precautions were exercised over a period often days, until the debris
was removed. Statistics on the total volume of material dredged for the
year appear in Table 14 of this report.
Three new range towers composing the new Centerline Range were built
as part of the Pacific Entrance Channel Widening Project. The new aids to
navigation incorporate state-of-the-art technology and are outfitted with
marks for day and night use.
The widening of the Pacific approach channel created the need for added
protection to Pier No. 6 of the Thatcher Ferry Bridge, located off the edge
of the east bank of the channel. Maintenance Division placed
approximately 40,000 cubic yards of armor rock around the pier as
protection against accidental ship collision.
At the July 1991 meeting of the Commission's Board of Directors,
approval was granted to begin widening and straightening the narrow,
eight-mile Gaillard Cut area of the Canal. This internally funded multi-
phase excavation effort is scheduled to begin in FY 1992 and will be
performed over a number of years utilizing in-house resources to
accomplish wet excavation and commercial contractors to perform dry
land work. Widening of the channel will increase its minimum width from
500 feet to 630 feet in the straight sections and maximum width to 730 feet
at the curves. Completion of this major improvement will allow two way
passage of virtually all vessels throughout the waterway.
Locks: A miter gate overhaul was conducted at Gatun Locks during






CANAL OPERATIONS


FY 1991. Gates Nos. 7, 8, 15 and 16 were removed for rehabilitation and
were replaced by gates 19, 20, 31 and 32 which had been removed and
rehabilitated in 1990. During the dry chamber phases of the overhaul,
additional maintenance work on rising stem valves, conductor slot, rubber
fendering and cathodic protection was also performed. Gatun and Pedro
Miguel Locks also had scheduled lane outages for limited periods during
the year in order to allow for the conversion of rising stem valves and to
inspect underwater equipment in the centerwall.
Two locomotive turntables were purchased. One is being installed at
Gatun Locks and the other is tentatively scheduled for installation at Pedro
Miguel in FY 1993 upon completion of the final design. The new turntables
permit earlier attachment of towing locomotive cables to vessels for
improved handling during lockages. Rehabilitation of 1,447 feet of
landslide rail, 1,000 feet of conductor slot and 48 feet of rack track for the
towing locomotive track system was also accomplished during the year.
Installation of the new sandwich type forebay fendering was completed
at Pedro Miguel and Gatun Locks and work is underway at Miraflores
Locks. Additionally, approximately 1,200 feet of experimental approach
wall fendering was installed at Pedro Miguel Locks Southeast approach
wall for testing and evaluation.
The first phase of a program to install an improved fire protection
system at all three locks has been completed at Miraflores Locks North and
South approaches. Installation of similar systems is scheduled for Pedro
Miguel Locks in FY 1993, followed by Gatun Locks in FY 1995/FY 1996.
Two newly fabricated support structures and accompanying refurbished
roadways were installed at the Gatun Locks Vehicular Bridge.
Dams and Spillways: At Madden Dam two of the four drum gates and
one of the two needle valve penstocks were repainted. General repairs and
emplacement of experimental bottom seals to three Miraflores Spillway
gates was accomplished.
Communications: The third major stage in the Commission's ongoing
telecommunications improvement project was completed at a cost of about
$2 million. Included were the installation of a new digital electronic
switching system in Gatun and a supporting digital trans-Isthmian
microwave system.
Floating Equipment Maintenance: A scheduled major overhaul costing
approximately $3.7 million was performed on the dredge MINDI. The
suction system of the dredge was modified and a new all around fendering
system was installed. On the dredge CHRISTENSEN, structural repairs
and modifications were made to its boom, and a spare dipper stick to the
dredge was manufactured.
Caissons Nos. I and 2 were inspected by surveyors of the American
Bureau of Shipping to determine their structural, electrical and mechanical






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 19

condition. The replacement of Caisson No. 1 is under review while Caisson
No. 2 is undergoing major rehabilitation.
Scheduled overhauls were performed on the tugs WALKER and GUIA.
Three other tugs received emergency repairs and structural repairs were
made to one tug. Barges 102, 214, and 407, Diving Barge DOLPHIN, and
ten launches received overhauls as scheduled.
Acquisitions and contracts: A new dredge tender, the CULEBRA,
which cost approximately $1.3 million, arrived at Gamboa on September
27, 1991. Contracts were awarded for the construction of a new anchor
barge, three twin screw pilot/linehandler launches, and for modernization
of the linehandling and launch facility at Gatun Lighthouse landing.
During the year, the Engineering and Construction Bureau awarded 131
contracts totaling $13.6 million for construction related projects.












;~ ~
4 '


As part of the program to enhance the Canal's emergency response capabilities at each set of locks, modern fire stations have been
built and appropriate mobile equipment assigned at each locks complex. These improvements are also designed to augment the
marine foam-type fire protection system being installed at all locks.













Chapter III


SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


Supporting units of the Panama Canal Commission provided essential
support services for the operation and maintenance of the waterway and
the Agency's facilities, as well as to other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus and
to employees and their dependents. These operations included logistical
services community services, sanitation and grounds management,
transportation services, public utilities, fire protection, security, health and
safety and other employee services.
LOGISTICAL SERVICES
The Logistical Support Division provided centralized procurement,
inventory management, warehousing, distribution, contract administration
and supply and property disposal support to Canal operations. A total of
$81.7 million in goods and services were procured in fiscal year 1991,
including $22.9 million from sources in Panama. This includes $5.6 million
for light diesel fuel oil purchased from Texaco Antilles, Ltd. and Esso
Standard Oil, S.A. Bunker "C" oil purchases for thermoelectric power
generation totalled $10.3 million (two purchases from U.S. firms and one
from Refineria Panama). Major contracting obligations included
$2,614,281 for catastrophic insurance, $1,707,708 for a crane barge,
$1,307,151 for pilot and line handler launches, $1,271,080 for fire trucks,
$769,961 for rewinding and uprating of Gatun power plant generators,
$728,614 for aluminum sulphate (a water treatment chemical), $726,960 for
rising stem valve parts, $406,430 for replacement of a steam turbine unit
economizer, $406,023 for air compressors, $337,000 for ball joint
assemblies and $330,750 for a turbine runner.
Approximately $19.3 million in inventory items were issued for
Commission use, and $20.4 million was obligated for new inventory
purchases during the year. A total inventory of 38,659 line items with an
average inventory value of $29.7 million was on hand at year-end.
Activities of the Excess Disposal Unit included no-cost transfers to other
U.S. Government agencies of excess equipment having an original






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


acquisition value of $2.4 million. Surplus property sold to the Government
of Panama at current fair market value amounted to approximately
$13,618. Sales to others totaled $363,792.11.
The New Orleans Branch in Louisiana expedited urgent purchases and
coordinated all Commission cargo shipments from the United States to
Panama. Under the coverage of the Military Sealift Command's contract,
19,238 measurement tons of containerized and breakbulk cargo were
shipped from Louisiana ports to the Port of Las Minas, Republic of
Panama.
COMMUNITY SERVICES
During fiscal year 1991, the Community Services Division managed
Commission housing, Commission-owned buildings, the Furniture Pool,
the Technical Resources Center and the Employee Fitness Program.
The housing portion of the operation allocated its resources to
managing, maintaining, repairing, and ensuring the safety and security of
the quarters inventory. Sixty-nine Department of Defense Schools
employees continued occupying Commission housing units under an inter-
service agreement. Under the multi-year housing management plan, the
division identified 141 housing units in the town sites of Balboa, Diablo,
Gamboa and Margarita for release to the Government of Panama by the
end of calendar year 1991. To date, the Commission has released a total of
55 housing units of the 141 identified. The housing inventory decreased
from 1,545 to 1,490. This represents 34% of the inventory of approximately
4,300 units owned by the Panama Canal Company prior to entry into force
of the Panama Canal Treaty in 1979. Conversely, a total of 66% of those
units have transferred to the Government of Panama in 12 years since
Treaty implementation.
The buildings management activity maintained and operated Commis-
sion buildings and structures (not specifically assigned to other
Commission units) and a centralized custodial service. As an ongoing
project, this unit continued to modify facilities to comply with OSHA
standards for handicapped personnel and increased physical security of
buildings. No buildings were transferred to the Government of Panama
during the year. The branch began operating the Commission's furniture
pool effective January 1, 1991. In addition to its own pool, it also
coordinates the procurement of new Commission office furniture and
related furniture requirements such as inventory, transportation, storage,
maintenance and repair.
The Technical Resources Center provided mission-support information
and research to all units of the Commission and other U.S. agencies and
maintained a collection of library and tridimensional materials relating






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


to the history and operation of the Panama Canal. This unit supported the
professional development of the pilot understudies, apprentices, clerical
trainees and other employees through workshops and publications. Online
public access computers (OPAC) became operational for both staff and
patrons. OPAC allows users to search the technical collection online and
printout bibliographies.
The Employee Fitness Branch administered a variety of duty-related as
well as off-duty fitness programs and recreational facilities. Training was
provided to Commission units in rescue, water safety, advanced life saving
and survival floating. The branch continues to be responsible for certifying
swimming proficiency of job applicants and employees.

SANITATION AND GROUNDS MANAGEMENT
The sanitation activity provides environmental health support to
Commission employees and Panama Canal operating units. This
responsibility extends to protecting the work force from tropical diseases
transmitted by insect and arthropod vectors. Mosquito control measures
primarily involved hand labor maintenance of surface drainage systems to
prevent breeding in ponded water. The Sanitation Branch, in coordination
with the Entomology Laboratory Unit, operated an extensive mosquito
surveillance and monitoring network in the Canal area. In FY 1991, Aedes
aegypti breeding locations discovered and controlled increased to 89 from
54 in FY 1990.
Africanized honey bees continue to infest a wide area of the Republic
Panama. The Sanitation Branch continued to operate an immediate
response system for the control of Africanized bees reported by
Commission units and housing occupants. Several swarms were controlled
aboard transiting vessels. Bee control workload increased by 21 percent,
from 167 colonies destroyed in FY 1990 to 202 colonies destroyed in
FY 1991.
Refuse disposal services at the Commission's Atlantic and Pacific
sanitary landfills continued to be provided for Canal area solid wastes,
including refuse from U.S. military installations and Government
contractors. In FY 1991, net refuse disposal workload decreased by 7.4%
compared to FY 1990. Military refuse tonnage dropped by 15%.
Grounds Branch agronomists provided technical oversight for the long-
term Gaillard Cut reforestation project which is managed by the
Engineering Division. Contract planting of 64,000 tree seedlings of the
fast-growing tree species, Acacia and Gmelina, proved effective in reducing
both soil erosion and unwanted types of vegetation in potential landslide
areas of Gaillard Cut. Grounds Branch and Fire Division crews
accomplished grass fire damage control at the tree plantations.






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES
The Motor Transportation Division operated and maintained a
consolidated motor pool of 955 vehicles designed to meet the vehicular
transportation requirements of the Commission. The vehicle fleet in Fiscal
Year 1991 included 639 trucks of various types, 211 passenger-carrying
vehicles, 54 special purpose vehicles and 51 special equipment vehicles.
Fleet mileage increased from 7,466,000 in FY 1990 to 8,032,112 in FY 1991.
Fully equipped shops, including a tire retreading facility, light and heavy
duty repair shops, and specialized transmission, diesel and machine shops
provided facilities for overhauls, preventive maintenance and repairs to the
Motor Transportation Division fleet and equipment of other Commission
units. The vehicle inspection facilities located within the Motor
Transportation Division were used again in FY 1991 for inspection of
privately owned vehicles belonging to Department of Defense and
Commission personnel. This service was provided under an AAFES
contract, after being suspended in FY 1990 due to the U.S. military
operation Just Cause. These facilities were also used for the inspection of
all Commission vehicles. The transportation section is staffed with a total
of 156 motor vehicle operators in both districts, and manages a motor pool
of 381 vehicles, consisting of 250 general pool, 84 replacement and 47
special purpose vehicles and equipment. This section performed an average
of 4,522 monthly transportation trips during FY 1991 for services ranging
from transisthmian pilot trips to heavy equipment operation.
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY
Panama Canal Commission facilities include electric power generation
and distribution systems, communication systems, water purification and
distribution systems, and a central chilled water air conditioning system for
certain public buildings.
Total Canal area energy demand during fiscal year 1991 was 533
gigawatt hours, a 0.2 percent increase from the 532 gigawatts used last year.
The peak hourly demand of 85.1 megawatts, reached on June 12, 1991,
showed a slight increase from the 84.6 megawatts peak reached in fiscal
year 1990. Electrical power consumed for Commission operations was 67.3
gigawatts hours, 4.7 percent above the previous year. Gasoline and
petroleum distillate fuel usage by the Commission during FY 1991
(excluding fuel for power generation), was 4.2 million gallons, 11.4 percent
lower than in FY 1990. Combined fuel and electrical energy consumption
by the Commission, calculated in btu's, also showed an overall decrease,
7.4 percent, in comparison with FY 1990.
The water treatment and distribution systems operated by the
Commission provide potable water for the Canal area and areas of the
Republic of Panama. The Pacific side system serves the Canal area,






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


portions of Panama City, and suburban areas. During fiscal year 1991, the
systems on each side of the Isthmus supplied 3.42 billion cubic feet of
potable water to consumers, a slight increase of about 0.88 percent from
the previous year. Water supplied by the Panama Canal Commission to
Panama City and Colon metropolitan areas amounted to approximately
57.1 million gallons per day.
FIRE PROTECTION
The Panama Canal Commission Fire Division and the Bomberos of the
Republic of Panama, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977, are responsible for providing fire protection, fire fighting and
emergency rescue services in Canal operating areas, defense sites, and
military areas of coordination, including shipboard fire fighting on all
vessels in Canal area waters.
Commission responses for FY 1991 totaled 6,519 compared to 5,934 for
FY 1990. The marine stand-by program for hazardous ships at the locks
accounted for nearly 38 percent of the responses this year. This service is
provided by Fire Division personnel with foam apparatuses on stand-by at
the locks as a marine safety measure for those vessels designated by the
Marine Bureau as carrying dangerous cargos. The critical period is
considered to be when a vessel is entering the locks.
There were 1,707 responses for ambulance service compared to 1,653 in
FY 1990. This division also responded to a total of 39 bomb threats during
FY 1991 as compared to 91 in FY 1990. Excluding ship fires, there were 445
fires this year, a slight reduction over FY 1990. Most incidents were grass
and brush fires, which frequently occurred during the vulnerable dry
season. Additional fire statistics appear in Table 16 of this report.
In accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, formal joint
training was conducted on 6 occasions with the Bomberos of the Republic
of Panama as compared to 9 for last year. This figure is in addition to
regularly occurring joint responses to fires and other emergencies.
CANAL PROTECTION
During fiscal year 1991, the Canal Protection Division provided security
for equipment, installations and facilities devoted to the operation,
maintenance and management of the Panama Canal.
For a brief period, the division assisted the Panama National Police in
the patrolling of two Commission town sites due to a shortage of police
units. The police and Canal Protection personnel continue to jointly patrol
remote land and water areas of the Canal.
Considerable resources were expended safeguarding navigational aids
and related equipment on the west bank of the Canal. Security hardware
improvements were made at critical installations and support facilities.
Final designs and specifications for a centralized security control system
were completed.






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


HEALTH AND SAFETY
The Occupational Health and Safety Divisions are components of the
Office of Personnel Administration. The Personnel Director is the
Designated Agency Safety and Health Official. The Panama Canal
Commission is committed to ensuring a safe and healthful workplace for its
employees, an objective which enjoys support from all levels of
Commission management.
During fiscal year 1991, the Commission experienced 375 performance-
of-duty accidents/illnesses for which employees required medical attention
beyond first aid, as compared to 374 in fiscal year 1990. The incident rate
for fiscal year 1991 was 4.5 per 100 employees, the same as for fiscal year
1990. There were no fatalities in fiscal year 1991.
Workplace health and safety programs were improved and expanded
during fiscal year 1991. Formal workplace inspections and evaluations
were ongoing; compliance with all aspects of the Hazard Communication
Policy was stressed; the agency's Confined Space Policy and implementing
procedures were revised and fine tuned; and a Respiratory Protection
Policy was issued. As the cholera epidemic threatened to reach Panama,
special training and media information were provided to employees. The
joint labor/management Safety and Health Committee met regularly to
maintain its valuable role in the agency's overall health and safety program.
The agency Drug-Free Workplace Plan continued in effect, with
incident, accident, reasonable suspicion, random and applicant drug
testing; counseling and rehabilitation through the agency's Employee
Assistance Program; and strict penalties for those who refused the services
offered or who did not refrain from drug use. The Employee Assistance
Program provided not only rehabilitative services related to substance
abuse, but also included stress management and other health counseling.
Employee and public awareness of the dangers and consequences of drug
abuse, together with the sources of assistance available to stop drug use,
was increased via a series of agency newspaper articles, classes and inter-
agency campaigns.














Chapter IV


ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


PERSONNEL
FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL
At the end of fiscal year 1991, the total Isthmian force of the
CommisLion was 8,740 compared to 8,332 employees in fiscal year 1990.
Of the total Isthmian force, 7,206 were permanent and 1,534 temporary.
Of the permanent Isthmian work force, 6,281 (87.2%) were Panamanians,
859 (11.9%) were U.S. citizens, and 66 (0.9%) were third country nationals.
Eighteen persons, all U.S. citizens, were employed by the Commission in
New Orleans and Washington, DC.
The total Commission payroll was $229.5 million in fiscal year 1991
compared to $204.8 million in fiscal year 1990. Of the total Commission
fiscal year 1991 payroll, $173.5 million was paid to non-U.S. citizen
employees and $56.0 million to U.S. citizen employees.

EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM
The Agency's FY 1990 Affirmative Employment Program Report for
Minorities and Women (EEO-MD-714) and the Report for the
Employment of People with Disabilities (EEO-MD-713) for the U.S.
citizen work force were submitted to the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission during fiscal year 1991, as required.
Formal EEO complaints reflected a 62.5% decrease from the previous
year. Of the complaints being processed, 21.7% were resolved through
settlement agreements. Several workshops on the prevention of sexual
harassment in the workplace were conducted for supervisors and
employees. Black History Month, National Hispanic Heritage Month, and
National Disability Employment Awareness Month were commemorated.
Six hundred and seven employees attended Women's Week training during
March. Training in the EEO complaint process was provided to 40
supervisors and employees. The Panamanian Preference Program
continued to reflect increased participation of R.P. nationals at all levels.







ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


The composition of the work force by sex, minority group and citizenship
at the end of fiscal year 1991 is reflected below:

Sex
Male ............. .............................................. 87.0%
Fem ale ............................... ............................ 13.0%

Minority Group
lispants Blacks Whites Orientals Indians
66.8% 21.6% 9.5% 1.6% 0.5%


PUBLIC AFFAIRS
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for handling all public affairs,
orientation services and informational activities of the Panama Canal
Commission, both locally and internationally. In this connection, through
the Commission publication The Panama Canal Spillway, local and
international press releases, video tapes, films and exhibits, matters of
interest were disseminated to the work force, the public at large and the
shipping industry in particular. A daily digest of information of interest to
Commission managers was also compiled from local newspapers. The
Graphic Branch assists the public affairs effort by providing a broad range
of photographic and audiovisual support services, including training videos
and slide briefings for use throughout the Commission. The Orientation
Service, located at Miraflores Locks, provides information to and
facilitates the visits of tourists, visitors, officials, celebrities and media
representatives to the Canal. This year, 338,828 visitors were welcomed to
Miraflores and Gatun locks and 942 VIP tours were conducted.
In addition to fundamental informational services, the Office of Public
Affairs designed, produced and operated Commission exhibits for
EXPOSHIP LONDON 91, held in London, England; EXPOCOMER, a
business exposition held annually in Panama city; the David Fair, held
annually in the Chiriqui province of Panama; and other local activities and
functions. Audiovisual support was also provided for various briefings
given by the Administrator and other senior Commission officials
throughout the year.

OMBUDSMAN
The Office of the Ombudsman was established pursuant to implementing
legislation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The office responds to
employees' and dependents' complaints, grievances, and requests for
information; and channels many issues to the proper authorities for
processing under existing statutes or administrative regulations. Generally,
the Office of the Ombudsman investigates administrative problems,






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


inefficiencies, omissions and policy conflicts existing within the various
offices of the Panama Canal Commission, and between the Commission
and other U.S. Government agencies on the Isthmus of Panama resulting
from the treaty. The office provides the widest latitude possible for
handling problems affecting employee morale and the quality of life.
The office maintains close contact with officers of the three Residents
Advisory Committees as a means to assure close communication between
the Commission and these community groups on matters of concern to
residents in Commission housing areas.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
Labor-management relations throughout the fiscal year routinely
encompassed activities and issues characteristic to the federal sector.
In November 1990, the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA)
issued a decision upholding an arbitrator's interpretation of the pilots
collective bargaining agreement which in effect bars the Commission from
placing pilots on AWOL for not reporting to duty on time as a result of
oversleeping. The arbitrator determined these pilots must be placed on
leave even though they may be subject to discipline. When this case was
filed with the FLRA, the well-established rule was that arbitration awards
would be set aside if contract provisions were interpreted to infringe on a
management right. The FLRA modified the rule during the pendency of
this case. It now holds that an award will be overturned only if such an
interpretation totally abrogates a management right.
In 1990 it was reported that, absent settlement, an unfair labor practice
(ULP) complaint would be issued against the Commission for unilaterally
terminating the option of non-preference eligible employees to appeal
adverse actions through the agency's administrative procedure. In
February 1991, the FLRA's Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) dismissed
the ULP and determined that the Commission had properly terminated the
procedure for the employees in question. However, the Commission filed
an exception on other grounds. The case is presently pending before the
FLRA. The union has also filed exceptions to the ALJ's decision.
On April 7, the firefighter collective bargaining agreement was again
extended for a one-year period pursuant to an automatic renewal
provision.
GENERAL COUNSEL
Upon the December 23, 1985 enactment of Public Law 99-209, the
Commission was authorized to settle all vessel-accident claims without
regard to amount or situs of the incident which resulted in the injury or
damage. The 30 out-of-locks vessel-accident claims which were pending at
that time were adjudicated by the end of FY 1990. Additionally, final
disposition of the pending admiralty suits (two filed before passage of the
Amendments Act and nine thereafter) was made prior to close of FY 1990.






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


One was dismissed by the court and 10 were settled. No new suits in
admiralty were filed during FY 1991.
As in previous years, the principal area of settlement emanated from
marine accidents. Twenty claims for vessel damage in the amount of
$3,372,243 were settled for the total sum of $1,436,109. Settlement of
miscellaneous general claims for FY 1991 totaled $67,975, a decrease of
34% from FY 1990.
The decision of the Corps of Engineers Board of Contract Appeals
concerning an appeal arising from the construction of the Paraiso Reach
Tie-Up Station was received in early September 1991. Legal briefs and
proposed findings of fact were submitted to the Board by legal counsel in
December 1990 and February 1991, respectively. The defaulting
contractor, performance-bond surety, and the principal completing
subcontractor had brought a claim against the Commission in 1986 seeking
a judgment of $6.1 million, plus interest. Commission exposure in this case
was in excess of $9.1 million. The three-judge panel ruled unanimously,
however, that the claims of the contractor and the surety were without
merit and were, therefore, denied. The Board also denied the largest of the
subcontractor's two claims, while allowing a judgment on the smaller claim
in the amount of $478,726. A total amount of $695,873, which included
interest, was subsequently paid by the Commission to the subcontractor.
The appellants have submitted to the Board a motion to reconsider and
reverse its decision. If that motion is denied, the appellants will have 120
days to appeal the ruling to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
Nine new contract appeals were filed against the Commission during the
fiscal year. This is up from five filed in the previous year, and reflects the
steady increase in the ability and willingness of local contractors to utilize
the appeal process available under the Contract Disputes Act. Seven of the
new appeals were brought by Panamanian contractors, and each was filed
with the Corps of Engineers Board of Contract Appeals.










Chapter V


FINANCIAL REPORT


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1991
The financial statements of the Panama Canal Commission, appearing
as Tables I through 4, with accompanying notes, present the financial
position of the Commission at September 30, 1991 and the result of its
operations for the fiscal year then ended.
The accounts and statements of the Panama Canal Commission have
been examined by the Office of Inspector General of the Commission and
by the United States General Accounting Office. Detailed audit reports
of the United States General Accounting Office are directed to the Congress
and are presented as Congressional documents.
The Commission is a federal executive agency that was established on
October 1, 1979, to carry out the responsibilities of the United States with
respect to the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The Commission will oper-
ate the Canal until the Treaty terminates on December 31, 1999, when the
Republic of Panama will assume full responsibility for the Canal.

SCHEDULED TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION
As provided by the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, the Panama Canal
Commission will terminate on December 31, 1999, when the Republic of
Panama will assume full responsibility for the management, operation, and
maintenance of the Panama Canal. The treaty provides that the Canal is to
be turned over in operating condition and free of liens and debts, except as
the two Parties may otherwise agree.
To do this, the Commission needs to recover all of its costs from its
revenues. The Commission operates as a rate-regulated utility, with
approximately 75 percent of revenue obtained from tolls and the remaining
25 percent from nontoll revenue, such as navigation fees and electric
power sales. The President of the United States serves as the rate regu-
lator for tolls, which are established at a level to recover the costs of
operating and maintaining the Canal.






FINANCIAL REPORT


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Commission ended fiscal year 1991 with net operating revenues of
$3.6 million, compared to net operating revenues of $7.0 million for fiscal
year 1990. Net operating revenue for 1991 eliminated carry forward losses
from prior years of $2.7 million, leaving the remaining $875,000 to be paid
to the Republic of Panama. The Panama Canal Act of 1979 requires that
tolls be prescribed at rates calculated to recover such prior year losses.
From 1987 through 1991, toll and nontoll revenues increased an average
of 4.0 percent annually. Fiscal year 1991 total operating revenues increased
to $506 million, up 6.7 percent over fiscal year 1990. This was due to a
slight increase of ships transiting the Canal caused by the Persian Gulf War
and 6 percent more net tonnage. Nontoll revenue, which consists primarily
of navigation fees and electric power sales, increased to $138 million during
fiscal year 1991, up 15.6 percent form 1990. This increase was due to the
recognition of $13 million of advance booking fees in 1991, which were
accounted for as advances for capital in 1990.
From 1987 through 1991, total operating expenses increased an average
of 3.8 percent annually. Fiscal year 1991 total operating expenses increased
to $503 million, up 7.5 percent over fiscal year 1990. Most operating costs
remained fairly constant between 1990 and 1991. Some of the highlights were:
--Tonnage payments to the Republic of Panama increased 15.6 percent
in 1991 due to an increase (from 0.32 cents to 0.35 cents) in the amount
paid to Panama for each ton transiting the Canal and to higher Canal
traffic.
--Cost of maintenance of channels, dams, and spillways increased 20.8
percent over 1990, due to dredging of Canal waterways and overhauls of
equipment.
--Supply and transportation services increased 20.3 percent in 1991 due
to an increase of $4.7 million in the provision for obsolete and excess
inventory.
--General and administrative costs in 1991 remained constant due to the
offset of salary and other costs by an increase in the credit for the
amortization of capital advance and lower costs of employee repatriation.
--Interest expense, decreased by 23.6 percent in 1991 due to lower rates
and lower U.S. interest-bearing investment.

ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND CAPITAL
Between September 30, 1990, and September 30, 1991, total assets of the
Commission declined by 2.3 percent to $856 million, total liabilities
declined by 4.9 percent to $383 million, and U.S. Government capital
remained at approximately $473 million. The most significant changes in
individual account balances for this period were:
--Property, plant, and equipment (excluding depreciation) increased by






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 33

$25 million in 1991 to $1,023 million. This increase was due primarily to
capital expenditures, such as $4.8 million for replacement of lock
locomotive turntables, $4.6 million of motor vehicle replacements, $3.4
million of improvements to electric power and communication systems,
$1.8 million for construction of a grit blasting and painting facility, and
$1.3 million for replacement of launches and launch engines.
--Current assets increased in 1991 by $5 million to $173 million, due
primarily to higher cash balances generated by operations, offset by a $6.1
million decrease in inventory, $5.7 of which was caused by an increase in
the allowance for obsolete and excess items.
--Deferred charges declined by $30 million in 1991 to $186 million,
primarily due to amortization of deferred charges for retirement and
workers' compensation benefits.
--Current liabilities increased in 1991 by $4 million to $144 million,
primarily due to higher year end fuel oil purchases and higher operating
costs.
--Long-term liabilities decreased $27 million in 1991 to $181 million,
primarily due to the amortization of employee benefits.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 1.-Statement of Financial Position
September 30, 1991 and 1990
(Dollars in thousands)


Assets

PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT:
At cost ........................... ..........
Less accumulated depreciation and valuation
allowances .......................... .......


CURRENT ASSETS:
C ash ...... .. ...................................
Accounts receivable .............................
Inventories, less allowance for obsolete and excess in-
ventory of $6,467 and $800 respectively ............
O their .............................. ............




















DEFERRED CHARGES:
Early retirement benefits ...........................
Compensation benefits for work injuries..............
Retirement benefits to certain formeremployees .......
Unrecovered costs due from subsequent revenues ......


TOTAL ASSETS ...............................


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


$856,110 $876 391


$1,022,626

525,303

497,323

127,135
11,687

33,900
205

172,927


















121,152
59,530
5,178


185,860


1990


$997,155

505,029

492,126

114,481
13,331

40,000
172

167,984


















136,296
71,685
5,587
2,713

216,281







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 35


Table I.-Statement of Financial Position
September 30, 1991 and 1990
(Dollars in thousands)


Capital and Liabilities 1991 1990

CAPITAL:
Investment of the United States Government:
Interest-bearing (9.949% and 10.135%,
respectively)................................ $120,557 $133,176
Non-interest-bearing .......... ............... 352,622 340,663

473,179 473,839
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable:
Commercial vendors and other .................. 17,706 12,932
U.S. Government agencies ..................... 1,905 3,927
Republic of Panama.................. ........ 8,827 8,388
28,438 25247
Accrued liabilities:
Employees' leave.............................. 50,590 47,713
Salaries and wages ............................ 4,826 9,544
Early retirement benefits ....................... .. 15,144 15,144
Compensation benefits for work injuries .......... 8,460 8,018
Retirement benefits to certain former employees ... 692 684
Employees' repatriation ........................ 785 833
M arine accident claims ........................ 21,034 19,531
Net operating revenue payable to Republic of
Panam a ................................... 875 ...
O their ................................. ...... 1,969 2,536
104,375 104,003
Other current liabilities:
Advances for capital-unexpended ............... 9,079 10,473
O their ................... ......... ........... 2,100 463
11,179 10,936

143,992 140,186
DEFERRED CREDIT:
Advances for capital being amortized ................ 57,760 54,249
LONG-TERM LIABILITIES AND RESERVES:
Early retirement benefits .......................... 106,008 121,152
Compensation benefits for work injuries.............. 51,070 63,667
Retirement benefits to certain former employees ....... 4,486 4,903
Employees' repatriation ............................ 6,121 7,340
Lock overhauls ................................... 1,957 1,892
Marine accidents and casualty losses ................. 8,000 6,994
Floating equipment overhauls ...................... 3,537 2, 169

181,179 208,117

TOTAL CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES................ $856,110 $876391


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







36 FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 2.-Statement of Operations
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1991 and 1990
(Dollars in thousands)


OPERATING REVENUES: iw9 i990
Tolls revenue .............................. ... $374,625 $355,558
Advances for capital ............................. (5,929) ........
Net tolls revenue ................ .......... .. 368,696 355.558

Other revenues ............... ..... ............. 137.725 119,115

Total operating revenues ....................... 506,421 474,673

OPERATING EXPENSES:
Payments to Republic of Panama:
Public services .............................. 10,000 10,000
Fixed annuity ............................... 10,000 10.000
Tonnage ................................... 67,593 58,457
87.593 78.457
Maintenance of channels, dams and spillways ....... 35,628 29,482
Navigation service and control .................... 86,221 78,912
Locks operation ................................. 53,778 48,294
General repair, engineering and maintenance
services ...................................... 25,775 23,074
Supply and transportation services................. 23,851 19.829
U utilities ........................................ 31,772 29,854
Administrative and general ....................... 78.576 77.697
Depreciation .................................... 22,685 23,393
Fire and facility protection ....................... 13.351 12,699
Interest on interest-bearing investment ............. 11,544 15,113
Other ....................... ................... 32,059 30,853

Total operating expenses ....................... 502,833 467,657

Net Operating Revenue .............................. 3,588 7,016

Recovery of prior year losses .......................... (2.713) (7.016)

NET OPERATING REVENUE PAYABI.E 10
REPUBLIC OF PANAMA......................... $875 $......

the accompanying no s are ;ian integral part ot this statement.








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Table 3-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1990 and 1991
(Dollars in thousands)

1990
Invested Capital
Interest- Non-Interest-


INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER 1, 1989...........


CHANGES IN INVESTMENT:
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Panama
Canal Revolving Fund.....................
Net change in undeposited receipts............
Property transferred to other U.S. Government
agencies ...................... ........ .


INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30, 1990.......


INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER I. 1990...........


CHANGES IN INVESTMENT:
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Panama
Canal Revolving Fund.....................
Net change in undeposited receipts............
Adjustments for properties previously transferred
to Republic of Panama ....................
Property transferred to other U.S. Government
agencies ... ........................



INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30, 1991 .......


Bearing
$147,893



469,595

(484,188)


(124)

(14,717)


Bearing
$325,398


(469,595) .........

484,188 .........
672 672

.........(124)

15,265 548


$133,176 $340,663 $473,839


1991
Invested Capital
Interest- Non-Interest-
Bearing Bearing
$133,176 $340,663


Total
$473,839


503,009 (503,009) .........

(515,001) 515,001 .. ...
......... (33) (33)

(63) ......... (63)



(12,619) 11,959 (660)

$120,557 $352,622 $473,179


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 4.-Statement of Cash Flows
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1991 and 1990
(Dollars in thousands)

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: 1991 1990

Net operating revenue ........... ....... ........... $3588 $7,016

Adjustments to reconcile net revenue to net cash
provided by operating activities:
Depreciation................................ 22,685 23,393
Net change in reserves and other ............. 2,455 2,500
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
(Increase)/decrease in receivables ........... 1,644 (1,959)
(lncrease)/decrease in inventories ........... 6,100 (2,276)
Decrease in other assets ................... 14 534
Increase in liabilities....................... 4,453 8816
Total adjustments ....................... 37,351 31,008

Net cash provided by operating activities .... 40,939 38,024


CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

Advances for capital ............................ 5,929 10,473
Capital expenditures................ ..... ...... (34,214) (35,858

Net cash used in investing activities......... (28,285 (25,385

Net increase in cash ......................... ........ 12,654 12,639

Cash, beginning of year ................. ............ 114,481 101842

CASH, END OF YEAR .......................... $127,135 $114481


SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW
INFORMATION:

Cash paid during year for interest ................ $1S1,562 $15,124


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

The Panama Canal Commission ("Commission") is an agency of the
Executive Branch of the United States Government, provided for by the
Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, ("Treaty") and established by the Panama
Canal Act of 1979 ("Act") enacted September 27, 1979. The Commission
was established to carry out the responsibilities of the United States with
respect to the Panama Canal under the Treaty. In fulfilling these
obligations, the Commission manages, operates, and maintains the Canal,
its complementary works, installations, and equipment, and provides for
the orderly transit of vessels through the Canal. The Commission will
perform these functions until the Treaty terminates on December 31, 1999,
at which time the Republic of Panama will assume full responsibility for
the Canal, which shall be turned over in operating condition and free of
liens and debts, except as the two Parties may otherwise agree.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis.
The Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all
costs of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest,
depreciation, working capital, capital for plant replacement, expansion and
improvements, and payments to the Republic of Panama for public
services and annuities. Revenues from tolls and all other sources are
deposited in the U.S. Treasury in an account known as the Panama Canal
Revolving Fund. The resources in this fund are available for continuous
use and serve to finance Canal operating and capital programs which are
reviewed annually by the Congress.

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
A summary of significant accounting policies follows:
a. Accounting and Reporting. The accounts of the Commission are
maintained pursuant to the Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950. Under
this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States prescribes the
principles, standards and related requirements to be met. The Commission
maintains its accounts in accordance with generally accepted accounting
principles and follows STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
STANDARDS NO 71, "Accounting for the Effects of Certain Types of
Regulation."
b. Reclassifications. Certain amounts for fiscal year 1990 have been re-
classified to conform with the current financial statement presentation.
c. Cost Recovery. The basis for tolls rates ("statutory tolls formula") is
prescribed in section 1602(b) of the Act and provides:

"Tolls shall be prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues
to cover as nearly as practicable all costs of maintaining and
operating the Panama Canal, together with the facilities and
appurtenances related thereto, including unrecovered costs incurred






FINANCIAL REPORT


on or after the effective date of this Act, interest, depreciation,
working capital, payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to
paragraph 5 of Article Ill and paragraph 4(a) and (b) of Article
XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, and capital for plant
replacement, expansion, and improvements. Tolls shall not be
prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues sufficient to
cover payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to paragraph
4(c) of Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977."

Unrecovered costs for any year are to be recovered from revenues in
subsequent years.
d. Property, Plant and Equipment. Property, plant and equipment are
recorded at cost. The cost of minor items of property, plant and equipment
is charged to expense as incurred. Administrative and other related general
expenses are recovered currently and not capitalized.
e. Advances for Capital. The Board of Directors may program a
portion of tolls in excess of depreciation for plant replacement, expansion,
or improvements. Such funds are considered capital advances from Canal
users. Upon utilization, these advances are amortized through an offset to
depreciation expense in an amount calculated to approximate the
depreciation on assets acquired with such advances. In fiscal year 1991,
$5.9 million from tolls were programmed for this purpose. For fiscal year
1990, no amount was programmed.
At the direction of the Board of Directors, a system was implemented in
fiscal year 1983 whereby shippers, for a fee, can make an advance
reservation for a vessel transit. Such funds are considered capital advances
from Canal users and upon utilization, the advances are amortized through
an offset to depreciation expense in an amount calculated to approximate
the depreciation on assets acquired with such advances. In fiscal year 1990,
this system generated funds of $10.5 million. As authorized by the Board of
Directors, funds generated by this system in fiscal year 1991 were
accounted for as general revenues.
f. Depreciation. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated over
their estimated service lives at rates computed using the straight-line
method. Composite depreciation is provided for premature plant retire-
ments.
The recurring costs of dredging the waterway are charged to expense.
Non-recurring dredging costs for substantial improvements and better-
ments to the waterway are considered additions to plant and are capitalized
and depreciated over their estimated service lives.
g. Accounts Receivable. Uncollectible accounts are recognized as a
reduction in revenue when written off.
h. Inventories. Operating materials and supplies are stated at average
cost, plus cost of transportation. An allowance is provided for the
estimated cost of obsolete and excess stock.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


i. Retirement Benefits. Employer contributions to the United States
Civil Service Retirement System, the Federal Employee Retirement
System, and the Republic of Panama Social Security System are charged
to expense when paid. The Commission has no liability for future
payments to employees under these systems.
Non-United States citizen employees, who retired from predecessor
agencies prior to October 5, 1958, receive benefits under a separate annuity
plan. Payments made under this plan are recorded as a current year
expense. Annual amounts expended for this plan were $1.1 million in fiscal
years 1991 and 1990, respectively. The liability for future annuity payments
is reflected in the Statement of Financial Position as "Retirement benefits
to certain former employees" and an equal amount is recorded as a
deferred charge.
As required by the Act, the Commission is liable for the increase in the
unfunded liability of the United States Civil Service Retirement Fund for
benefits payable to employees and their survivors under the early
retirement provisions of the Act. The deferred charge and liability re-
corded in these statements reflect the payments due to the Office of
Personnel Management over the life of the Treaty. The annual installment
of $15.1 million to liquidate the increased liability is determined by the
Office of Personnel Management. The gross amount to be recovered from
tolls over the remaining life of the Treaty was $121.2 million as of fiscal
year 1991 and $136.3 million as of fiscal year 1990.
j. Reserves. Reserves required to normalize expenses for incorporation
in the tolls process, are provided for through annual charges to operations.
These reserves cover such irregular costs as lock overhauls, floating
equipment overhauls, probable losses from marine accidents, fire, damages
other than fire, public liability and other casualties.
k. Housing Use Rights. No monetary value is assigned to the rights
granted to the United States Government by the Republic of Panama to
use Canal Area housing transferred to the Republic of Panama under the
terms of the Treaty. The cost to manage, maintain and provide livability
improvements to these quarters is charged to expense. Rental income is
included in other revenues.
L. Compensation Benefits for Work Injuries. The Federal Employees'
Compensation Act (FECA) provides compensation for performance of
duty injuries for eligible employees. The costs of the FECA program are
recognized over the life of the Treaty.

2. Budgetary Resources.
a. Cash, accounts receivable, and the borrowing authority are the
resources used by the Commission to determine its solvency position.
Incurring obligations in excess of the solvency position would be a
violation of the Antideficiency Act.
b. The Commission has authority to borrow funds from the U.S.






FINANCIAL REPORT


Treasury up to $100.0 million. No funds were borrowed during fiscal years
1991 and 1990.

3. Unrecovered Costs due from Subsequent Revenues.
Unrecovered costs from prior years must be recovered before deter-
mining any net operating revenue due to the Republic of Panama. The
cumulative unrecovered costs from prior fiscal years operations were $9.7
million as of September 30, 1989. Of this amount, $7.0 million was
recovered in fiscal year 1990. Net operating revenue for fiscal year 1991 was
$3.6 million, which when netted against the outstanding unrecovered costs
of $2.7 million, leaves a balance of $0.9 million payable to the Republic of
Panama.

4. Allowance for Obsolete and Excess Stock.
The allowance for obsolete and excess stock provides for: (1) the spe-
cific disposal of individual inventory items likely to occur; and (2) the
systematic cost recognition for inventory items retained for possible use,
but whose actual use most often does not occur. During fiscal year 1991, a
comprehensive evaluation of inventory items that are infrequently issued,
but retained for possible use, was completed which indicated the need to
increase the allowance for these items by $5.6 million.

5. Compensation Benefits for Work Injuries.
The Commission administers a program to compensate certain em-
ployees for death and disability resulting from performance of duty injuries
or illnesses as set forth in the Federal Employees' Compensation Act. All
United States citizen employees are eligible for coverage, as are non-United
States citizen employees hired prior to October 1, 1979. As provided by
FECA, employees and certain dependents are beneficiaries for various
periods that can extend to life.
The liability and deferred charge recorded in these statements reflect the
payments due to a Department of Labor fund established pursuant to
Public Law 100-705. The Department of Labor will be reimbursed from
this fund for all expected future payments for accidents, adjusted for
inflation and interest earned. An evaluation, as of September 30, 1991, was
prepared by an independent actuarial firm. The values for year-end 1991
assets and liabilities were adjusted accordingly. There was no material
change in the amounts. The gross amount to be recovered from tolls over
the remaining life of the Treaty to retire this liability is $59.5 million in
fiscal year 1991 and $71.7 million in fiscal year 1990.

6. Interest-Bearing Investment of the United States Government.
The interest-bearing investment of the United States Government in the
Panama Canal is determined based on section 1603(a) of the Act. The
interest-bearing investment of the United States Government was $120.6
million at September 30, 1991 and $133.2 million at September 30, 1990.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


7. Temporary 20 Percent Surcharge.
In fiscal years 1989 to 1991 the Commission has incurred additional
costs due to the politically unstable conditions that existed in the Republic
of Panama.
The Board of Directors approved the recovery of these costs through a
temporary 20 percent surcharge on linehandling and tug service. The
surcharge was terminated on February 28, 1991. Surcharge revenues of
$5.9 million and $6.5 million for fiscal years 1991 and 1990 respectively,
were included in "Other revenues".

8. Contingent Liabilities and Commitments.
The Commission is a defendant in certain legal actions related to
personal injury, employment disputes and other matters related to the
Commission's business. In the opinion of management, the settlement of
these legal actions will not have a material adverse effect on the financial
position of the Commission.
Commitments under uncompleted construction contracts and unfilled
purchase orders amounted to $31.7 million at September 30, 1991 and
$34.3 million at September 30, 1990.
Cash and negotiable securities held by United States depositories for the
Commission to guarantee payment by third parties of their obligations
were $14.5 million and $13.2 million at September 30, 1991 and 1990,
respectively.
The Treaty provides that an annual amount of up to $10.0 million per
year be paid to the Republic of Panama out of operating revenues to the
extent that such revenues exceed expenditures. If the operating revenues in
any year do not produce a surplus sufficient to cover this payment, the
unpaid balance shall be paid from operating surpluses in future years. The
balance contingently payable to the Republic of Panama amounted to
$110.2 million and $101.1 million at September 30, 1991 and 1990,
respectively. However, as set forth in the Treaty and in the Act, nothing
shall be construed as obligating the United States Government to pay, after
the date of the termination of the Treaty, any unpaid balance accumulated
before such date.








Chapter


VI


STATISTICAL TABLES

Shipping Statistics








STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1982 through 1991

Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
I Number Long tons] INumber Panama Number Displace-
of of of Canal net of ment
transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 1


1982 .............. 14,009
1983 .............. 11,707
1984 .............. 11,230
1985 .............. 11,515
1986 .......... ... 11,925
1987 .............. 12,230
1988 ......... . . 12,234
1989 .......... ... 11,989
1990 .......... ... 11,941
1991 .............. 12,572


$323,958,366
285,983,805
286,677,844
298,497,802
321,073,748
328,372,714
337,866,211
327,850,613
353,725,982
372,279,573


185,452,332 13,976
145,590,759 11,668
140,470,818 11,199
138,643,243 11,498
139,945,181 11,901
148,690,380 12,206
156,482,641 12,209
151,636,113 11,964
157,072,979 11,904
162,695,886 12,544


202,884,207
169,503,918
162,335,342
168,941,997
182,750,830
186,416,485
191,506,903
185,769,083
181,604,268
191,786,895


OCEANGOING U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC 1


1982 ..............
1983 ..............
1984 ..............
1985 ..............
1986 ..............
1987 ..............
1988 ..............
1989 ..............
1990 ..............
1991 ..............


1982 ..............
1983 ..............
1984 ..............
1985 ..............
1986 ..............
1987 ..............
1988 ..............
1989 ..............
1990 ..............
1991 ..............


1982 ..............
1983 ..............
1984 . . . . . . .
1985 ..............
1986 ..............
1987 . . . . . . .
1988 ..............
1989 ..............
1990 ..............
1991 . . . . . . .


$ 1,546,746
1,721,925
2,388,272
2,223,938
1,553,037
1,384,125
1,361,393
1,806,539
1,707,864
2,214,170


285,451
354,873
329,607
259,524
176,853
205,701
296,140
224,121
248,442
516,130


794,282
812.840
1,131,865
1,148,31 1
708,616
662.286
714,055
994,711
821,340
902,085


FREE OCEANGOING TRAFFIC t 2
23 ......... ........ 9
14 ......... 2,504 9
17 ......... ......... 4
10 ......... 20 4
13 ......... ......... 1
5 ......... 5 4
15 ......... ......... 6
12 ......... ......... 6
20 ......... 6 4
18 ......... ......... 4
TOTAL OCEANGOING TRAFFIC I


14,142
11,846
11,384
11,654
12,023
12,313
12,318
12,075
12,052
12,763


$325,505,112 185,737,783
287,705,730 145,948,136
289,066,116 140,800,425
300,721,740 138,902,787
322,626,785 140,122,034
329,756,840 148,896,086
339,227,604 156,778,781
329,657,153 151,860,234
355,433,846 157,321,427
374,493,743 163,212,016


14,052
11,754
11,291
11,587
11,955
12,256
12,261
12,032
11,971
12,617


203,683,499
170,325,877
163,469,431
170,093,039
183,460,002
187,080,995
192,224,270
186,767,106
182,427,826
192,691,198


129,684
132,431
116,335
86,623
73,631
130,129
106,599
101,710
153,514
120,375


309,206
350,699
410,682
248,967
309,161
239,023
129,545
103,020
193,160
458,899


21,903
5,986
21,025
8,771
20,759
1,300
16,765
9,709
30,530
24,702


460,793
489,116
548,042
344,361
403,551
370,452
252,909
214,439
377,204
603,976








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1982 through 1991
(Continued)


Fiscal
year


1982 .................
1983 .................
1984 .................
1985 .................
1986 .................
1987 .................
1988 .................
1989 .................
1990 .................
199 1 .................


1982 .................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................
1989 ................
1990 ............... .
199 1 ................


1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................
1989 .................
1990 .................
199 1 .................


Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
I Number Long tons I Number Panama I Fumber Displace-
of of of Canal net of ment
transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage


SMALL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 3
830 $ 73,228 928 826
810 73,887 669 810
802 76,921 652 800
793 73,710 468 792
912 89,577 3,704 904
852 90,829 3,282 852
844 79,805 1,422 842
997 96,158 8,311 996
1,017 115,180 1,497 1,016
1,079 118,675 537 1,077
SMALL U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC3


241 $ 10,757 .......... 12
242 11,406 5 12
241 11,998 .......... 8
273 12,464 .......... 15
316 17,840 .......... 20
236 11,106 .......... 25
246 11,917 .......... 21
287 12,316 .......... 13
240 8,931 .......... 23
248 12,319 .......... 12
SMALL FREE TRAFFIC 2
58 .......... 70 40
56 .......... 8 39
96 .......... 59 86
46 .......... 3 32
27 .......... 80 20
43 .......... 57 26
33 .......... ........... 15
30 .......... 3 14
16 .......... ........... 5
18 .......... ........... 13
TOTAL PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC


1982 ................. 15,271 $325,589,097 185,738,781 14,930
1983 ................. 12,954 287,791,023 145,948,818 12,615
1984 ................. 12,523 289,155,035 140,801,136 12,185
1985 ................. 12,766 300,807,914 138,903,258 12,426
1986 ................. 13,278 322,734,202 140,125,818 12,899
1987 ................. 13,444 329,858,775 148,899,425 13,159
1988 ................. 13,441 339,319,326 156,780,203 13,139
1989 ................. 13,389 329,765,627 151,868,548 13,055
1990 ................. 13,325 355,557,957 157,322,924 13,015
1991 ................. 14,108 374,624,737 163,212,553 13,719


50,399
48,033
48,008
45,694
55,249
55,827
49,245
60,156
66,999
67,982


415
332
336
773
627
987
901
738
903
654


2,803
2,321
4,637
1,721
1,371
1,451
1,081
878
249
568


315

145
110
470

64
430
98
64


10,973
11,177
11,282
11,113
16,407
9,572
10,375
11,018
6,684
10,065


1,172
2,010
1,360
1,103
674
1,012
1,189
1,141
800
545


473,253
502,303
560,829
356,687
421,102
381,036
264,537
227,028
384,786
614,650


203,737,116
170,376,563
163,522,412
170,141,227
183,517,249
187,139,260
192,275,497
186,828,878
182,495,977
192,760,402


i Oceangoing traffic includes ships of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Free traffic includes ships of the Colombian and Panamanian Governments and ships transiting for repair by the
Commission.
3 Includes vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement tons for vessels assessed on
displacement tonnage).





Table 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1991 and 1990


Number of Transits Panama Canal Net Tonnage Long Tons of Cargo Tolls
1990-91 1989-90 1990-91 1989-90 I I 1990-91 1989-90 I I 1990-91 1989-90 I
October.................................. 1,057 1,021 16,707,635 16,360,994 13,958,989 14,027,059 $32,363,567 $31,851,517
November................................ 1,031 964 16,880,588 15,091,501 13,450,705 13,243,670 32,624,748 29,324,107
December ................................. 1,012 858 16,476,713 13,406,458 13,990,720 12,027,765 32,203,919 26,047,287
January .................................. 1,069 1,050 16,380,900 15,630,132 12,765,155 13,299,098 31,672,292 30,608,718
February................................. 1,082 940 16,238,079 14,062,994 12,973,905 11,746,814 31,441,967 27,430,212
March .................................... 1,177 1,094 16,753,382 15,690,218 14,224,070 12,903,998 32,544,260 30,501,502
April ..................................... 1,065 1,041 15,176,965 15,322,207 13,192,667 12,808,903 29,673,759 29,976,244
May ...................................... 1,042 1,014 15,492,825 15,605,266 13,511,448 13,676,274 30,126,362 30,276,197
June..................................... 1,015 958 15,042,574 14,135,376 13,665,432 12,223,942 29,168,535 27,628,594
July ..................................... 1,021 1,015 15,803,262 14,977,088 14,441,553 13,612,363 30,954,441 29,181,655
August................................... 1,021 997 16,072,796 15,713,962 13,649,501 14,187,644 31,004,138 30,707,793
September.................................. 980 989 14,761,176 15,608,072 12,871,741 13,315,449 28,501,584 30,192,155
Total ................................ 12,572 11,941 191,786,895 181,604,268 162,695,886 157,072,979 $372,279,573 $353,725,982

Average per month .......................... 1,048 995 15,982,241 15,133,689 13,557,991 13,089,415 $31,023,298 $29,477,165

NOTE: The above includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and over on vessels paying tolls on a
displacement tonnage basis. Statistics on these vessels, except as relates to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above.



t-


,-I
>

,--


CI







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1991
Measured tonnage


Flag
A lgeria .......................
Antigua-Barbuda...............
Argentina .....................
A ustria .......................
Bahamas ......................
Belgium .......................
Berm uda ......................
Brazil .........................
Bulgaria ......................
Canada .......................
Cayman Islands ................
C while ...................... . .
Colom bia .....................
Costa Rica ....................
C uba .........................
Cyprus .......................
Czechoslovakia ................
Denmark .....................
Ecuador ......................
Egypt.........................
Faroes ........................
Federal Republic of Germany ....
France ........................
G reece ........................
Honduras .....................
Hong Kong ...................
Hungary ......................
India .........................
Iran ..........................
Israel .........................
Italy ..........................
Japan ........................
K uw ait .......................
Liberia .......................
Luxembourg ..................
M alaysia ......................
M alta ...... .................
M marshall Islands ...............
M auritius .....................
M exico .......................
M orocco ......................
M yanmar .....................
Netherlands ...................
Netherlands-Antilles ............
New Zealand ..................
Nicaragua .....................
Norway .......................
Panam a.......................
People's Republic of China ......
Peru ..........................
Philippines ....................
Poland .......................
Portugal ......................
Q atar .........................
Rom ania ......................
Saudi Arabia ..................
Singapore .....................
Somali Republic ...............
South Africa ..................
South Korea ................ .


Num- I Panama 1 Long
ber of Canal Registered tons of
transit net gross 2 Tolls cargo
I 29,645 37,327 $ 59,586 51,438
23 78,852 80,976 141,293 33,466
8 145,465 132,325 287,099 205,871
10 211,504 260,896 413,470 235,277
642 8,148,180 9,549,824 15,849,555 5,286,567
28 531,813 658,727 1,041,762 563,460
9 108,343 78,470 217,769 15,033
30 712,632 838,973 1,416,704 881,245
2 17,042 20,567 34,254 22,467
8 18,565 32,693 48,076 70
5 51,391 56,525 103,296 46,179
93 964,223 1,075,028 1,904,732 1,021,687
127 984,861 938,389 1,969,201 197,435
1 393 250 629
100 620,534 707,244 1,228,294 532,829
680 7,738,319 8,931,440 15,053,098 8,845,768
21 217,268 266,661 427,712 293,107
229 5,238,130 6,419,923 10,416,302 3,657,265
333 2,735,112 3,087,812 5,314,519 1,901,387
2 44,186 54,590 79,756 38,561
1 716 1,154 1,439 5
359 4,688,085 5,706,285 9,347,768 3,351,871
45 797,039 738,220 1,581,758 512,575
705 12,334,508 14,050,766 23,807,448 15,853,412
38 89,715 104,743 163,690 29,173
8 145,295 172,929 287,691 241,004
1 2,680 3,416 5,387 4,254
37 723,543 886,216 1,375,256 845,710
12 132,924 172,548 258,094 28,294
66 1,618,238 2,099,822 3,252,658 1,165,513
119 2,335,259 2,778,156 4,495,372 2,361,105
522 8,665,376 6,247,950 16,257,923 2,354,977
4 86,249 112,123 173,360 119,386
1,519 29,872,180 30,454,723 57,452,054 23,480,901
14 293,582 370,704 583,734 292,661
24 349,634 404,673 689,527 507,728
123 1,506,757 1,814,639 2,892,312 1,858,782
5 55,716 63,513 111,989 81,296
I 20,613 24,497 41,432 40,506
49 872,874 1,062,599 1,594,843 500,692
17 191,867 226,603 375,116 268,492
58 937,158 1,105,498 1,817,739 1,055,456
303 3,565,551 3,883,265 6,957,728 2,348,165
II 55,223 57,145 108,832 18,804
I 415 522 834 50
3 3,372 3,459 6,317 1,494
747 11,874,318 12,681,224 23,393,185 12,864,932
2,080 30,738,530 31,688,644 59,055,580 22,892,763
253 4,561,366 5,534,528 9,047,125 5,815,006
108 1,260,800 1,354,443 2,459,435 1,216,233
393 6,476,632 7,259,755 12,764,719 9,022,880
88 699,776 851,430 1,379,301 415,460
5 60,293 76,293 119,697 94,893
9 109,766 135,864 220,630 105,113
5 35,250 40,342 68,833 15,542
5 31,579 32,673 58,353 6,975
213 4,184,586 4,161,842 8,028,677 3.027,327
1 9,315 10,543 18,723 4,400
1 11,720 ...... 23,557 3,296
135 3,400,383 3,757,634 6,763,493 3,003,298







STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1991-Continued
Measured tonnage


Num-
ber of
Flag transmits
Spain ................. 23
Sri Lanka ............. 34
St. Vincent & Grenadines 80
Sweden ............... 66
Switzerland ............ 15
Taiwan ................ 176
Toga .................. 1
Tunisia................ 3
Turkey ............... 37
U.S.S.R. ............... 403
United Arab Emirates ... 6
United Kingdom........ 343
United States .......... 430
Vanuatu ............... 218
Venezuela ............. 161
Yugoslavia ........... 135
Zaire ................ I_
Total .......... 12,572


I Panama
Canal
net
223,133
322,716
1,148,678
2,252,810
288,475
5,634,770
13,647
24,219
594,265
3,694,962
93,147
5,620,279
5,185,320
3,030,134
574,721
1,682,089
8,189
191,786,895


Registered
gross
237,124
372,026
1,312,420
1,812,210
348,189
6,664,886
5,998
30,546
693,050
4,227,515
112,118
6,887,574
5,056,067
2,801,371
655,307
2,002,432
9,441
206,588,297


Tolls
$ 447,182
597,699
2,250,124
4,486,817
565,381
11,291,080
27,430
45,370
1,148,514
7,244,126
187,225
10,949,977
9,764,267
5,755,302
1,118,469
3,335,433
16,460
$372,279,573


Long
tons of
cargo
144,256
63,480
1,383,143
880,071
440,053
4,524,074
1,411
13,644
759,820
2,262,573
80,833
4,524,188
3,569,250
2,044,886
408,915
1,941,924
13,829
162,695,886


I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Includes 15 transits where no registered tonnage was reported.

NOTE.-In Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as transports, supply ships, tankers, etc.,
with a measurement of 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) and over, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons and over, are classified as oceangoing commercial vessels. Statistics on
these vessels, except as related to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above. As
displacement tonnage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table shows statistics covering 28
vessels which transited the Canal during fiscal year 1991 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.


Flag
C anada ............................................
Colombia ..........................................
Ecuador ............................................
France .............................................
Japan ..............................................
Peru ...............................................
Spain ..............................................
Sweden ............................................
United Kingdom ....................................
United States .......................................
United States .......................................
Total ................. .................


Num- Displace-
her of ment
Type transits tonnage
Navy 3 11,145
Dredge I 1,400
Navy 3 5,350
Navy 3 25,667
Navy 3 12,592
Navy 6 19,912
Navy 2 7,340
Navy 2 3,500
Navy 2 7,443
Navy I 14,745
Dredge 2 11,281
28 120,375


Tolls
S 12,482
1,568
5,992
28,747
14,103
22,301
8,221
3,920
8,336
16,514
12.635
' l3.Jl :Pii





Table 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic' by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1991


Laden Ballast
Atlantic Pacific Atlantic Pacific \
to to to to Grand
Type of Vessel Pacific Atlantic Total Pacific Atlantic Total Total
CARGO AND CARGO/PASSENGER SHIPS:
Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits ................ ................. 1,857 1,464 3,321 296 405 701 4,022
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 40,208 32,156 72,364 10,928 8,005 18,933 91,297
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $80,818 $64,634 $145,452 $17,485 $12,808 $30,293 $175,745
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 59,975 31,844 91,819 ........ ....... ........ 91,819
Container Cargo Ships:
Number of transits ....... ............. ..... ........ 791 810 1,601 12 26 38 1,639
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 17,627 18,677 36,304 119 287 406 36,710
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $35,430 $37,542 $72,971 $190 $459 $649 $73,620
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 13,509 12,154 25,663 ........ .. .... .. ........ 25,663
General Cargo Ships:
Number of transits ........ .......... .. ...... ........ 751 668 1,419 71 71 142 1,561
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 6,211 5,647 11,858 440 288 727 12,585
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $12,485 $11,350 $23,834 $703 $460 $1,164 $24,998
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........... ............. 5,234 4,152 9,387 ........ ....... ........ 9,387
Passenger Ships: 2
Number of transits ................... ................ 101 68 169 6 2 8 177
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 2,251 1,520 3,771 67 29 96 3,867
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $4,525 $3,055 $7,580 $107 $47 $154 $7,734
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ........ .......... ...... .. ...... .. ....... ........
Refrigerated Cargo Ships: -q
Number of transits .................................. 843 1,477 2,320 709 29 738 3,058 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 5,196 9,192 14,388 4,201 135 4,336 18,723 t
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $10,444 $18,476 $28,920 $6,721 $216 $6,937 $35,857
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 865 4,344 5,208 ........ ...... .. ........ 5,208
Tank Ships:
Number of transits ................................. 787 405 1,192 105 336 441 1,633 >-
Panama Canal net tonnjgc (thousands' ................ 12,338 6,889 19,227 2,219 5,142 7,361 26,588 .
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $24,800 $13,847 $38,647 $3,550 $8,227 $11,778 $50,425 >
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 19,038 10,580 29,618 ........ ....... ........ 29,618 w
m
hi





OTHER TYPE SHIPS: >
Naval Vessels: z
Number of transit .................................. ........ ........ ......... 9 16 25 25 >
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ................ ........ 27 81 108 108 4
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... ........ ........ ........ $30 $90 $121 $121 >
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ........ ........ ........ 1 1 1
Barges, Dredges, Drydocks, Tugs, etc.:
Number of transits ................. ................. 158 139 297 61 99 160 457 z
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 834 488 1,322 93 600 693 2,015 >
Displacement tonnage (thousands) ... .. .... ..... ...... ........ 11 2 13 13 rt
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $1,677 $980 $2,657 $161 $963 $1,124 $3,781 n
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 839 162 1,001 ........ ........ ........ 1,001 0
SUMMARY:
Total Cargo and Cargo/Passenger Ships:
Number of transits ................. ................ 5,130 4,892 10,022 1,199 869 2,068 12,090
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 83,831 74,081 157,912 17,973 13,886 31,859 189,772 r
Tolls (thousands of dollars) .......................... $168,501 $148,903 $317,404 $28,758 $22,217 $50,975 $368,379 O
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 98,621 63,073 161,694 ........ ........ ........ 161,694 z
Total Other Type Ships:
Number of transits .................. ................ 158 139 297 70 115 185 482
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 834 488 1,322 93 600 693 2,015
Displacement tonnage (thousands) ..................... ........ ..... ... ........ 38 83 120 120
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $1,677 $980 $2,657 $191 $1,053 $1,244 $3,901
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 839 162 1,001 ........ 1 1 1,002
Grand Total Ships:
Number of transits .............................. ... 5,288 5,031 10,319 1,269 984 2,253 12,572
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 84,666 74,569 159,234 18,067 14,486 32,553 191,787
Displacement tonnage (thousands) ..................... ...... ........ ........ 38 83 120 120
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $170,178 $149,883 $320,061 $28,949 $23,270 $52,219 $372,280
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 99,460 63,235 162,695 ........ 1 1 162,696

I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels paying tolls on net tonnage basis, or of 500 displacement tons and over for
vessels paying on displacement tonnage.
2 Vessels certificated for more than 12 passengers.










54 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel

Fiscal Year 1991

Laden Ballast

Num- II Num-
her Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
Algeria ...................... I 29,645 1 59,586 ..... ...... ......
Antigua-Barbuda ............. 13 36,902 74,173 10 41,950 67,120
Argentina .... ............ 7 132,572 266,470 1 12,893 20,629
Austria ... ............. 9 183,083 367,997 1 28,421 45,474
Bahamas .......... . .. 494 6,859,676 13,787,948 148 1,288,504 2,061.,607
Belgium ........... . . . ... 24 465,514 935,683 4 66,299 106,078
Bermuda .................. 9 108,343 217,769 .... ...... ......
Brazil .................... 28 674,373 1,355,490 2 38,259 61,214
Bulgaria ... ............. 2 17,042 34,254 .... . . ......
Canada ... ............. 4 14,365 28,874 I 4,200 6,720
Cayman Islands ............... 5 51,391 103,296 ....
Chile ... ............... 81 882,866 1,774,561 12 81,357 130,171
Colombia .................. 112 955.746 1,921,049 14 29,115 46,584
Costa Rica .................. . ..... ... ........ I 393 629
Cuba . . ................ . 85 574,243 1,154,228 15 46,291 74,066
Cyprus.... ................ 550 6,516,555 13,098,276 130 1,221,764 1.954,822
Czechoslovakia . ........... 18 195,326 392,605 3 21,942 35,107
Denmark .................. 195 4,964,131 9,977,903 34 273,999 438,398
Ecuador ................... 271 2,274,018 4,570,776 59 461,094 737,750
Egypt ............... .... I 22,093 44,407 I 22,093 35,349
Faroes ........................ 1 716 1,439 . .
Federal Republic of Germany .. ... 340 4,504,470 9,053,985 19 183,615 293.784
France.. . . . . . . . . ... 32 677,436 1,361,646 10 119,603 191,365
Greece .................... 556 9,932,281 19,963,885 149 2,402,227 3,843,563
Honduras .................. 26 49,136 98,763 12 40,579 64,926
Hong Kong ................. 6 134,681 270,709 2 10,614 16,982
Hungary .. ............. 1 2,680 5,387 ... ..
India ........................ 27 530,701 1,066,709 10 192,842 308,547
Iran ..................... 10 110,770 222,648 2 22,154 35,446
Israel ..................... 66 1,618,238 3,252,658 ... ..
Italy ..................... 94 1,851,116 3,720,743 25 484,143 774,629
Japan . ................. 426 5,802,971 11,663,972 93 2,862,405 4,579,848
Kuwait .. .............. 4 86,249 173,360 .... ...... ....
Liberia .................... 1,256 23,553,403 47,342,016 263 6,318,777 10,110,043
Luxembourg ................. 13 278,055 558,891 1 15,527 24,843
Malaysia ... ................ 22 317,349 637,871 2 32,285 51,656
Malta ... .................. 93 1,174,392 2,360,528 30 332,365 531,784
M marshall Islands ............. 5 55,716 1I 11,989 .... ...... ......
M auritius .................. I 20,613 41,432 .... ...... ......
Mexico ........... ......... 31 483,524 971,883 18 389,350 622,960
Morocco .................. 14 166,169 334,000 3 25,698 41,117
Myanmar .... ............... 46 776,307 1,560,377 12 160,851 257,362
Netherlands .. ............. 249 3,055,723 6,142,003 54 509,828 815,725
Netherland-Antilles . . . . .. 9 49,939 100,377 2 5,284 8,454
New Zealand ................ I 415 834 . .
Nicaragua. . . . . . . . ... 2 2,248 4,518 1 1,124 1,798
Norway ... ................ 677 10,717,747 21,542,671 70 1,156,571 1,850,514
Panama ...................... 1,610 24,082,761 48,406,350 470 6,655,769 10,649,230
People's Republic of China ........ 232 4,265,707 8,574,071 21 295,659 473,054
Peru ... ................... 86 1,024,032 2,058,304 16 236,768 378,829
Philippines ... .............. 343 5,858,800 11,776,188 50 617,832 988,531
Poland.... ................ 74 633,315 1,272,963 14 66,461 106,338
Portugal ... .............. 4 56,654 113,875 1 3,639 5,822
Qatar ... ........... 9 109,766 220,630 ..... . ... .
Romania ................... 4 30,325 60,953 I 4,925 7,880
Saudi Arabia ................. 3 19,089 38,369 2 12,490 19,984
Singapore .... ............... 171 3,252,047 6,536,614 42 932,539 1,492,062
Somali Republic ................ 1I 9,315 18,723 .... ...... ......
South Africa ................. I 11,720 23,557 ....
South Korea ................ 129 3,226,536 6,485,337 6 173,847 278,155
Spain ....................... 19 199,873 401,745 2 23,260 37,216
Sri Lanka ...... ............. 21 198,422 398,828 13 124,294 198,870
St. Vincent & Grenadines .. ........ 68 1,005,460 2,020,975 12 143,218 229,149
Sweden ................... 60 2,133,031 4,287,392 4 119,779 191,646
Switzerland ................. 12 253,223 508,978 3 35,252 56,403
Taiwan ................... 173 5,549,872 11,155,243 3 84,898 135,837
Toga ... ............... ... I 13,647 27,430 . . ... ......
Tunisia ... ............. 2 16,146 32,453 I 8,073 12,917
Turkey.... ................. 28 482,170 969,162 9 112,095 179,532
U.S.S.R ..................... 351 3,249,235 6,S530,962 52 445,727 713,163
United Arab Emirates .......... 6 93,147 187,225 ...
United Kingdom .............. 276 4,754,132 9,555,805 65 866,147 1,385,835
United States ... ............ 286 3,518,205 7,071,592 141 1,667,115 2,667,384








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 55


Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1991-Continued
Laden Ballast
Num- Num-
ber Panama be, Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transit tonnage Tolls
Vanuatu...... ................. 173 2,212,409 $ 4,446,942 45 817,725 S 1,308,360
Venezuela ................... 136 485,159 975,170 25 89,562 143,299
Yugoslavia .................. 122 1,570,952 3,157,614 13 111,137 177,819
Zaire ...................... I 8.189 16,460 ... ......
Total . . . . . . .... 10,319 159,234,268 $320,060,549 2,225 32,552,627 $52,084,203
Above table involves only commercial vessels of 300 net tons or over, Panama Canal measurement.





Table 6.-Segregation of Transits' by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal Year 1991


A lgeria ........................
Antigua-Barbuda ................
Argentina ......................
Austria ........................
Baham as .......................
Belgium .......................
Berm uda .......................
Brazil .........................
Bulgaria .......................
Canada ........................
Cayman Islands..................
Chile ..........................
Colombia ......................
Costa Rica .....................
C uba ..........................
Cyprus ........................
Czechoslovakia ..................
Denmark .......................
Ecuador .......................
Egypt .........................
Faroes.........................
Federal Republic of Germany .......
France ........................
G reece .........................
Honduras ......................
Hong Kong .....................
Hungary .......................
India ..........................
Iran ...........................
Israel ..........................
Italy ..........................
Japan .........................
K uw ait ........................
Liberia ........................
Luxembourg ....................
M alaysia .......................
M alta .........................
M marshall Islands .................
M auritius ......................
M exico ........................


2.000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 30,000 40,000
Under to to to to to to to to and
2,000 3.999 5,999 7.999 9,999 14,999 19,999 29.999 39.999 over
. . ...... ...... ...... ...... . . ... . ...... I ......
12 5 3 1 ...... 1 I ...... ...... ......
. ... ...... .. ...... ...... 5 ...... 3 ...... ......
... ..... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 4 4 ......
19 29 74 67 131 75 27 180 18 22
..... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 6 20 1 ......
1 ...... ...... 6 ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ......
..... ...... ...... ...... 2 6 2 6 ...... 14
. .. .. ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... I ...... ...... ......
3 ...... I ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... ......
. .. ...... 2 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ......
7 ...... ...... I 4 81 ...... ...... ...... ......
48 4 ...... 6 ...... 68 ...... ...... ...... ......
I ...... ...... ...... ...... .. .. ...... ...... ...... ......
1 44 ...... I 20 31 3 ...... ...... ......
34 11 49 54 142 170 114 76 30 ......
... ...... ...... 10 ...... 7 ...... 3 1 ..... .
61 1 1 ...... 4 35 7 11 2 107
19 22 10 140 47 32 27 33 ...... ......
. . . ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ......
I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . I . .

4 33 11 73 58 87 77 15 1
6 4 1 ...... ...... ...... 11 18 1 1
58 ...... 17 41 42 144 94 100 207 2
23 3 ...... 11 ...... 1 ...... ...... ..... .....
...... ...... ...... ...... 2 2 ...... 3 ......
. . . 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
..... 3 ...... ...... ...... 1I 13 11 4 5
.. ... ...... ...... ...... ...... 12 ...... ...... ... . ......
..... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ...... 29 37 ......
1 1 3 5 20 7 4 35 42 1
190 21 39 47 24 11 23 102 29 33
. . . ...... ...... .. .... ...... ...... 1 2 ...... 1
5 6 28 48 232 388 214 241 224 133
..... ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 7 4 ......
..... 1 ...... ...... 3 4 10 4 2 ......
6 9 ...... 13 12 34 25 12 12 ......
. . . ...... ...... ...... ...... 5 ...... ...... ...... ......
. . . ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ...... 1 ...... ......
7 2 ...... 4 ...... 6 3 6 21 ......


Total

23
8
10
642
28
9
30
2
5
5
93
126
1
100
680
21
229
330
2
1
359
42
705
38
8
1
37
12
66
119
519
4
1,519
14
24
123
5
1
49


A average
gross
Registered tonnage
gross per
tonnage vessel
37,327 37,327
80,976 3,521
132,325 16,541
260,896 26,090
9,549,824 14,875
658,727 23,526
78,470 8,719
838,973 27,966
20,567 10,284
21,616 4,323
56,525 11,305
1,075,028 11,559
937,127 7,438
250 250
707,244 7,072
8,931,440 13,134
266,661 12,698
6,419,923 28,035
3,082,782 9,342
54,590 27,295
1,154 1,154
5,706,285 15,895
722,438 17,201
14,050,766 19,930
104,743 2,756
172,929 21,616
3,416 3,416
886,216 23,952
172,548 14,379
2,099,822 31,815
2,778,156 23,346
6,247,950 12,038
112,123 28,031
30,454,723 20,049
370,704 26,479
404,673 16,861
1,814,639 14,753
63,513 12,703
24,497 24,497
1,062,599 21,686






M orocco ....................... ...... 6 ...... 1 ...... I 2 7 ...... ...... 17 226,603 13,330 "
Myanmar ...................... ...... ...... ...... 2 13 16 9 I 17 ...... 58 1,105,498 19,060 >
Netherlands ................... 11 31 48 20 27 89 9 45 23 ...... 303 3,883,265 12,816 Z
Netherlands-Antilles .............. ...... 4 2 5 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 11 57,145 5,195
New Zealand .................... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 522 522
Nicaragua ...................... 3 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 3,459 1,153 >
Norway. ....................... 7 7 6 115 161 31 119 234 67 ...... 747 12,681,224 16,976
Panama ................ ....... 67 103 332 317 192 310 190 205 261 103 2,080 31,688,644 15,235
People's Republic of China ......... ...... 1I 4 1 34 23 28 118 44 ...... 253 5,534,528 21,876
Peru .......................... 2 7 9 ...... 2 68 5 ...... 9 ...... 102 1,340,883 13,146
Philippines ..................... ...... 1I 56 27 36 49 58 92 74 ...... 393 7,259,755 18,473 >
Poland ........................ 1 2 5 22 20 29 8 ...... 1 ...... 88 851,430 9,675
Portugal ....................... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 ...... ...... 5 76,293 15,259
Qatar ......... ... ......... ... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 9 ...... ..... ...... 9 135,864 15,096 0
Rom ania ....................... ...... ...... ...... 2 3 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 5 40,342 8,068
Saudi Arabia.................... ...... ...... ...... 5 ...... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... 5 32,673 6,535
Singapore ...................... ...... 6 4 8 17 80 16 27 38 17 213 4,161,842 19,539
Somali Republic ................. ...... ...... ........ .... ..... 1 10,543 10,543
South Korea .................... 5 ...... ...... ...... ...... 4 17 53 52 4 135 3,757,634 27,834
Spain ......................... 8 ...... ...... ... ...... ....2. 9 2 ...... ...... 21 237,124 11,292 0
Sri Lanka ........ ....... ... .. .... .. ...... ...... ....... 22 12 ...... ..... ..... ...... 34 372,026 10,942 Z
St. Vincent & Grenadines .......... 11 ...... 6 ...... 2 1 37 19 4 ...... 80 1,312,420 16,405
Sweden ........................ ..... ..... ..... 2 ...... ...... 18 22 11 11 64 1,812,210 28,316
Switzerland ..................... 2 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 2 7 ...... 15 348,189 23,213
Taiwan ........................ 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 33 61 80 176 6,664,886 37,869
Toga .......................... ..... . ... I ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 5,998 5,998
Tunisia ........................ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 30,546 10,182
Turkey ........................ ...... ...... 5 ...... ...... 9 10 6 7 ...... 37 693,050 18,731
U.S.S.R ........................ 9 37 31 66 81 99 49 22 7 2 403 4,227,515 10,490
United Arab Emirates ............. ...... ...... ...... ...... .............. 5 ...... I ...... 6 112,118 18,686
United Kingdom ................. 15 1 23 3 21 99 38 38 81 22 341 6,884,412 20,189
United States .................... 116 15 15 27 20 95 50 27 35 13 413 5,047,894 12,223
Vanuatu ....................... 57 9 2 31 23 28 19 19 20 10 218 2,801,371 12,850
Venezuela ...................... 121 2 ...... 4 ...... 22 10 ...... ...... 2 161 655,307 4,070
Yugoslavia ..................... ...... ...... 11 8 24 42 25 16 9 ...... 135 2,002,432 14,833
Zaire.......................... ...... .... .. ... .. ...... I ...... ...... ...... ...... ......I 9,441 9,441
Total ....................... 942 407 825 1,132 1,457 2,298 1,422 1,975 1,487 584 12,529 206,530,251 16,484
Percent of Total .............. 7.5 3.2 6.6 9.0 11.6 18.3 11.3 15.8 11.9 4.7 100.0
I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement.
2 Excludes 28 vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage basis and 15 transits where no registered tonnage was reported.




Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped through Canal by Fiscal Years 1989 through 1991
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
I 1989 1990 1991 I Commodity I 991 1990 1989 I
768 701 830 Canned and Refrigerated Foods .............. ....................................... 5,229 4,796 4,163
50 30 18 Canned Foods.................................. .............. 140 128 128
3 2 2 Fish .......................................................................... 24 21 25
8 3 3 Fruit ......................................................................... 15 4 15
25 9 11 M ilk ......................................................................... 68 80 71
14 16 2 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 32 23 17
717 671 812 Refrigerated Foods ................................................................. 5,089 4,668 4034
9 6 8 Bananas ...................................................................... 2,115 1,621 1,366
8 1 1 D airy Products ................................................................ 48 11 23
169 209 238 Fish .......................................................................... 714 927 836
176 55 145 Fruit, excluding bananas ........................................................ 1,288 1,154 954
4 11 10 M eat ......................................................................... 117 63 80
352 389 410 Other and unclassified ........................................................ 808 891 775
6,000 5,770 6,888 Chemicals and Petroleum Chemicals ..................................................... 1,181 962 1,626
1,220 918 1,014 Caustic Soda ...................................................................... 29 ...... 5
2,845 3,566 3,869 Chemicals, unclassified.............................................................. 1,061 871 1,439
1,935 1,286 2,005 Petroleum Chemicals, miscellaneous ................................................. 92 91 182
5,301 5,065 4,636 Coal and Coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............................................. 3,756 3,051 3,634
28,127 27,998 29,584 G rains ........................................................................ 3,312 2,242 1,790
5 10 110 Barley ............................................................................ 595 292 202
10,475 14,012 14,985 Corn ............................................................................. 48 3 10
5 2 99 O ats... .......................................................................... I 1 1 '
171 224 162 R ice .............................................................................. 419 432 350
1,942 2,029 1,734 Sorghum.........................................................................9 ..... ......
5,180 6,059 6,265 Soybeans ......................................................................... 39 97 63
9,893 5,425 5,828 W heat ............................................................................ 2,161 1,363 1,134
457 237 400 Other and unclassified ..... ......................................................... 49 45 30
2,465 2,608 3665 Lumber and Products ................................................................... 5,883 6,861 6,981 >
69 18 152 Boards and planks ................................................................. 2,779 3,695 3,949
11 18 14 Plywood. veneers, composition board ................................................ 667 748 788 "
1,253 980 1,006 Pulpuood ... ............................................................... 2,058 2,063 1,831 >
1,131 1,592 2,493 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 379 355 412
506 514 396 Machinery and Equipment ............................................................. 1,537 1,558 1,927 M





44 50 32 Agricultural machinery and implements ............................................... 11 17 22
309 310 235 Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ............................................ 1,378 1,384 1,717 z
73 86 71 Construction machinery and equipment ............................................... 59 106 113 >
32 33 21 Electrical machinery and apparatus .................................................. 26 9 21 g
1 1 1 Motorcycles, bicycles and parts ...................................................... 24 2 8 >
48 35 36 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 39 40 47
4,325 4,248 5,445 Manufactures of Iron and Steel .......................... ........ ........................ 2,808 2,950 3,526
189 241 229 Angles, shapes, and sections ......................................................... 96 67 258 Z
20 3 7 Nails, tacks, and spikes ............................................................. 28 52 67 >
2,672 2,351 3,435 Plates, sheets, and coils ............................................................. 1,242 1,471 1,424 r
261 147 259 Tubes, pipes, and fittings ............................................................ 337 333 372
605 900 950 Wire, bars, and rods ................................................................ 197 166 303 0
577 606 565 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 908 863 1,101
142 204 124 M minerals, miscellaneous ................................................................ 4,814 4,733 3,337
15 7 28 Asbestos ... ...................................................................... ..... 3 4
1 3 1 Borax ............................................................................ 398 424 393
..... ...... 2 Infusorial earth ......... .......................................................... .... .....1 0
21 33 29 Salt ............................................................ ............... 1,139 1,374 707 Z
98 96 63 Soda and sodium compounds ........................................................ 323 222 78
7 65 ...... Sulfur .................. ....................................................... 2,954 2,710 2,154
11,702 13156 Nitrates, Phosphates, and Potash ................................. ..................... 1,562 2,079 2,502
558 480 778 Ammonium compounds ............................................................. 25 28 18
1 13 Fishm eal .......................................................................... 795 1,281 1,427
43 8 20 N itrate of soda ..................................................................... 296 383 321
8,187 7,957 9,210 Phosphates ........................................................................ 339 268 416
223 442 783 Potash ............................................................................ 32 52 106
2,691 2,826 2,352 Fertilizers, unclassified .............................................................. 75 67 214
3,130 3,772 3,652 Ores and M etals ....................................................................... 7,714 8,686 7,379
736 798 787 Ores ........................................................ ............... _6,375 7,410 6,097
135 229 162 Alumina/bauxite ............................................................... 1,706 3,040 2,250
31 6 73 Chrom e ....................................................................... 19 46 66
48 67 26 Copper ....................................................................... 488 471 570
117 182 161 Iron .......................................................................... 295 413 282
8 15 Lead ......................................................................... 243 224 221
97 86 92 M anganese .................................................................... 172 313 281
T in ........................................................................... 4 12 31
37 30 24 Zinc .......................................................................... 927 763 540
271 189 234 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 2,521 2,128 1,855 T




Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped through Canal by Fiscal Years 1989 through 1991-Continued g
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
I 1989 1990 1991 I Commodity I1991 1990 1989 I
2,394 2,974 2,865 Metals ............................... ................................ 1,340 1,275 1,282
283 409 503 Alum inum .................................................................... 12 13 14
2 8 3 Copper ....................................................................... 978 892 872
83 291 194 Iron .......................................................................... 19 14 12
..... 15 1 Lead ......................................................................... 104 80 67
1,929 2,186 2,102 Scrap ......................................................................... ...... 28 90
22 11 12 Tin, including tinplate .......................................................... 8 1 7
25 7 8 Z inc .......................................................................... 178 220 163
52 48 41 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 40 19 58
1,836 1,803 1,848 Other Agricultural Commodities ................ ........................................ 3,287 3,634 3,324
123 78 11 Beans, edible ...................................................................... 63 56 55
5 4 2 Cocoa and cacao beans ........................................................... 44 40 50
14 7 ...... Coffee, raw and processed ......................................................... 318 421 275
2 ...... Copra and coconuts ................................................................ 6 7 .
116 51 67 Cotton, raw ....................................................................... 61 64 82
54 13 17 M classes .......................................................................... 633 714 672
42 122 97 O ilseeds .......................................................................... 33 88 106
5 12 II Peas, dry .......................................................................... 36 11 52
3 4 2 Rubber, raw ....................................................................... 36 47 137
3 ...... Skins and hides .................................................................... 2 27 1
1,473 1,508 1,640 Sugar ............................................................................ 2,053 2,153 1,891
..... ..... 1 W ool, raw ........................................................................ 3 6 4
9,838 11,709 13,036 Petroleum and Products ................................................................ 10964 13,521 12,396
30 25 70 Asphalt ....... ................................................................. 1 ...... I >
2,089 2,687 3,215 Crude oil ......................................................................... 5,024 6,575 5,784 -
1,404 1,430 1,368 D iesel oil ......................................................................... 141 98 418 w
995 1,891 2,506 Fuel oil, residual ........................................................... ........ 2,037 3,620 3,179 -
1,554 1,938 1,804 G gasoline .......................................................................... 1,162 310 486 0
847 912 819 Jet fuel ...................................................................... 26 70 5 >
94 101 200 Kerosene................................................................................... .
1,065 999 1,338 Liquefied gas ...................................................................... 41 147 90 >
659 612 578 Lubricating oil... ............................................................. 129 171 156 O
923 784 748 Petroleum coke ................................................................. 2,365 2,447 2,261 1
179 331 390 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 38 82 14





14136 14,861 16202 M miscellaneous ................ ............ 11 89 10,777
29 11 13 Bricks and tile ..................................................................... 4 11 13 Z
77 28 81 Carbon black ...................................................................... 11 1 2 >
234 543 948 Cement ........................................................................... 5 5 4 2
553 623 708 Clay, fire and china... ......................................................... 21 87 39 >
7 2 1 Fibers, plant ... ................................................................. 3 12 4
148 149 194 Flour, wheat ...................................................................... .... 2 6 >
11 11 5 Glass and glassware ................................................................ 5 5 6 Z
12 54 48 Groceries, miscellaneous ............................................................ 52 22 65 >
6 7 2 Liquors and wines ... ............................................................ 9 14 9 r-
121 69 93 Marble and stone .................................................................. ...... 3 4
3 6 8 Oil, coconut ... ................................................................ 46 70 51 O
1 ...... 1 O il, fish ........................................................................... 144 213 395
161 176 235 Oil, vegetable .. ............................................................... 191 232 171
892 944 1,069 Paper and paper products ........ ................................................ 551 448 527 2
1 1 6 Porcelainware ..................................................................... I 1 2
81 75 81 R esin ... ......................................................................... I 1 2
19 21 1 1 Rubber, manufactured .............................................................. 5 16 8
4 4 ...... Seeds, excluding oilseeds ............................................................ 24 13 23
16 146 240 Slag, clinkers, and dross ............................................................. 5 28 28
97 75 126 Tallow ............................................................................ 28 36 34
15 7 8 T textiles ........................................................................... 18 15 18
1 ...... ...... Tobacco and m manufactures .......................................................... ...... 1 1
17 15 3 W ax, paraffi n ..................................................................... 11 13 12
10,987 11,347 11,628 Container cargo.............................................................. 9,567 9,375 8,926
644 547 691 All other and unclassified ..................................................... 487 412 426
88,276 90,66 99 Total ............................... ..... .............. .............. 63236 66 07 63,361









0%





Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific during Fiscal Year 1991 C
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes
[Long tons]

To W. C.
To West Coast United States Canada To West Coast Central America
FI I Central
Main- Costa El Sal- Guate- Nica- Pan- America Balboa,
Alaska Hawaii land Total Canada Rica vador mala Mexico ragua ama (other) 1 R.P.2 Total

EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ......... ...... 6,094 ..... 99,471 105,565 200 2,460 47,358 50,319 21,406 ..... . .. .... 59,778 181,321
South Atlantic ports ............... 13,512 17 30,810 44,339 15,490 2,535 6,547 . . . 203,631 ..... 35,096 . . 7,727 255,536
Great Lakes ports ................. ..... .. .... ..... ............ ..... ............ ..... ..... ..... ..... ......
Gulf ports ....................... 16 . . 922,028 922,044 137,612 505,867 580,700 464,978 1,339,339 160,276 50,999 198,970 419,828 3,720,957
United States (other) ............... ..... ...... 775 775 ...... ..... .... .. ...... ......... ..... .... .... 12,965 12,965
Total United States ................ 19,622 17 1,053,084 1,072,723 153.302 510,862 634,605 515,297 1,564,376 160,276 86,095 198,970 500,298 4,170,779

EAST COAST CANADA ..... 180 48,699 48,879 ...... 8,927 10,053 12,500 64,888 5,119 7,056 ..... ..... 108,543

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Mexico ............................ ..... 27,914 ...... 27,914 ...... ..... 253,055 26,015 548,195 35,034 ..... ..... 21,319 883,618
Panama ........................... .. ...... 26,151 26,151 ...... 1,349 7,737 ...... ...... ...... 160 ..... 94,148 103,394
Central America (other)'I ................. . ...... 60,754 60,754 .... .. ..... ...... ..... .... 20,237 ..... 44 ..... 6,789 27,070
Cristobal, R.P. ....................... 166 . . 5,618 5,784 ...... 31 24 52 48 14 1,000 78 800 2,047
Total Central America ................. 166 27,914 92,523 120,603 ...... 1,380 260,816 26,067 568,480 35,048 1,204 78 123,056 1,016,129

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ............................. ... ...... 812,616 812,616 53,565 810 6,798 21,373 110,894 ..... ..... ..... .... 139,875 ,
Colombia ......................... ..... 172,697 479,681 652,378 75,201 . 819 .. . . 71,650 1,229 1,883 1,052 1,003 77,636 >
Venezuela ......................... ..... 114,389 1,428,374 1,542,763 166 41,656 440,331 347,733 29,979 610,972 4,584 28,819 58,474 1,562,548 .
South America (other)I ................ ... . .. ...... 141,063 141,063 16,406 25 3,068 3,863 90,125 .... .. ... . 44 502 97,627
Total South America . . . . . . .......... 287,086 2,861,734 3,148,820 145,338 42,491 451,016 372,969 302,648 612,201 6,467 29,915 59,979 1,877,686 -

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ............................. ..... ..... .. .. ...... ...... 1,423 1,789 3,241 49,414 4,851 ..... 9,244 ..... 69,962
Jamaica ........................... .... ..... 9,148 9,148 ...... ..... .... .. .. ..... .... ... 61 ..... 61
Netherlands West Indies . . . . . . .. .. . . . . 739,192 739,192 4 1,393 28,890 43,907 .. . . 3,604 . . 30,182 29,497 137,473
Trinidad/Tobago ..................... . . . ... 184,176 184,176 22,476 7,691 . . . 17,081 . . .. ... ... 7,265 143 30,215 62,395
West Indies (other)' ....... ........... .. .... . 33,189 231,088 264,277 . ... 163 19,079 .. . 101 . .... . 19 4,811 24,173
Total West Indies ................... ..... 33,189 1,163,604 1,196,793 22,480 10,670 49,758 64,229 49,515 8,455 7,265 39,649 64,523 294,064 1
Wi





EUROPE:
Belgium .......................... ..... 533 313,845 314,378 26,020 6,717 45,512 92,366 14,582 10,537 181 2,052 429 172,376 >
France ............................ .. . ..... . 348,061 348,061 41,407 ..... ...... 224 39,335 5,905 26 ... 5,858 51,348 Z
Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192,099 192,099 21,582 7,653 10,750 4,957 709 8,094 . . . . . 3,225 35,388 >
Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 351,117 351,117 42,479 8,891 13,976 16,306 36 935 . . 1,385 1,587 43,116
Norway ............................ . .. . . 148,167 148,167 ..... ..... 5,906 39,699 . . . 9,170 ..... ..... ..... 54,775 >
Spain-Portugal ...................... . . ... 204,305 204,305 93,199 . . 190 ...... 1,233 7,149 74 49 . . 8,695
Sweden ........................... ... ...... 193,412 193,412 14 ..... ...... ...... ..... ... 12 ..... ..... 12 (2
United Kingdom ...................... .... .... 99,607 99,607 19,486 ..... .... . 48 28,863 ..... .... .. .... 281 29,192
U.S.S.R.............. ................ . . . . . . . . ..... ..... . ...... 16,894 36,923 69 ...... 15,778 . . 2,002 ..... 71,666
Germany .......................... .. .. ... 337,723 337,723 38,683 919 8,126 779 13,501 3,604 487 2,663 2,895 32,974
Europe (other) . ...................... 8,974 . . 998,344 1,007,318 99,286 3,614 24,493 35,660 121,203 24,411 6,162 26,896 4,865 247,304 1
Total Europe ........... ............ 8,974 533 3,186,680 3,196,187 382,156 44,688 145,876 190,108 219,462 85,583 6,942 35,047 19,140 746,846 n

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) ..... ..... 29,247 29,247 ......... . ........... ..... 12,795 ..... 30 ..... ..... 12,825

AFRICA . . . . 30,065 30,065 725,796 . . 13,546 24,451 448,181 855 . . 300 150 487,483

GRAND TOTAL .................... 28,762 348,919 8,465,636 8,843,317 1,429,072 619,018 1,565,670 1,205,621 3,230,345 907,537 115,059 303,959 767,146 8,714,355

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ............... 0.0 0.4 8.5 8.9 1.4 0.6 1.6 1.2 3.2 0.9 0.1 0.3 0.8 8.8






Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific during Fiscal Year 1991 1

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


To West Coast South America


To Oceania


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ...................................
South Atlantic ports ................................. .
Great Lakes ports .. ....................................
Gulf ports ..........................................
United States (other )' ..................................
Total United States ..................................

EAST COAST CANADA

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ...............................................
Panama ...............................................
Central America (other)' ....................................
Cristobal, R.P.2 ..........................................
Total Central America .............. ................... .

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil .................................................
Colombia ..............................................
Venezuela ..............................................
South America (other)' ....................................
Total South America ............. ..................... .

WEST INDIES:
Cuba .................................................
Jamaica ............................................. .
Netherlands W est Indies ............................ .....
Trinidad/Tobago .........................................
W est Indies (other)I .......................................
Total W est Indies ......................................


Chile Colombia Ecuador


279,807
112,966

1,002,889
93,537
1,489,199


36,282
40,280

577,778
16,249
670,589


112,246
224,522

682,644
43,243
1,062,655


South I I
America Aus- French New Oceania
Peru (other) I Total traha Oceania Zealand (other) I Total


144,510 26,543
85,470 36,262

904,754 214,704
29,047 45,086
1,163,781 322,595


599,388
499,500

3,382,769
227,162
4,708,819


103,096 51,815 20,421 67,206 4,162 246,700 46,908


21,780
132

8,074
29,986



213,415
1,356,137
13,386
1,582,938




110,552
19,699
85
130,336


39,823
1,226
2,876
125
44,050


7,025
316,980
7,824
24,806
356,635


21

35,170
70,285
4,036
109,512


81,765
3,319
8,962
12,497
106,543


78,167
5,354
258,919
9,792
352,232




14,540
25,747
1,712
41,999


97,131 37,470
1,149 5,316
886 846
1,697 6,377
100,863 50,009


13,455 3,441
415,704 19,289
248,543 91,734
15,359 4,837
693,061 119,301


...... 69

25,499 107,983
8.279 .....
...... 17
33,778 108,069


277,969
11,142
13,570
28,770
331,451


102,088
970,742
1,963,157
68,180
3,104,167


169,004 703 28,121 47,315
181,780 4,939 102,904 44,828

1,893,912 . . 212,432 147,572
70,416 310 59,920 39,300
2,315,112 5,952 403,377 279,015


245,143
334,451

2,253,916
169,946
3,003,456


4 62,134 28,427 137,473


6,782 .... ..... 2,384 9,166



6,782 . . . ... 2,384 9,166




18 ..... ..... ..... . 18
1,181 . . 2,126 . . 3,307
1,199 . . 2,126 . . 3,325


90 ...... ..... 37,748 .....
...... 19 ..... 46 213
293,744 .... . ..... ... 50
124,010 150 ..... 100 363
5,850 715 ..... 27 2,150
423,694 884 ..... 37,921 2,776


37,748
278
50
613
2,892
41,581





EUROPE: It
Belgium .............................................. . 149,915 14,090 43,447 79,182 20,666 307,300 8,346 20,340 36,904 29,982 95,572
France ............... .... ................... ........ 28,358 2,844 11,736 26,900 5,180 75,018 2,208 152,699 3,007 53,077 210,991
Italy ..... .. . . .... ..... . . ................ 42,637 1,690 4,797 11,470 6,836 67,430 1,463 9,588 3,482 5,557 20,090
Netherlands ............................................ 80,303 3,321 5,785 11,612 7,435 108,456 60,962 11,407 34,991 16,138 123,498
Norway .................................................... 2 ...... ...... 992 10 1,004 13,942 .... 478 ..... 14,420
Spain-Portugal ......................................... 52,821 1,300 4,511 20,004 5,367 84,003 5,410 1,607 4,796 1,230 13,043 (
Sweden ................................................ 21,461 993 2,421 7,918 6,265 39,058 70,457 917 15,353 27,508 114,235 >
United Kingdom ....... ................................ 55,899 4,229 9,314 14,336 715 84,493 26,496 1,292 25,613 36,708 90,109
U.S.S.R ................................................ 6,809 110,037 47,078 1,158 164,173 329,255 5,342 ... ....... .. 5,342
Germany ............ ................................. 137,250 55,997 49,862 40,757 10,640 294,506 50,117 5,551 22,768 29,348 107,784
Europe (other)' ......................................... 91,423 52,360 112,286 26,821 42,020 324,910 48,675 39,145 21,768 75,425 185,013
Total Europe .......... ..... ....................... .... 666,878 246,861 291,237 241,150 269,307 1,715,433 293,418 242,546 169,160 274,973 980,097 O

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) 33,349 ...... 456 43,488 ..... 77,293 ...... 958 ..... ..... 958

AFRICA 5,676 35,985 34,504 ...... 194 76,359 981 ..... 145,484 16,116 162,581

GRAND TOTAL ................ ........................ 4,041,458 1,515,447 1,910,047 2,343,327 873,637 10,683,916 2,665,284 249,460 820,202 603,691 4,338,637

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo .................................. 4.1 1.5 1.9 2.4 0.9 10.7 2.7 0.3 0.8 0.6 4.4





Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific during Fiscal Year 1991

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:

lantic ports ..............
lantic ports ..............
ikes ports .................
(jull ports .......... ....... ...
United States (other ) . . . . . . .
Total United States .............

EAST COAST CANADA

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico .........................
Panama...........................
Central America (other)' ...............
Cristobal, R.P .................... ..
Total Central America ..............

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ........... .... ........
Colombia .........................
Venezuela ...... . . . . . . . . ..
South America (other) . . . . . . . .
Total South America ...............

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ............................
Jamaica ..........................
Netherlands West Indies .............
Trinidad/Tobago . ................
West Indies (other)' .................
Total West Indies .................


Hong
China Taiwan Kong


108,485
323,093

8,142,095
138,883
8,712,556


1,026,839 292,035
607,928 302,6A2
34,030 .....
6,126,715 189,888
578,203 166,688
8,373,715 951,213


301,084 251,125 60,347


228,850




228,850


21,843
2,461
14,478
6,282
45,064


746,262


20,558

766,820


7,830 . . .


177 492
8,007 492


1,392 759

7,838 35,282
18,607 674
27,837 36,715


..... 24,142
33,223 35,392

12,820 . . .
22,230 . . .
68,273 59,534


To Asia

Philip-
indo- pine Singa-
nesta Japan Islands pore


26,761 1,886,562 26,155 177,621
24,446 2,182,344 12,755 142,840
..... 97,527 ..... .....
266,478 22,767,248 343,282 306,578
. . .. 582,333 18 59,111
317,685 27,516.014 382,210 686,150


South Thai- Asia
Korea land U.S.S.R. (other)


1,746,930 36,749 . . .
368,970 16,540 . . .
113,943 ..... .....
5,133,724 302,558 77,756
647,189 . . .... .
8,010,756 355,847 77,756


Percent
7 of total
Pacific-
Grand bound
Total total cargo


534,258 5,862,395
391,802 4,373,320
92,903 338,403
2,283,825 45,940,147
320,061 2,492,486
3,622,849 59,006,751


8,508 485,371 . . 5,304 625,580 . . . . . 227,650 1,964,969 2,506,564 2.5


6,376




6,376



8,168


8,168


70,517

7,428
314
78,259


. . .. 20,377 10,258 42,505 . . .




. . .. 20,377 10,258 42,505 . . .


675,550 . .. 1,248
93,609 ..... .....
395,853 4,906 2
85,611 . . . . .
1,250,623 4,906 1,250


308,461
19,905

82,944
4,833
416,143


..... II
..... 3,102
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . 3,113


24,456 6,183 . . .
20 ..... .....
54,099 57,573 . . .
18,685 . . . . .
97,260 63,756 . . .


...... ..... 142,670
26,927 ..... .....

23,617 . . .... .
57,366 ... . ......
107,910 .. ... 142,670


9,900


1,440
11,340


9,084

25,644

34,728


55,438
11,700
87
20,226
37,525
124,976


6,994,012
5,522,636
338,403
56,357,445
2,903,334
72,115,830


396,613

7,428
2,423
406,464


740,515
104,258
595,675
129,859
1,570,307


1,276,973
127,158
3,189
160,165
121,954
1,689,439


1,595,280
140,687
108,822
39,024
1,883,813


1,848,659
1,880,215
5,664,327
456,442
9,849,643


1,384,773
136,645
1,173,652
553,835
419,146
3,668,051


1.9
1.9
5.7
0.5
9.9





EUROPE: "
Belgium ...... .................... 9,843 44 7,519 942 2,024 ..... ..... 6 ..... ..... ...... 20,378 936,024 0.9 >
France ........................... ...... 2,969 49 3,912 4,116 ..... 192 704 ..... ..... 13,912 25,854 752,679 08 Z
Italy .......................... ..... ..... ....... 302 686 ..... .. . ...... .. ... ..... ....... 988 337,577 0.3 >
Netherlands ...................... 2,958 16,382 996 . . 76,824 . .. 73 13,772 . .. .. ...... 36,243 147,248 815,914 0.8
Norway ......................... ...... .... . .... ....... 44,593 ............ .... ..... ..... .. 1,538 46,131 264,497 0.3 >
Spain-Portugal ... ................. .I... 1 318 ..... 17,152 . .. .... . 3,670 . .. ........ 3,554 24,695 427,940 0.4
Sweden ... ........... .. ..... ..... 120 . .. 21,647 . .. ... .... . . . . .... 4,043 25,810 372,541 0.4
U.S.S.R ........ ........................ . . 3,324 2,988 . . 32,260 823 2,434 11,208 . .. .. ...... 53,991 107,028 429,915 0.4
United Kingdom .................... ...... ...... ............................................ 194 231 425 406,688 0.4
West Germany.. ............... ...... 3,961 45 80,875 927 217 ..... .... 147 86,172 897,842 0.9 >
Europe (other)' ........... ......... ..... 13,518 3,066 2,258 96,882 200 6,315 12,679 1,579 1,344 31,432 169,273 2,033,104 2.0
Total Europe . . . . . . . . .... 12,801 40,199 15,101 7,414 377,059 1,023 9,941 42,256 1,579 1,538 145,091 654,002 7,674,721 7.7

ASIA (M IDDLE EAST) ...... ...... 5,091 ..... ...... .. ... ..... 10,645 ..... ..... 661 16,397 136,720 0.1

AFRICA ...... .. . . . . .. 119,987 . .. ........ 8,122 . .. ........ 14,593 142,702 1,624,986 1.6

GRAND TOTAL ..................10,067,175 8,769,156 1,128,493 348,151 30,243,456 388,139 726,135 8,912,787 463,687 221,964 4,181,888 65,451,031 99,460,328 ....


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo .......... .... 10.1 8.8 I 1 0.4 30.4 0.4 0.7 9.0 0.5 0.2 4.2 65.8 100.0%


Includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
Includes both local and transshipped cargo.





Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1991 as

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]

To E. C.
To East Coast Umted States Canada To East Coast Central America
North South Great United I I Central
Atlantic Atlantic Lakes Gulf States America Cristobal
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA: ports ports ports ports (other)' Total Canada Mexico Panama (other) R.P. 2 Total
United States:
Alaska ............................. 1,081 34 ......... 155,144 ......... 156,259 15,747 ......... ......... .........
Hawaii ........................... 17 ......... ......... 93,053 ......... 93,070 221 23,705 ......... ......... ......... 23,705
Mainland ................. ......... 410,695 111,997 ......... 201,279 37,792 761,763 165,137 239,235 707 9,285 67,377 316,604
Total United States ....... ........ 411,793 112,031 ......... 449,476 37,792 1,011,092 181,105 262,940 707 9,285 67,377 340,309

WEST COAST CANADA ................. 187,329 218,499 ......... 544,942 258,166 1,208,936 ......... 27,861 ......... 14,468 ......... 42,329

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ... .................... 26,843 25,027 ......... 36,789 ......... 88,659 ......... 4,709 ......... ......... 309 5,018
El Salvador .. ........................ 17,263 18,897 ......... 38,660 ......... 74,820 ......... ....... ......... ........... 15 15
Guatemala ............................ 141,671 21,162 ......... 206,672 67,880 437,385 10,331 39,956 ......... 5,730 578 46,264
H onduras ............................ ......... 6,158 ......... 8,122 ......... 14,280 ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........
Mexico ......... .................... 362,223 145,385 ......... 430,938 31,987 970,533 ......... 439,746 ......... ......... 10,020 449,766
Nicaragua.... ................... 985 ......... ......... 69,333 61,136 131,454 ......... ......... ......... ........ .........
Panama ... ......................... 3,892 531 ......... 70,175 ......... 74,598 ......... 1,070 ......... 500 ......... 1,570
Central America (other)' ................. ....... .................. 25,158 22,392 47,550 ......... ......... ......... ......... 100 100
Balboa, R.P. .......................... 2,176 2,301 ......... 2,034 977 7,488
Total Central America .................... 555,053 219,461 ......... 887,881 184,372 1,846,767 10,331 485,481 ......... 6,230 11,022 502,733

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ... ............................ 878,120 233,187 ......... 445,999 250,412 1,807,718 14,118 25,168 283 1,770 1,358 28,579 >
Colombia ... ..................... 79,245 91,930 ......... 75,631 83,363 330,169 969 382 72 310 523 1 287
Ecuador .. .......................... 1,574,271 102,864 ......... 1,047,512 88,828 2,813,475 ......... 3,344 747,279 102,763 58,862 912,248 (7
Peru ............................... 611,704 101,054 ......... 172,794 181,713 1,067,265 60 52,800 26 ......... 540 53,366
South America (other) ....I............... 79,293 45,376 ......... 59,425 39,813 223,907 486 20,239 105 6,119 7,654 34,117
Total South America .................. 3,222,633 574,411 ......... 1,801,361 644,129 6,242,534 15,633 101,933 747,765 110,962 68,937 1.029,597 >




r17
C/





OCEANIA: IV
Australia .............. ............ 620,041 121,335 41,150 2,024,552 70,082 2,877,160 435,682 114,513 ............. ..... 153 114,666
British O ceania ...................... ..... ........ ........ ........ ......... 10,698 ....... .. .. ....... .......... ......... ......... .........
French Oceania ....... ............... ...... ....... ........... 10,698 ......... ......... ......... ......... ........... ..... . .... ... .. .........
New Zealand ......................... .. 153,640 37,804 ......... ......... 48,177 316,760 30,710 17,190 467 ......... 727 18,384
Oceania (other)I ........................ 39,083 19,515 ......... 77,139 30,012 110,264 14,738 ......... ........ .... .... ...... .. ........
Total Oceania.... ................. 812,764 178,654 41,150 2,134,043 148,271 3,314,882 481,130 131,703 467 ......... 880 133,050
ASIA:
China ......................... ..
Taiwan ................................ 118,308 11,353 8,873 1,497,407 69,575 1,705,516 182,737 102,253 ......... ......... ......... 102,253
Hong Kong ............................ 529,765 295,102 ......... 15,834 116,377 957,078 76,140 ......... ......... 1,476 30,457 31,933
Indonesia ............................ 390,352 249,297 ......... 3,823 61,578 705,050 74,111 ........ ......... ......... 90,784 90,784
Japan .. ........................ . 69,804 14,651 ......... 125,922 161,355 371,732 10,335 ......... ......... ............. ..... .........
Philippine Islands ............ ........ 1,684,813 925,885 156,146 2,293,860 530,530 5,591,234 74,065 55,101 ......... 4,731 48,561 108,393 0
Singapore ........................... 52,591 22,144 ......... 61,657 174,916 311,308 6,989 2,077 ......... ......... ......... 2,077
South Korea ......................... .. 330,881 193,669 1,117 34,289 45,511 605,467 63,181 ......... ......... ......... 29,133 29,133
Thailand ........................... .. 312,302 92,573 ......... 201,832 117,281 723,988 46,812 ......... ....... ......... 32,641 32,641
U.S.S.R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,412 ......... ......... 6,210 27,279 38,901 .... .....
Asia (other) ..................... ......... ......... .. ...... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........
Total Asia ... 819,859 446,924 ......... 129,723 138,920 1,535,426 6,928 38,896 ......... 11,655 152,220 202,771 0
GRAND TOTAL .................. 4,314,087 2,251,598 166,136 4,370,557 1,443,322 12,545,700 541,298 198,327 ......... 17,862 383,796 599,985 Z
Percent of Atlantic-ound cargo 9,503,659 3,554,654 207,286 10,188,260 2,716,052 26,169,911 1,229,497 1,208,245 748,939 158,807 532,012 2,648,003
Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ................ -- 2 -- -- - - -

15.0 5.6 0.3 16.1 4.3 41.4 1.9 1.9 1.2 0.3 0.8 42

See footnotes at end of table.

















C





Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1991 g

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


To East Coast South America


To West Indies


WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ... ..............................
Hawaii ... ..............................
M mainland ..............................
Total United States ......................


South
Colom- Vene- America
Brazil bia zuela (other) I




168,809 12,325 169,194 27,972
168,809 12,325 169,194 27,972


I I Haiti/ Nether-
Domini- lands
can West
Total Cuba Republic Jamaica Indies


Trim- West
Puerto dad/ Indies
Rico Tobago (other)


Total


919 3,193 90,851 15,734 18,001 11,048 139,746
........ 919 3,193 90,851 15,734 18,001 11,048 139,746


WEST COAST CANADA ....................... 447,088 109,807 164,646 10,477 732,018 22,588 ....... 20,525


193 37,771 ....... ....... 81,077


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica .. ...............................
El Salvador ...................................
Guatemala .................................
Honduras .. ................................
Mexico .. .................................
Nicaragua .. ................................
Panama ...................................
Central America (other)' ........................
Balboa, R.P. ................................
Total Central America .............. ........

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ...... ........... .. ...................
Colombia .... ..............................
Ecuador ................................... .
Peru .......................................
South America (other)I .........................
Total South America ........... ....... .....


141 ....... 12,316 .......
....... ....... 68 85
859 66 ......... 18,111

98 43,211 1,451 .......
....... 118 177 .......
....... 787 118 .......
837 23,552 42,270 918
149 ........ ......... 38
2,084 67,734 56,400 19,152


....... 4,209
III 24,117
3,404 2,097
18,428 13,369
120 17,936
22,063 61,728


62,104 .......
68,594 .......
8,023 4,086
75,356 5,379
20,874 .......
234,951 9,465


12,457
153
19,036

44,760
295
905
67,577
187
145,370


66,313
92,822
17,610
112,532
38,930
328,207


........ 1,202
........ 15,613


2,479 11,810

39,584 .......

42,063 28,625


1,432 ......... ......... ....... .......
....... 115 6,015 ....... 46,295
505 97 5,905 15,806 18,215
.. .. .. ....... .. ....... .. .... 20,255
....... ......... 24,760 19,684 .......
12,527 ......... ........ ........ 2,371
. .. .. ....... 740 ....... 6,573
196 ......... 7,753 ....... 124
675
14,660 212 45,173 35,490 94,508


7,199 28,754 ....... .........
4,506 49 ....... .........
1,007,040 1,808 92,565 226,806
..... .. ..... .. ..... 126,996
5,271 469 ................
1,024,016 31,080 92,565 353,802


44,577 ....... 11,132
8,358 ....... ......
385,402 ....... 380,982
142,527 ....... 309,219
4,354 ...... 855
585,218 ...... 702,188


1,432
53,627
56,141
20,255
44,444
29,187
7,313
47,657
675
260,731


91,662
12,913
2,094,603
578,742
10,949
2,788,869





OCEANIA:
Australia ....... ......... ...................
British Oceania ..............................
French Oceania ..............................
New Zealand ... .............................
Oceania (other)' ..............................
Total Oceania........................ .....

ASIA:
China ....................................
Taiwan ..................................
Hong Kong..................................
Indonesia ...... ...........................
Japan . . . ............. ... .. ....... . . .
Philippine Islands .. .........................
Singapore ..................................
South Korea .. ..............................
Thailand .. ....... ......... ... .............
U.SS.R ..................................
Asia (other) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Asia ................ ...............


....... 13,090


....... 185


59,167 .......
2 .......

26,391 1,104


72,257
2

27,680


....... 13,275 85,560 1,104 99,939


102 11,722
2,375 1,141
1,510 544

24,152 14,894

237 744
1,662 448


12,731 12,217
42,769 41,710


93,800 10,853
2,034 .......
6,769 2,012

77,440 13,829

2,356 57
2,286 510
13,779 .......

60,799 12,826
259,263 40,087


116,477
5,550
10,835

130,315

3,394
4,906
13,779

98,573
383,829


9 216 205


26,003 4,144 3,688

26,012 4,360 3.893


272,219
10,448


16,018


....... '......
22 23,491
138 48,108

14,488 42,248


313


93

406



155
311

7,288


....... ....... ....... 764
9,359 487 19,625 107
119,117 ....... ....... ........
97,773 ....... ....... ........
52,870 26,441 2,210 7,230
557,804 41,576 135,682 15,855


2,852
807
143
24,016
27,818



1,854
3,024
19,179
62,896


2,298


5,489


5,296

10,785



713
1,206

8,024

51
864


3,381


12,527
92
16,000



186


27,003


2,805


8,311 9,033 19,836
97,562 19,891 49,830


GRAND TOTAL ............. ............... 682,813 306,579 970,014 108,257 2,067,663 1,692,483 106,560 270,518 461,319 809,276 84,167 873,574 4,297,897


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo .....................


1.1 0,5 1.5 0.2 3.3 2.7 0.2 0.4


0.7 1.3 0.1 1.4 6.8


See footnotes at end of table.


9,613
2,852
807
51,894
24,108
89,274


272,219
36,869
52,787
19,179
177,965

815
35,545
119,117
97,773
125,931
938,200





Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1991 -A
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]
To Europe
Den- Nether- Spam/ United Yugo- Fed. Rep. Europe
Belgium mark Finland France Italy lands Portugal Sweden Kingdom U.S.S. R. slavia of Germany (other)' Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ..................... 212,065 5,240 ....... 624 45,893 3,803 116,480 ....... 30,078 ......... ....... 40,249 130,610 585,042
Hawaii ...................... ........................... .........................................................................................
Mainland ................... 612,982 23,022 6,601 168,636 277,244 1.895,537 178,170 82,774 384,795 84,442 22,321 513,663 1,082,528 5,332,715
Total United States ............ 825,047 28,262 6,601 169,260 323,137 1,899,340 294,650 82,774 414,873 84,442 22,321 553,912 1,213,138 5,917,757

WEST COAST CANADA ............ 1,018,256 268 ....... 464,165 696,788 865,851 491,148 7,445 1,665,911 81,094 33,593 181,288 1,960,189 7,465,996

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica........................ 4,630 ....... ....... ....... 1,885 ......... ....... ..... .. ......... ......... ....... 537 5,754 12,806
El Salvador ........................ 11,272 ....... ....... ....... .... ..... 5,751 800 ....... ......... ......... ....... 9,567 23,801 51,191
Guatemala........................ ......................................................................... ............ ....... 786 16,703 17,489
H onduras ................... ... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... ......... ......... ....... ......... ......... ....... 2,154 ......... 2,154
M exico ........................ 17,194 ....... ............... 18,624 ......... 62,801 ....... ......... ......... ....... 29,130 34,676 162,425
Nicaragua ...................... 110,823 ....... ....... 2,993 2,716 82 3,071 ....... ......... 120 6,917 4,784 9,080 140,586
Panama ......................... 18,517 ....... ....... ....... 74,369 5,001 7,728 ....... ......... ....... ... .. 297,274 8,204 411,093
Central America (other)' .............. 7,248 ....... ....... ....... ......... 3,947 4,991 ....... ......... 1,717 ....... 18,673 14,825 51,401
Balboa, R.P. ......... ............. ..8 ....... ....... ....... ......... 2 ......... ....... ......... ......... ....... 2 71 83
Total Central America .............. 169,692 ....... ....... 2,993 97,594 14,783 79,391 ....... ......... 1,837 6,917 362,907 113,114 849,228

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ......................... 513,105 ....... 5,905 140,351 187,091 544,120 290,614 35,622 210,496 397 4,909 516,257 498,966 2,947,833 w
Colombia ...................... 14,383 ....... ....... 6,150 329 31,867 1,823 2,361 3,082 ......... 758 166,124 37,888 264,765
Ecuador ........................ 223,456 ....... ....... 15,759 139,321 35,590 52,652 451 13,084 6,717 51,839 302,356 270,803 1,112,028 >
Peru .......................... 264,767 1,273 ....... 61,668 136.412 61,067 45,165 4,463 123,962 31,235 65,854 255,915 177,519 1,229,300
South America (other)' .............. 29,324 .............. 51,001 108,828 68,283 28,002 1,755 17,374 369,484 23,977 26,094 72,066 796,188 C
Total South America ............. ... 1,045,035 1,273 5,905 274,929 571,981 740,927 418,256 44,652 367,998 407,833 147,337 1,266,746 1,057,242 6,350,114 -
>

-1
>
CO,






OCEANIA:
Australia ....................... .. 43,537 ....... ...... 1,091 2,287 16,422 57 15 28,304 ....... ...... 22,818 12,189 126,720
British Oceania .................... ......... ....... ...... ...... ....... 275 ....... ..... 178,423 ....... ...... 12 ........ 178,710 Z
French Oceania .................. ..... .. ..... .. ...... 2,507 ....... 3,346 ....... ..... ...... ....... .... .. ..... ....... 5,853
New Zealand .................... 213,586 ....... 1,242 4,291 7,213 103,713 14,782 6,207 86,126 16,316 ...... 13,867 34,053 501,396
Oceania other) ..................... ........ ... 150 ....... ....... ..... .... ... ...... ..... 192 11,324 11,666 >
Total Oceania .................. 257,123 ....... 1,242 7,889 9,650 123,756 14,839 6,222 292,853 16,316 ...... 36,889 57,566 824,345 C

ASIA:
China......................... ......... .... .... .. .... ...... .. ........ ..... ...... ..... .. ...... ........ ...... .. .............. ........
Taiwan .......................... 418 ....... ...... 972 18 5,049 229 ..... 1,748 ....... ...... 3,078 3,331 14,843 "
Hong Kong ....................... 515 ....... ...... 1,601 ....... 10,033 1,520 ..... 5,153 ....... ...... 11,668 6,512 37,002
Indonesia ...... ................. ........ ....... ...... ...... ....... ......... ..... ..... ...... .. ....... .... .. ...... ......... ......
Japan ......................... 24,301 ....... ...... 17,253 1,332 61,613 3,320 ..... 61,283 ....... ...... 12,985 33,755 216,101
Philippine Islands .................. .. .... ... ....... .... ...... ....... 6,176 ....... ..... ....... 259 ...... ........ ........ 6,176
Singapore ....................... 2 ....... ...... 143 ....... ....... ....... 17 ....... ....... ...... 99 1,058 1,319
South Korea ...................... 4,128 ....... ...... 272 2,589 6,773 5,183 ..... 1,588 ....... ...... 6,121 2,204 28,858
Thailand ................................................... ....... ....... .......................................................
U.S.S.R ......................... ...... ......... ....... ..... ..... 1,452 ....... ...... ....... 2,763 5,524
Asia (other)' ............. .......... 1,566 ...... ...... 406 ....... 2,925 ....... 8 2,525 1,309 ...... 1,838 71,144 80,412
Total Asia ..................... 30,930 ....... ...... 20,647 3,939 92,569 10,252 25 73,749 1,568 ...... 35,789 120,767 390,235

GRAND TOTAL ................. 3,346,083 29,803 13,748 939,883 1,703089 3,737,226 1.308,536 141,118 2,815,384 593,090 210,168 2,437,531 4,522,016 21,797,675


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ............ 5.3 0.0 0.0 1.5 2.7 5.9 2.1 0.2 4.5 09 0.3 3.9 7.2 34.5



See footnotes at end of table.















-Jl





Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic during Fiscal Year 1991 "

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska .......................... ........... ............
Hawaii ............................... ... ........... ....
M mainland ...................................................
Total United States ..........................................

WEST COAST CANADA .........................................

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica .....................................................
El Salvador . . ....................................................
Guatemala .......... ...........................................
Honduras ....................................................
M exico .......................................................
Nicaragua ............. ... .....................................
Panama ........... ..............................................
Central America (other) ............ .... ..................... ......
Balboa, R.P.2 ...................................................
Total Central America ...........................................

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile .............. ............................................
Colombia ......................................................
Ecuador ......................................................
Peru ........... ...............................................
South America (other)' .............................................
Total South America ..................... .....................


To Asia
(Middle
East)


(Middle
East)




29,728
29,728


To Africa


South Africa
Algeria Egypt Morocco Africa Tunisia (other) I Total


....... .... ... ........ ...... ..... 123
157,563 1,606,114 30,021 93,272 3,839 67,210
157,563 1,606,114 30,021 93,272 3,839 67,333


12
1,958,01
1,958,14


Percent
of total
Atlantic-
Grand bound
Total cargo


757,048 1.2
3 117,119 0.2
9 9,082,012 14.4
2 9,956,179 15.7


268,418 225,282 187,922 1,153,155 37,540 452,294 283,172 2,369,365 12,168,139 19.2


1,409
856


26,526


1,226

30,017




22,725
20,669

43,394


....... 109,158 ......... .......
....... ......... ......... .......
....... ...... ..... ... ..... .


....... 2,112 ......... .......

....... 111,270 ......... .......


... .... 42,601

2,478 .........
38,379 .........

40,857 42,601


....... ....... 109,158
....... 6,087 6,087
....... 13,976 13,976

....... 1,069 1,069
679 2,044 4,835

679 23,176 135,125


121,781 0.2
180,662 0.3
695,804 1.1
42,776 0.1
1,712,430 2.7
301,522 0.5
496,548 0.8
220,346 0.3
8,433 0.0
3,780,302 6.0


4,814 ....... ....... 14,637 62,052 5,018,275 7.9
......... ....... ....... ...... .. ...... 702,925 1.1
......... ....... ....... 5,502 7,980 6,980,669 11.0
9,350 ....... ....... 45 47,774 3,109,708 49
16 ....... ........ 265 281 1,104,858 1.7
14,180 ....... ....... 20,449 118,087 16,916,435 26.8





OCEANIA:
Australia ......................................................
British Oceania ..................................................
French Oceania ..................................................
New Zealand ...................................................
Oceania (other)' .................................................
Total Oceania ............. ....................................

ASIA:
C hina ........................................ ................
Taiwan .......................................................
Hong Kong ....................................................
Indonesia ......................................................
Japan ........................................................
Philippine Islands ................................................
Singapore ........................ ....... ........... ........
South Korea ...... ................................................
Thailand ......................................................
U.S.S R. .......................................................
Asia (other)i ....................................................
Total Asia ..................... ........................... .


700


537
ISO
1,387




1,614
550

2,913



1,773




6,850


22,048


22,048


2,430


2,430


...... ....... .......
...... ....... .......
...... ....... .......
...... ....... .......
...... ....... .......
...... ....... .......


....... ........ ........ ...... .......
....... ........ ........ ...... .......
....... ........ ........ ...... .......
....... ........ ........ ...... .......
....... ........ 389 25,508 .......
....... ........ ........ ...... .......


389


2,783
2,208

6,723


484 ....... 1,826
25,992 ....... 13,540


24,478


24,478


........ 2,379,202 3.8
2,783 1,126,810 1.8
2,208 973,327 1.5
........ 401,246 0.6
32,620 6,333,606 10.0
........ 326,550 0.5
........ 703,309 1.1
........ 874,523 1.4
........ 171,797 0.3
........ 103,297 0.2
2,310 2,052,351 3.2
39,921 15,446,018 24.4


GRAND TOTAL ............. .................................. 379,794 475,750 1,947,907 1,200,175 156,804 456,812 407,670 4,645,118 63,235,558 ......


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ........... ........................... .



I Also includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.


06 0.8 3.1 1.9 0.2 0.7 0.6


7.3 100.0%


3,636,798 5.8
192,262 0.3
6,660 0.0
971,839 1.5
160,926 0.3
4,968,485 7.9








76 STATISTICAL TABLES



Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific
[Thousands of long ions]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... I ....... .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 603 541 509
Caustic soda ................................. 78 119 149
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 397 332 197
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 128 90 163
G rains .......................................... ..... 57 .......
Soybeans .................... ............... ........ 57 .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ I ....... 7
M manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 2 ....... 2
O their and unclassified ......................... 2 ....... 2
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ ...... .... . I I
Nitrates. phosphates and potash .................... ....... ....... 66
Ammonium compounds ....................... ....... ....... 29
Phosphates ................................... ....... ....... 37
Ores and metals, m miscellaneous ..................... 6 ....... 28
Petroleum and products ........................... 387 801 744
C rude oil .................................... ....... 9 1 .......
D iesel oil .................................... ....... ....... 19
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 68 29 54
G gasoline ..................................... 77 339 221
.let fuel ..................... ................. ...... 35 10 1
K erosene .................................... ....... ....... I I
I.ubricating oil ............................... 212 271 290
Petroleum coke ............................... ....... 36 .......
O their and unclassified ......................... 30 ....... 48
M iscellaneous .................................... 73 39 33
Container cargo .............................. 37 29 30
All other and unclassified ...................... 36 10 3
Total ...................................... 1,073 1.439 1,401

EAST COAST UNII ED SIA IES IO WESI COAS'I
CANADA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 59 48 24
Chem icals. unclassified ........................ 30 4 .......
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 29 44 24
M manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 16 ....... ......
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 10 ....... .......
W ire, hars and rods ........................... 6 ....... .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 79 194 171
Phosphates................................... 79 194 171
l otal ................... ........... ......... 153 243 195

FASI COASI UNIII I) SIAIES 10 WESI COASI
CI.N IRAI AMFRICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals .................. 21 17 1
C austic soda ................................ .8 5 I
C hem icals, unclassified ........................ 13 12 .......
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 36 ....... 39
C oal ........................................ 36 ....... 39
G rains ........................................... 1,965 2.0 14 1,368
C orn ........................................ 998 1,229 571
R ice .................................. ....... 17 ..... .. 57







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 77


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
I 1991 1990 1989 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Grains-Continued
Sorghum .................................... 218 272 133
Soybeans .................................... 202 152 318
W heat ....................................... 528 361 277
O their and unclassified ......................... 2 ....... 12
Lumber and products. miscellaneous ................ ....... I I
M achinery and equipm ent ............ .............. ...... ........ 3
O other and unclassified ........................ ...... ...... 3
Manufactures of iron and steel. miscellancoiis ........ 8 9 I
M minerals, m miscellaneous ............................ 2 ... . ......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 1.091 1.328 917
Ammonium compounds. ....................... 164 181 129
Phosphates................................... 799 989 662
Potash ...................................... 23 4 1 (
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 105 154 116
O res and m etals .................................. 27 113 29
O res. m miscellaneous ........................... 6 ....... .......
M etals....................................... 21 113 29
Scrap ................................... 2 1 113 29
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 4 38 2
Beans, ed ible ................................. ....... ....... I
O ilseeds ..................................... 4 26 .......
Peas. dry ................................... ....... ....... I
S ugar ....................................... ....... 12 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 370 363 276
D iesel oil .................................... 173 144 113
Fuel oil, residual .............................. ..... .. ...... 34
G gasoline ..................................... 143 196 113
Jet fuel ...................................... 15 8. 6
Kerosene .................................... 2 8 7
ILiquefied gas ................................. 6 5 2
Lubricating oil ............................... 2 ....... I
Other and unclassified ......................... 29 2 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 146 83 104
Flour, w heat ................................. ....... ....... I
G roceries, m miscellaneous ....................... 3 ....... .......
O il, vegetable ................................. 24 17 24
Paper and paper products...................... 49 28 17
Tallow ...................................... 69 37 48
C ontainer .................................... ....... ....... 3
A ll other and unclassified ...................... I I II
Total ...................................... 3.670 3.966 2.741

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COASI
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods. miscellaneous ......... 7 4 2
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 273 275 264
C austic soda ................................. 113 81 88
Chem icals, unclassified ........................ 136 181 157
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 24 13 19
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 173 525 591
C oal ........................................ 173 525 59 1
G rains ........................................... 1.6 15 1.5 14 1.331








78 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Grains-Continued
Corn ........................................ 504 349 259
O ats ...................................... .. .... I 2
R ice......................................... 59 174 97
Sorghum .................................... 54 30 33
Soybeans .................................... 24 90 48
W heat ....................................... 949 865 889
Other and unclassified ......................... 25 5 3
I um ber and products ............................. 9 4 7
Plywood, vencers, composition board............ ...... I I
Pulpw ood .................................... 8 2 3
Other and unclassified ......................... I I 3
Machinery and equipment ......................... 61 74 92
Agricultural machinery and implements.......... 12 15 18
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ....... 31 28 27
Construction machinery and equipment .......... II 18 27
Electrical machinery and apparatus.............. 2 7 7
Other and unclassified ......................... 5 6 13
Manulactures of iron and steel ..................... 61 45 28
Angles. shapes and sections .................... 11 5 8
Nails. lacks and spikes ......................... ..... .. ....... I
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 3 4 10
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 16 5 6
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 31 28 2
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... 3 1
M minerals, miscellaneous ............................ 17 22 24
A sbestos ..................................... 2 ....... 2
Soda and sodium compounds .................. 15 18 17
S ulfur ....................................... ....... 4 5
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... .. 583 452 593
Ammonium compounds ....................... 28 14 I I
-ishm eal ..................................... 13 ....... .......
Phosphates................................... 178 197 187
Potash ...................................... 33 35 36
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 331 206 359
O res and metals .................................. 107 63 58
Ores .............. ....................... 17 18 18
Alumina/ bauxite ............................... I .......
Other and unclassified ..................... 17 17 18
M etals ............... ............... ........ 90 45 40
A lum inum ............................... I 18 2
Iro n ..................................... ....... I ...... .
Scrap ................................... 89 26 36
Tin, including tinplate ..................... ....... ....... I
O their and unclassified ..................... ....... ....... I
Other agricultural commodities ...................... 89 51 12
Beans, edible ................................. 8 6 I
Copra and coconuts ........................... ....... I I
C otton, raw .................................. ....... I 2
O ilseeds ..................................... I ....... 7
Peas. dry .................................... 5 3 .......
R ubber, raw ................................. I I I
Skin and hides ............................... ....... 3 .......







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 79


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Other agricultural commodities-Continued
Sugar ....................................... 74 36 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 387 352 558
C rude oil .................................... .. .. ........ 3
D iesel oil .................................... 220 202 301
Fuel oil. residual .............................. 37 ....... 27
G gasoline ..................................... 73 39 114
Jet fuel ...................................... ....... 42 54
K erosene .................................... ....... 27 I
Liquefied gas ................................. 37 7 .......
Lubricating oil ............................... 20 34 58
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... I .......
M miscellaneous .............................. ..... 1,327 978 876
Bricks and tile ................................ ....... I 4
Clay, fire and china ........................... 6 5 I 1
Fibers, plant ................................ ....... 1 2
Flour, wheat ................................. 82 73 50
G lass and glassware ........................... ....... 1 2
Groceries, m miscellaneous ....................... I 2 I
M arble and stone ............................ ....... ....... 20
O il, coconut .................................. 6 6 3
O il, fish .. ................................... I ....... .......
O il, vegetable ................................. 34 30 36
Paper and paper products ...................... 248 187 147
R esin ........................................ 16 19 25
Rubber, manufactured ......................... 5 3 7
Tallow ...................................... 54 34 42
T extiles ...................................... 4 3 4
Container cargo .............................. 766 548 454
All other and unclassified ...................... 104 65 68
Total .............. ......... ............. 4,709 4.360 4,436

EASI COAST UNITED STATES 10 BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 2 5 5
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 10 II 6
G rains ................... ........................ 182 113 135
C orn ........................................ 62 32 35
Soybeans .................................... 36 25 28
W heat ....................................... 84 55 71
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... I I
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ ....... 2 I
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 3 ....... .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 4 9 5
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ...... ....... 4
Petroleum and products ........................... 263 249 161
D iesel oil .................................... 97 84 103
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 160 143 28
G gasoline ..................................... 2 20 8
Jet fuel .................................... ....... 1 19
K erosene .................................... 3 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 1 3
M miscellaneous .................................... 36 41 33
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 5 2 1
O il, vegetable ................................. 10 4 .......







80 STATISTICAL TABLES



Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
I 1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA, R.P.-
Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
T allow ...................................... I 2 I
Container cargo .............................. 19 27 26
All other and unclassified ...................... I 6 5
Total ............. ............. ......... 500 429 350

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous......... 10 16 12
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 828 648 838
Caustic soda ................................. 688 517 660
Chem icals, unclassified ........................ 132 116 158
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous.................. 8 15 20
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 14 32 3
C oke ........................................ 14 32 3
G rains........................................... 13 1 94 86
C orn ........................................ II 18 8
Sorghum .................................... ....... 3 24
Soybeans .................................... 115 60 54
W heat ....................................... 5 ....... .......
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... 13 .......
Lum ber and products ............................. 14 22 20
Pulpwood .................................... 14 22 20
M achinery and equipment ......................... 7 15 6
Agricultural machinery and equipment........... 2 2 2
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ....... 2 II 1
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 2 I 3
O their and unclassified ......................... 1 I .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 42 II 25
M inerals, miscellaneous............................ 18 39 18
Soda and sodium compounds .................. 18 39 18
Nitrates. phosphates and potash .................... 905 885 1.026
Ammonium compounds ....................... 13 9 18
Phosphates................................... 623 483 864
Potash ...................................... 35 42 43
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 234 351 101
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 39 15 16
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ .. .... 9 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 377 274 313
C rude o il .................................... ....... ....... 2 1
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 46 3 .......
G gasoline ..................................... 66 35 28
.let fuel ...................................... ....... ....... 4
K kerosene .................................... ....... ....... I
Liquefied gas ................................. 60 35 57
Lubricating oil ............................... 28 25 23
Petroleum coke ............................... 173 133 155
Other and unclassified ......................... 4 43 24
M miscellaneous .................................... 618 632 657
C arbon black ................................. 3 ....... .......
Clay, fire and china ........................... 29 37 33
O il, vegetable................................. 2 I I
Paper and paper products...................... 12 II 7
R esin ............ ............................ 13 3 5






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 81


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
(Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA-
Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Rubber, m anufactured......................... ....... 6 .......
Container cargo .............................. 535 555 607
All other and unclassified ...................... 24 19 4
Total ...................................... 3.003 2.692 3,020

EAST COAS I UNITED STATES IO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 408 298 394
Canned foods, miscellaneous ................... ....... 12 8
Refrigerated foods: ............................ 408 286 386
Bananas ................................. I ....... .......
F ish .................. ................... ....... I I
Fruit, excluding bananas................... 136 44 167
M eat .................................... 10 2 .......
Other and unclassified ..................... 261 239 218
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 4,377 3.605 3.639
Caustic soda ................................. 75 138 219
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 2,652 2,262 1,979
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 1,650 1.205 1.441
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 3.651 4,205 4,416
C oal ........................................ 3.377 4, 153 4.206
C oke ........................................ 274 52 2 10
G rains ............................................ 25,085 23,835 24.727
C orn ........................................ 13,404 12,348 9,593
O ats ........................................ 16 ....... ...... .
R ice ......................................... 6 13 .......
Sorghum .................................... 1,426 1,718 1,750
Soybeans .................................... 5,847 5,625 4,684
W heat ....................................... 4.024 3.934 8.283
Other and unclassified ......................... 362 197 417
I.um hber and products ............................. 3.350 2.301 2,013
Boards and planks ............................ 147 9 37
Plywood. veneers, composition board............ ........ ....... 2
Pulpwood .................................... 744 728 899
Other and unclassified ......................... 2.459 1.564 1,075
M achinery and equipment ......................... 69 45 51
Agricultural machinery and equipment........... 2 8 .......
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ....... 13 8 14
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 31 19 13
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 3 3 6
Other and unclassil ied ......................... 20 7 IN
M anufactures ol iron and steel ..................... 2.140 1.203 1.425
Angles, shapes and sections .................... 117 85 35
Nails, tacks and coils .......................... ..... .......... 13
I'lates. sheets and coils ........................ 1.466 900 1.031
Tubes. pipes and fittings ....................... 77 10 85
W ires, bars and rods .......................... 236 100 108
Other and unclassified ......................... 244 108 153
M minerals. m miscellaneous ............................ 12 65 II
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 6.924 5.361 5.230
Ammonium compounds ....................... 240 8 54
Phosphates................................... 6.134 4,956 4,726
Potash ...................................... 228 93 32







82 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued

[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Nitrates, phosphates and potash-Continued
Fertilizers. unclassified......................... 322 304 418
O res and metals .................................. 2.050 1,958 1,659
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... 67 56 87
M etals....................................... 1.983 1,902 1,572
A lum inum ............................... 1 ....... I
C opper .................................. ....... 6 .......
Iro n ..................................... 52 3 .......
Lead .................................... ....... 3 .......
Scrap ................................... 1,917 1.853 1.559
Tin, including tinplate ..................... ..... ....... I
Z inc..................................... 5 ....... 5
Other and unclassified ..................... 8 37 6
Other agricultural commodities ..................... . 86 125 240
Beans, edible ................................. 2 67 120
Cotton, raw .................................. 62 45 112
M olasses ..................................... 15 II 8
O ilseeds ..................................... I 2 .......
Peas, dry .................................... 6 ....... .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 2,921 1.836 1.719
D iesel oil .................................... 269 273 37
F-uel oil. residual .............................. 383 93 .......
G asolinc ..................................... 381 55 17
.let fuel ...................................... 448 289 287
Kerosene .................................... 194 66 38
liquefied gas ................................. 535 319 373
Lubricating oil ............................... 129 104 140
Petroleum coke ............................... 575 591 768
Othcr and unclassified ......................... 7 46 59
M miscellaneous .................................... 7,934 7.229 6.935
Carbon black................................. 38 21 56
C em ent ...................................... ....... 4 .......
Clay. fire and china ........................... 542 535 456
Flour, w heat ................................. 37 ....... 30
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 31 43 3
M arble and stone ............................. 35 16 II
O il. vegetable................................. 64 67 61
Paper and paper products...................... 473 292 291
Porcelainw are ................................ 5 ....... .......
R esin ........................................ 13 14 16
Rubber. manufactured ......................... ....... 6 5
I allow ........................................ 2 ....... 2
W ax. paraffin ................................ ....... 8 10
Container cargo .............................. 6.495 6,. 17 5,730
All other and unclassified ...................... 199 106 264
l otal ......................... ............. 59.007 52,066 52,459

I AS I COASI CANADA 10 WES1 COAST UINITEI)
SI A EI S:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous......... ....... I .......
I umber and products, miscellaneous ................ ....... ....... 4
Miscellaneous ..................................... 49 53 13
Container cargo .............................. 45 53 13







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 83



Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989 I
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST UNITED
STATES-Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
A ll other and unclassified .............. ........ 4 ...... .......
T otal ..................................... 49 54 17

EAST COAST CANADA IO WEST COAS I CEN I RAI.
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 4 2 1
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 33 ....... .......
C oal ........................................ 33 ....... .......
G rains ........................................... 14 8 2
C orn ........................................ 5 8 2
W heat ....................................... 9 ....... .......
lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ ....... 4
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ ....... ....... I
M anufactures of iron and steel ..................... 30 ...... .......
W ires,. bars and rods........................... 30 ....... .......
Nitrates. phosphates and potash .................... 14 6 .......
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ I I I
Miscellaneous ..................................... 13 8 II
Beans, edible .............................. ....... ....... I
Flour, w heat ................................. 2 2 3
O il. vegetable ................................. 2 I .......
Paper and paper products...................... 9 4 5
A ll other and unclassified ...................... ...... I 2
Total .............. ............. ........ 109 28 16

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAS'I SOUI H
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous......... 3 I 2
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 77 98 .......
C oal ........................................ 77 98 .......
G rain ........................................... 74 . ......
W heat ....................................... 73 ....... .......
A ll other and unclassified ...................... I ....... .......
l.um hber and products ............................. ....... ....... I
Pulpw ood ................................... ...... ..... .
Machinery and equipment. miscellaneous ............ I 2 .......
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 20 19 17
A ngles. shapes and sections .................... ....... ....... I
latest sheets and coils ........................ ....... 4 .......
W ires, bars and rods .......................... 14 15 15
A ll other and unclassified ...................... 6 ....... I
M inerals, m iscellaneous............................ 10 4 7
A asbestos ..................................... 10 4 7
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 37 73 19
Phosphates................................... 16 10 .......
Potash ...................................... 21 63 19
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... .... ... ....... 22
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ I ....... .....
Miscellaneous ..................................... 24 28 34
Hlou ., w heat ................................. 10 9 8
Paper and paper products...................... II 15 16








84 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued

[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST SOUTH
AMERICA-Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
C onlainer cargo .............................. ... . . 3
All other and unclassified ...................... 3 I 9
I total ............ . . . . . . ..... . . . 247 227 102

EAST COAST CANADA 10 OCFANIA:
Canned and rclrigciated loods. miscellaneous ......... 3 14 II
L.umnbe and products, miscellaneous ................ ....... I .......
Manufactures of iron and steel. miscellaneous ........ ....... 7 10
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 49 30 .......
P hosphates ................................... 17
Potash ...................................... 32 30 .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... ..... .. ....... 55
Miscellaneous ..................................... 85 154 196
Paper and paper products ...................... ....... 32 30
Container cargo .............................. 82 122 166
A ll othlicir and unclassilied ...................... 3 ....... .......
Total ............. ............ .......... 137 206 273

EAS I COAS I CANADA 10 ASIA:
Canned and relrigerated foods...................... 49 59 49
Refrigerated loods ............................ 49 59 49
Fish .................................. ... 39 50 39
Other and unclassified ..................... 10 9 10
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... 7 .......
Grains........................................... 152 116 276
Sorghum .................................... 8 .......
Soybeans .................................... 37 10 35
W heat ....................................... 107 106 24 1
L.um ber and products ............................. 155 184 282
Boards and planks ............................ ....... ....... 18
Plywood, veneers, composition board............ 7 ....... .......
Pulpw ood .................................... 142 165 247
Other and unclassified ......................... 6 19 17
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 5 7 8
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 714 383 448
Angles, shapes and sections .................... 48 37 .......
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 435 154 342
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 42 ....... 22
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 87 59 33
Other and unclassified ......................... 102 133 51
M minerals. m iscellaneous............................ 6 ....... 4
Nitrates. phosphates and potash .................... 212 96 .......
Potash ...................................... 212 96 .......
Ores and m etals .................................. 135 225 238
Ores ................................ 51 77 31
C opper .................................. 5 25 5
M anganese ............................... ....... ......... 2
Z inc..................................... 6 10 24
Other and unclassified ..................... 40 42 .......
M etals....................................... 84 148 207
Aluminum ............................ .. 8 ....... 3







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 85


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued

[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989 I
EAST COAST CANADA TO ASIA-Continued
Metals-Continued
C opper .................................. ...... I .......
L ead .................................... I I .......
Scrap ................................... 73 146 202
Z inc ..................................... 2 ....... ......
Other and unclassified ..................... .... ... ....... 2
Petroleum and products ........................... 81 126
D iesel o il .................................... 28 ....... .......
F uel oil, residual .............................. ....... 93 .......
G gasoline ..................................... 26 ....... .......
let fuel ...................................... 27 25 .......
I ubricating oil ............................... ....... 8 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 456 449 468
C lay, fire and china ........................... 22 ....... .......
M arble and stone ............................. 51 42 74
Paper and paper products...................... 104 166 185
Slag, clinkers and dross ........................ 46 30 10
Container cargo .............................. 217 209 197
All other and unclassified ...................... 16 2 2
Total ......................... ............. 1,965 1,653 1.,773


EASi COASI CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Petroleum and products ........................... 87 ....... 49
D iesel o il ............................... ..... 4 ....... .......
Fuel oil. residual .............................. 83 ....... 49
M iscellaneo us .................................... ....... 64 18
Cem ent .......................... ....... 64 18
Total.............. ............ ..... 87 64 68


EAST COASI CENTRAl. AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAl. AMERICA:
I.um ber and products, miscellaneous ................ 20 ....... .......
M manufactures ol iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ ....... 2 .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 199 338 427
Ammonium compounds ....................... 22 41 51
Phosphates................................... 9 28 49
Fertili/crs, unclassified......................... 168 269 327
Petroleum and products ........................... 671 872 856
A sphalt ...................................... 19 22 2 1
C rude oil .................................... 278 435 382
D iesel oil .................................... 2 90 20
Fuel oil. residual .............................. ....... 19 .....
G gasoline ..................................... 55 64 34
Liquefied gas ................................. 317 226 399
O other and unclassified ......................... ....... 16 .....
M iscellaneo us .................................... 2 14 I
C em ent ................. ...... .............. ...... 13 .... .
C container cargo .............................. ....... I .......
A ll other and unclassified ...................... 2 ....... I
I otal ........................... ........... 892 1.226 1.284








86 STATISTICAL TABLES



Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued

[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989
FAST COASI CN1IRAI AMERICA TO WESI COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals .................. 4 3 8
C austic soda ................................. ....... ....... 2
Chem icals, unclassified ........................ 4 3 5
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneo s ................ ......... ...... I
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ ....... 2 I
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 6 7 8
A ngles, shapes and sections .................... I ....... .......
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ ....... .......
Tubes. pipes and fittings ...................... 5 6 7
W ire. bars and rods ........................... ....... I .......
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ I I .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... . 57 90 71
Phosphates ................................... I 4 I
Fertili/ers. miscellaneous ....................... 56 86 70
O res and m etals .................................. 6 6 II
O res ................................ 6 3 8
M anganese............................... 2 2 3
Other and unclassified ..................... 4 I 5
M etals....................................... ....... 3 3
Scrap ................................... ....... 3 .......
Z inc ..................................... ....... ....... 3
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 14 2 7
R ubber, raw ................................. I 2 2
S ugar ....................................... 13 ....... 5
Petroleum and products ........................... 125 268 158
A asphalt ...................................... ....... ....... I
D iesel oil .................................... 28 140 65
Fuel oil, residual .............................. ....... 32 I
G gasoline ..................................... 3 ....... .......
Jet fuel ...................................... ...... 9 .......
Liquefied gas ................................. 94 87 92
M miscellaneous .................................... 90 69 52
Paper and paper products...................... II I 4
R esin ........................................ I I I
Rubber. manufactured ......................... 4 3 2
T extiles ...................................... I I I
Container cargo .............................. 50 52 34
All other and unclassified ...................... 23 II 10(
Total ............ ........... ............. 303 450 318

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO HAl.BOA, R.P.:
lumber and products. miscellaneous ................ ....... I .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 122 121 250
D iesel oil .................................... 26 25 63
Fuel. oil, residual ............................. 97 91 187
let fuel ...................................... ....... 5 .......
Total ................... ........... ......... 122 122 250

EASt COAS1 CENTRAL AMERICA 10 ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 4 3 .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 36 27 45
Chemicals, unclassified ................ ....... 31 27 39







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 87


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
1991 1990 1989 I
EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO ASIA-
Continued
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals-Continued
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 5 ....... 6
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ ....... ....... I
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 2 ....... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 34 86 132
Angles. shapes and sections .................... ....... 3 9
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 2 42 27
1 ubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 32 36 52
W ire, bars and rods ........................... ....... ....... 7
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... 5 37
Nitrates. phosphates and potash .................... 213 124 .......
Fertilizers. unclassified......................... 213 124 .......
O res and metals .................................. 9 2 48
Ores ............... ............... ...... 4 2 30
Iro n ..................................... ....... ....... 5
M anganese............................... 4 2 5
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... ....... 20
M etals....................................... 5 ....... 18
Iro n ..................................... 5 ....... 5
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... ....... 13
Other agricultural commodities ..................... I 1 20
C otton, raw .................................. I ....... .......
R ubber, raw ................................. ....... I .......
Sugar ....................................... ....... ....... 20
Petroleum and products ........................... 66 87 10
D iesel oil .................................... ....... 27 .......
G gasoline ..................................... 24 ....... .......
.le fuel ...................................... 10 ....... .......
I iquefied gas ................................. 32 60 10
Miscellaneous ..................................... 39 74 11
C arbon black ................................. ....... ....... I
Fibers, plant ................................. ...... ........ I
R esin ........................................ 30 16 17
textiles ...................................... ......... ....... 5
Container cargo .............................. 2 54 68
All other and unclassified ...................... 7 4 18
I otal...................................... 404 403 366

FAST COAS'I SOU II AMI 'RICA 10 WIS I COAS I
UNI I I) STATE IS:
Canned and refrigerated fI'oods. miscellaneous ......... 2 2 6
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 4X ....... .......
C hem icals. unclassified ........................ 27 ....... ......
Pctioleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 21 .. .. ... .
I number and products .............................. 48 56 54
Boards and planks ............................ 2 6 8
Plywood. vreneers,. composition board............ 3 6 5
Pulpwood .................................... 42 42 39
Other and unclassilied ........................... I 2 2
Machinery and equipment. miscellaneous ............ ....... 4 I
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 665 584 494
Angles, shapes and sections ................... ...... ....... 6








88 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal vear
1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES-Continued
Manufactures of iron and steel-Continued
N ails, tacks and spikes......................... ....... I .......
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 599 483 344
Tubes, pipes and fillings ....................... 6 5 6
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 13 29 9
Other and unclassified ......................... 47 66 129
O res and m etals .................................. 83 68 75
Ores .................. ................... 64 66 17
A lum ina bau.ite ......................... 11 42 12
Iro n ..................................... 53 24 .......
Other and unclassified ..................... .... ... ....... 5
M etals....................................... 19 2 58
A lum inum ............................... ....... 2 1
Iro n ..................................... 19 ....... 54
O their and unclassified ..................... ....... ....... 3
Other agricultural commodities ..................... ....... 8 10
B eans, ed ible ................................. ....... I .......
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ ....... 3 2
C offee ....................................... ....... 4 8
Petroleum and products ........................... 1.412 786 510
C rude oil .................................... 422 286 .......
D iesel oil .................................... 77 ....... 88
Fuel oil. residual .............................. 658 49 171
G gasoline ..................................... 71 329 204
.let luel ...................................... 84 122 34
L iquelied gas ................................. ...... ....... 13
O their and unclassified ......................... 100 ....... .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 604 250 122
Bricks and tile ................................ ....... I .......
Cem ent ...................................... 432 114 18
M arble and stone ............................. ... .. ....... 2
O il, vegetable................................. 34 ....... .......
Paper and paper products...................... 3 9 6
Slag. clinkers and dross ........................ ....... 23 .......
Container cargo .............................. 127 92 89
All other and unclassified ...................... 8 II 7
I otal ............ ........... ............ 2,862 1.758 1.272

EAS I COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Lumber and products ............................. 2 6 9
Boards and planks ............................ ....... I 3
Plywood, veneers, composition board............ 2 1 1
Pulpw ood .................................... ...... 4 5
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 56 72 108
A ngles, shapes and sections .................... ....... ....... 5
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 20 27 8
I ubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 13 10 14
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 20 31 65
O their and unclassified ......................... 3 4 16
Ores and metals, m miscellaneous ..................... ....... 3 .......
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ....... 1 .......
M miscellaneous ..................................... 87 87 55







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 89


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
/991 1990 1989
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CANADA-Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Bricks and tile ................................... ....... I ......
Cem ent ...................................... 38 20 27
Paper and paper products ........... ........... I 2 2
Slag, clinkers and dross ........................ 37 27 .......
Container cargo .............................. 8 29 25
All other and unclassified ...................... 3 8 I
Total ................ ....... ........... .. 145 170 174

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAl AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... I ....... 3
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... I .......
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 71 ....... ......
C oal ........................................ 7 1 ....... .......
G rains ............. ......... .......... .. ........ ...... ....... 14
Soybeans ..... .............................. ....... ........ 14
Lum ber and products ............................. 2 ....... .......
Boards and planks ............................ I ....... .......
Plywood, veneers, composition board............ I ........
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 175 133 127
Angles. shapes and sections .................... ....... II I
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 65 36 93
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... ....... ....... 2
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 80 18 15
Other and unclassified ......................... 30 68 16
Nitrates. phosphates and potash .................... .48 19 17
Ammonium compounds ....................... ....... 14 .......
Fertilizers. unclassified......................... 48 5 17
O res and m etals .................................. 9 20 13
O res. m miscellaneous ........................... 3 ....... .......
M etals ....................................... 6 20 13
A lum inum ............................... 2 I 3
Iro n ..................................... ....... 18 10
T in, including tinplate ..................... 3 I .......
Z inc ...................................... I ...... .......
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 55 81 19
O ilseeds ..................................... .. .. ........ 19
S ugar ....................................... 55 8 1 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,432 1,552 1,010
C rude oil .................................... 1.241 935 704
D iesel oil .................................... ....... 48 24
Fuel oil. residual .............................. ...... 493 249
G gasoline ..................................... 148 30 30
Liquefied gas ................................. ....... 4 2
Lubricating oil ............................... ....... ....... I
Other and unclassified ......................... 43 42 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 25 30 22
B ricks and tile ............................... .. ....... .......
G lass and glassware ........................... ....... I .......
Oil. vegetable................................ 10 5 5
Paper and paper products ...................... ....... I .......
R esin ........................................ ....... ....... 2







90 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Container cargo .............................. II 21 4
All other and unclassified ...................... 4 I II
Total ................ ...... .............. 1.818 1.836 1,225

EAS I COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ........ ... .. 4 .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 21 32 21
C austic soda ................................. 4 .......
Chem icals, unclassified ........................ I I 29 15
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 6 3 6
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 488 152 163
C oal ........................................ 464 149 155
C oke ........................................ 24 3 8
G rains........................................... 27 1 9
C orn ........................................ .. .. ........ 5
O ats ........................................ I I .......
R ice ......................................... 2 1 ....... .......
Soybeans .................................... 5 ....... .......
W heat ....................................... .. .. ........ 2
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 2
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ 3 2 1
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 8 8 10
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 133 134 202
Angles, shapes and sections .................... 3 27 35
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 45 20 46
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 10 10 1
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 62 66 68
Other and unclassified ......................... 13 I 52
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 28 36 21
A sbestos ..................................... I I .......
Salt ....................................... 26 28 17
Soda and sodium compounds .................. I I 4
S ulfur .................................. ...... 6 ......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... _. 93 127 142
Ammonium compounds ....................... 17 33 17
Phosphates ................................... I 3 I
Fertilizers. unclassified ......................... 75 91 124
Ores and metals .................................. 27 24 20
O res ............... .. ...................... 14 12 II
A lum ina/bauxite ......................... 14 II II
M anganese ............................... .. ...... I .......
M etals ....................................... 13 12 9
A lum inun ................................ 3 3 I
Iron ..................................... 5 6 6
Tin, including tinplate ..................... 4 I .......
Z inc ................................ .. .... .... I
Other and unclassified ..................... I 2 I
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 35 39 I
C otton, raw .................................. I I I
Rubber, raw ..................................... I .......
Sugar ....................................... 34 37 .......






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 91


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
S 191 1990 1989
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Petroleum and products ............... ............ 2,080 1,198 1,378
A sphalt .................................... .. ....... .......
Crude oil .................................... 1,166 742 859
D iesel oil ............ ........................ 180 31 210
Fuel oil. residual .............................. 24 ....... .......
G gasoline ..................................... 361 173 131
Jet fuel ...................................... 38 ....... 79
Liquefied gas ................................. 231 204 56
Lubricating oil ............................... 80 47 38
O other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 5
M miscellaneous .................................... 161 89 97
Bricks and tile ................................ I ....... ... ..
Carbon black ................................. 40 7 20
C em ent ...................................... .. .. ........ 3
Flour, w heat ................................. .. . ... .... 5
G lass and glassware ........................... 2 I .......
O il, vegetable......................... ....... .... ....... I
Paper and paper products...................... 23 8 13
R esin ........................................ 7 I 6
Rubber, manufactured......................... I I I
T extiles ....................................... I ....... .......
Container cargo .............................. 68 39 34
All other and unclassified ...................... 18 22 14
Total ............... .......... ........... 3,104 1,845 2.065

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous......... ....... I .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... ....... I
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ I ....... .......
Petroleum and products .................. ........ 56 3 6
A sphalt .................................... .. ....... 2 .......
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 46 ....... .......
G gasoline ..................................... .. .. ........ 6
Lubricating oil ............................... 10 I .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 4 4 5
O il, vegetable ................................. 3 3 2
Container cargo .............................. I I 3
Total........................ ..... 61 9 12

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO HAWAII:
Petroleum and products ................... ....... 114 61 62
C rude oil .................................... 17 ....... .......
D iesel oil ............................. ....... 6 ....... .......
Jet fuel ...................................... 60 6 1 62
O their and unclassified ......................... 31 ....... .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 173 108 .......
C em ent ...................................... 51 57 .......
Slag, clinkers and dross ........................ 121 51 .......
A ll other and unclassified ...................... I ....... .......
T otal ......................... ........ ... 287 168 62

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO OCEANIA:
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 3 3 57








92 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1991 1990 1989
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO OCEANIA-
Continued
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ....... ....... I
M miscellaneous .................................... ....... 2 7
Paper and paper products...................... ....... ....... I
C ontainer cargo ............................. ........ I I
A ll other and unclassified ...................... ...... I 5
T otal .............. .. ..................... 3 6 66

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods...................... 17 55 50
Canned foods, miscellaneous ................... 2 ....... I
Refrigerated foods ............................ 15 55 49
Bananas ................................. 2 4 8
Fish ..................................... 13 38 38
M eat .................................... ....... 6 .......
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... 7 3
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 29 22 .......
Chem icals, unclassified ........................ 20 22 .......
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 9 ....... .......
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 91 52 89
C oal ........................................ 9 1 52 89
G rains........................................... 25 90 .......
Sorghum .................................... 25 ....... .......
Soybeans .................................... ....... 4 1 .......
W heat ....................................... ....... 44 .......
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... 5 .......
t.um ber and products ............................. 43 5 56
Pulpwood .................................... 43 5 28
Other and unclassified ................. ... .... . ...... 28
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 2 .... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 246 453 68
Angles. shapes and sections .................... 5 27 .......
Plates. sheets and coils ........................ 49 88 33
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... ..... 3 .......
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 134 264 20
Other and unclassified ......................... 58 71 15
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... ....... 149 61
Fertilizers. unclassified ......................... ....... 149 61
Ores and metals .................................. 841 894 479
O res ............................ ........... 305 294 202
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 65 72 56
C hrom e ................................. 67 ....... II
C opper ........................... ...... ....... 10 .......
Iron ..................................... 108 158 54
M anganese...... ....................... .. 65 39 81
Other and unclassified ................. ....... 15 ......
M etals....................................... 536 600 277
Aluminum ............................... 433 380 266
C opper .................................. 3 ....... .......
Iron ..................................... 100 208 .......
S crap ................................... ....... 6 I
Z inc ..................................... ....... ....... 2
O their and unclassified ..................... ....... 6 8
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 4 12 40




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