• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Organization chart
 Introduction
 Canal traffic
 Canal operations
 Supporting operations
 Administration and staff
 Financial report
 Statistical tables
 Back Cover






Group Title: Annual report, Panama Canal Commission
Title: Annual report /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097367/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual report /
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Panama Canal Commission ( 1980-<1994> )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Publisher: The Commission
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1990
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Fiscal year 1980-
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends Sept. 30.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Vols. for 1992- distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1998.
Statement of Responsibility: Panama Canal Commission.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097367
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07777425
lccn - 96645119
issn - 1936-5306
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Preceded by: Annual report, fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Organization chart
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Canal traffic
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Canal operations
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Supporting operations
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Administration and staff
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Financial report
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Statistical tables
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
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        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Cover
        Page 131
        Page 132
Full Text









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION



ANNUAL REPORT


FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1990















PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Balboa, Republic of Panama
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR







FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR

As the first permanent Panamanian Administrator of this great waterway, it
is a pleasure to submit the annual report of the Panama Canal Commission
for fiscal year 1990. Sharing in this honor is Mr. Raymond P. Laverty, the
first permanent U.S. Deputy Administrator of the Commission. These
appointments mark a milestone in the implementation of the Panama Canal
treaties and the eventual transfer of the waterway to Panama.

Fiscal year 1990 was another important year for the Panama Canal.
Operation Just Cause, which was initiated in December 1989, restored
democracy to the Republic of Panama and ended the intimidation of Canal
employees by the repressive regime of General Manuel Noriega. The Canal
remained in excellent operating condition throughout the year, and vessels
continued to transit safely and expeditiously.

The eleventh year of operation under the terms of the Panama Canal Treaty
concluded with most major elements of Canal traffic registering their second
consecutive year of decline, despite a slight upturn in commercial cargo
tonnage moving through the waterway. Oceangoing commercial transits
decreased marginally by 0.4 percent and average ship size fell, resulting in a
2.3 percent decline in Panama Canal net tonnage as compared to the last
fiscal year. Total tolls revenue was up 7.8 percent due to a 9.8 percent toll rate
increase which took effect at the beginning of this year. Without the toll rate
hike, tolls revenue would have been 1.8 percent below last year.









The Commission continues to make significant investments in moderniza-
tion, maintenance and improvement projects. Major accomplishments
include the overhaul of four miter gates and associated chamber work at
Gatun Locks, continued widening of the Canal's Pacific entrance,
installation of a new firefighting system at Miraflores Locks, and acquisition
of two new tugboats. Careful attention was also given to tailoring human
resource development programs to ensure that well qualified Panamanians
will be available to assume full responsibility for the effective management,
maintenance and operation of the Canal. At the close of the year,
Panamanians comprised slightly more than 86 percent of the work force,
with increasing participation in all facets of the Canal's operation.

The Honorable Robert W. Page presented his resignation as Chairman of
the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Commission, effective the end
of fiscal year 1990, at which time Mr. M. P. W. Stone assumed the
responsibilities of the Chairman. Other changes to the Board included the
appointment of four new Panamanian members and one new U.S. member.

I applaud the admirable performance, courageous efforts and personal
sacrifice of the Commission work force during this challenging year. As we
proceed with the final decade leading to the transfer of the CanaJ to Panama,
I am confident that the Panama Canal is prepared to meet the demands of
the world's shipping community, and will provide high quality transit service
for many years to come.



GILBERTO GUARDIA F.
Administrator

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Page
ORGANIZATION CHART........................................... vi

INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION ..................... ................ ............ I
T H E CA N A L ................ ............ ................. ...... I
TO LL RATES .................................... ................. 2
BOARD OF DIRECTORS ................... .............. 3
OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA ....................... 3
OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C ................................... 3

CHAPTER I-CANAL TRAFFIC
T R A FFIC ........................ ... ............................. 5
COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS ................... 6
COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES ............................. 7

CHAPTER II-CANAL OPERATIONS
TRANSIT OPERATIONS .................................... ....... 13
MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS .......... 15

CHAPTER Ill-SUPPORTING OPERATIONS
LOGISTICAL SERVICES ................................. .... ..... 19
COM M UNITY SERVICES ....................... ...... ..... ....... .. 20
SANITATION AND GROUNDS MANAGEMENT ..................... 21
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES ............................ 22
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY .................................. 22
FIRE PROTECTION .................... ............................ 23
CANAL PROTECTION ...................... ..................... 23
HEALTH AND SAFETY .................... ..................... 24

CHAPTER IV-ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF
PERSONNEL: FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL ................. 25
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM ................................ 25
PUBLIC AFFAIRS ................................................. 26
OM BUDSMAN .................................................. ... 27
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ............. .. ................. 28
GENERAL COUNSEL................. ......................... 28

CHAPTER V-FINANCIAL REPORT
FINANCIAL STATEMENT ...................................... ... 31
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS ........................................ 31
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES ......................... ...... ......... 31







CONTENTS


Financial Tables
Page
TABLE 1.-Statement of Financial Position ............................... 34
TABLE 2.- Statement of Operations ....................... ............ 36
TABLE 3.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States
G overnm ent ................. .............. ............... 38
TABLE 4.-Statement of Cash Flows ..................................... 40
TABLE 5.-Statement of Property, Plant and Equipment .................... 42
Notes to Financial Statements............... ..... ........ 43


CHAPTER VI-STATISTICAL TABLES
Shipping Statistics

TABLE 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1990 ......... 50
TABLE 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1990
and 1989 ................................................... 52
TABLE 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1990 ............... 53
TABLE 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1990 56
TABLE 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1990 .... 58
TABLE 6.-Segregation of Transits by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal
Year 1990 ................................ ................ 60
TABLE 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years
1988 through 1990 ........................................... 62
TABLE 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama
Canal from Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1990 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ........................ 66
TABLE 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama
Canal from Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1990 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ........................ 72
TABLE 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific- Fiscal Year 1990 .......................... 80
TABLE II.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to Atlantic- Fiscal Year 1990 .......................... 104
TABLE 12.-Principal Canal Commodities by Direction-Fiscal Year 1990 ..... 127

Other Statistics

TABLE 13.- Water Supply and Usage ..................................... 129
TABLE 14.- Dredging Operations ................... ... ............ 129
TABLE 15.- Electrical Power Generated ................................... 130
TABLE 16.- Fire Division Statistics .................................... .... 130






















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreport1990unit







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

I
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
SECRETARY OF THE ARMY


CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
INSPECTOR GENERAL
ADMINISTRATOR
..DEPUT ADMINISTRATORS ASST. TO THE CHAIRMAN AND SECRETARY




FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT PUBLIC AFFAIRS/INFORMATION
EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
EXECUTIVE PLANNING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION OMBUDSMAN
GENERAL COUNSEL
1. I


ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
ENGINEERING
INDUSTRIAL
MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
DREDGING
CONSTRUCTION


MARINE BUREAU
BOARD OF LOCAL INSPECTORS
PILOT DIVISION
ADMEASUREMENT
LOCKS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
CANAL SERVICES
MARINE SAFETY
CANAL OPERATIONS
MARINE TRAINING


GENERAL SERVICES
BUREAU
LOGISTICAL SUPPORT
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
FIRE
CANAL PROTECTION
COMMUNITY SERVICES
SANITATION AND GROUNDS
PRINTING OFFICE
AREA COORDINATION














INTRODUCTION


ORGANIZATION
The Panama Canal Commission is an agency of the Executive Branch of
the United States Government, provided for by the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977, and established by the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 452; 22
U.S.C. 3601 et seq), enacted September 27, 1979. The authority of the
President of the United States with respect to the Commission is exercised
through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army. The
Commission is supervised by a nine-member Board. Five members are
nationals of the United States appointed by the President with the advice
and consent of the Senate. Four members are nationals of the Republic of
Panama who are proposed by the Republic of Panama for appointment by
the President.
The Commission was established to carry out the responsibilities of the
United States with respect to the Panama Canal under the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977. In fulfilling these obligations, the Commission manages,
operates, and maintains the Canal, its complementary works, installations,
and equipment, and provides for the orderly transit of vessels through the
Canal. The Commission will perform these functions until the treaty
terminates on December 31, 1999, at which time the Republic of Panama
will assume full responsibility for the Canal.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis. The
Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all costs
of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest, depreciation,
capital for plant replacement, expansion and improvements, and payments
to the Republic of Panama for public services and annuities, in accordance
with paragraph 5 of Article Ill and paragraphs 4(a) and (b) of Article XIII,
respectively, of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. Revenues from tolls and
all other sources are deposited in the U.S. Treasury in an account known as
the Panama Canal Revolving Fund. The resources in this fund are available
for continuous use and serve to finance Canal operating and capital
programs which are reviewed annually by the Congress.
THE CANAL
The Panama Canal is a lock-type canal approximately 51 miles long from
deep water to deep water. The minimum width of the navigable channel is
500 feet. Navigable channel depth can vary according to the amount of water






INTRODUCTION


available in Canal storage areas; however, the normal permissible transit
draft is 39 feet 6 inches tropical fresh water.
Vessels transiting the Canal are raised in three steps to the level of Gatun
Lake, the principal source of Canal water, then lowered to sea level again in
three steps. The three sets of Canal locks are paired so as to permit
simultaneous lockage of two vessels in the same or opposite direction.
Since August 15, 1914, the official date of its opening, the Panama Canal
has served world trade virtually without interruption. Through this fiscal
year, a total of 704,351 vessels of all types have transited with 594,462 or 84.4
percent of the total being of the oceangoing commercial class.
TOLL RATES
Toll rates during FY 1990 were: (a) on merchant vessels, Army and Navy
transports, hospital ships, supply ships, and yachts, when carrying
passengers or cargo, $2.01 per net vessel ton of 100 cubic feet of actual
earning capacity, as determined in accordance with the "Rules of
Measurement of Vessels for the Panama Canal;" (b) on such vessels in
ballast, without passengers or cargo, $1.60 per net vessel ton; and (c) on
other floating craft, $1.12 per ton of displacement. These rates have been in
effect since October I, 1989.
A temporary 20 percent surcharge on all tariff rates for tug and
linehandling services, approved by the Commission's Board of Directors,
was implemented on April 1, 1990. The surcharge is to offset a variety of
unbudgeted extraordinary costs incurred by the Commission as a result of
the actions and political decisions of the former Panama regime of General
Manuel Noriega. Shortly after the close of fiscal year 1990, a decision was
made to terminate the surcharge on February 28, 1991.
By treaty, the United States continues to provide to Colombia free transit
through the Canal of its troops, materials of war, and ships of war.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Ending Fiscal Year 1990


Honorable ROBERT W. PAGE
Chairman, Board of Directors
Panama Canal Commission
Washington, D.C.

Honorable CECILIA A. ALEGRE
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable Luis A. ANDERSON
Mexico, D.F., Mexico

Honorable ANDREW E. GIBSON
Short Hills, New Jersey


Honorable ROBERT R. MCMILLAN
Garden City, New York

Honorable ALFREDO N. RAMIREZ
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Annapolis, Maryland

Honorable JOAQUIN J. VALLARINO, Jr.
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.
Brevard. North Carolina


Executive Committee
Honorable ROBERT W. PAGE
Chairman
Honorable ALFREDO N. RAMIREZ
Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Honorable JOAQUIN J. VALLARINO, Jr.
Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.


OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Administrator .................... Honorable GILBERTO GUARDIA F.
Deputy Administrator ............. Honorable RAYMOND P. LAVERTY



OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C.
Assistant to the Chairman and Secretary ......... MICHAEL RHODE, Jr.

















-. .m
S


~1tM


Two of the Canal's newest tugs, the D. P. McAULIFFE (left) and the UNIDAD, assist a Panamax size containership into the lock '71
chamber during a southbound transit. These tugs are equipped with the latest technology and safety features. 0















Chapter I


CANAL TRAFFIC


TRAFFIC
Most major elements of Canal traffic registered their second consecutive
year of decline in fiscal year 1990, despite a slight upturn in commercial
cargo tonnage moving through the waterway. The fear of recession in the
U.S. economy, the economic slowdown in other regions important to the
Canal and structural changes in certain trades explain the weak results.
There were no indications that traffic levels were significantly affected by the
political problems that were ongoing in Panama at the outset of the year or
by the U.S. military action (Operation Just Cause) initiated in late December
1989.
Oceangoing transits in fiscal year 1990 were 12,052 or 33.0 daily,
marginally below the 12,075 or 33.1 transits per day achieved in fiscal year
1989. Commercial vessels accounted for 11,941 oceangoing transits,
declining 0.4 percent from the 11,989 transits in the prior year. Vessels
owned or operated by the U.S. Government and free Colombian and
Panamanian Government vessels accounted for 111 transits, compared with
86 transits in fiscal year 1989.
The number of large beam vessels and average ship size also decreased
during the year. Ships with beams of 80 feet or greater accounted for 5,545
transits or 46.0 percent of total oceangoing transits, versus 5,734 or 47.5
percent in fiscal year 1989. Likewise, vessel transits by the largest ships
capable of passing through the waterway those with beams of 100 feet and
over-decreased from 2,765 in fiscal year 1989 to 2,745 in fiscal year 1990.
These wide beam vessels accounted for 22.8 percent and 22.9 percent of total
oceangoing transits in fiscal years 1990 and 1989, respectively. The drop in
large vessel transits resulted in a decrease in average Panama Canal net tons
per transit, with the average tonnage of oceangoing commercial vessels
falling 1.8 percent to 15,216 tons in fiscal year 1990 compared to 15,500 tons
in the prior year.
The decline in transits and average ship size resulted in total Panama
Canal net tonnage declining 2.3 percent to 182.7 million tons compared to
187.0 million tons in fiscal year 1989. A 9.8 percent toll rate increase,
effective at the outset of fiscal year 1990, generated higher tolls revenue







6 CANAL TRAFFIC


despite the decline in total Panama Canal net tonnage. Tolls revenue reached
an all-time record level of $355.6 million, up 7.8 percent from the $329.8
million collected in fiscal year 1989. Without the toll rate hike, however,
actual tolls revenue would have fallen by 1.8 percent to the lowest level since
fiscal year 1985.
The relatively weak performance indicated by the fall in transits and
Panama Canal net tonnage occurred even while cargo tonnage passing
through the Canal increased 3.5 percent over the prior year, from 151.9
million long tons to 157.3 million. The decline in transits and Panama Canal
net tonnage, despite the increase in cargo tonnage, reflects a more efficient
utilization of vessels, coupled with a shift in the mix of cargo toward more
bulk type commodities.
A two-year summary of the key elements of Canal traffic and tolls revenue
is shown in the table below, followed by a more detailed description of cargo
movements by trade route.

COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS

Fiscal year
1990 1989
Oceangoing transits:
Com m ercial ...................................... 11,941 11,989
U.S. Government .................................. 91 74
Free ............................................. 20 12
Total ............... ............ .............. 12,052 12,075

Daily average ................................. 33.0 33.1

Small transits:
Com m ercial ...................................... 1,017 997
U.S. Government .................................. 240 287
F ree ............................................. 16 30
Total ................... ................. ..... .1,273 1,314


Total cargo:
Commercial ...................................... 157,074,475 151,644,424
U.S. Government ................................... 248,442 224,121
Free ............................................. 6 3
Total ....................... ................ 157,322,923 151,868,548


Total Panama Canal net tons and reconstructed displace-
ment tonnage .................. ................... 182,709,855 186,962,894

Transit revenue:
Commercial tolls .................................. $353,841,162 $327,946,771
U.S. Government tolls ............................. 1,716,795 1,818,855
Tolls revenue ................ ................ $355.557 957 $329,765,626


Harbor pilotage, tug, launch, and other services ........... $78,113,078 $70,008,117

Total transit revenue ............................. $433,671,035 $399,773,743






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES
Cargo shipments through the Canal rose in fiscal year 1990. Total
commercial cargo increased 3.6 percent to 157.1 million long tons from the
151.6 million tons in fiscal year 1989, due to an upturn in bulk commodity
groups, such as petroleum and ores and metals, and a rise in certain other
cargoes, including agricultural commodities and refrigerated foods. The
improvements registered in these Canal commodity groups more than offset
the losses in automobiles, phosphates and numerous other trades.
Grains, which is the principal commodity shipped through the Canal,
increased 1.1 percent to 30.2 million long tons from 29.9 million tons in fiscal
year 1989. The upturn in this commodity resulted from a sharp rise in corn
and soybean exports from the U.S. to the Far East via the Canal. The
depressed value of the dollar versus the Japanese yen improved the
competitiveness of U.S. grains, partially explaining the favorable
performance in corn shipments. Corn tonnage through the Canal rose 33.7
percent to 14.0 million long tons from the 10.5 million tons in the prior year,
with about 10.0 million long tons or nearly 70.0 percent of this total destined
for Japan. Other components of the grain category also increased. Soybeans
rose 17.4 percent to 6.2 million tons from 5.2 million tons, and sorghum was
up 4.9 percent to 2.0 million tons from 1.9 million tons in fiscal year 1989.
Wheat, the second largest commodity in the grain group, declined
dramatically by 38.4 percent to 6.8 million tons from the record 11.0 million
tons the prior year. Wheat shipments from the U.S. to China decreased
nearly 51 percent to 3.8 million long tons from the 7.7 million tons the prior
year, due mainly to a bumper wheat harvest in China.
An upturn was also registered in petroleum and products, the second
major commodity group in FY 1990. Petroleum and products rose 13.5
percent to 25.2 million long tons from 22.2 million tons in the prior year.
Crude oil rose 17.6 percent to 9.3 million tons from 7.9 million tons in FY
1989. Ecuadorian crude oil, which accounted for about 69 percent of the
crude shipped through the Canal was the principal factor in that upturn.
Ecuadorian crude oil is destined primarily for the U.S. East Coast, Panama,
and the West Indies. Petroleum products moving through the Canal rose
11.2 percent to 16.0 million long tons from 14.4 million tons in fiscal year
1989. Residual fuel oil flows increased 32.0 percent to about 5.5 million tons
from 4.2 million tons the prior year. This commodity was the principal
contributor to the increase registered in this group. Residual fuel shipments
originated primarily in Peru and Ecuador and were destined for the U.S.
East Coast.
Strong growth was observed in the tonnage of ores and metals this fiscal
year. It reached 12.5 million long tons, rising 18.5 percent from 10.5 million
long tons in 1989. Total ores, accounting for nearly 66.0 percent of the
group, rose 20.1 percent to 8.2 million long tons from 6.8 million tons the
prior year. Aluminum/bauxite ore, the leading commodity within the
group, increased 37.1 percent to 3.3 million tons. Nearly 77 percent of the
aluminum/bauxite originated in Australia and was primarily destined for
the U.S. East Coast. The movement of metals rose 15.6 percent to 4.2 million






CANAL TRAFFIC


long tons from 3.7 million tons in 1989. Scrap metal was the largest
component of the metal group, showing a 9.6 percent increase to 2.2 million
long tons.
Containerized cargo, accounting for nearly 80.0 percent of the
commodities grouped under the "All Other" category, rose 3.9 percent to
20.7 million long tons from the 19.9 million tons the prior year. The
moderate growth rate continued to reflect the slower growth trend initiated
in 1985 in containerized cargo shipped through the Canal. Fifty-three
percent of the containerized cargo through the Canal involved trade between
the U.S. and the Far East, with U.S. exports to the Far East totaling 6.1
million long tons compared with 5.7 million tons in the prior year. U.S.
imports from the Far East remained flat at 4.9 million tons. The relatively
weak performance of the important container trade continues to reflect, for
the second consecutive year, the slowdown in the U.S. and Japanese
economies and the strong competition exerted in this trade by the U.S.
intermodal system. The U.S. West Coast to Europe route, the second most
important container trade, rose 7.1 percent to 2.9 million long tons from 2.7
million tons in 1989.
Automobile shipments declined 16.4 percent in fiscal year 1990 to 1.7
million long tons from 2.0 million tons in 1989. Because of their
configuration, car carriers pay the highest toll per cargo ton of any vessel
type in Canal traffic. Accordingly, a drop in automobile tonnage translates
into a disproportionately higher reduction in Panama Canal net tonnage
and tolls revenue. This drop in tonnage reflects the third consecutive year of
poor trade, contributing largely to the downturn in Canal traffic. The trade
continued to be adversely affected by structural changes in the automobile
industry due to the establishment of Japanese car manufacturing plants in
the U.S. and Europe and the slowdown in consumer demand. Automobiles
from Japan destined for the U.S. East Coast, totaled 1.1 million long tons
versus 1.4 million tons in 1989.
The coal and coke trade is another major commodity group that declined
in fiscal year 1990. This trade dropped 9.2 percent to 8.1 million tons from
8.9 million tons the prior year. The drop in purchases of Japanese coke by
the U.S. was down nearly 54 percent to about 550 thousand long tons from
the 1.2 million tons in the prior year. The coal segment of the group rose 5.1
percent to 7.1 million long tons from 6.8 million in 1989. However, coal
originating in the U.S. East Coast decreased 3.3 percent to 4.7 million long
tons compared with 4.8 million in 1989. Coal from Hampton Roads
bypassing the Canal, which reached a record level of 6.6 million in fiscal year
1990, is responsible for the decline. U.S. coal shipments destined for Japan
slid 34.6 percent to 1.6 million long tons versus 2.4 million tons the year
before. Shipments to Taiwan, however, increased 52.9 percent to 2.6 million
tons from 1.7 million tons in 1989.
The nitrates, phosphates and potash group dropped 2.9 percent to 13.8
million long tons from 14.2 million tons in 1989. Phosphates, which
accounted for 60 percent of the group, decreased 4.4 percent to 8.2 million
tons from about 8.6 million tons in 1989. Nearly 73 percent of the phosphates







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 9


tonnage shipped through the Canal originated in the U.S. East Coast and
was destined primarily for the Far East. China received about 2.5 million
long tons, while Japan and South Korea each imported close to 1.2 million
tons.
A number of commodity groups, such as chemicals and petroleum
chemicals and manufactures of iron and steel also registered declines in 1990.
However, these shortfalls were offset by gains in other commodities
including miscellaneous minerals, other agricultural commodities and
lumber and products.
Trade between the East Coast of the United States and Asia continues to
dominate Canal traffic, accounting for 36.5 percent of total commercial
cargo. Cargo on this route declined, however, by 4.0 percent to 57.4 million
long tons from 59.7 million long tons in 1989.
The following tables show the principal commodity groups moving in
oceangoing commercial vessels in fiscal year 1990 and a comparison of the
major trade routes in fiscal year 1990 and fiscal year 1989.







PRINCIPAL COMMODITY GROUPS
TRANSITING THE CANAL
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL CARGO FY 1990

PERCENT OF TOTAL CARGO


GRAINS

PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS
NITRATES, PHOSPHATES, POTASH
ORES & METALS
LUMBER & PRODUCTS
COAL & COKE
MFRS. OF IRON & STEEL
CHEMICALS & PETROCHEMICALS
CANNED & REFRIGERATED FOODS

MISC. AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
MISC. MINERALS
MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT
ALL OTHER


19.3%


I I


! 16.1%


8.8%

X 7.9%

6.0%
5.2%
^ t:4.6%
S4.3%
X 3.5%
: 3.5%
X.3.1%
s1.3%
^^sSsti^^ s^^g^t16.4%


0 5 10 15 20 25 30
MILLIONS OF LONG TONS


>
z
>


35 40 45 50 >
171
3


ssatwafessssssBsasasa







Major Voyage Trade Routes in Canal Traffic '
z
Fiscal year Percent of
1990 1989 I Increase or
(Decrease) >
Panama I Panama I lPanama I
Canal Long Canal Long Canal Long
Net Tons Net Tons Net Tons >
Tons Cargo Tons Cargo Tons Cargo Z
Trade Rouie [In thousands of long tons] >
East Coast United States-Asia ..................................................... 62,994 57,354 71,582 59,746 (12.0) (4.0) .
East Coast United States-West Coast South America .................................. 19,348 13,486 19,314 14,121 0.2 (4.5)
Round the World .............................................................. 13,826 7,680 11,724 5,976 17.9 28.5
Europe-West Coast South America ................................................. 12,125 8,406 10,898 7,512 11.3 11.9
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada .......................................... 11,777 15,433 11,807 14,178 (0.3) 8.9
Europe-Asia ...................................................................... 5,359 3,602 4,895 3,728 9.5 (3.4) C
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania ........................................... 5,249 6,459 5,424 6,968 (3.2) (7.3) t
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America ................................. 5,052 5,508 3,703 3,521 36.4 56.4 O
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii)............................ .......... 4,489 2,410 5,209 2,589 (13.8) (6.9) Z
West Indies-West Coast South America ............................................. 4,094 4,193 2,920 2,067 40.2 102.9
W est Indies-Asia ......................................................... .......... 3,863 2,586 4,468 2,840 (13.5) (8.9)
Europe-West Coast Central America ................ ............................... 3,052 1,651 3,256 1,938 (6.3) (14.8)

Subtotal ......................... ................................... 151228 128,768 155,200 125,184 (2.6) 2.9

All other routes ............................ .. .................................. 30,377 28,305 30,569 26,452 (0.6) 7.0

Total ......................... .. .................................... 181,605 57073 185769 151,636 (2.2) 3.6







CANAL OPERATIONS


A


Tests were conducted on the new foam fire fighting system installed at Miraflores Locks. The
system consists of eight remote controlled foam nozzles located strategically at the forebay
and tailbay areas of the locks. Upper photograph shows the northeast lane filled with foam
following the test. Lower photograph shows the test in progress.


A
















Chapter II


CANAL OPERATIONS


Canal operations are comprised of Transit Operations and Maintenance
and Related Canal Projects. The various functions are divided among a
number of operating bureaus within the Canal agency.
TRANSIT OPERATIONS
Daily average transits by oceangoing vessels was 33.0 per day during fiscal
year 1990. Average time in Canal waters increased from 17.4 hours in fiscal
year 1989 to 24.4 hours in fiscal year 1990. This increase was attributable in
part to the brief closure of the Canal and temporary limitations on Canal
operations during U.S. military action associated with Operation Just
Cause.
Percent Percent
Vessels of total Vessels of total
of 600-foot oceangoing of 80-foot oceangoing
Fiscal year length and over transits beam and over transits
1990 ........................ 3,772 31.3 5,545 46.0
1989 ........................ 3,913 32.4 5,734 47.5
1988 ........................ 4,047 32.9 6,027 48.9
1987 .................... .... 4,005 32.5 5,902 48.0
1986 ........................ 4,131 34.4 5,898 49.1
1985 ........................ 3,862 33.1 5,514 47.3
1984 .................... ..... 3,865 33.9 5,496 48.3
1983 ........................ 4,157 35.1 5,869 49.5
1982 ........................ 5,534 39.5 7,226 51.1
1981 ........................ 4,855 34.7 6,364 45.5
1980 ........................ 4,598 33.8 6,089 44.7
The number of vessels transiting at more than 36-foot draft decreased 4.8
percent: 1,780 vessels during FY 1990 compared to 1,698 during fiscal year
1989. The maximum allowable draft remained at 39 feet 6 inches during the
entire fiscal year.
As a result of events associated with Operation Just Cause, the Panama
Canal closed at 0036 hours on December 20, 1989, and resumed limited
service at 0600 hours on December 21, 1989. Full 24-hour operations
resumed at 1000 hours on December 25, 1989.
Total jobs performed by Commission tugs decreased from 38,579 in fiscal
year 1989 to 37,072 in fiscal year 1990.







CANAL OPERATIONS


*

~


Air


M- a


Dry chamber work is performed at Gatun Locks while vessels continue to transit the Canal
utilizing the alternate lane. Two vessels can partially be seen to the left during lockage
operations while another vessel approaches Gatun Locks. More than 13,000 vessels pass
through the Canal each year.


j.


r- -






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Fiscal rear
I 1989 1990
Oceangoing transits ........................... ................ 12,075 12,052
Tug jobs:
Balboa .................................... .............. 25,759 26,191
C ristobal ................................................... 12,820 10,881
Tug operating hours ............................................. 61,601 58,215


MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS
Maintenance and improvements to the Canal continued to progress
throughout the year. The various divisions and units of the Engineering and
Construction Bureau are generally responsible for the overall physical
maintenance and improvement of the waterway. The Marine Bureau
operates and maintains the locks and related facilities.
Channel Improvements: Routine maintenance dredging, as well as the
project to widen the channel at the Pacific Entrance continued during the
year. Over 3.6 million cubic yards were excavated from the Pacific Entrance
this year. Additional statistics on the volume of material dredged appear in
Table 14 of this report.
Locks: Installation of new locks wall fendering was completed at the
Gatun and Pedro Miguel Locks tailbay and substantially completed at the
Miraflores tailbay. A similar system has been designed for the approach wall
and will be tested at the Pedro Miguel South East Center Wall in 1991.
Gatun Locks Miter Gates 5, 6, 13 and 14 were removed for overhaul and
replaced with previously rehabilitated gates, 17, 18, 29 and 30. Work was
also performed on exposed underwater and topside machinery at Gatun
Locks. Miraflores Locks Miter Gates 122 and 123 underwent internal and
external painting. Structural repairs were made to Miter Gate 64. Gate 64
will be painted and placed back in service in 1991.
Installation of a new marine foam-type fire protection system is now in its
final phase at Miraflores Locks. The system being installed consists of a total
of eight remote controlled foam nozzles strategically located at the entrances
to the lock chamber. Similar systems are planned for Pedro Miguel and
Gatun Locks.
Construction of a new office building at Pedro Miguel Locks to house the
Superintendent Pacific Branch is well underway. Completion is scheduled
for the early part of FY 1991.
Digital microwave links were installed to connect the Balboa telephone
exchange to the Pacific Locks. These links provide reliable high speed
transmission of data, radio and telephone traffic.
With the installation of 40 cast coil transformers at Pedro Miguel Locks,
the replacement of PCB transformers at the Locks was completed.
One leaf and A-frame of the Gatun Locks Vehicular Bridge, damaged on
the centerwall west side by a transiting vessel, was replaced with a spare.
Three rising stem valves were completely rehabilitated and modified to the
slider type.






CANAL OPERATIONS


Dams and Spillways: The Industrial Division overhauled the eight gates
at Miraflores Spillway.
The manufacture of six new sluice gates for Madden Dam was underway
at year end at the Industrial Division.
Communications: To improve the reliability and capability of its
telecommunications services, the Commission purchased fiber optic cable to
span the Isthmus. When completed in 1991, the new system will provide
alternate transmission routes and enhanced voice, data, and video services to
all major Commission operating areas. These facilities will directly support
the marine traffic control, management information, and security systems
on the Canal.
Floating Equipment Maintenance: Scheduled major overhauls were
performed on the tugs Parfitt, Schley and Progreso, Fuel Barge No. 2,
Dredge Tender Diablo. The overhaul of Fuel Barge No. 103 was underway
at year end. An interim overhaul was carried out on the Tug Trinidad, and
the Amistad was still in the yard at year end. Emergency repairs were
accomplished on the Tug Harding main engines. Maintenance and
rehabilitation work was done on the Craneboat Atlas, the ladder bail of the
Dredge Christensen, and the boom on Anchor Barge No. 1.
Acquisitions/Contracts: Two new diesel powered tractor tugboats, the
D. P. McAuliffe and the Unidad, were placed in service on February 24 and
March 28, respectively. A contract for about $1.3 million was awarded for
the construction of a new small dredge tender with improved power and
maneuverability. Other contracts were awarded for cleaning and repairing
miter gates; replacing 44KV line track span towers; constructing Culebra-
Lirio East Diversion Ditch drainage system; rehabilitation of Farfan Spoil
Area; stabilization work at Cocoli Hill and Lirio East Slide; constructing a
Grit Blasting and Painting Facility, Mt. Hope; improvements to Paraiso
Landing; Replacing Switchgear at Pedro Miguel Locks, construction of
Marine Facilities, Building 13 and 14, Gatun; and replacing Gatun Locks
South Locomotive Turntable.







SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


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h.0
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6%**% ****b















Chapter III


SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


Supporting operations of the Panama Canal Commission provided
essential support services to the operation and maintenance of the waterway
and the Agency's facilities, as well as to other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus
and to employees and their dependents. These operations included logistical
services, community services, sanitation and grounds management,
transportation services, public utilities, fire protection, canal protection,
health and safety and other employee services.
LOGISTICAL SERVICES
The Logistical Support Division provided centralized procurement,
inventory management, warehousing, distribution, contract administration
and supply and property disposal support to Canal operations. A total of
$64.4 million in goods and services were procured in fiscal year 1990,
including $23.9 million from sources in Panama. This reflects $7.9 million
for Bunker "C" oil for thermoelectric power generation purchased from
Refineria Panama, S.A. and $4.5 million for light diesel fuel oil purchased
from Esso Standard Oil. Major contracting obligations included $333,160
for aluminum sulphate; $461,170 for Dredge Mindi parts; $333,520 for
replacement Scada master station; $612,900 for miter gate parts; $334,200
for locks rubber fenders; $631,740 for steel sheet piling; $648,555 for a 75-ton
lattice boom crane; $1,885,800 for a towing locomotive turntable; $325,850
for SF6 gas circuit breakers; $1,001,300 for two fire trucks; $1,298,000 for a
dredge tender; and $461,540 for 75 KM-fiber optic cable.
Approximately $17.3 million in inventory items were issued for
Commission use, and $19.2 million were obligated for new inventory
purchases during the year. A total inventory of 38,674 line items with an
average cost value of $30.8 million was on hand at year-end.
Activities of the Excess Disposal Unit included no-cost transfers to other
U.S. Government agencies of excess equipment having an original
acquisition value of approximately $1.4 million, while surplus property sold
to the Government of Panama at current fair market value amounted to
approximately $11,767. Sales to others amounted to $518,138.
The New Orleans Branch in Louisiana expedited urgent purchases and






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


coordinated all Commission cargo shipments from the United States to
Panama. Under the coverage of the Military Sealift Command's contract,
20,019 measurement tons of containerized and breakbulk cargo were
shipped to the Port of Las Minas, Republic of Panama.

COMMUNITY SERVICES
During fiscal year 1990, the Community Services Division managed
employee housing, Commission-owned buildings, a technical resources
center and the employee fitness program for the agency.
The housing portion of the operation dedicated its resources to managing,
maintaining, repairing, performing preventive maintenance and bringing up
to standard the safety and security aspects of the quarters inventory, and
assisting residents with physical security inspections and supporting
neighborhood crime watch programs. As part of the implementation of the
multiyear housing management plan, the division identified Diablo and
Margarita as housing areas for future transfer to the Government of
Panama. As a result of the Presidential mandate to move U.S. citizens off the
economy, the division continued its inter-service agreement with DOD,
whereby 68 DODDS employees occupied PCC housing units. At the end of
the fiscal year, the agency retained the use of 1,545 housing units for its U.S.
citizen and other eligible employees. This represents only 35% of the
inventory of approximately 4,300 units owned by the Panama Canal
Company immediately prior to entry into force of the Panama Canal Treaty
in 1979, indicating that a total of 65% of those units have been transferred to
Panama in 11 years since Treaty implementation. No houses were
transferred in fiscal year 1990.
The buildings management activity is responsible for the maintenance and
operation of Commission buildings and structures (not specifically assigned
to other Commission units) and for a centralized custodial service. As an
ongoing project, this unit continued to modify facilities to comply with
OSHA standards for handicapped personnel and increased physical security
to all buildings. No buildings were transferred to the Government of
Panama during the year.
The Housing Management Branch and the Buildings Management
Branch were merged to form a single branch toward the end of the fiscal
year. This was done in an effort to effect savings by consolidating
management and supervisory duties in several areas. The furniture
warehouse for the housing operation on the Atlantic district has been
eliminated.
The Technical Resources Center provided mission-support information
and research to all units of the Commission and other U.S. agencies and
maintained a collection of library and tridimensional materials relating to
the history and operation of the Panama Canal. This unit supported the
professional development of the pilot understudies, apprentices, clerical
trainees and other employees through workshops and publications. Online
access to computer data banks in the United States, such as DIALOG and






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


OCLC, continued to support reference and acquisition services during the
year.
The Employee Fitness Branch administered a variety of duty-related as
well as off-duty fitness programs and facilities for Commission employees
and their dependents. It continued training various Commission units in
rescue, water safety, advanced life saving and survival floating, and is
responsible for certifying swimming proficiency of job applicants and
employees. The Branch provides a great beneficial impact on community
activities and morale.
SANITATION AND GROUNDS MANAGEMENT
The sanitation activity provides environmental health support to
Commission employees and Panama Canal operating units. This
responsibility extends to protecting the work force from tropical diseases
transmitted by insect and arthropod vectors. Mosquito control measures
received highest priority in FY 1990 due to the small, yet constant, increase
in Canal area breeding by Aedes aegypti, the vector of yellow and dengue
.fever. Only three aegypti breeding foci were discovered in FY 1989,
compared to 54 breeding sites found within the Pacific residential district
during FY 1990. Each of these foci was quickly eliminated through timely
spraying of larvicides and applications of insecticidal fogs. Intensified
surveillance and litter removal kept these isolated infestations from
spreading and ensured each eradication effort was complete.
A brief, non-routine accomplishment during FY 1990 was the prompt and
effective sanitation of the Canal area following U.S. military action which
took place in Panama on December 20, 1989. Due to nonavailability of any
trash collection services by Panama during this period, the backlog of
household refuse within Commission residential areas reached a point where
accumulations of garbage from overflowing refuse containers presented a
public health risk. Within a few days, however, sufficient Sanitation and
Grounds employees reported to work to allow organizing emergency refuse
collection crews, who quickly restored sanitary conditions within the Canal
area community. By mid January Panama's refuse collection agency
renewed its service.
Refuse disposal services at the Commission's Atlantic and Pacific sanitary
landfills continued to be provided for all Canal area solid wastes, including
those from U.S. military installations and Government contractors. Such
refuse from Pacific area defense sites comprised 83% of the total handled at
the Red Tank landfill, while at Mt. Hope landfill on the Atlantic coast,
where refuse from DIMA (Government of Panama trash collection agency)
as well as that from the U.S. military installations are deposited, about 73%
originated from Panamanian sources. The tonnage of refuse handled at both
facilities has remained stable over the past five years, varying between 60,000
and 67,000 tons annually.
Grounds Branch crews maintained 2,900 acres of improved grounds
within Commission residential areas and Panama Canal industrial and
vessel transit facilities. Vegetation was kept under control along utility line






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


rights-of-way, Gatun Dam, saddle dams, and around all aids to navigation:
the 140 towers and targets, plus canal bank lighting and station markers.
Staff agronomists provided technical oversight of tree planting and general
care for 64,000 tree seedlings of fast-growing species of Acacia and Gmelina
trees used to reforest slopes at several landslide sites along Gaillard Cut. The
trees will reduce erosion and their shade will help retard the growth of
unwanted vegetation which hinders inspections by geotechnical engineers of
soil stability markers along the canal slopes.
In May, an attack by Africanized honey bees resulted in a fatality of a 67-
year-old Commission employee, a Grounds Branch engineering equipment
operator who was working at a remote duty station when he was stung. He
suffered serious medical complications and expired three months later.
Analysis of the data compiled by the entomology unit on all Africanized
bee swarms has shown that the seasonal numbers of Africanized honeybee
colonies reported to PCC are now fairly stable, with predictably high
numbers of swarms and nests occurring during the dry season (January
through April) followed by a rapid decline in sightings after the onset of
heavy rains in July. There were 167 bee colonies destroyed in FY 1990, 28%
more than those controlled in FY 1989. A significant part of this increase was
due to more than twice the number of bee control operations on the Atlantic
side of the Isthmus compared to the previous year. Five Africanized bee
swarms were removed from transiting ships in FY 1990, two more than in FY
1989.
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES
The Motor Transportation Division operated and maintained a
consolidated motor pool of 940 vehicles designed to meet the vehicular
transportation requirements of the Commission. The vehicle fleet in fiscal
year 1990 included 639 trucks of various types, 211 passenger-carrying
vehicles, 43 special purpose vehicles and 47 special equipment. Vehicle
mileage increased slightly from 7,433,137 in FY 1989 to 7,466,000 in FY
1990. Fully equipped shops, including a tire retreading facility and heavy
duty repair shops, provided facilities for overhauls, maintenance and repairs
to the Motor Transportation Division fleet and equipment of other
Commission units. The vehicle inspection facilities located within the Motor
Transportation Division were only used to perform official Commission
vehicle inspections.

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY
Panama Canal Commission facilities include electric power generation
and distribution systems, communication systems, water purification and
distribution systems, and a central chilled water air conditioning system for
certain public buildings.
Total Canal area energy demand during fiscal year 1990 was 532 gigawatt
hours, a 2 percent increase from the 524 gigawatts used last year. The peak
hourly demand of 84.6 megawatts reached on June 19, 1990, shows a slight
increase from the 83.6 megawatt peak reached in fiscal year 1989. Electrical







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


power consumed for Commission operations only was 64.3 gigawatt hours,
1.7 percent above the previous year. Gasoline and petroleum distillate fuel
usage by the Commission during FY 1990 (excluding fuel for power
generation), was 4.7 million gallons, 7.8 percent lower than in FY 1989.
Combined fuel and electrical energy consumption by the Commission,
calculated in btu's, also showed an overall decrease, 2.4 percent, in
comparison with FY 1989.
The water treatment and distribution systems operated by the
Commission provide potable water for the Canal area and areas of the
Republic of Panama. The Pacific side system serves the Canal area, portions
of Panama City, and suburban areas. During fiscal year 1990, the two
systems supplied 3.39 billion cubic feet of potable water to consumers, a
slight increase of about 0.30 percent from the previous year. Water supplied
by the Panama Canal Commission to Panama City and Colon metropolitan
areas amounted to approximately 57.1 million gallons per day.

FIRE PROTECTION
The Panama Canal Commission Fire Division and the Bomberos of the
Republic of Panama, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977,
are responsible for providing fire protection, firefighting, and rescue
operation in Canal operating areas, defense sites, civilian and military areas
of coordination and shipboard firefighting on all vessels in Canal area
waters.
Commission responses for FY 1990 totaled 5,934, compared to 6,473 for
FY 1989. The marine stand-by program for hazardous ships at the locks
accounted for slightly more than 32 percent of the responses this year. This
service is provided by Fire Division personnel with foam apparatuses on
stand-by at the locks as a marine safety measure for certain vessels
designated by the Marine Bureau because of dangers of certain cargos. The
critical period is considered to be when a vessel is entering the locks.
There were 1,653 responses for ambulance service compared to 1,776 in
FY 1989. This division also responded to a total of 91 bomb threats during
FY 1990 as compared to 101 in FY 1989. Excluding ship fires, there were 453
fires this year, nearly a 14 percent reduction over FY 1989. Most incidents
were grass and brush fires, which frequently occurred during the vulnerable
dry season. Additional fire statistics appear in Table 16 of this report.
In accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, formal joint
training was conducted on 9 occasions with the Bomberos of the Republic of
Panama as compared to 10 for last year. This figure is in addition to
regularly occurring joint responses to fires and other emergencies. (NOTE:
FY 1989 figures given above are revised from those reported in fiscal year
1989.)
CANAL PROTECTION
The Mission of the Canal Protection Division is to provide security for
installations and facilities devoted to the operation, maintenance and
management of the Panama Canal. During the year, security hardware







SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


improvements continued at the most critical installations and support
facilities.
Foremost is the installation of a centralized security control system to
monitor all Commission security control functions for Canal protection.
Since January 1990, the division has assisted the Panama National Police in
the patrolling of Commission town sites and land and water areas of the
Canal.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
The Occupational Health and Safety Divisions are components of the
Office of Personnel Administration. The Personnel Director is the
Designated Agency Safety and Health Official. The Panama Canal
Commission is committed to ensuring a safe and healthful workplace for its
employees, an objective which enjoys support from all levels of Commission
management.
During fiscal year 1990, the Commission experienced 374 performance-
of-duty accidents/illnesses for which employees required medical attention
beyond first aid, as compared to 486 in fiscal year 1989. The incident rate
continued its downward trend from 5.7 per 100 employees in fiscal year 1989
to 4.5 in fiscal year 1990. There were three fatalities in fiscal year 1990.
Workplace health and safety made headway in the Commission during
fiscal year 1990, in spite of high stress levels leading up to and following U.S.
military action (Operation Just Cause) in Panama. The President's Drug-
Free Federal Workplace Plan was fully implemented with the addition to the
Commission's program of random, follow-up and expanded applicant drug
testing. The Employee Assistance Program continued its valuable role by
providing rehabilitative services related to substance abuse, stress
management counseling and training to an increased number of employees.
In addition, formal workplace inspections and evaluations continued, with
special emphasis on compliance with the Hazard Communication Policy;
confined space surveys were conducted; an AIDS in the Workplace Policy
was issued and related training provided; a Safety and Health Handbook of
varied work procedures was distributed; Emergency Medical Technician
classes were held; and productive communication was resumed with the
Panama Social Security System regarding medical and compensation
benefits. Likewise, the joint labor/management Safety and Health
Committee continued to make positive contributions.














Chapter IV


ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


PERSONNEL
FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL
At the end of fiscal year 1990, the total Isthmian force of the Commission
was 8,332 compared to 8,577 employees in fiscal year 1989. Of the total
Isthmian force, 7,281 were permanent and 1,051 temporary. Of the
permanent Isthmian work force, 6,280 (86.25%) were Panamanians, 927
(12.73%) were U.S. citizens and 74 (1.02%) were third country nationals.
Eighteen persons, all U.S. citizens, were employed by the Commission in
New Orleans and Washington, D.C.
The total Commission payroll was $204.8 million in fiscal year 1990
compared to $200.5 million in fiscal year 1989. Of the total Commission
fiscal year 1990 payroll, $150.7 million was paid to non-U.S. citizen
employees and $54.1 million to U.S. citizen employees.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM
The Agency's FY 1989 Accomplishment Report for Minorities and
Women and the FY 1990 Affirmative Action Program Plan for the hiring,
placement, and advancement of people with disabilities were submitted to
the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as required.
Formal EEO complaints reflected an increase from the previous fiscal
year by 64.7 percent. Four workshops on the prevention of sexual
harassment in the workplace were conducted this year for a total of 88
employees. Black History Month, National Hispanic Heritage Month and
National Disability Employment Awareness Month were commemorated.
Four hundred and fifty employees attended Women's Week training during
March 1990. Training in the EEO complaints process was provided to 70
employees and supervisors. Panamanian Preference Program monitoring
continued to reflect increased participation of R.P. nationals at all levels.
The composition of the work force by sex and minority group for FY 1990 is
reflected below:






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


Sex
Male ....... ....................................... ....... .. ... 87.4%
Fem ale ....... .......................................................... 12.6%

Minority Group
Hispanics Blacks Whaes Orientals Indians
64.9% 22.7% 10.6% 1.5% 0.3%



PUBLIC AFFAIRS
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for handling all public affairs,
orientation services and informational activities of the Panama Canal
Commission, both locally and internationally. In this connection, through
the Commission publication The Panama Canal Spillway, local and
international press releases, video tapes, films and exhibits, matters of
related interest were disseminated to the work force, the public at large and
the shipping industry in particular. The Graphic Branch assisted in this work
by providing a broad range of photographic and audiovisual support
services.
The workload of the Office of Public Affairs peaked for such high-interest
events as the naming of an acting administrator and deputy administrator on
January 1, 1990; the appointment of the Panamanian members to the
Panama Canal Commission Board of Directors; activities in the aftermath
of the December 20, 1989, U.S. military action; the murder of the
Commission's Chief Financial Officer; the establishment of a temporary
surcharge on certain Canal services fcr transiting vessels; and the
appointment and final confirmation of a new Panamanian administrator
and U.S. deputy administrator on September 20, 1990. Other activities of
note included support to the local campaign against dengue fever through
the production of a video in English and Spanish and a centerspread in the
Spillway on the control of the Aedes-aegypti mosquito, and
encouragement to Panamanian firms to compete for a greater share of the
Commission's product and services procurement market through exhibits
prepared in coordination with the General Services Bureau's Logistical
Support Division for EXPOCOMER at the ATLAPA Convention Center
and the David International Fair in David, Chiriqui Province. At year's end,
Canal issues of interest to both local and international news media
representatives appeared to focus on the type of agency Panama will need to
create to administer the Canal after the year 2000; the need for and timing of
Gaillard Cut widening; and the future of the Canal based on forecasts
regarding factors such as economic fluctuations, changes in shipping routes
and commodities, and the use of post-PANAMAX size vessels on alternate
routes.
Except for news media representatives and congressional delegations,
there were few visitors to the Canal at the beginning of the year, but monthly
figures soon picked up to surpass last year's monthly average.







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


OMBUDSMAN
The Office of the Ombudsman was established pursuant to implementing
legislation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The office responds to
employees and dependents' complaints, grievances, and requests for
information; and channels many issues to the proper authorities for
processing under existing statutes or administrative regulations. Generally,
the Office of the Ombudsman investigates administrative problems,
inefficiencies, omissions and policy conflicts existing within the Panama
Canal Commission and other U.S. Government agencies on the Isthmus of
Panama resulting from the treaty. The office provides the widest latitude
possible for handling problems affecting employee morale and the quality of
life.
Effective the beginning of fiscal year 1990, the Office of the Ombudsman
was relocated within the Office of Executive Administration. The duties of
Ombudsman were merged with those of the Administrative Assistant to the
Administrator. This action resulted in more effective use of resources and
staff personnel to resolve a variety of problems perceived by employees and
community residents.

The majority of the work load of the office at the beginning of the fiscal
year continued to be related to the political unrest in Panama and its
negative effects on Commission employees and Canal area residents. The
sources of most of these difficulties were eliminated as a result of Operation
Just Cause and the related restoration in Panama of a democratic
Government. During the U.S. military action, Commission employees
operated a Hotline from 7:00 a.m. to midnight during the period December
20-26 to collect and disseminate information of concern to Commission
employees. In addition, they served to relay relevant information to U.S.
forces about suspicious activities of supporters of the regime of former
General Manuel Noriega. Hotline personnel worked out of their homes,
handling hundreds of calls, researching questions and returning calls to
employees and dependents, as well as private citizens in Panama City. Many
of the questions received required extensive communication and
coordination with U.S. military and Panama Canal Commission officials.

During the remainder of the year, Canal communities have experienced a
gradual improvement in the Government of Panama's response to requests
for some maintenance of roads, repairs of traffic lights and streetlights, and
regular garbage collection. The quality of law enforcement, while still
inadequate in many respects, has been maintained somewhat by joint patrols
of U.S. military, Panama National Police and Panama Canal Commission
guards.

The office maintains close contact with officers of the three Residents
Advisory Committees as a means to assure close communication between
the Commission and these community groups on matters of concern to
residents in Commission housing areas.






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
With the end of the political strife in Panama in December 1989, attention
gradually turned to routine labor relations activity within the agency. The
firefighter collective bargaining agreement was again extended for a one-
year period, effective April 7, pursuant to an automatic renewal provision.
The professional bargaining unit agreement was renewed for a three-year
period, April 11, 1990 through April 10, 1993.
The Federal Labor Relations Authority region with jurisdiction over the
Commission gave notice on April 27, 1990, that, absent a settlement, an
unfair labor practice complaint would be issued against the Commission for
unilaterally terminating the option of non- preference eligible employees to
appeal adverse actions through the agency's administrative procedure. The
central issue involves a question of law and it is anticipated that the matter
will be decided on the basis of the written record.
On August 8, the Federal Labor Relations Authority found negotiable a
provision which had been disapproved during the post-audit review of the
1985 pilots agreement. The provision would credit each of two union
representatives with three assignment bonuses for performing union
representational functions. The decision should have no immediate impact,
however, because the issue was settled in 1985 through an informal
agreement which was modified in 1988 and will continue in effect until July
1993.
On August 31, 1990, the Federal Service Impasses Panel (FSIP) ruled that
the pilots union should withdraw a proposal that the Commission pay a
bonus of 14 times the hourly rate to pilots who transit vessels of 100 foot-
beam or over through the locks while high mast lighting (HML) is in use.
This is a significant decision because it represented a potential cost to the
Commission in excess of 5 million dollars through the term of the current
agreement in mid-1993, and it finally resolved a festering dispute which
actually began eight years ago.
During FY 1990 eight cases were arbitrated. The Maritime/ Metal Trades
Council and the pilots union were involved in three cases each, and the
firefighters union in the two remaining ones.
GENERAL COUNSEL
On December 23, 1985, the President signed into law the Panama Canal
Amendments Act, Public Law 99-209, which authorized the Commission to
settle all vessel-accident claims, regardless of the amount and irrespective of
the situs of the accident. Prior to the enactment of these amendments, the
Commission was precluded from considering claims of more than $120,000
for out-of-locks accidents. At the time of the passage of The Panama Canal
Amendments Act, 30 out-of-locks vessel-accident claims had been filed and
were pending with either the United States Congress or the Commission.
Since the enactment of the Amendments Act,.the Commission has been
steadily reducing this backlog of vessel-accident claims. By the end of fiscal
year 1990, all 30 of these claims had been settled, and $16,609,572 (out of a
total of $24,428,433 claimed) had been paid to the aggrieved shipowners.







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


The Amendments Act also permitted dissatisfied claimants to sue the
Commission for out-of-locks vessel-accident damage. Two such lawsuits
were filed before the passage of the Amendments Act and an additional nine
have been filed since its enactment. By September 30, 1990, one case had
been dismissed by the court, and 10 suits had been settled for payments
totaling $3,206,014. There are no lawsuits currently pending resolution.
The principal area of settlement in the Office of General Counsel for FY 90
was in the area of marine accidents where 26 claims for vessel damage,
totaling $2,663,459 were settled for $1,547,709.
In July, 1990, the Office of General Counsel defended the Commission in a
sixteen-day trial before Administrative Judge Wesley C. Jockisch of the
Corps of Engineers Board of Contract Appeals. Over 40 witnesses testified
and more than 500 documents were admitted into evidence in this contract
appeal brought by the defaulted contractor, the performance bond surety,
and the principal completing subcontractor. The appellants seek a
judgement of $6.1 million against the Commission for costs exceeding the
contract price and allegedly incurred due to differing site conditions, a
changed slope, and government delay during the construction of a ship tie-
up station along the banks of the Panama Canal in 1982 through 1985. The
Commission denies the appellants'allegations. The submission by counsel of
proposed findings of facts and memoranda of law followed the trial, and a
Board decision is expected by June, 1991.
Five new contract appeals were filed against the Commission during the
fiscal year. This is a significant increase from previous years, reflecting the
recent rise in contract actions at the Commission's Construction Division
and the increased willingness of local contractors and attorneys to litigate
contract disputes.














Chapter V


FINANCIAL REPORT


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1990
The financial statements of the Panama Canal Commission, appearing
as Tables I through 5, with accompanying notes, present the financial
position of the Commission at September 30, 1990, and the results of its
operations for the fiscal year then ended.
The accounts and statements of the Panama Canal Commission have been
examined by the Office of Inspector General of the Commission and by
Deloitte & Touche, a CPA firm under task order contract with the United
States General Accounting Office. Detailed audit reports of the United
States General Accounting Office are directed to the Congress and are
presented as CGngressional documents.
Summary information concerning the operating results and capital
expenditures follows:
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Net revenue for fiscal year 1990 operations amounted to $7.0 million.
Unrecovered costs accumulated from previous years totaled $9.7
million-$0.6 million, $1.8 million, and $7.3 million from fiscal years 1987,
1988 and 1989, respectively. Therefore, pursuant to the limitations set forth
in section 1341(b)(2) of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-70),
all the net revenue from fiscal year 1990 was reduced by the unrecovered
costs accumulated from previous fiscal years, leaving a balance of $2.7
million to be recovered from subsequent revenues.
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
Accrued capital expenditures for the year amounted to $34.7 million. The
principal expenditures were $5.5 million for the fire protection system at
Miraflores Locks, $3.7 million for the replacement of motor vehicles, $3.5
million for improvements to the electrical power and communication
systems, $2.1 million for the acquisition of tugs, $1.3 million for the
replacement of locomotive turntables, $1.1 million for the replacement of







32 FINANCIAL REPORT

launches and launch engines, $0.9 million for miscellaneous floating
equipment, and $0.9 million for improvements to Commission buildings.











FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 1.-Statement of Financial Position


Assets

PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT:
A t cost (N ote Ic) ...................... ..........
Less accumulated depreciation and valuation
allowances (Notes le and 2) .....................


CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash:
U.S. Treasury account .........................
Cash in commercial banks and on hand..........
Postal, other trust funds and cash in transit ......


Accounts receivable .................. ...........

Inventories, less allowance for obsolete and excess
inventory of $800,000 and $400,000
respectively (Note Ig)..........................

Other current assets .................. ...........









OTHER ASSETS:
Deferred charges:
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note Ih) .......
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes Im and 5) ...........................
Retirement benefits to certain former
employees of predecessor agencies (Note I h)....
Other ....... ................................


Unrecovered costs due from subsequent revenues
(Notes lb and 4) .. .......................



TOTAL ASSETS .................. .............. ...


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


103,870,166
10,027,246
583,187
114,480,599

13,330,765



39,999,627

173,138

167,984,129









136,296,000

71,685,341

5,587,000

213,568,341


2,712,659

216,281,000


93,226,977
6,077,070
2,537,751
101,841,798

11,371,717



37,723,209

379,561

151,316,285









151,440,000

78,871,578

6,186,000
492,149
236,989,727


9,728,161

246,717,888


$876,391,431 $882,780,319


$997,154,860

505,028,558

492,126,302


1989


$969,630,333

484,884,187

484,746,146








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


September 30, 1990 and 1989


Capital and Liabilities

CAPITAL:
Investment of the United States Government:
Interest-bearing (10.135% and 10.219%, respectively)
(N ote 6) ...................................
Non-interest-bearing...........................


CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable:
U.S. Government agencies .....................
Government of Panama .......................
O their .......................................

Accrued liabilities:
Employees' leave..............................
Salaries and wages ............................
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note I h) .......
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes Im and 5) ...........................
Retirement benefits to certain former employees
of predecessor agencies (Note Ih) .............
Employees' repatriation ........................
M arine accident claims ........................
O their .......................................

Other current liabilities.
Advances for capital-unexpended (Note Id) ......
O their ....... ................................



DEFERRED CREDIT:
Advances for capital being amortized
(N ote Id) ....... ...............................
LONG-TERM LIABILITIES AND RESERVES:
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note Ih) ...........
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes Im and 5) ...............................
Retirement benefits to certain former employees
of predecessor agencies (Note Ih) .................
Employees' repatriation ............................
Lock overhauls (Note l i) ...........................
M arine accidents (Note Ij) .........................
Casualty losses (Note Ij) ...........................
Floating equipment overhaul (Note Ik) ..............



TOTAL CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES................


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


$133,175,778
340,663,355

473,839,133


3,926,959
8,388,425
12,931,505
25,246,889

47,713,360
9,544,145
15,144,000

8,018,170

684,000
833,000
19,531,203
2,535,655
104,003,533

10,472,913
463,042
10,935,955
140,186,377


$147,893,234
325,398,450

473,291,684


4,146,044
8,062,973
12,420,588
24,629,605

46,058,824
8,086,607
15,144,000

6,536,705

790,000
857,000
15,387,115
1,766,127
94,626,378

10,336,538
1,697,007
12,033,545
131,289,528


54,248,871 46,898,321


121,152,000

63,667,171
4,903,000
7,340,000
1,891,632
6,000,000
993,865
2,169,382

208,117,050

$876.391,431


136,296,000

72,334,873

5,396,000
6,875,000
371,865
7,000,000
993,865
2,033,183

231,300,786

$882,780,319








FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 2.-Statement of Operations
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1990 and 1989


OPERATING REVENUES:
Tolls revenue ...................................
Other revenues ............... ............... .

Total operating revenues ........................

OPERATING EXPENSES:
Payments to the Government of Panama:
Public services ..............................
Fixed annuity...............................
Tonnage ...................................



Maintenance of channels and harbors ..............
Navigation service and control ....................
Locks operation ... .......................
General repair, engineering and maintenance
services ......................................
Supply and logistics .............................
Utilities ........................................
Housing operations ........................ ......
General and administrative .............. ......
Interest on interest-bearing investment (Note 6) .....
Other ... ..............................

Total operating expenses .......................


1990 1989
$355,557,957 $329,765,627
119,115,510 106,034,363

474,673,467 435,799,990


10,000,000
10,000,000
58,457,476


10,000,000
10,000,000
59,819,225


78,457,476 79,819,225


40,236,327
82,746,857
51,318,435

24,485,404
22,161,520
33,615,047
4,894,692
75,051,376
15,113,342
39,577,490


36,506,857
79,796,645
48,988,652

22,004,849
20,488,618
30,016,519
5,418,893
76,587,612
13,878,234
29,613,382


467,657,966 443,119,486


NET OPERATING REVENUE (LOSS) (Notes lb and 4) $7,015,501 $(7,319,496)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.









38 FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 3A.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1990


INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER 1, 1989...........


INCREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Prior year receipts deposited into U.S. Treasury.
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund
Net revenue (Notes Ib and 4) .................


Invested Capital
Interest- Non-Interest- I
Bearing Bearing
$147,893,234 $325,398,450


469,595,421
............


469,595,421 (461,903,045)


DECREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Panama
Canal Revolving Fund .....................
Due U.S. Treasury for undeposited receipts .....
Property transferred to other U.S. Government
agencies ... ........................
Recovery of prior years unrecovered costs
(N otes Ib and 4) ........................ ..



INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30. 1990.......


484,188,786


124,091


(484,188,786) ............
5,335 5,335

............ 124,091

7,015,501 7,015,501


484,312,877 (477,167,950) 7,144,927

$133,175,778 $340,663,355 S473,839,133
(Note 6)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


Total
$473,291,684


676,875 676,875
(469,595,421) ....
7,015,501 7,015.501


7,692,376









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 39


Table 3B.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1989
Invested Capital
I Interest- Non-Interest- ]
Bearing Bearing Total
INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER I, 1988........... $102,773,553 $371,024,286 $473,797,839


INCREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Prior year receipts deposited into U.S. Treasury ............ 420,341 420,341
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund 486,757,576 (486,757,576) ............
Unrecovered costs due from subsequent revenues
(Notes Ib and 4) .................... ....... ............ 7,319,496 7,319,496

486,757,576 (479,017,739) 7,739,837


DECREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Panama
Canal Revolving Fund ..................... 441,388,274 (441,388,274) .....
Due U.S. Treasury for undeposited receipts ..... ............ 676,875 676,875
Property transferred to other U.S. Government
agencies .................................. 249,621 ............ 249,621
Net loss (Notes Ib and 4)..................... ........... 7,319,496 7,319,496

441,637,895 (433,391,903) 8,245,992

INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30, 1989 ....... $147,893,234 $325,398,450 $473,291,684
(Note 6)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 4.-Statement of Cash Flows


INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH


Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

Cash received:
T olls .......................................
Other collections ............................
(Increase)/decrease in receivables ..............

Total cash received ........................

Cash disbursed:
Operating expenditures...................
Interest paid ................................
(Increase)/decrease in inventories..............
Increase/(decrease) in liabilities ...............

Total cash disbursed ................... ...

Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities.......


Cash Flows from Capital Activities:
Capital expenditures .............................
Increase/(decrease) in liabilities ...................

Net cash provided by/(used in) capital activities .........

Cash Flows from Postal and Trust funds:
Postal funds ...............................
Trust funds ......................................

Net cash provided by/(used in) postal and trust fund
activities ........................................

Net increase/(decrease) in cash ........................

Cash, beginning of year .......... ...................

Cash, end of year ................ ...................


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


1990

$355,557,957
130,522,711
(1,891,882)

484,188,786


(427,033,108)
(15,123,945)
(2,276,418)
10,695,798

(433,737,673)

50,451,113



(34,670,600)
(1,187,148)

(35,857,748)


1989


$329,765,627
109,934,767
1,687,880

441,388,274


(415,892,640)
(13,846,542)
(794,260)
(20,964,032)

(451,497,474)

(10,109,200)



(39,584,851)
4,324,748

(35,260,103)


(8,019) (5,279)
(1,946,545) 100,242


(1,954,564)

12,638,801

101,841,798

$114,480,599


94,963

(45,274,340)

147,116,138

$101,841,798








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1990 and 1989



RECONCILIATION OF NET REVENUE (LOSS) TO NET CASH PROVIDED BY
OPERATING ACTIVITIES


Net Revenue (Loss)..................................

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash
provided by operating activities:

Adjustments not requiring outlay of cash:

Depreciation................................
Provision for lock overhauls ..................
Provision for marine and casualty losses........
Provision for floating equipment overhauls .....
Advances for capital .........................
Other ......................................

Total adjustments not requiring outlay of cash

Adjustments requiring outlay of cash:

Lock overhauls expenditures..................
Marine and casualty losses expenditures........
Floating equipment overhauls expenditures .....

Total adjustments requiring outlay of cash..

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

(Increase)/decrease in receivables ..............
(Increase)/decrease in inventories..............
(Increase)/decrease in other assets .............
Increase/(decrease) in liabilities ...............
Total changes in operating assets and
liabilities .............................

Total adjustments .......................

Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities.......


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


1990 1989

$7,015,501 $(7,319,496)


23,392,682
11,402,000
5,826,136
4,420,000
10,472,913
1,844,195

57,357,926



(9,882,233)
(6,826,136)
(4,283,801)

(20,992,170)



(1,891,882)
(2,276,418)
542,358
10,695,798

7,069,856

43,435,612

$50,451,113


22,963,018
6,353,000
(5,642,936)
4,934,000
4,451,618
720,370

33,779,070



(6,192,767)
(4,988,460)
(4,889,526)

(16,070,753)



1,687,880
(794,260)
(427,609)
(20,964,032)

(20,498,021)

(2,789,704)

$(10,109,200)








Table 5.-Statement of Property, Plant and Equipment
September 30, 1990 and 1989


Titles and treaty rights ......................................
Interest during construction ....... ............................
Canal excavation, fills and embankments .......................
Canal structures and equipment ...............................
Supporting and general facilities ...............................
Facilities held for future use ... .........................
Plant additions in progress ............... ................
Suspended construction projects ................... ...

TOTAL (Notes Ic, le and 2) ............................

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


Ettimated
service
life
40 years

15-100 years
4-100 years
3-100 years
10-100 years


1990
I Depreciation I
and valuation
Cost allowances
$14,728,889 $6,351,834
50,892,311 50,892,311
347,758,177 148,683,080
350,010,308 164,872,569
154,327,319 91,505,889
3,330,878 2,577,077
35,961,180 ............
40,145,798 40,145,798


1989
Deprectation
and valuation
Cost allowances
$14,728,889 $5,983,612
50,892,311 50,892,311
347,753,732 140,138,508
326,975,387 157,356,034
146,352,516 87,790,847
3,330,878 2,577,077
39,450,822 ............
40,145,798 40,145,798


$997,154,860 $505,028,558 $969,630,333 $484,884 187







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
A summary of significant accounting policies follows:
a. Accounting and Reporting. As required by section 1311(a) of the
Panama Canal Act of 1979, Public Law 96-70 (hereafter referred to as the
"Act"), the accounts of the Commission are maintained pursuant to the
Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950. The Accounting and Auditing Act of
1950 requires that the principles, standards and related requirements be met,
as prescribed by the Comptroller General of the United States, after
consulting with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office
of Management and Budget concerning their accounting, financial
reporting and budgetary needs. The Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950
also requires that the accounts be maintained on an accrual basis.
b. Cost recovery. As required by section 1341(e)(1) of the Act, the
application of generally accepted accounting principles to the Panama
Canal Commission, a United States Government agency comparable to a
rate-regulated public utility, determines the manner in which costs are
recognized. The basis for tolls rates is prescribed in section 1602(b) of the
Act. This section of the Act, known as the "statutory tolls formula,"
provides that:


"Tolls shall be prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues
to cover as nearly as practicable all costs of maintaining and
operating the Panama Canal, together with the facilities and
appurtenances related thereto, including unrecovered costs
incurred on or after the effective date of this Act, interest,
depreciation, working capital, payments to the Republic of
Panama pursuant to paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraph 4(a)
and (b) of Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, and
capital for plant replacement, expansion, and improvements. Tolls
shall not be prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues
sufficient to cover payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to
paragraph 4(c) of Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977."

Under this statutory tolls formula, any unrecovered costs are to be
recovered from subsequent revenues. The amount for recovery from
subsequent revenues is transferred from Invested Capital to an account
within the Other Assets classification. Unrecovered costs are charged back
to Invested Capital to the extent subsequent annual revenues exceed annual
costs.
c. Property, Plant and Equipment. Property, plant and equipment are
recorded at cost, or if acquired from another United States Government
agency, at the value determined by the Director of the Office of







FINANCIAL REPORT


Management and Budget. Administrative and other related general
expenses are recovered currently and therefore not capitalized. The cost of
minor items of property, plant and equipment is charged to expense as
incurred.
d. Advances for Capital. A portion of tolls in excess of depreciation
recoveries may be programmed annually by the Board of Directors for plant
replacement, expansion, or improvements. Such funds are considered
capital advances from Canal users. Upon utilization, these advances are
amortized through an offset to depreciation expense in an amount
calculated to approximate the depreciation on assets acquired with such
advances. In fiscal years 1990 and 1989, no amounts from tolls were
programmed for such purpose.
At the direction of the Board of Directors, a system was implemented in
fiscal year 1983 whereby shippers, for a fee, can make an advance
reservation for a vessel transit. Such funds are considered capital advances
from Canal users and upon utilization, the advances are amortized through
an offset to depreciation expense in an amount calculated to approximate
the depreciation on assets acquired with such advances. This system
generated funds of $10.5 million in fiscal year 1990 and $4.5 million in fiscal
year 1989.
e. Depreciation. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated over
their estimated service lives at rates computed using a straight-line method
with additional annual depreciation, identified as composite, to provide for
premature plant retirements.
The recurring costs of dredging the waterway are charged to expense.
Non-recurring dredging costs for substantial improvements and
betterments to the waterway are considered additions to plant and are
capitalized and depreciated over their estimated service lives.
f. Accounts Receivable. Uncollectible accounts receivable of the
Panama Canal Commission are recognized as a reduction in revenue when
written off. Any subsequent collections of Commission accounts receivable
previously written off are recorded as revenue.
g. Inventories. Operating materials and supplies are stated at average
cost, plus cost of transportation to the ultimate destination on the Isthmus
of Panama. An allowance has been established to reflect the estimated cost
of obsolete and excess stock.
h. Retirement Benefits. Employer contributions to the United States
Civil Service Retirement System, to the Federal Employee Retirement
System, and to the Republic of Panama Social Security System are charged
to expense. The Commission has no liability for future payments to
employees under these systems.
Non-United States citizen employees, who retired from predecessor
agencies prior to October 5, 1958, are not covered by the United States Civil
Service Retirement System but do receive benefits under a separate annuity
plan. Payments made under this annuity plan are recorded as a current year
expense. Annual amounts expended were $1.1 million in fiscal year 1990








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


and $1.3 million in fiscal year 1989. The Commission's liability for future
annuity payments to these former employees or their eligible widows is
reflected in the statement of financial position as retirement benefits to
certain former employees of predecessor agencies and an equal amount is
recorded as a deferred charge.
As required by the Act, the Panama Canal Commission is liable for the
increase in the unfunded liability of the United States Civil Service
Retirement Fund which is attributable to benefits payable from that fund to,
or on behalf of, employees and their survivors under the early retirement
provisions of the Act. The annual installment to liquidate the increased
liability is determined by the Office of Personnel Management.
i. Reservefor Lock Overhauls. A reserve is provided through an annual
charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of periodic lock overhauls.
j. Reserve for Casualty Losses. A reserve is provided through an annual
charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of marine accidents and other
casualty losses.
k. Reserve for Floating Equipment Overhauls. A reserve is provided
through an annual charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of
overhauls to the Commission tugboat fleet.
1. Housing Use Rights. No monetary value is assigned to the rights
granted to the United States Government by the Republic of Panama to use
Canal Area housing transferred to the Government of Panama under the
terms of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The cost to manage, maintain
and provide livability improvements to these quarters is charged to expense.
Rental income is included in other revenues.
m. Work Injuries Compensation Benefits. The Panama Canal
Commission is liable for the cost of all benefits due under the Federal
Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) which provides compensation for
performance of duty injuries for eligible employees. The costs of the FECA
program are recognized over the life of the Treaty.

2. Plant Valuation Allowances.
At July 1, 1951, certain valuation allowances for property, plant and
equipment transferred from the Panama Canal (agency) to the Panama
Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government were established, to
reduce to usable value the costs of the assets transferred. At October 1, 1979,
such valuation allowances as were applicable to the assets transferred from
the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government to the
Panama Canal Commission were carried forward and are comprised of: (a)
$4.1 million at September 30, 1990 and 1989, to reduce to usable value the
cost of property, plant and equipment transferred; (b) $50.9 million at
September 30, 1990 and 1989, to offset interest costs imputed for the original
Canal construction period; and (c) $42.3 million at September 30, 1990 and
1989, to offset the cost of defense facilities and suspended construction
projects, the latter being principally the partial construction of a third set of
locks abandoned in the early part of World War II.







FINANCIAL REPORT


3. Budgetary Resources.
a. Cash, accounts receivable, and the borrowing authority are the
resources used to determine the Commission's solvency position as
prescribed in Section 86.6 Office of Management and Budget Circular A-34,
Instructions on Budget Execution, under which the incurring of obligations
in excess of budgetary resources is a violation of the Antideficiency Act. All
cash exceeding current operating requirements is kept on deposit with the
U.S. Treasury.
b. The Panama Canal Commission has authority to borrow funds from
the U.S. Treasury not to exceed $100 million outstanding at any time for any
of the purposes of the Commission. No funds were borrowed during fiscal
years 1990 and 1989.

4. Unrecovered Costs due from Subsequent Revenues.
Pursuant to the provisions of sections 1341(b)(2) and 1602(b) of the Act,
all unrecovered costs from previous years operations must be recovered
before determining any net operating revenues due to the Government of
Panama, as provided for under Article XIII paragraph 4(c) of the Panama
Canal Treaty of 1977. The cumulative unrecovered costs from fiscal years
1989, 1988 and 1987 totaled $9.7 million. The net operating revenue for
fiscal year 1990 was $7.0 million, which when netted against the outstanding
unrecovered costs, leaves a balance of $2.7 million to be recovered from
subsequent revenues.

5. Cost of Work Injuries Compensation.
The Commission administers a program to compensate certain
employees for death and disability resulting from performance of duty
injuries or illnesses as set forth in the Federal Employees' Compensation
Act. All United States citizen employees are eligible for coverage, as are
non-United States citizen employees hired prior to October 1, 1979. As
provided by FECA, employees and certain dependents are beneficiaries for
various periods that can extend to life.
The liability and deferred charge recorded in these statements reflect the
payments due to a Department of Labor fund established pursuant to
Public Law 100-705. The Department of Labor will be reimbursed from this
fund for all expected future payments for accidents, adjusted for inflation
and interest earned. An evaluation as of September 30, 1989, was prepared
by an independent actuarial firm. The values in that report were used to
adjust the assets and liabilities at year-end 1989. The report also served as
the basis for determining the adequacy of the assets and liabilities at year-
end 1990.

6. Interest-Bearing Investment of the United States Government.
The interest-bearing investment of the United States Government in the
Panama Canal is determined based on section 1603(a) of the Act. The
interest-bearing investment of the United States Government was $133.2
million at September 30, 1990 and $147.9 million at September 30, 1989.







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


7. Extraordinary Activities.
Since April 1988, the Commission has incurred a series of unusual and
extraordinary costs due to the political situation that existed in Panama
because of the Noriega regime. These costs were incurred in order to insure
the proper and safe operation of the Canal in the face of growing harassment
of Commission employees by that regime. Costs incurred totaled $6.8
million in fiscal year 1990 and $4.6 million in fiscal year 1989.
The Board of Directors has approved the recovery of these costs through
the use of a temporary 20 percent surcharge on linehandling and tug service
charges. The surcharge will be terminated on February 28, 1991.

8. Contingent Liabilities and Commitments.
In addition to recorded liabilities, the estimated maximum contingent
liability which could result from pending claims and lawsuits was $11.9
million at September 30, 1990 and $10.1 million at September 30, 1989. In
the opinion of management and the Commission's General Counsel, these
pending claims and lawsuits will be resolved with no material adverse effect
on the financial condition of the agency.
Commitments under uncompleted construction contracts and unfilled
purchase orders amounted to $34.3 million at September 30, 1990 and $38.0
million at September 30, 1989. Of these amounts, unfilled prepaid purchase
orders totaled less than $0.1 million as of September 30, 1990 and $0.1
million as of September 30, 1989.
Cash and negotiable securities of a kind acceptable by the United States
Government in the amount of $13.2 million were held by the United States
depositories designated by the Panama Canal Commission at September 30,
1990 and $12.4 million at September 30, 1989, to guarantee payment by third
parties of their obligations.
The Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, Article XIII, paragraph 4(c), provides
that an annual amount of up to $10 million per year be paid to the
Government of Panama out of operating revenues to the extent that such
revenues exceed expenditures. Payment to the Government of Panama is
subject to the limitations set forth in section 1341(e) of the Act. In the event
operating revenues in any year do not produce a surplus sufficient to cover
this payment, the unpaid balance shall be paid from operating surpluses in
future years up to the amount available from these surpluses. As of
September 30, 1990, the balance contingently payable to the Government of
Panama amounts to $101.1 million. As of September 30, 1989, the balance
contingently payable to the Government of Panama amounted to $91.1
million. However, as set forth in the Exchange of Instruments of
Ratification of Panama Canal Treaties paragraph (a)(4) and in section
1341(d) of the Act, nothing may be construed as obligating the United States
to pay after the date of the termination of the Treaty, any unpaid balance,
accumulated before such date.

9. Treaty Impact.
On September 7, 1977, the United States of America and the Republic of






48 FINANCIAL REPORT

Panama signed the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The Treaty provided for
the establishment of the Panama Canal Commission on October 1, 1979, to
assume certain operational responsibilities for the Canal until December 31,
1999. When the Treaty terminates on December 31, 1999, the Republic of
Panama shall assume total responsibility for the management, operation,
and maintenance of the Panama Canal, which shall be turned over in
operating condition and free of liens and debts, except as the two parties may
otherwise agree. The effects of these long-range requirements are not
considered in the financial statements.









Chapter VI

STATISTICAL TABLES

Shipping Statistics








50 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1990

Traffic assessed lolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
I Number Long tons I Number Panama N ber Displace-
Fiscal of of of Canal net of ment
year transit Tolls cargo transits tonnage transit tonnage
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 1
1981 ............... 13,884 301,762,600 171,221,762 13,847 188,656,491 37 111,418
1982............... 14,009 323,958,366 185,452,332 13,976 202,884,207 33 129,684
1983 ............... 11,707 285,983,805 145,590,759 11,668 169,503,918 39 132,431
1984............... 11,230 286,677,844 140,470,818 11,199 162,335,342 31 116,335
1985 ............... 11,515 298,497,802 138,643,243 11,498 168,941,997 17 86,623
1986 ............... 11,925 321,073,748 139,945,181 11,901 182,750,830 24 73,631
1987 ............... 12,230 328,372,714 148,690,380 12,206 186,416,485 24 130,129
1988 ............... 12,234 337,866,211 156,482,641 12,209 191,506,903 25 106,599
1989............... 11,989 327,850,613 151,636,113 11,964 185,769,083 25 101,710
1990 ............... 11,941 353,725,982 157,072,979 11,904 181,604,590 37 153,514
OCEANGOING U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC '
1981 ................ 89 1,241,442 301,776 68 705,936 21 143,121
1982 ............... 110 1,546,746 285,451 67 794,282 43 309,206
1983 ............... 125 1,721,925 354,873 77 812,840 48 350,699
1984 ............... 137 2,388,272 329,607 88 1,131,865 49 410,682
1985 ............... 129 2,223,938 259,524 85 1,148,311 44 248,967
1986 ................ 85 1,553,037 176,853 53 708,616 32 309,161
1987 ................ 78 1,384,125 205,701 46 662,286 32 239,023
1988 ................ 69 1,361,393 296,140 46 714,055 23 129,545
1989 ................ 74 1,806,539 224,121 62 994,711 12 103,020
1990 ................ 91 1,707,864 248,442 63 821,340 28 193,160
FREE OCEANGOING TRAFFIC 1 2
1981 ................ 11 .......... .......... 4 2,248 7 8,544
1982 ................ 23 ... ....... .......... 9 5,010 14 21,903
1983 ................ 14 .......... 2,504 9 9,119 5 5,986
1984 ................ 17 .......... .......... 4 2,224 13 21,025
1985 ................ 10 .......... 20 4 2,731 6 8,771
1986 ................ 13 .......... .......... 1 556 12 20,759
1987 ................ 5 .......... 5 4 2,224 1 1,300
1988 ................ 15 .......... .......... 6 3,312 9 16,765
1989 ................ 12 .......... .......... 6 3,312 6 9,709
1990 ................ 20 .......... 6 4 2,218 16 30,530
TOTAL OCEANGOING TRAFFIC 1
1981 ............... 13,984 303,004,042 171,523,538 13,919 189,364,675 65 263,083
1982............... 14,142 325,505,112 185,737,783 14,052 203,683,499 90 460,793
1983 ............... 11,846 287,705,730 145,948,136 11,754 170,325,877 92 489,116
1984............... 11,384 289,066,116 140,800,425 11,291 163,469,431 93 548,042
1985 ............... 11,654 300,721,740 138,902,787 11,587 170,093,039 67 344,361
1986 ............... 12,023 322,626,785 140,122,034 11,955 183,460,002 68 403,551
1987 ............... 12,313 329,756,840 148,896,086 12,256 187,080,995 57 370,452
1988............... 12,318 339,227,604 156,778,781 12,261 192,224,270 57 252,909
1989 ............... 12,075 329,657,153 151,860,234 12,032 186,767,106 43 214,439
1990 ............... 12,052 355,433,846 157,321,426 11,971 182,428,148 81 377,204








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 51


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1990
(Continued)
Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
INumber Long tons I iNumber Panama I lNumber Displace-I
Fiscal of of of Canal net of ment
year transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage
SMALL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 3


1981 ................
1982 ................
1983 ...............
1984 ...............
1985 ...............
1986 ................
1987 ...............
1988 ............. ..
1989 ................
1990 ................


1981 ................
1982 ...............
1983 ...............
1984 ...............
1985 ...............
1986 ...... .........
1987 ...............
1988 ................
1989 .............. .
1990 ................


1981 ................
1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................
1989 ................
1990 ................


1981 ................
1982 ...............
1983 ...............
1984 ...............
1985 ...............
1986 ...............
1987 ...............
1988 ...............
1989 ................
1990 ................


791 65,604 1,355 788
830 73,228 928 826
810 73,887 669 810
802 76,921 652 800
793 73,710 468 792
912 89,577 3,704 904
852 90,829 3,282 852
844 79,805 1,422 842
997 96,158 8,311 996
1,017 115,180 1,441 1,016
SMALL U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC 3
225 10,712 2 16
241 10,757 .......... 12
242 11,406 5 12
241 11,998 .......... 8
273 12,464 .......... 15
316 17,840 .......... 20
236 11,106 .......... 25
246 11,917 .......... 21
287 12,316 .......... 13
240 8,931 .......... 23
SMALL FREE TRAFFIC 2 3
50 .......... .......... 41
58 .......... 70 40
56 .......... 8 39
96 .......... 59 86
46 .......... 3 32
27 .......... 80 20
43 .......... 57 26
33 .......... ........... 15
30 .......... 3 14
16 ...................... 5
TOTAL PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
15,050 303,080,358 171,524,895 14,764 189,4
15,271 325,589,097 185,738,781 14,930 203,7
12,954 287,791,023 145,948,818 12,615 170,3
12,523 289,155,035 140,801,136 12,185 163,5
12,766 300,807,914 138,903,258 12,426 170,1
13,278 322,734,202 140,125,818 12,899 183,5
13,444 329,858,775 148,899,425 13,159 187,1
13,441 339,319,326 156,780,203 13,139 192,2
13,389 329,765,627 151,868,548 13,055 186,8
13,325 355,557,957 157,322,868 13,015 182,4


44,962
50,399
48,033
48,008
45,694
55,249
55,827
49,245
60,156
66,999


751
415
332
336
773
627
987
901
738
903


2,613
2,803
2,321
4,637
1,721
1,371
1,451
1,081
878
249


13,001
'37,116
176,563
22,412
41,227
17,249
39,260
275,497
28,878
96,299


I Oceangoing traffic includes ships of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Free traffic includes ships of the Colombian and Panamanian Governments and ships transiting for repair by the
Commission.
3 Includes vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement tons for vessels assessed on
displacement tonnage).


279
315
145
110
470
64
430
98


10,431
10,973
11,177
11,282
11,113
16,407
9,572
10,375
11,018
6,684


1,012
1,172
2,010
1,360
1,103
674
1,012
1,189
1,141
800


274,805
473,253
502,303
560,829
356,587
421,102
381,036
264,537
227,028
384,786








Table 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1990 and 1989


Number of Transits Panama Canal Net Tonnage Long Tons of Cargo Tolls
1989-90 1988-89 1989-90 1988-89 I I 1989-90 1988-89 I I 1989-90 1988-89
October ... ............................... 1,021 981 16,360,994 15,905,144 14,027,059 12,602,106 $31,851,517 $28,126,895
November... ............................... 964 973 15,091,501 15,902,125 13,243,670 12,155,922 29,324,107 27,931,806
December .. ................................ 858 1,027 13,406,458 16,632,504 12,027,765 12,707,112 26,047,287 29,287,588
January ....................................... 1,050 1,021 15,630,132 15,838,234 13,299,098 12,348,014 30,608,718 27,867,091
February... ................................ 940 933 14,062,994 14,518,718 11,746,814 11,752,642 27,430,212 25,554,346
March ... ................................ 1,094 1,066 15,690,218 15,764,981 12,903,998 13,419,534 30,501,502 27,905,627
April... ................................. 1,041 1,080 15,322,207 16,016,195 12,808,903 12,620,697 29,976,244 28,289,526
May ........................................... 1,014 1,044 15,605,266 15,958,912 13,676,274 12,405,048 30,276,197 27,968,462
June .. .................................... 958 932 14,135,376 14,277,643 12,223,942 12,141,483 27,628,594 25,251,494
July.. ................................... 1,015 1,052 14,977,088 14,955,575 13,612,363 12,887,341 29,181,655 26,614,606
August ... ................................. 997 960 15,713,962 15,534,778 14,187,644 13,973,128 30,707,793 27,434,384
September .................................. 989 920 15,608,394 14,464,274 13,315,449 12,623,086 30,192,155 25,618,788
Total .............................. 11,941 11,989 181,604,590 185,769,083 157,072,979 151,636,113 $353,725,982 $327,850,613

Average per month .......................... 995 999 15,133,716 15,480,757 13,089,415 12,636,343 $29,477,165 $27,320,884

NOTE: The above includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and over on vessels paying tolls on a
displacement tonnage basis. Statistics on these vessels, except as relates to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above.








-TI
.n



r








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1990


Measured tonnage
Num- I Panama
ber of Canal Registered
transits net gross 2


Algeria .......................
Antigua-Barbuda...............
Argentina .....................
Australia......................
Austria .......................
Bahamas ......................
Bangledesh ....................
Belgium .......................
Bermuda ......................
Brazil.........................
Bulgaria ......................
Burm a ..................... . .
Canada ..... . . . . . . . . .
Cayman Islands................
C while ...................... . .
Colombia .....................
Cuba .........................
Cyprus .......................
Czechoslovakia ................
Denmark .....................
East Germany .................
Ecuador ......................
Egypt.........................
Faroes ........................
France ........................
Greece ........................
Guatemala ....................
Honduras .....................
Hong Kong ...................
Iceland .......................
India .........................
Iran ..........................
Israel .........................
Italy .............. ...........
Japan ........................
Jordan........................
Kuwait .......................
Lebanon ......................
Liberia .......................
M alaysia ......................
M alta ........................
M marshall Islands ...............
M auritius .....................
M exico .......................
M orocco ......................
Netherlands ...................
Netherlands-Antilles ............
Norway .......................
Panama.......................
People's Republic of China ......
Peru..........................
Philippines ....................
Poland .......................
Portugal ......................
Q atar.........................
Rom ania......................
Sam oa........................
Saudi Arabia ..................
Singapore .....................


Long
tons of
Tolls cargo


1 16,421 20,253 $33,006 29,526
18 43,017 45,025 80,253 29,103
8 101,081 96,931 205,846 143,622
1 ...... ...... 4,547
5 119,529 144,260 240,253 190,303
372 4,539,675 5,197,262 8,960,704 3,518,352
2 20,446 26,250 41,096 7,414
32 623,193 758,345 1,243,916 682,487
10 108,443 131,121 207,106 98,858
32 515,455 631,179 1,050,368 633,035
10 100,361 121,750 189,751 65,563
35 665,000 775,293 1,327,077 859,455
8 55,705 65,285 102,072 31,202
II 93,622 102,806 187,046 104,941
82 808,254 904,853 1,610,393 875,529
166 1,490,338 1,383,078 2,975,045 346,312
116 756,373 867,008 1,496,600 669,100
542 5,652,439 6,445,123 11,101,677 6,977,625
10 161,618 190,315 309,790 203,239
227 4,968,871 6,047,987 9,912,567 3,730,400
54 299,556 356,214 585,633 145,531
337 3,037,223 3,509,933 5,824,959 2,397,231
I 19,573 24,106 39,342 32,283
1 1,494 1,521 2,390
44 810,281 743,770 1,617,681 575,062
585 10,234,986 11,728,097 19,975,441 14,169,957
6 21,024 24,774 40,822 27,293
29 77,699 87,526 152,894 80,599
13 262,961 327,449 502,864 356,802
1 716 1,138 1,146
39 596,521 707,305 1,152,433 759,001
6 66,397 86,199 124,385 20,086
68 1,418,863 1,849,070 2,851,915 1,034,472
125 1,837,575 2,211,342 3,601,001 1,613,579
501 8,352,056 6,088,762 15,782,973 2,650,649
1 8,689 9,888 17,465 12,948
33 399,569 508,808 803,134 423,143
2 16,592 20,292 33,350 18,117
1,479 29,721,900 30,162,153 57,375,896 24,921,423
30 487,806 568,968 942,964 650,836
114 1,351,533 1,653,258 2,607,524 1,699,774
13 342,442 393,753 688,308 281,844
2 34,539 40,929 63,714 32,531
53 919,058 1,116,048 1,691,483 642,756
8 69,800 86,976 125,989 44,572
309 3,287,318 3,376,410 6,457,628 2,131,986
5 52,848 62,369 95,932 45,264
660 10,966,003 12,103,250 21,378,150 11,908,323
1,866 28,259,036 29,087,473 54,507,185 21,798,637
216 4,118,561 5,078,349 8,196,201 5,222,169
88 847,121 920,430 1,699,615 982,193
364 7,098,492 7,882,374 13,917,398 9,870,404
95 947,343 1,142,842 1,892,069 869,155
1 18,156 24,997 36,494 30,755
4 48,136 60,176 96,753 49,995
4 67,034 76,272 120,996 36,476
3 27,597 31,650 55,470 17,621
15 124,440 137,254 226,781 82,043
298 4,704,382 4,520,352 9,126,546 3,056,834








STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1990-Continued


Num-
ber of
Flag transit
Somali Republic........ 2
South Korea ........... 171
Spain ........... ... 30
Sri Lanka ............. 32
St. Vincent & Grenadines 29
Sweden ............... 57
Switzerland ............ 6
Taiwan................ 196
Toga.................. 14
Trinidad............... 2
Tunisia ................ 2
Turkey ............... 26
U.S.S.R. .............. 500
United Arab Emirates ... 2
United Kingdom........ 404
United States .......... 611
Vanuatu .............. 170
Venezuela ............. 147
West Germany ......... 228
Yugoslavia ........... 150
N.A 3 .... ............ 1
Total .......... 11,941


Measured tonnage
Panama I
Canal Registered
net gross 2
18,630 21,086
4,026,349 4,128,347
347,529 357,739
317,207 372,447
506,803 579,363
1,977,934 1,623,682
156,804 191,162
5,879,918 6,996,133
96,479 109,264
3,642 1,674
16,146 20,364
480,682 584,830
4,323,077 4,822,686
24,526 30,244
6,441,839 7,907,031
6,651,098 6,479,531
2,596,828 2,462,924
648,245 817,884
3,289,939 3,964,609
1,990,719 2,336,432
15,035 15,279
181,604,590 194,589,312


I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons
and over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Includes 13 transits where no registered tonnage was reported.
3 No flag of registry was reported.
NOTE.-In Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as transports, supply ships, tankers, etc.,
with a measurement of 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) and over, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons and over, are classified as oceangoing commercial vessels. Statistics on
these vessels, except as related to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above. As
displacement tonnage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table shows statistics covering
37 vessels which transited the Canal during fiscal year 1990 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.


Flag
Argentina ..........................................
Australia ............................ ...............
Belgium .............................................
Brazil ..............................................
Canada ............................................
Chile ..............................................
Colombia ............................. .............
France .............................................
Japan ..............................................
Mexico ................ ............................
People's Republic of China ...........................
Peru ...............................................
Spain ..............................................
United Kingdom ....................................
Total ................. .................


Type
Navy
Navy
Dredge
Navy
Navy
Navy
Dredge
Navy
Navy
Navy
Dredge
Navy
Navy
Navy


Num-
ber of
transit


2






2
2
4
2
8
37


Displace-
ment
tonnage
3,700
4,060
6,921
17,303
2,900
3,673
1,380
15,655
12,760
3,570
31,593
14,972
7,400
27,627
153,514


Tolls
$4,144
4,547
7,753
19,379
3,248
4,114
1,546
17,534
14,291
3,998
35,384
16,769
8,288
30,942
$171,937


Tolls
37,446
7,851,793
698,218
597,329
1,001,403
3,924,465
315,176
11,792,970
193,923
6,574
29,144
925,998
8,470,900
49,297
12,717,184
12,696,878
4,965,653
1,230,790
6,566,154
3,938,592
24,056
$353,725,982


Long
tons of
cargo
10,221
2,801,370
273,962
90,611
687,373
777,471
274,651
4,058,764
40,876
889
6,747
648,581
2,690,607
29,971
5,596,562
3,948,672
1,890,268
532,500
2,505,215
2,319,258

157,072,979








Table 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic' by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1990
Laden Ballast
Atlantic Pacific F Atlantic Pacific I
to to to to Grand
Type of Vessel Pacific Atlantic Total Pacific Atlantic Total Total
CARGO AND CARGO/PASSENGER SHIPS:
Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits ................................. 1,750 1,476 3,226 304 318 622 3,848
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 37,387 32,313 69,700 10,786 5,965 16,751 86,451
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $75,148 $64,909 $140,057 $17,253 $9,544 $26,797 $166,854
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 54,807 32,383 87,190 ........ ........ ........ 87,190
Container Cargo Ships:
Number of transits ................................. 796 831 1,627 12 15 27 1,654
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 17,620 18,808 36,428 138 132 270 36,698
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $35,411 $37,805 $73,216 $221 $211 $432 $73,648
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 12,865 11,788 24,653 ........ ........ ........ 24,653
General Cargo Ships:
Number of transits ................. ................ 786 710 1,496 70 78 148 1,644
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 6,686 6,053 12,739 416 396 812 13,551
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $13,436 $12,166 $25,602 $665 $634 $1,299 $26,901
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 5,442 4,735 10,177 ........ ........ ........ 10,177
Passenger Ships: 2
Number of transits ........ ....... ................. 86 34 120 4 2 6 126
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 1,926 835 2,761 18 19 37 2,798
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $3,871 $1,679 $5,550 $28 $31 $60 $5,610
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ......... .......
Refrigerated Cargo Ships: w
Number of transits ................................. 801 1,280 2,081 541 34 575 2,656 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 4,580 7,734 12,314 3,136 110 3,246 15,559 q
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $9,204 $15,543 $24,747 $5,017 $175 $5,193 $29,940 5
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 702 3,858 4,560 ........ ........ ........ 4,560 t
Tank Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 737 475 1,212 153 228 381 1,593 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ..... ...... 10,745 8,078 18,824 3,290 2,994 6,283 25,107 t-
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $21,593 $16,235 $37,828 $5,263 $4,787 $10,051 $47,879 H
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 16,739 13,127 29,866 ....... ........ ........ 29,866 >





OTHER TYPE SHIPS:
Naval Vessels:
Number of transits ..................................
Displacement tonnage (thousands).....................
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ...........................
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................
Barges, Dredges, Drydocks, Tugs, etc.:
Number of transits ..................................
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................
Displacement tonnage (thousands).....................
Tolls (thousands of dollars). ..........................
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................
SUMMARY:
Total Cargo and Cargo/Passenger Ships:
Number of transits ..................................
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........ ..................
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................
Total Other Type Ships:
Number of transits ..................................
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................
Displacement tonnage (thousands).....................
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ...........................
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................
Grand Total Ships:
Number of transits ..................................
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................
Displacement tonnage (thousands).....................
Tolls (thousands of dollars)...........................
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................


........ ...... ........ 13
........ ........ ........ 50
........ ........ ........ $56


154 107 261 67
640 383 1,023 160


$1,286
410


4,956
78,944
$158,663
90,556

154
640

$1,286
410

5,110
79,584

$159,949
90,966


$769
215


4,806
73,822
$148,337
65,891

107
383

$769
216

4,913
74,205

$149,106
66,107


$2,055
625


9,762
152,766
$307,000
156,447

261
1,023

$2,055
626

10,023
153,789

$309,055
157,073


21
$280


1,084
17,783
$28,449


80
160
71
$336


1,164
17,944
71
$28,785


I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels paying tolls on net tonnage basis, or of 500 displacement tons and over
for vessels paying on displacement tonnage.
2 Vessels certificated for more than 12 passengers.


19
64
$72
2

60
257
19
$431


675
9,616
$15,383


79
257
83
$503


754
9,872
83
$15,886


32
114
$128
2

127
417
40
$711


1,759
27,399
$43,832


159
417
154
$839


1,918
27,816
154
$44,671


32 z
114 >
$128 >
2

388 z
1,440 >
40 r
$2,766 C
625 0


11,521
180,165 tC
$350,832 O
156,447 Z

420
1,440
154
$2,894
626

11,941
181,605
154
$353,726
157,073









58 STATISTICAL TABLES



Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1990

Laden Ballast

I um- II Num I
ber Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transit tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
Algeria ........................... I 16,421 $33,006 ....... ... .... ..........
Antigua-Barbuda ................... 11 27,869 56,017 7 15,148 24,237
Argentina ......................... 6 97,493 195,961 1 3,588 5,741
Austria ........................... 5 119,529 240,253 ....... ......... ...........
Bahamas.......................... 322 4,139,570 8,320,536 50 400,105 640,168
Bangledcsh ... .................... 2 20,446 41,096 ....... ......... ...........
Belgium........................... 28 583,063 1,171,957 2 40,130 64,208
Bermuda.......................... 8 81,945 164,709 2 26,498 42,397
Brazil ............................. 26 503,074 1,011,179 1 12,381 19,810
Bulgaria .......................... 7 71,154 143,020 3 29,207 46,731
Burma............................ 32 641,651 1,289,719 3 23,349 37,358
Canada ........................... 5 23,650 47,536 2 32,055 51,288
Cayman Islands .................... 9 90,856 182,621 2 2,766 4,426
Chile ............................. 70 763,593 1,534,822 Il 44,661 71,458
Colombia ......................... 151 1,436,484 2,887,333 14 53,854 86,166
Cuba ............................. 100 698,544 1,404,073 16 57,829 92,526
Cyprus ............................ 473 5,028,821 10,103,888 69 623,618 997,789
Czechoslovakia .................... 8 124,882 251,013 2 36,736 58,778
Denmark .......................... 204 4,790,020 9,627,940 23 178,851 284,626
East Germany ..................... 46 259,375 521,344 8 40,181 64,290
Ecuador .......................... 265 2,358,674 4,739,281 72 378,549 1,085,678
Egypt ................ ...... ...... 1 19,573 39,342 ..... ..... .. ........
Faroes ........................ .. ....... ........ 1 1,494 2,390
France........................... 32 740,727 1,488,861 8 69,554 111,286
Greece ............................ 493 8,791,683 17,666,156 92 1,443,303 2,309,285
Guatemala ........................ 5 17,520 35,215 1 3,504 5,606
Honduras ......................... 25 69,697 140,091 4 8,002 12,803
Hong Kong........................ 9 200,309 402,621 4 62,652 100,243
Iceland ........................... ..... .......... ........... 1 716 1,146
India ............................ 30 482,925 970,679 9 113,596 181,754
Iran .............................. 4 44,269 88,981 2 22,128 35,405
Israel ............................. 68 1,418,863 2,851,915 ..... ......... ...........
Italy .............................. 109 1,611,904 3,239,927 16 225,671 361,074
Japan............................. 415 5,886,429 11,823,679 83 2,465,627 3,945,003
Jordan ............................. 1 8,689 17,465 ....... ......... ...........
Kuwait ........................... 33 399,569 803,134 ....... ......... ...........
Lebanon .......................... 2 16,592 33,350 ....... ........ ...........
Liberia ........................... 1,233 24,005,414 48,233,542 246 6,016,478 9,142,354
Malaysia .......................... 25 396,280 796,523 5 91,526 146,442
Malta ............................. 90 1,085,539 2,181,933 24 265,994 425,590
M marshall Islands ................... 13 342,442 688,308 ....... ......... ...........
Mauritius ......................... 1 20,613 41,432 1 13,926 22,282
Mexico ........................... 29 529,248 1,063,788 22 389,810 623,696
Morocco .......................... 4 34,900 70,149 4 34,900 55,840
Netherlands ....................... 259 2,937,400 5,897,759 50 349,918 559,869
Netherland-Antilles................. 3 27,745 55,767 2 25,103 40,165
Norway ........................... 561 9,347,670 18,788,817 99 1,618,333 2,589,333
Panama .......................... 1,483 22,696,573 45,608,327 383 5,562,463 8,898,858
People's Republic of China .......... 198 3,831,997 7,702,314 16 286,564 458,502
Peru .............................. 80 798,666 1,605,319 4 48,455 77,528
Philippines ........................ 316 6,256,260 12,569,827 48 842,232 1,347,571
Poland ............................ 88 917,855 1,844,889 7 29,488 47,181
Portugal .............. ............ 1 18,156 36,494 ....... ......... ...........
Qatar. ....... .................... 4 48,136 96,753 ....... ......... ...........
Romania .......................... 2 33,517 67,369 2 33,517 53,627
Samoa ............................ 3 27,597 55,470 ....... ......... ...........
Saudi Arabia ...................... 6 67,506 135,687 9 56,934 91,094
Singapore ......................... 256 3,901,304 7,841,621 42 803,078 1,284,925
Somali Republic ................... 2 18,630 37,446 ....... ......... ...........
South Korea ....................... 155 3,438,132 6,910,645 16 588,217 941,147
Spain .................... .... 27 326,545 656,355 1 20,984 33,574
Sri Lanka ......................... 22 219,018 440,226 10 98,189 157,102
St. Vincent & Grenadines............ 27 464,678 934,003 2 42,125 67,400
Sweden ........................... 51 1,853,100 3,724,731 6 124,834 199,734
Switzerland ........................ 6 156,804 315,176 ....... ......... ...........
Taiwan ........................... 193 5,817,321 11,692,815 3 62,597 100,155
Toga ....................... ...... 14 96,479 193,923 ....... ......... ...........
Trinidad .......................... 1 1,821 3,660 I 1,821 2,914
Tunisia ........................... 1 8,073 16,227 1 8,073 12,917
Turkey ............................ 21 382,699 769,225 5 97,983 156,773
U.S.S.R........................... 422 3,790,187 7,618,276 78 532,890 852,624









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 59



Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1990-Continued
Laden *Ballast
I um- II Num- I
ber Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
United Arab Emirates ........... 2 24,526 $49,297 .... ...... $ .......
United Kingdom .............. 354 5,803,168 11,664,368 42 638,671 1,021,874
United States .......... ...... 458 5,013,226 10,076,584 153 1,637,880 2,620,294
Vanuatu ............ ........ 140 1,977,387 3,974,548 30 619,441 991,106
Venezuela................... 113 472,191 949,104 34 176,054 281,686
West Germany ................ 215 3,176,223 6,384,208 13 113,716 181,946
Yugoslavia ................. 138 1,837,662 3,693,701 12 153,057 244,891
N.A.* ..................... ... ........ ........ I 15,035 24,056
Total ................. 10,023 153,788,551 $309,055,326 1,881 27,816,039 S44,498,720
Above table involves only commercial vessels of 300 net tons or over, Panama Canal measurement.
No flag of registry was reported.









Table 6.-Segregation of Transitst by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal Year 1990


2,000 4.000 6.000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20.000 30.000 40,000
Under to to to to to to to to and
2,000 3,999 5,.999 7,999 9,999 14,999 19,999 29,999 39,999 over
Algeria........................... ... ...... .. ...... ...... ...... ....... 1 .. .. .
Antigua-Barbuda ................... 6 8 4 .......
Argentina ......................... ...... 1 ...... ...... 1 3 ...... 2 .....
Austria............................ ...... . ...... .. ...... . ... .... .. .... 4 I ......
Bahamas .......................... 26 23 29 28 66 57 32 100 8 3
Bangledesh ..................... ..... .. ...... ........ .... .. .... 2 ...... ..... . . ......
Belgium ........................... ...... ...... 1 ...... ..... ...... 2 24 3 ......
Berm uda .......................... ...... ...... ...... ...... 4 3 1 2 ...... ......
Brazil ....................... ... .. ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... 10 4 6 ...... 7
Bulgaria... ....................... ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... 8 ...... 1 ...... ......
Burm a ............................ ...... ...... ...... ...... 6 3 12 2 12 ......
Canada ........................... 4 ...... ........... 1 ...... ...... 2 ...... ......
Cayman Islands .................... 3 4 ...... ....... ...... ...... ...... 4 ...... ......
C while ............................. 7 ...... ...... ...... 4 70 ...... ...... ...... ......
Colombia ......................... 54 ...... ...... 3 2 100 4 ...... ...... ......
Cuba ............................. ...... 46 ...... 2 31 34 3 .... ....
Cyprus ............................ 47 18 53 56 85 128 92 38 25 ......
Czechoslovakia..................... ...... ...... ...... ............ 4 ...... 5 1 ......
Denmark........................... 63 1 2 8 21 15 10 2 105
East Germany............... ....... ...... 2 40 ...... 6 5 .... I ...... ......
Ecuador ........................... 14 6 9 135 64 24 56 29 ...... ......
Egypt .......................... .. ...... .............. ...... ...... ...... ....I ...... ......
Faroes ............................ I
France ............................ 8 2 5 25 ...... ......
Greece ............................ 64 ...... 6 6 47 99 102 76 185 ......
Guatemala........................ ...... .... .. 6 ...... ...... ... ...... ...... .....
Honduras ......................... 19 2 ...... 5 2 ...... 1 ..... ...... ......
Hong Kong ........................ I ...... I ...... ...... ...... 1 4 6 ......
Iceland ............................ 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ...... ...... ...... ......
India ........................... .. ... 6 ...... ...... 13 8 4 2 5
Iran ............................. ...... ....... ...... ...... ....6 .... ..... . .. ....
Israel ................ ............ ...... ..... ....... ...... ...... ..... ...... 65 3 ......
Italy ............................ ... ........... 2 5 47 8 11 36 15 1
Japan ............................. 193 18 40 18 33 12 22 94 32 36
Jordan ................ ......... .. ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
Kuwait ............................ .. .... .. .... ... ...... ...... ...... 33 ...... ...... ......
Lebanon ........................... 2 ......... ...... ...... ...... ..
Liberia........................... ...... 18 24 50 166 353 285 220 251 112
M alaysia .......................... ...... ...... ...... ...... 7 3 5 9 6 ......


Average
gross
Registered tonnage
gross per
tonnage vessel
20,253 20,253
45,025 2,501
96,931 13,847
144,260 28,852
5,197,262 13,971
26,250 13,125
753,149 25,105
131,121 13,112
618,753 22,917
121,750 12,175
775,293 22,151
62,017 8,860
102,806 9,346
904,853 11,171
1,381,816 8,477
867,008 7,474
6,445,123 11,891
190,315 19,032
6,047,987 26,643
356,214 6,597
3,509,933 10,415
24,106 24,106
1,521 1,521
727,988 18,200
11,728,097 20,048
24,774 4,129
87,526 3,018
327,449 25,188
1,138 1,138
707,305 18,136
86,199 14,366
1,849,070 27,192
2,211,342 17,691
6,088,762 12,226
9,888 9,888
508,808 15,418
20,292 10,146
30,162,153 20,394
568,968 18,966






Malta ............................. 4 16 1 2 13 38 16 4 20 ...... 114 1,653,258 14,502 -0
Marshall Islands.................... ........................ ...... 5 ...... ...... 4 4 13 393,753 30,289 >
Mauritius ......................... ..... ............. .... ..... ...... I I ...... ...... 2 40,929 20,464 2Z
Mexico ........................... 5 2 ...... 1 ...... 12 4 6 20 ...... 50 1,113,248 22,265 >
Morocco .......................... ...... ........... ......... ..... 2 ...... ...... 8 86,976 10,872
Netherlands........................ 13 43 54 49 26 66 4 44 10 ...... 309 3,376,410 10,927 >
Netherlands-Antilles ................ ...... 3 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 .... ...... 5 62,369 12,474 ()
Norway ........................... 13 5 11 14 162 45 143 195 70 2 660 12,103,250 18,338 >
Panama ................ ...... 121 134 239 180 131 325 189 194 251 102 1,866 29,087,473 15,588 z
People's Republic of China ...... 2 ...... 1 1 16 13 39 97 45 ...... 214 5,049,693 23,597 >
Peru .................. ............ 2 23 5 ...... 4 37 7 ...... 6 ...... 84 905,940 10,785
Philippines ............................. 11 21 11 14 62 59 82 104 ...... 364 7,882,374 21,655
Poland ........................ I 4 8 7 27 34 3 ...... 10 ...... 94 1,142,842 12,158 O
Portugal .............. ......... ..... ..... ...... ............ ...... .... .. ...... ...... I 24,997 24,997
Qatar ... ................ ...... ...... .................................. 4 ...... ...... ...... 4 60,176 15,044
Romania .......................... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... 4 76,272 19,068
Samoa ........................ ...... 3 ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 31,650 10,550
Saudi Arabia ...................... ...... ...... ...... 13 .... .. ...... 2 ...... ...... 15 137,254 9,150 c.
Singapore ......................... ...... 1 2 101 16 78 11 54 25 10 298 4,520,352 15,169
Somali Republic............................... ...... .... 2 ...... ...... ........... 2 21,086 10,543
South Korea ...................... 18 1 ...... ...... .... 12 33 51 46 10 171 4,128,347 24,142
Spain ............................ 2 ...... 10 ...... ...... ...... 13 3 ...... ...... 28 357,739 12,776
Sri Lanka ... ..... .. ...... ............. ..... 18 13 ...... I ...... ....... 32 372,447 11,639
St. Vincent & Grenadines ............ .. 2 2 ...... ...... ..... ...... 10 15 2 ...... 29 579,363 19,978
Sweden ................................ ...... ...... ..... ...... 1 17 9 22 8 57 1,623,682 28,486
Switzerland ....................... ............. .. ............ ..... ..... ...... ..... 2 4 ...... 6 191,162 31,860
Taiwan ........... .............. 8 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 59 45 83 196 6,996,133 35,695
Toga .............................. ..... ...... 4 2 8 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 14 109,264 7,805
Trinidad .......................... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 1,674 837
Tunisia............................ ...... ...... ...... ...... ....... ...... ..... ..... ...... 2 20,364 10,182
Turkey ............................... 1 1 ...... 8 2 3 II ...... 26 584,830 22,493
U.S.S.R ...25 40 41 52 111 167 45 13 6 ...... 500 4,822,686 9,645
United Arab Emirates ............... ....... .. .......... ..... ......... 2 ...... ...... ...... 2 30,244 15,122
United Kingdom ................... 9 1 18 27 20 99 43 83 75 21 396 7,896,547 19,941
United States ...................... 203 21 10 11 13 214 61 29 23 17 602 6,479,531 10,763
Vanuatu ........................... 43 9 2 29 19 4 17 16 17 14 170 2,462,924 14,488
Venezuela ......................... 1 5 2 ...... 2 15 2 ..... 2 ..... ... ... 11 147 817,884 5,564
West Germany ..................... ...... 5 3 3 26 27 110 42 II 1 228 3,964,609 17,389
Yugoslavia ........................ 4 ...... 2 8 26 43 46 11 8 2 150 2,336,432 15,576
N/A............_1 ............. ......... .... ...... ......... ............... ...... ...... 15,279 15,279
Total ...................... 1,101 477 651 828 1,234 2,295 1,576 1,786 1,389 554 11,891 194,494,948 16,356
Percent of Total .............. 9.3 4.0 5.5 7.0 10.4 19.3 13.3 15.0 11.7 4.7 100.0
SlIncludes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement.
2 Excludes 37 vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage basis and 13 transits where no registered tonnage was reported.







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
I 1988 1989 1990 Commodity 1990 1989 1988
846 768 701 Canned and Refrigerated Foods............................ ................. 4 4,163 4021
88 50 30 Canned Foods ..................................................... ............128 128 122
2 3 2 Fish............................................ 21 25 22
4 8 3.Fruit ........................................................................ 4 15 18
4 8 3 Fruit . . 25 22
72 25 9 Milk .... ................................................................. 80 71 64
11 14 16 Other and unclassified .......................... ..... .. ................................ 23 17 18
757 717 671 Refrigerated Foods.......................... 4.668 4,034
16 9 6 Bananas ...................................................................... 1,621 1,366 1,163
8 8 1 Dairy Products ........ ........................................................ 11 23 28
179 169 209 Fish .................................................................... 927 836 774
158 176 55 Fruit, excluding bananas .................................................... 1,154 954 1,015
23 4 11 M eat ......................................................................... 63 80 112
372 352 389 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 891 775 807
5,522 6,000 5,770 Chemicals and Petroleum Chemicals ...................................................... 962 1,626 1,292
976 1,220 918 Caustic Soda ............................ ........................................ ... .. 5 5
2,941 2,845 3,566 Chemicals, unclassified.......................................................... 871 1,439 1,167
1,606 1,935 1,286 Petroleum Chemicals, miscellaneous ................... .............................. 91 182 120
5,390 5,301 5,065 Coal and Coke (excluding petroleum coke) ..... ........................................... 3,051 3,634 3,186
32756 28,12 7 2 ,998 Grains ................................................................................ 2,242 1,790 3,109
124 5 10 Barley ......................................................................292 202 203
16,165 10,475 14,012 Corn .......................................... ...................... 3 10 2
6 5 2 Oats............................................................................ 3 10 21
98 171 224 Rice .............................................................................. 432 350 3651 1
2,163 1,942 2,029 Sorghum ..................... ........................................... 9432 35......0 365......
6,871 5,180 6,059 Soybeans ...................................... ............ 97 63 42
6,997 9,893 5,425 W heat ........................................................................... 1,363 1,134 2,445
332 457 237 Other and unclassified ..................... ............................. 45 30 52445
1,671 2,465 2,608 Lumber and Products.......................... 6,861 6,981 7,863 >
61 69 18 Boards and planks ................................................... 3,695 3,949 4,703 "
27 11 18 Plywood, veneers, composition board ......................... 748 788 847 -
1,129 1,253 980 Pulpwood ............................. 2,063 1,831 850
453 1,131 1,592 Other and unclassified ................... ....... ................................ 2,063 1,831 1,850 -
531 .506 514 Machinery and Equipment ....................................................I.......... 1,558 J 1927 2,12 S






46 44 50 Agricultural machinery and implements ............................................... 17 22 28 'V
322 309 310 Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ............................................ 1,384 1,717 1,899 >
73 73 86 Construction machinery and equipment .............................................. 106 113 139 >
47 32 33 Electrical machinery and apparatus ................................................... 9 21 17
I I 1 M otorcycles, bicycles and parts ...................................................... 2 8 7 >
42 48 35 Other and unclassified ............................................................. 40 47 35 n
2,736 4,325 4,248 Manufactures of Iron and Steel .......................................................... 2950 3526 4107 >
137 189 241 Angles, shapes, and sections ........................................................ 67 258 296 Z
8 20 3 Nails, tacks, and spikes ........................ .... ......... .................. .. 52 67 99 >
1,379 2,672 2,351 Plates, sheets, and coils ...................................................... ....... 1,471 1,424 1,406 "
144 261 147 Tubes, pipes, and fittings .......................................................... 333 372 461 "
677 605 900 Wire, bars, and rods ............................................................... 166 303 245
392 577 606 Other and unclassified ............................................................. 863 1,101 1,600
144 142 204 Minerals, miscellaneous................................................................. 4,733 3,337 4,977
17 15 7 Asbestos .......................................................................... 3 4 4
1 1 3 Borax ............................................................................ 424 393 431
I ...... ...... Infusorial earth ................................... ............................... ... 1 1
41 21 33 Salt .............................................................................. 1,374 707 800
75 98 96 Soda and sodium compounds ....................................................... 222 78 158
9 7 65 Sulfur ............................................................................ 2,710 2,154 3,583
10,289 11702 11,713 Nitrates, Phosphates, and Potash ....................... ............................. ..... 2,079 2,502 1,848
521 558 480 Ammonium compounds............................................................ 28 18 23
11 ...... 1 Fishm eal .......................................................................... 1,281 1,427 1,080
52 43 8 Nitrate of soda................................................................... 383 321 328
6,725 8,187 7,957 Phosphates..................................................................... 268 416 233
280 223 442 Potash .............................. ..................................... ...... 52 106 20
2,700 2,691 2,826 Fertilizers, unclassified ............................................................. 67 214 163
3,462 3,130 3,772 Ores and M etals ....................................................................... 8,686 7,379 6,872
736 736 798 Ores ............................................................................ 7,410 6,097 5,735
178 135 229 Alumina/bauxite.............................................................. 3,040 2,250 1,382
7 31 6 Chrome............................ ........................................ 46 66 25
39 48 67 Copper ....................................................................... 471 570 857
133 117 182 Iron .......................................................................... 413 282 764
2 ...... 8 Lead ......................................................................... 224 221 209
71 97 86 Manganese ................................................................. 313 281 195
...... .... .... T in ........................................................................... 12 31 9
42 37 30 Zinc .......................................................................... 763 540 659
264 271 189 Other and unclassified ......................................................... 2,128 1,855 1,634 O







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years-Continued O
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
S1988 1989 1990 I Commodity I1990 1989 1988 I
2,726 2,394 2,974 Metals.......................................................................... 1,275 282 1,137
415 283 409 Aluminum ............................................... ......... .. ... ...... 13 14 38
14 2 8 Copper ....................................................................... 892 872 773
105 83 291 Iron .......................................................................... 14 12 4
7 ...... 15 Lead ......................................................................... 80 67 61
2,121 1,929 2,186 Scrap ......................................................................... 28 90 10
13 22 11 Tin, including tinplate .............................. .......................... 11 7 10
15 25 7 Zinc .......................................................................... 220 163 168
36 52 48 Other and unclassified ....................................... 19 58 72
2,422 1,836 1,803 Other Agricultural Commodities ......................................................... 3634 3324 2998
45 123 78 Beans, edible ................................................................. 56 55 84
32 5 4 Cocoa and cacao beans ............................................................ 40 50 46
19 14 7 Coffee, raw and processed .......................................................... 421 275 292
2 Copra and coconuts ................................................................ 7 ...... 6
25 116 51 Cotton, raw ....................................................................... 64 82 87
11 54 13 Molasses ................................................................... 714 672 578
72 42 122 Oilseeds ................. ..................................................... 88 106 111
1 5 12 Peas, dry.......................................................................... 11 52 89
4 3 4 Rubber, raw ............................. ................. ................... 47 137 116
..... 3 Skins and hides .................................................................... 27 1 1
2,213 1,473 1,508 Sugar .................................. ................................... 2,153 1,891 1,581
1 ...... ...... W ool, raw ..................................................................... 6 4 9
11,851 9,838 11,709 Petroleum and Products ....................... ...................... ................... 13,521 12396 12,740 >
52 30 25 Asphalt ....................................................... ..... 1 .
2,820 2,089 2,687 Crude oil ......................... .............................. 6,575 5,784 5,967 j
1,416 1,404 1,430 Diesel oil ........................................................... .............. 98 418 467
1,557 995 1,891 Fuel oil, residual ................................................................ 3,620 3,179 3,371 >
2,009 1,554 1,938 Gasoline .... ................................. ........................ 310 486 252
1,007 847 912 Jet fuel ........................ ... ........................................ 70 5 39 -_
59 94 101 Kerosene....................................................................... .. .. .. >
1,092 1,065 999 Liquefied gas ..................................................................... 147 90 14
656 659 612 Lubricating oil................................................................... 171 156 221
1,098 923 784 Petroleum coke ....................................... ............................ 2,447 2,261 2,338 r





85 179 331 Other and unclassified ............ ................................................... 82 14 71 1
13,358 14,136 14,861 Miscellaneous ...................... ............................................ 11034 10777 10,367
17 29 11 Bricks and tile .................................................................. 11 13 4 >
39 77 28 Carbon black ................................................................... I1 2 1 &
150 234 543 Cement ........................................................................... 5 4 1 >
472 553 623 Clay, fire and china... ................................ ................. 87 39 25 0
8 7 2 Fibers, plant.................. .......................... ....................... 12 4 5 >
185 148 149 Flour, wheat ..................... .................... .................... .. ... 2 6 36 Z
17 11 11 Glass and glassware ............ ... .. ..... .. ..................... ....... . .... .5 6 6 >
30 12 54 Groceries, miscellaneous ..................................................... .... 22 65 53 n
9 6 7 Liquors and wines.... ............................................................ 14 9 9 O
63 121 69 Marble and stone ............................ ............................. 3 4 10
4 3 6 Oil, coconut ....................................................................... 70 51 50
2 1 ...... Oil, fish ........................................................................... 213 395 140
155 161 176 Oil, vegetable ....................................................... ............ 232 171 125
911 892 944 Paper and paper products ........................... 448 527 458 -
2 1 1 Porcelainware ................ ................................................... 1 2 8
105 81 75 Resin .............................. .................... ..................... 1 2 3
16 19 21 Rubber, manufactured .............................. .. ............................ 16 8 13
1 4 4 Seeds, excluding oilseeds ...................... .. .. ....................... 13 23 21
11 16 146 Slag, clinkers, and dross ............................................................... 28 28 11
80 97 75 Tallow....................................................................... 36 34 21
15 15 7 Textiles ..................... .............................................. .... 15 18 22
1 1 ...... Tobacco and manufactures .................................. ...................... .... I 1 1
7 17 15 W ax, paraffin .................................. ................ ............. .. 13 12 75
11,058 11,631 11,895 All other and unclassified ..................................... .................... 9,787 9,352 9,267
90,978 88,276 90,966 Total ........................................................................... 66,107 63,361 65504









(n








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1990

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]


To W. C.
To West Coast United States Canada

F[ 1 F I


Main-
Alaska Hawaii land


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ........... .....
South Atlantic ports ................
Great Lakes ports ..................
Gulf ports . .....................
United States (other)' ... ............
Total United States ................

EAST COAST CANADA


. . .. 8,513


4,918 31,556

4,918 40,069


80,014
2,855

1,304,021
47,218
1,434,108


To West Coast Central America


Costa El Sal- Guate-
Total Canada Rica vador mala


88,527
2,855

1,340,495
47,218
1,479,095


... ... .. 54,073 54,073


. . . . ... 95,199 34,352
... .. 1,387 3,647 . . ..

243,068 477,530 627,777 277,758

243,068 478,917 726,623 312,110


Central
Nica- Pan- America Balboa,
Mexico ragua ama (other) t R.P.2 Total


142,249 . ... 25 ..... 58,136
280,035 . .. 24,757 1,450 18,138

1,796,028 79,621 20,793 102,295 347,425
...... ..... 1,527 ..... 5,602
2,218,312 79,621 47,102 103,745 429,301


6 5,817 2,210 ...... 1,150 15,972 2,773 .. .. ....... 27,922


EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Mexico ............. .............. . .. ...... 63,801
Panama ........... .................. ... ..... 350
Central America (other)'................... ..... .... 3
Cristobal, R.P... ......................... ..... 7,099
Total Central America.......... .... .... ..... ..... 71,253


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ................... ......
Colombia . .....................
Venezuela ......... ................
South America (other)'..................
Total South America ..................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba .............................
Jamaica ......... ...................
Netherlands West Indies .................
Trinidad/Tobago .........,...........
West Indies (other)' ....................
Total West Indies ....................


10 107,771
. .... 60,585

10 168,356





..... ..2,963

..... 2,963


841,334
86,504
748,061
82,173
1,758,072



3,730
414,305
63,414
282,526
763,975


63,801
350
3
7,99
71,253


841,334
194,285
808,646
82,173
1,926,438



3,730
414,305
63,414
285,489
766,938


103,215
20,396
36,029
10,554
170,194




115
34,532
435
35,082


..... 275,383 183,257


..... 349 1,425
..... 275,732 184,682


..... 7,559 12,053
591 2,066 ... . .
94,917 375,785 431,055
.. ... 9,808
95,508 385,410 452,916


S..... ...... 74
2,622 ...... ......
... 1,760 2,625
2,930 5,553 655
..... 29 3,245
5,552 25,342 6,599


762,178 ..... ..... ..... 13,217
...... ..... 36 ..... 108,217
...... 1,370 3,314 ..... 889
...... 1,138 ..... 60 .... .
762,178 2,508 3,350 60 122,323


38,836 ..... ..... 871 1,000
. . . 351 . .. 96 1,491
597,849 150,307 ..... 58,418 3,760
55,836 .... ..... ..... 2,604
692,521 150,658 ..... 59,385 8,855


...... 21,439 ..... 5,744 .....
...... ..... 3,977 ..... .....
150,530 19,672 ..... 8,899 1,553
. . . . 23,731 . . .... .
...... 328 ..... 225 20,149
150,530 41,439 27,708 14,868 21,702


329,961
329,414

3,729,227
7,129
4.395,731


1,234,035
108,253
5,573
2,972
1,350,833


60,319
4,595
1,712,091
68,248
1,845,253


27,257
6,599
185,039
32,869
41,976
293,740






EUROPE:
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436,136 436,136
France ...... .... .... .. . .... . ... .. 1,092 . . 262,563 263,655
Italy .............................. .. ...... 337,676 337,676
Netherlands .......... .... ........... ..... 587 428,854 429,441
Norway ............................ ... ...... 182,930 182,930
Spain-Portugal ............ . ....... .. . .... .. 355,623 355,623
Sweden ............................ .. ...... 81,275 81,275
U.S.S.R............................. 88 ..... 4,576 4,664
United Kingdom .................... .. ..... ...... 132,275 132,275
West Germany .................. . 138 .... 352,122 352,260
Europe (other)' ...... .... ......... .. 38,006 40,215 1,043,939 1,122,160
Total Europe ....................... 39,324 40,802 3,617,969 3,698,095


25,384 6,290 45,031 31,459
31,054 7,478 1,534 ......
23,278 ..... 300 ......
36,390 4,038 5,539 5,157
...... .. .. ...... 48,291
87,030 2,000 3,749 ......
261 ..... .. .....
...... 533 2,614 29,106
18,353 ..... 1,587 .....
44,309 2,800 6,245 ......
150,876 6,886 43,087 31,322
416,935 30,025 109,686 145,335


24,051 29,146 243 22,803 1,781 160,804
13,944 12,332 ..... ..... 2,411 37,699
752 4,706 31 545 5,147 11,481
15,220 1,313 .. ... 656 7,333 39,256
...... .. ... ..... .... 48,291
953 1,387 74 1,770 642 10,575
...... 3,345 ..... ..... ..... 3,345
...... 131,828 ..... "530 16 164,627
...... 11,859 ..... 20,201 ..... 33,647
13,740 2,201 2,257 1,794 115 29,152
77,298 57,502 4,298 35,663 233 256,289
145,958 255,619 6,903 83,962 17,678 795,166


ASIA (MIDDLE EAST)

AFRICA


..... 1,989 98,272 100,261 ...... ..... ...... .. ... ...... 30,516 ..... ..... ..... 30,516


..... 50 145,025 145,075 712,905


78 454 700 148,887 13,555 ..... 295 ..... 163,969


GRAND TOTAL .................... 44,252 254,229 7,942,747 8 2 1,578,190 615,897 1,525,457 1,10342 4,119,536 589,888 87,836 262,315 599,859 8,903,130


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ................ 0.0 0.3


8.7 9.1 1.7 0.7 1.7 1.2 4.5 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.7








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1990 .

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]

To West Coast South America To Oceania
South 1 I
America Aus- French New Oceania
EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA: Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru (other) I Total tralia Oceania Zealand (other) I Total
United States:
North Atlantic ports ......................................... 354,043 46,827 91,909 47,673 13,198 553,650 153,525 163 52,268 35,615 241,571
South Atlantic ports ..................... ................... 84,650 31,552 135,914 48,418 15,721 316,255 114,389 1,262 226,403 53,812 395,866
Great Lakes ports ........................................... ..... ...... .... 9,841 ..... 9,841 ...... .. .. ... .. .. .....
Gulf ports ................................................. 997,541 475,096 659,267 1,062,122 62,482 3,256,508 1,575,028 ..... 159,586 79,389 1,814,003
United States (other ) ........................................ 104,628 23,628 47,369 29,933 18,521 224,079 136,928 332 70,738 33,060 241,058
Total United States ........................................ ................ 1,540,862 577,103 934,459 1,197,987 109,922 4,360,333 1,979,870 1,757 508,995 201,876 2,692,498

EAST COAST CANADA 109,296 83,036 31,723 1,862 644 226,561 135,710 23 52,704 17,173 205,610

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Mexico ...................................................... 29,926 9,138 114,008 213,408 10,155 376,635 ...... ..... 11,786 137 11,923
Panama ...................................................... ...... 2,124 40,533 13,018 7,716 63,391 ... .... .... ....
Central America (other)'.......................................... 22 369 6,299 2,793 40 9,523 7,382 ..... ..... ..... 7,382
Cristobal, R.P. ................................................ 8,585 2 3,429 206 4,262 16,484 ..
Total Central America ......................................... 38,533 11,633 164,269 229,425 22,173 466,033 7,382 ..... 11,786 137 19,305

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ........................................................ 23,251 11,089 105,928 38,833 2,676 181,777 1,407 20 .... ...... 1,427
Colombia ..................................................... 160,198 38,864 5,884 57,164 3,695 265,805 .. ... ... .. ......
Venezuela .................................................... 917,392 612 264,596 62,734 58,605 1,303,939 . . . . . . . . . .
South America (other)'........................................... 10,159 53,660 6,889 11,859 10,463 93,030 4,054 . 133 . .. 4,187 -I
Total South America........................................... 1,111,000 104,225 383,297 170,590 75,439 1,844,551 5,461 20 133 ..... 5,614

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ........................................................ ..... ..... 57 23,810 1,645 25,512 ...... ..... ..... .... ......
Jamaica ...................................................... 2,904 2,000 ...... . . . .... 4,904 II . .. 28 8 47
Netherlands West Indies .......................................... 190,184 47,862 16,719 26,881 133,733 415,379 ...... ..... 23 ..... 23
Trinidad/Tobago ............................................... 29,546 41,727 12,314 ...... 5,801 89,388 89 . .. 71 28 188
West Indies (other)' ............................................. 16 14,522 2,347 2,860 20 19,765 84 3,436 96 246 3,862
Total West Indies ............................................. 222,650 106,111 31,437 53,551 141,199 554,948 184 3,436 218 282 4,120 t
tfl






EUROPE:
Belgium ...................................................... 214,392 11,798 41,190 118.602 21,391 407,373 27,434 22,357 31,651 25,726 107,168
France ....................................................... 16,119 3,537 9,120 7,736 1,702 38,214 11,412 153,468 2,937 29,377 197,194 Z
Italy......................................................... 43,433 1,212 6,452 11,564 13,530 76,191 49 12,166 4,018 2,869 19,102
Netherlands .................................................... 60,157 4,265 15,283 10,048 965 90,718 73,301 16,726 34,555 13,875 138,457
Norway ...................................................... ...... ...... ...... 516 ..... 516 7,247 ..... ..... ..... 7,247 >
Spain-Portugal ................................................. 54,322 16,490 8,986 12,612 11,206 103,616 98 1,433 1,459 2,326 5,316 ("
Sweden ...................................................... 25,620 2,310 3,866 7,600 4,262 43,658 26,684 797 9,964 8,090 45,535 >
U.S.S.R. ............................... ... ................... 6,352 123,958 18,206 60,879 307,374 516,769 ...... .. ........ ..... .......
United Kingdom ............................................... 43,513 6,972 5,668 11,566 944 68,663 42,831 3,157 43,634 24,665 114,287 >
West Germany .................................................. 129,370 26,416 41,840 57,996 9,152 264,774 45,606 6,239 12,823 31,089 95,757 r
Europe (other)' ................................................. 75,857 115,444 94,378 139,542 57,377 482,598 56,851 67,786 18,611 140,407 283,655 (
Total Europe .............................. ................. 669,135 312,402 244,989 438,661 427,903 2,093,090 291,513 284,129 159,652 278,424 1,013,718 O

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) 36,915 ...... ...... 517 ..... 37,432 ...... 1,148 ..... ..... 1,148

AFRICA 30,256 13,779 14 93 506 44,648 ...... 136 168,296 ..... 168,432 Cn

GRAND TOTAL ............................................. 3758,647 1,208,289 1,790,188 2,092,686 777,786 9,627,596 2,420,120 290,649 901,784 497892 10445

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ....................................... 4.1 1.3 2.0 2.3 0.9 10.6 2.7 0.3 1.0 0.5 4.5









Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1990 -
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ...................
South Atlantic ports ...................
Great Lakes ports .....................
Gulf ports ...........................
United States (other)'t..................
Total United States ..................

EAST COAST CANADA

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ...................... .........
Panama ...........................
Central America (other)' ...................
Cristobal, R.P.2..........................
Total Central America ...................

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil .................................
Colombia ................... ..........
Venezuela ..............................
South America (other)' ....................
Total South America ....................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba .............................. ....
Jamaica ..............................
Netherlands West Indies ...................
Trinidad/Tobago ........................
West Indies (other)' .......................
Total West Indies........................


To Asia
I Philio-


Hong Indo- pine Singa-
China Taiwan Kong nesia Japan Islands pore


279,878 1,091,288 248,737 2,525 1,837,070 38,906 163,939
508,113 588,602 262,954 24,519 1,825,914 116 121,154
... ..... .. . ... 118,077 . . .... .
6,761,919 5,552,268 79,108 121,637 20,658,835 215,707 180,732
138,741 343,322 80,620 2,196 738,076 7,110 52,905
7,688,651 7,575,480 671,419 150,877 25,177,972 261.839 518,730


1,923,718 4,541 .. ..
398,834 3,321 .....
169,033 . . ..... .
4,219,165 148,283 62.822
510,010 4,488 .....
7.220,760 160,633 62,822


Percent
of total
I Pacific.
Grand bound
Total total cargo


173,663 284,788 71,513 8,163 542,856 ..... 14,883 391,273 17,414 ..... 148,616 1,653,169 2,167,341 2.4


143,536



143,536


44,288
3,473
148,967
2,908
199,636


922,341
192

24,350

946,883


9,866 11,639 .....

480 781 .....
4 122 .....
10,350 12,542 .....


5,040 6,688 .....

139,565 73,542 10,717
2,604 7,545 .....
147,209 87,775 10,717


...... ..... .....
32,309 26,343 .....
2,559 1,015 .....
10,034 35 9,268
21,512 6,868 .....
66,414 34,261 9,268


77,131 6,500 63,037

3,904 ..... 6,618
197 .. 4
81,232 6,500 69,659


674,727 ..... 5,931
61,405 ..... .....
598,114 10,394 6,037
121,166 ..... 4,238
1,455,412 10,394 16,206


115,482 ..... .....
17,985 ..... 574
34,678 ..... 4,252
50,408 ..... 26
125,617 13 37,017
344,170 13 41,869


10,179 26,646 .....

1,367 ..... .....

11,546 26,646 .....


17,134 ..... .....
...... 750 .....
76 48,611 .....
12,603 ..... 2,837
29,813 49,361 2,837


12,506 ..... 169,404
14,440 ..... 66
656 2,885 .....

6,810 .. .. ....
124,412 2.885 169,470


South
Korea


Thai- Asia
land U.S.S.R. (other)


478,045 6,068,647
415,803 4,149,330
29,222 316,332
1,387,476 39,387,952
266,669 2,144,137
2,577,215 52,066,398


7,282,356
5,193,720
326,173
49,771,253
2,663,621
65,237.123


41,027


976
42,003


1.364
1,263
41,106
5,689
49,422


28,881
2,285
143
6,624
36,515
74,448


389,561

13,150
1,303
404,014


755,172
66,891
1,077,129
159,590
2,058,782


1,248,614
94,194
46,188
100,745
324.352
1.814,093


2,075,955
171,994
35,631
27,858
2,311,438


1,943,244 2.1
551,972 0.6
4,937,834 5.4
417,782 0.5
7,850,832 8.6


1,301,383
109,474
1,061,049
321,136
675,879
3,468,921






EUROPE: It
Belgium ............................... 3,045 ...... ..... 1,670 1,022 ..... 44 494 ..... ..... 4 6,279 1,143,144 1.3 >
France ................................ ..... ...... ..... 2,027 7,181 1,028 132 35 ..... ..... 1,227 11,630 579,446 0.6
Italy .................................. ...... 284 ..... 89 146 ..... 206 ...... ..... ..... 1,373 2,098 469,826 0.5 >
Netherlands............................. 3,138 11,675 1,486 ..... 56,626 ..... 499 25,139 2,511 ..... 32,918 133,992 868,254 1.0
Norway ............................... ..... ..... ..... ..... 10,812 ..... ..... 3,901 ..... ..... 2,430 17,143 256,127 0.3 >
Spain-Portugal .......................... ...... 963 900 1,550 2,833 ..... ..... 1,027 ..... ..... 5,420 12,693 574,853 0.6
Sweden ................................ ...... ...... ..... ...... 348 ..... ..... ...... .... . . ..... ....... 348 174,422 0.2
U.S.S.R................................ ... ............... . . ...... .... . ..... ..... .... .... ...... 686,060 0.8 z
United Kingdom ......................... ... 1,194 5,397 . .. 14,248 ..... 4,327 11,040 . . . .... 19,258 55,464 422,689 0.5
West Germany ........... ............... 3,045 2,625 1,653 ..... 23,124 ..... ..... ...... .. ...... .... . 30,447 816,699 0.9
Europe (other)' .......................... 1,367 1,221 8,058 1,316 99,779 66 2,507 646 ..... ..... 47,551 162,511 2,458,089 2.7
Total Europe.......................... 10,595 17,962 17,494 6,652 216,119 1,094 7,715 42,282 2,511 ..... 110,181 432,605 8,449,609 9.3 O

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) ..... ...... 177 .. ... ......... 534 ..... ..... 574 1,285 170,642 0.2

AFRICA ...... 861 1,570 80 67,175 ..... 414 500 ..... ..... 4,339 74,939 1,309,968 1.4 /

GRANDTOTAL ...................... 9,162,964 8,103,064 896,751 185,757 27884,936 279,840 669,476 7.821,120 259,450 235,129 3006798 58,505,285 90,965,874 .....

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo .................. 10.1 8.9 1.0 0.2 30.7 0.3 0.7 8.6 0.3 0.3 3.3 64.3 100.0%


I Includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.










Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1990 0
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]
To E C.
To East Coast United States Canada To East Coast Central America

North South Great United I I Central
Atlantic Atlantic Lakes Gulf States America Cristobal
ports ports ports ports (other) I Total Canada Mexico Panama (other) I R.P.2 Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
A laska .......................................... ....... ....... ......... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ......... .........
H aw aii ......................................... . .. ......... 287 287 ......... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ......... .........
M mainland .................................. .. . 98,598 17,058 196.639 31.277 343,572 ........ ....... 4,324 45,293 ........ 53,154 278,365 381,136
Total United States ............................ 98,598 17,058 196,639 31,564 343,859 ......... ....... 4,324 45,293 ......... 53,154 278,365 381.,136

WEST COAST CANADA ............................... 313.466 73,552 38,030 55.791 480,839 41,447 ....... 23,885 ......... 43,861 ....... ......... 109.193

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ................ ........... ...... ......... 460 3 4.970 ....... 5,433 ......... ....... ....... ......... 2,345 2.952 ......... 5.297
El Salvador ........................................ 4.051 517 1.173 ....... 5,741 ......... ....... ....... 11.017 ......... ....... 26.477 37,494
Guatemala ......................................... 224 ....... ......... 18,846 19,070 ......... 12,846 8,809 3,993 2,850 5.639 15,135 49.272
Honduras ................... ...................... 1,552 1.266 ......... ....... 2,818 ......... ....... ....... ......... ........ ......... 18,826 18,826
M exico ............... ............................. 12,000 18.434 1,186 1,750 33,370 16.040 ....... 502 11,154 5,456 ....... ......... 33,152
Nicaragua ........................................... 13.901 221 35 ....... 14,157 6,621 .................................................... 6.621
Panama ............................................ ... .. ....... 3,373 4.791 8,164 ......... 3,176 5,866 ......... 15,214 ....... ......... 24.256
Central America (other) I ............................. 1,575 18,211 31,219 1,203 52.208 22.682 ....... ....... ......... 49,336 ....... ......... 72,018
Balboa, R. P. 2 ............................ ........ ... ... ....... .. . 3.149 3,149 ......... 97 ...... ......... ....... ..... .. 90 187
Total Central America ............................. 33,763 38,652 41,956 29,739 144.110 45.343 16,119 15,177 26,164 75,201 8,591 60,528 247,123

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ....................... ....................... 288 5,548 64,628 3,726 74,190 ......... 72,367 ....... 1.668 35,159 ....... 2,128 111,322 >
Colombia ............................... .......... ..... .. 7,837 23,819 2 31,658 ......... 3,612 ....... ......... 2,078 ....... 5,176 10,866 -3
Ecuador ............................................ 6.384 8,525 806 ....... 15,715 1,299.734 1,055 ....... 714,420 1.010,232 ....... 435,270 3,460,711
Peru ............................. ................ 1.436 3,734 60,024 11,117 76,311 21,076 140 3,853 30,553 129,265 ....... 187,983 372,870 CA
South America (other) I ............................... ....... 18,140 9,161 746 28,047 22,338 1,364 ....... ........ 6,497 ....... 19 30.218
Total South America .............................. 8,108 43,784 158,438 15,591 225,921 1,343,148 78,538 3,853 746.641 1,183,231 ....... 630.576 3,985,987


to






OCEANIA:
Australia ........................... ...................... 379,679 102,200 29,723 2,773,879 127,726 3,413,207 520,786 239,088 ....... ....... ....... 239,088 >
British Oceania ............................................ 12,568 22,449 ....... 16,446 ......... 51,463 1,742 ......... ....... ....... ....... .........
French Oceania .......................................... .. 11,071 4.552 ....... 2,165 168 17,956 7,149 ........ ....... ....... ....... .........
New Zealand .............................................. 171,905 39,038 ....... 62,192 17,311 290,446 36,274 70,169 ....... ....... 230 70,399
Oceania (other)' ... .... ..... .............................. 37,781 7,430 ....... 15,332 10,816 71.,359 7,663 1,665 ..... ...... ........... 1,665
Total Oceania................................ 613,004 175,669 29,723 2,870,014 156,021 3,844.,431 573,614 310,922 ....... ....... 230 311,152

ASIA:
China ....................................................... 129,457 9,419 15,012 1,374,096 73,692 1,601.676 185,976 12,205 ....... ....... ....... 12,205
Taiwan...................................................... 565,523 288,485 ..... 39.015 201,105 1.094,128 85,061 1,960 ....... 2,969 26,686 31,615
Hong Kong ............... ................................ 345,046 198,954 ....... 1,676 59,033 604,709 85,629 ......... ....... 42 72,256 72,298
Indonesia .................................................... 109,938 22,062 ....... 266,343 189,177 597,520 10,500 ......... ....... ....... ....... ........
Japan ......... ..................... .......... 1,991,681 1,032,324 135,839 1.715,632 852,409 5,727,885 57,339 8.549 ....... 991 29,252 38,792 0
Philippine Islands ......................................... 140,790 1,562 ....... 77,814 81,095 301,261 13,145 4,758 ....... ....... ....... 4,758
Singapore ........... ..................................... 334,640 206,319 ....... 39,696 51,883 632,538 81,520 ......... ....... ....... 20,802 20,802
South Korea ................................................. 213,393 84,978 ....... 82,756 282,560 663,687 53,241 ......... ....... ....... 22,299 22,299
Thailand .................................... ............ 2,943 1,476 2,502 8,045 14,966 ................................ ...... ......... /
U.S.S.R .................................................... ... ...... ........ ... ........ .......... ......... 780 .............................. .........
Asia (other)' ............................................. 616,079 290,926 6,469 100,860 272,118 1,286,452 19,730 41,010 ...... 1585 145,481 188,076 0
Total Asia............................................ 4,449,490 2,136,505 157,320 3,700,390 2,071,117 12,514,822 592,921 68,482 ....... 5,587 316,776 390,845 Z

GRAND TOTAL ...................................... 11,836,153 3,201,349 187,043 10,256,039 3,270,824 28,751,408 1,515061 1,015,946 852,343 82,964 360,335 2,311,588

Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo.................................... 17.9 4.8 0.3 15.5 4.9 43.5 2.3 1.5 1.3 0.1 0.5 3.5



See footnotes at end of table.









Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1990 1
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]

To East Coast South America To West Indies

I I Hain, Nether-
South Domini- lands Trini- West
Colom- Vene- America can West Puerto dad/ Indies
Brazil bia zuela (other) I Total Cuba Republic Jamaica Indies Rico Tobago (other) I Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
A laska .......................................... ....... ....... ......... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ......... .........
Hawaii ...................................................... ......... 287 287 ......... ....... ....... .................. ....... ........ .....
Mainland ...................................... 98,598 17,058 196,639 31,277 343,572 ....... .. ...... 4.324 45,293 ......... 53.154 278,365 381,136
Total United States ........................... 98,598 17.058 196,639 31,564 343,859 ......... ....... 4.324 45.293 ......... 53,154 278,365 381,136

WEST COAST CANADA ............................... 313.466 73.552 38,030 55,791 480,839 41,447 ....... 23,885 ......... 43,861 ....... ......... 109,193

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica .......................................... 460 3 4,970 ....... 5,433 ......... ....... ....... ......... 2.345 2,952 ......... 5.297
El Salvador ............................. ............ 4.051 517 1,173 ....... 5.741 ...... .. ........ ....... 11,017 ......... ....... 26,477 37,494
Guatemala .......................................... 224 ....... ......... 18,846 19.070 ......... 12.846 8,809 3,993 2,850 5.639 15,135 49,272
Honduras ................ ......................... 1.552 1,266 ......... ....... 2,818 ......... ....... ....... ... ... . ....... ..... 18,826 18,826
Mexico ............................................ 12.000 18.,434 1,186 1.750 33,370 16,040 ....... 502 11,154 5,456 ....... ......... 33,152
Nicaragua ......................................... 13.901 221 35 ....... 14,157 6,621 ....... .................. ............ ........... 6.621
Panama ................................... .......... ...... ....... 3.373 4,791 8,164 ......... 3,176 5,866 ......... 15.214 ....... ......... 24,256
Central America (other) I.............................. 1,575 18,211 31,219 1,203 52,208 22,682 ....... ....... ......... 49,336 ....... ......... 72,018
Balboa, R. P. 2 ............................. ...... ....... ....... ........ 3.149 3,149 ......... 97 .... ....... ........... .... 90 187
Total Central America ............................. 33,763 38.652 41,956 29,739 144,110 45,343 16,119 15,177 26.164 75,201 8.591 60,528 247,123

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ....................... ........................ 288 5.648 64,628 3,726 74,190 ......... 72,367 ....... 1,668 35,159 ....... 2,128 111,322 >
Colombia .......................................... ....... 7,837 23,819 2 31,658 ......... 3,612 ....... ......... 2,078 ....... 5.176 10.866
Ecuador... ......................................... 6.384 8.525 806 ....... 15,715 1,299,734 1,055 ....... 714,420 1.010,232 ....... 435.270 3,460,711
Peru ............................................... 1,436 3,734 60,024 11,117 76,311 21,076 140 3,853 30,553 129,265 ....... 187,983 372.870
South America (other) ............................... ....... 18.140 9.161 746 28,047 22.338 1,364 ....... ......... 6,497 ....... 19 30,218
Total South America ............................... 8,108 43,784 158,438 15,591 225,921 1,343,148 78.538 3.853 746.641 1.183,231 ....... 630,576 3,985,987




T"
PI

U/






OCEANIA: It
Australia .......... .................................. 1,575 32,873 865.696 ....... 900.144 ......... ....... 970 271 134 5,073 2.849 9,297
British Oceania ............ I .......................... ....... ....... ......... ........................ ....... ....... ......... 1,312 ....... ......... 1,312
French Oceania ......................................................................................................... ............. 8 8
New Zealand ...................................... ....... ....... 13,100 ....... 13,100 2,794 5,281 4,650 230 493 2.778 8,856 25,082
Oceania (other) ................ ...... ....... ....... ......... ....... ....... ......... ....... ....... 150 10,844 39 ......... 11,033
Total Oceania..................................... 1,575 32,873 878,796 ....... 913,244 2,794 5,281 5,620 651 12,783 7,890 11.713 46,732

ASIA: >
China............................................... 257 18,094 21.490 ....... 39,841 353.817 ....... .. .... ...... ....... .. ..... 1.516 355,333 z
Taiwan ........................................... 1,102 1,164 728 45 3,039 ......... 7,039 15,768 4,585 5,663 1,111 6.288 40,454
Hong Kong......................................... 545 508 4,902 12 5,967 7 1,544 30,952 8,064 3,002 838 5.867 50,274
Indonesia ............... ......................................... ................ ... ...................................... ...................
Japan..........................,................... 19,840 20,842 54,354 9,322 104,358 9,184 19,403 34,831 7,128 76,878 8.268 29,775 185.467 0
Philippine Islands ................................... ....... ....... .... .. ... ...... ........ ........ ...... .... ... ........ ........ ... .... ........ ........
Singapore ............ ............................... 197 351 707 ....... 1,255 ......... 2,044 500 3,661 1.251 103 2,913 10,472
South Korea........................................ 3,712 1,147 3,572 193 8,624 9,289 2.066 17,677 645 5,316 919 10,222 46,134
Thailand ....................................... ...... ....... . ....... ......... 106,505 ....... ....... ......... 19,684 ....... ......... 126,189
U.S.S.R. ................ ................................................................ 261,155 ....... ....... .......... ..... ....... ......... 261,155
Asia (other) ........................................ 9,955 6,818 27,710 13.674 58,157 107,104 35.238 15,213 6,155 14,527 4,592 29784 212,613 0
Total Asia ......................................... 35,608 48,924 113,463 23,246 221,241 847,061 67,334 114,941 30,238 126,321 15,831 86,365 1.288,091 Z

GRAND TOTAL ................................ 491.118 254.843 1,427,322 155,931 2,329,214 2,279,793 167,272 167,800 848,987 1,441,397 85,466 1.067.547 6.058,262

Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ........................... 0.7 0.4 2.2 0.2 3.5 3.4 0.3 0.3 1.3 2.2 0.1 1.6 9.2



See footnotes at end of table.














-a










Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1990 0
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]
To Europe

I Den- Nether- Spain/ United Yugo- West Europe I
Belgium mark Finland France Italy lands Portugal Sweden Kingdom U.S.S.R. slavia Germany (other) I Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ........................... ...... 153,531 ....... 378 35,274 82,757 .... .... 9,109 ....... 16,671 ....... ....... 33,864 103,876 435,460

Hawaii .................................. ................ ....... 19,531 ........................................................................... .. 19,531
Mainland ............................. 673,537 21,966 11,564 210,521 224,740 1,979,996 175,584 84,922 232.763 11,549 13,895 444,525 1,106,478 5,192.040
Total United States................... 827,068 21,966 11,942 265,326 307,497 1,979,996 184,693 84,922 249,434 11,549 13,895 478,389 1,210,354 5,647,031

WEST COAST CANADA ........................ 1,037,531 1,704 358,140 496,942 522.763 809,345 183,391 7,483 2.052,220 206,429 3,491 235,706 1,622.264 7,537,409

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ............... .................. 639 ............... 63 1,234 654 ......... ....... ......... 995 ....... 1,713 5,332 10.630
El Salvador .................................. 1.133 ....... ....... ....... 2.782 6,017 4,912 ....... ........ .............. 28,192 24,602 67.638
Guatemala ........................................... ............................. 21,417 2.110 ....... 21,160 15,021 ....... 26,214 1,720 87,642
H onduras ................................... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... ......... 3,596 ....... ......... ....... ....... ......... ......... 3,596
Mexico ........... ......................... 32,723 .............. 1,057 42,566 4,315 20,683 ....... 1,968 ....... ....... 1,092 89,277 193,681
Nicaragua ... ............................... 84,060 ....... ....... ..... 82 4,246 10,608 ....... 9,842 40,855 ....... 9,775 37,225 196.693
Panama ... ................................. 52,351 ....... ....... 4706 84,371 5,905 13,273 5,292 ......... ....... ....... 214,608 6,940 387,446
Central America (other)' ...................... 6,363 ....... ....... 1,620 2,181 6,450 1,179 ....... ......... 388 173 20,000 9,482 47,836
Balboa, R.P.2................................ .......... ................-..--.-.-.......:........................... .... ..... ...........
Total Central America ....................... 177,269 ....... ....... 7,446 133,216 49,004 56,361 5,292 32,970 57,259 173 301,594 174,578 995,162

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA: .
Chile ....................................... 503,792 ....... ....... 140,120 153,188 555,476 209,111 58,539 253,468 ....... 22,056 561,532 467,747 2.925,029 ,-
Colombia ................................... 14,239 ....... ....... 1,651 1,081 45,896 1,645 593 1,315 ....... 1,353 180,618 20,668 269,059 >
Ecuador ..................................... 95,666 .............. 19,211 130,471 34,834 56,673 772 25,137 17,468 35.394 141,814 139,656 697,096 ]
Peru ...................................... 245,080 ....... ....... 28,483 130.680 49,924 65,558 4,884 81,448 128,093 171,512 404,773 257,649 1,568.084
South America (other)' ....................... 11,019 ...... ....... 10,566 77,609 23,905 33,567 128 48.172 468,534 25,580 5,953 115,921 820,954
Total South America ....................... 869,796 ....... ....... 200,031 493,029 710,035 366,554 64,916 409,540 614,095 255,895 1,294.690 1,001.641 6,280,222


>

'a
r/






OCEANIA:
Australia .................... ............... 67.254 ....... ....... 4,366 2,459 9,019 ......... 5,998 28,819 ....... ....... 24,632 30,654 173,201
British Oceania .............................. 814 ....... ....... 4 ......... 85,448 ......... 152,605 ......... ....... ....... 5 ......... 238,876
French Oceania .............................. ........ ....... ....... I ......... ......... ......... ..... .......... ....... ....... .................. I
New Zealand ....................... ........ 208.169 ....... ....... 5.114 13,569 97,575 4,273 12,290 57,319 2.311 ....... 8.247 90.633 499,500
Oceania (other)' ............................. 976 ...... ....... 26 220 4,334 ......... ....... 2,194 ...... ..... 5,013 16,102 28.865
Total Oceania ............................ 277,213 ....... ....... 9.511 16,248 196,376 4,273 170,893 88,332 2,311 ....... 37,897 137,389 940.443


ASIA:
China .............................................................
Taiw an ..................................... 118 ....... .......
Hong Kong ................................ ....... ....... .......
Indonesia .....................................................
Japan ..... ................................ 6.427 ....... .......
Philippine Islands ............................ ........ ..............
Singapore ........................... ...... .. .... ...... .......
South Korea ................................ 598 379 .......
Thailand .................................. .......................
U .S.S.R ......... ......................... ........ .. .. ......
Asia (other)' ........... ..................... 1,660 ............
Total Asia ................................ 8.803 379 .......


46 ......... 6,952 330 ....... ......... ....... ....... 354 140 7,940
601 ......... 1,550 339 ....... 2,838 ....... ....... 2,632 13.366 21.326

10,468 ......... 92,249 55,863 671 12,414 48 ....... 12.576 31,350 222.066
... ...... 3,273 ......... ....... ......... ....... ....... ......... ......... 3,273
58 ......... ......... ......... ....... ......... ....... ....... ......... 842 900
....... ......... 1,122 1,283 ....... ......... ....... ....... 134 804 4,320

.. ........ ........ ........ ... .. .. ........ 172 ....... ......... ......... 172
763 ......... 2,071 863 666 3,257 ....... ....... 2,365 71.254 82,899
11,936 ......... 107,217 58,678 1,337 18.509 220 ....... 18.061 117,756 342,896


GRAND TOTAL ......................... 3,197.680 24,049 370,082 991,192 1,472,753 3.851,973 853,950 334,843 2,851,005 891,863 273,454 2,366.337 4,263,982 21.743.163


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ...................


4.8 0.0 0.6 1.5


2.2 5.8 1.3 0.5 4.3 1.3 0.4


3.6 6.5 32.9


See footnotes at end of table.









Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1990 l
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]
To Asia
(Middle
East) To Africa Percent
of total
I 1Asia I Atlantic-
(Middle South Africa Grand bound
East) Algeria Egypt Morocco Africa Tunisia (other) 1 Total Total cargo
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ........ ................................ ......................... ....... ....... ......... 53,093 ....... ....... ....... 53,093 612,336 0.9
Hawaii ......................................... ........ ....... ........ .... ..... .. .... ...... ...... ... ..... .. 201 201 229,388 0.3
Mainland .......................... ........................................ 42.647 114.546 934,197 27,361 111,473 43,550 96,897 1,328,024 8,298,052 12.6
Total United States .......................................................... 42.647 114.546 934,197 80,454 111.473 43.550 97,098 1,381,318 9,139,776 13.8

WEST COAST CANADA ........................................................... 265,358 270.393 40,957 715,321 ....... 249.159 166,049 1,441,879 10,919,048 16.5

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ...................................................................... ... ..... .... ............... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 99.788 0.2
El Salvador ........................................................................................................................ .......... 203.572 0.3
Guatemala ............................ ....................................... II ....... ....... ....... ... 13 24.211 46,486 70,710 588,540 0.9
Honduras ........'................................................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 4,416 4,416 37,738 0.1
M exico ............................................................ ................ ....... ....... 1,445 ......... ....... 26,047 ....... 27.492 1.705.630 2.6
Nicaragua .......................................... ............................. ....... ....... ......... 13,776 ....... ....... 1,771 15,547 315,724 0.5
Panama .............. .............................................................. ....... ....... ......... ......... 100 ....... ....... 100 503,158 0.8
Central America (other) ............................. ...... ....... ...... .. .. ....... ...... ....... . ........ ... .... .. ..... 5,482 5,482 198,305 0.3
Balboa, R. P. 2........... ...................... ..............................15 ..... .............. ..................... 15 7,674 0.0
Total Central America ............................ ............ II ............ ........... I I ....... 1.445 13.776 113 50.258 58.170 123,762 3,660,129 5.5

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ............. .... ........................................................ 3,423 5,011 ......... ......... ....... ....... 13.502 18,513 5.341,749 8.1 >
Colombia.... ................................................................................................................................ 801,287 1.2
Ecuador ..................... ................... .. ......................... 24,395 9.645 .................... .... ...... ..... 9,645 8,887,695 13.4
Peru ................................................... ...................... 14.860 35,442 ........ ......... ....... ....... 3,895 39,337 4.214.201 6.4
South America (other) I ... ............ ....... ........ .............. ... ....... 10,833 ......... ......... ....... ....... 9.202 20,035 1,149,562 1.7
Total South America ............................ .... ............................... 42,678 60,931 ......... ......... ....... ..... 26.599 87,530 20.394.494 30.9 >

>



ci





OCEANIA: 10
A ustralia ............... .......................................................... 1,368 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 5,257,091 8.0 >
British Oceania .................. ........................... ... ... .. ............. .... .. . ...... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 293.393 0.4 Z
French Oceania ...................................................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 25,114 0.0 >
New Zealand............................................................... ......... 921 3.949 .......... .. ... ..... ......... ... .... 3.949 939.671 1.4
Oceania (other) I ... ................................................ ................. 2 ....... ......... ........ ....... ...... ....... .. ...... 120,587 0.2 >
Total Oceania .............. .. .... .......................................... 2,291 3,949 ........ ......... ........ ....... ....... 3,949 6,635,856 10.0 (

ASIA:
China................................................................................................................................... 2.195,031 3.3
Taiwan ............... ........................ ....................................... 1.067 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 123 123 1.263,427 1.9
H ong Kong ....... ................................................................... 101 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 840,304 1.3
Indonesia ........ .................................................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 598,020 0.9
Japan .............................................................................. 1855 ....................................... 3,265 3.265 6.341,027 9.6 1
Philippine Islands ............................................................................................................................. 322,437 0.5
Singapore ................................................................................................................................... 747,487 1.1
South Korea ...... ................................................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 83 83 798.388 1.2
Thailand .................................................................................................................................... 141,155 0.2
U.S.S.R.... ..................................................... I 0...I .......I................ ........................10. 10 262.117 0.4
Asia (other) ....................................................................... 462 ... ... ... ......... ..... .... ....... 20 20 1.848.409 2.8 Cd)
Total Asia ..... ........... .......................................... ................... 3,485 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 3.501 3,501 15.357.802 23.2

GRAND TOTAL .............................................................. 356,470 449,819 976.599 809.551 111,586 342.967 351,417 3,041,939 66,107.105

Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ............................. 0.7 1.5 1.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 4.6 100.0%



> Also includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transship cargo








STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific
[Thousands of long tons]


EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals .................
Caustic soda .................................
Chemicals, unclassified ........................
Toulene ...................................
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .............
G rains ............................. .............
Soybeans ....................................
Lumber and products .............................
Plywood, veneers, composition board............
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............
Manufactures of iron and steel .....................
Other and unclassified .........................
M inerals, m iscellaneous............................
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ....................
Ammonium compounds .......................
Phosphates ...................................
Ores and metals, miscellaneous .....................
Other agricultural commodities .....................
Coffee .......................................
Petroleum and products ...........................
Crude oil ....................................
Diesel oil ....................................
Fuel oil, residual ..............................
G gasoline .....................................
Jet fuel ......................................
K erosene ....................................
Liquefied gas .. ........................
Lubricating oil ...............................
Petroleum coke ...............................
Other and unclassified .........................
M miscellaneous ....................................
Container cargo ..............................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total .................................

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ....
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ....................
Phosphates ..............................
Total .................................

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous.........
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals .................
Caustic soda .................................
Chemicals, unclassified .............. .......
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ...........
Coal ........................................
Grains ...........................................
Barley .......................................
C orn ........................................
R ice .........................................
Sorghum ....................................
Soybeans ....................................


Fiscal year
1 1990 1989 1988

541 509 429
119 149 98
332 197 176
28 39 30
62 124 125
57 ....... .......
57 ....... .......

....... ....... 2
....... 7 1
....... 2 .......
....... 2 ......
.. ..... 1 .
....... 66 ....
....... 29 .......
....... 37 .......
....... 28 .......
....... ....... 2
....... ....... 2
801 744 567
9 1 ....... .......
....... 19 .......
29 54 37
339 221 254
35 101 .......
....... 11 .......
....... ....... 1
271 290 271
36 ....... .......
....... 48 4
39 33 11
29 30 10
10 3 1
1,439 1,401 1,011


48
194
194
243




17
5
12


2,014

1,229

272
152


24
171
171
195




I

39

39
1,368

571
57
133
318


200
200
200



3
3
2
1
174
174
946
9
460
14

218









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 81


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1990 1989 1988 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Grains-Continued
W heat ....................................... 361 277 245
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... 12 .......
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ I 1 2
Machinery and equipment ......................... ....... 3 2
Construction machinery and equipment.......... ....... ....... 2
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... 3 ......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 9 I 4
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 1,328 917 605
Ammonium compounds ....................... 181 129 95
Fishm eal..................................... .. ... ....... 8
Phosphates ................................... 989 662 403
Potash ............................ .... ...... 4 10 16
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 154 116 83
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 113 29 16
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 38 2 33
Beans, edible ........................... .. ....... I 4
C otton, raw .................................. .. .. ........ 1
O ilseeds ..................................... 26 ....... 28
Peas, dry ................................. ....... .......
Sugar ....................................... 12 .... ... .
Petroleum and products ........................... 363 276 197
D iesel oil .................................... 144 113 79
Fuel oil, residual .............................. ....... 34 33
Gasoline ..................................... 196 113 77
Jet fuel ...................................... 8 6 2
Kerosene .................................... 8 7 3
Liquefied gas.................................. 5 2 2
Lubricating oil ............................... ....... 1 .......
Other and unclassified ......................... 2 ....... I
M miscellaneous ................ ................... 83 104 71
Flour, wheat ..................................... ....... 1 .......
Oil, vegetable ................................. 17 24 21
Paper and paper products ...................... 28 17 23
Tallow ...................................... 37 48 12
C ontainer .................................... ....... 3 5
All other and unclassified ...................... I I 1 10
Total .................. .................. 3,966 2,741 2,056

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 4 2 28
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 275 264 241
Caustic soda ................................. 81 88 54
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 181 157 169
Benzene ..................................... I 6 3
Toulene ..................................... 6 6 5
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous .................. 6 7 10
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 525 591 59
Coal ........................................ 525 591 59
Grains ........................................... 1,514 1331 2,245
Corn ........................................ 349 259 719
O ats ........................................ 1 2 5
Rice......................................... 174 97 13
Sorghum .................................... 30 33 136









82 STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
S1990 1989 1988 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Grains-Continued
Soybeans ................. ................... 90 48 324
W heat ....................................... 865 889 1,043
Other and unclassified ........ .................. 5 3 5
Lumber and products ............................. 4 7 34
Boards and planks ............................ ....... ....... 21
Plywood, veneers, composition board............ I I I
Pulpwood .................................... 2 3 7
Other and unclassified ........ .................. 1 3 5
Machinery and equipment ......................... 74 92 62
Agricultural machinery and implements .......... 15 18 18
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ....... 28 27 17
Construction machinery and equipment.......... 18 27 18
Electrical machinery and apparatus.............. 7 7 5
Other and unclassified ......................... 6 13 4
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 45 28 28
Angles, shapes and sections .................... 5 8 6
Nails, tacks and spikes ......................... ....... I 2
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 4 10 2
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 5 6 7
W ire, bars and rods ........................... 28 2 1
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 I 10
Minerals, miscellaneous ............................ 22 24 34
A sbestos ..................................... ....... 2 2
Infusorial earth ........................... ... ....... ...... .
Soda and sodium compounds .................. 18 17 24
Sulfur ....................................... 4 5 7
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 452 593 700
Ammonium compounds ....................... 14 II 9
Nitrate of soda ............................... ..... ....... 2
Phosphates ........................ ........... 197 187 292
Potash ...................................... 35 36 32
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 206 359 365
Ores and metals .................................. 63 58 134
O res ................. .. .. ..... ........... 18 18 14
Alum ina/bauxite ......................... I ......
Other and unclassified ..................... 17 18 14
M etals ....................................... 45 40 120
Alum inum ............................... 18 2 1
Iron .................................. I ....... 16
Scrap ................... .............. 26 36 102
Tin, including tinplate ..................... ....... 1 .......
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... I I
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 51 12 16
Beans, edible ................ ................ 6 1 I
Copra and coconuts ........................... I I .......
Cotton, raw .................................. I 2 3
O ilseeds ....... ... ............. ........... ....... 7 I
Peas, dry ................................... 3 ....... I
Rubber, raw ................................. 1 1 2
Skin and hides ....................... ........ 3 ....... .......
Sugar ....................................... 36 ....... 8
Petroleum and products ........................... 352 558 643
C rude oil ................................ . ..... 3 .......
Diesel oil .................................... 202 301 327
Fuel oil, residual .............................. ....... 27 I








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 83

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
S1990 1989 1988 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Petroleum and products-Continued
Gasoline .................. . ..... ........ 39 114 46
Jet fuel ...................................... 42 54 182
Kerosene .................................... 27 1 .
Liquefied gas ................................. 7 ....... 1
Lubricating oil ............................... 34 58 76
Other and unclassified ......................... I ....... ....
M miscellaneous ........................ ............. 978 876 855
Bricks and tile ................................ I 4 2
Carbon black ................................. ..... . ...... I
Clay, fire and china ........................... 5 11 7
Fibers, plant ................................. I 2 3
Flour, wheat ................................. 73 50 53
Glass and glassware ........................... I 2 2
Groceries, miscellaneous ............... ... .. 2 1 3
M arble and stone ............................. ....... 20 7
Oil, coconut .................................. 6 3 3
Oil, vegetable ................................. 30 36 23
Paper and paper products ...................... 187 147 138
Resin........................................ 19 25 32
Rubber, manufactured......................... 3 7 3
Tallow ...................................... 34 42 56
Textiles ...................................... 3 4 7
Container cargo .............................. 548 454 431
All other and unclassified ...................... 65 68 84
Total ................ ... ................. 4,360 4436 5079


EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 5 5 3
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 11 6 13
G rains........................................... 113 135 132
Corn ........................................ 32 35 24
R ice............................... . .. . ...... ....... 2
Soybeans ..................................... 25 28 28
W heat ....................................... 55 71 78
Other and unclassified ......................... I I .......
M inerals, miscellaneous............................ 2 I .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... ....... ....... 3
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 9 5 6
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ....... 4 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 249 161 123
Diesel oil .................................... 84 103 69
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 143 28 7
Gasoline ............................ ......... 20 8 27
Jet fuel ...................................... I 19 .....
Other and unclassified ... ...................... I 3 20
M miscellaneous .................................... 41 33 33
Flour, wheat ................................. .. .. ........ 6
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 2 I .......
Oil, coconut ............................ . ... . ...... I
Oil, vegetable ................................. 4 .......
Tallow ...................................... 2 1 1
Container cargo .............................. 27 26 23
All other and unclassified ...................... 6 5 I
Total ....................... ............ .. 429 350 313








STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]


EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous.........
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals .................
Caustic soda .................................
Chemicals, unclassified ........................
Benzene .....................................
Toulene .....................................
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous..................
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ...........
C oke ........................................
Grains ...........................................
Corn .....................................
Sorghum ............. ...... ..............
Soybeans ............. .... ..............
Other and unclassified .........................
Lumber and products .............................
Pulpwood ....................................
Machinery and equipment .........................
Agricultural machinery and equipment...........
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts .......
Construction machinery and equipment ..........
Electrical machinery and apparatus..............
Other and unclassified .........................
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........
M inerals, miscellaneous............................
Soda and sodium compounds ..................
Sulfur .......................................
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ....................
Ammonium compounds .......................
Phosphates ... .........................
Potash ......................................
Fertilizers, unclassified.........................
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........
Petroleum and products ...........................
Crude oil ....................................
Diesel oil ........................ .........
Fuel oil, residual..............................
Gasoline .....................................
Jet fuel ......................................
Kerosene ....................................
Liquefied gas ...... .............. ........
Lubricating oil ...........................
Petroleum coke ...............................
Other and unclassified .........................
Miscellaneous ....................................
Carbon black ... .......................
Clay, fire and china .........................
Oil, vegetable ...............................
Paper and paper products......................
Rubber, manufactured................... ..
Container cargo ..............................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total ..................... ............


EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ................ ......
Canned foods, miscellaneous ...................
Refrigerated foods ............................


Fiscal year
S1990 1989 1988 I

16 12 19
648 838 690
517 660 536
116 158 147
5 3 .......
3 I 4
7 16 3
32 3 19
32 3 19
94 86 122
18 8 10
3 24 ....
60 54 112
13 .....
22 _20 28
22 20 28
15 6 7
2 2 2
11 1 2
1 3 1
....... ... ... l
1 ....... 1
I1 25 .......
39 18 II
39 18 10

885 1,026 552
9 18 19
483 864 408
42 43 39
351 101 86
15 16 5
9 ....... .......
274 313 207
....... 21 .......
....... ...... 65
3 ....... ......
35 28 I
....... 4 .......
....... 1 ... ....
35 57 59
25 23 32
133 155 48
43 24 2
33
37 33 25
1 1 1
II1 7 38
3 5 I
6 ....... .......
555 607 467
19 4 6
2,692 3,020 -2231


298
12
286


394
8
386


368

368








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 85


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
I 1990 1989 1988
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Canned and refrigerated foods-Continued
Refrigerated foods-Continued
Fish ..................................... 1 1 .......
Fruit, excluding bananas ................... 44 167 150
M eat .................................... 2 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ..................... 239 218 218
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 3,605 3,639 3,445
Caustic soda ................................. 138 219 163
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 2,262 1,979 1,979
Benzene ................. .................. 78 84 106
Toulene ..................................... 80 139 122
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 1,047 1,218 1,075
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 4.205 4,416 4,812
Coal ....................................... 4,153 4,206 4,732
Coke ........................................ 52 210 80
Grains.......................... ................. 23835 24,727 28,701
Barley ....................................... ....... .... ... 91
Corn ........................................ 12,348 9,593 14,939
R ice ......................................... 13 ....... 33
Sorghum .................................... 1,718 1,750 2,025
Soybeans .................................... 5,625 4,684 6,143
W heat ................. ..................... 3,934 8,283 5,188
Other and unclassified ......................... 197 417 282
Lumber and products ............................. 2,301 2,013 1117
Boards and planks ............................ 9 37 20
Plywood, veneers, composition board............ ....... 2 12
Pulpwood ..................................... 728 899 705
Other and unclassified ......................... 1,564 1,075 380
Machinery and equipment ......................... 45 51 49
Agricultural machinery and equipment........... 8 ....... 3
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ....... 8 14 7
Construction machinery and equipment.......... 19 13 8
Electrical machinery and apparatus.............. 3 6 22
Other and unclassified ......................... 7 18 9
Manufactures of iron and steel ..................... 1,203 1,425 115
Angles, shapes and sections .................... 85 35 I
Nails, tacks and coils .......................... ....... 13 .......
Plates, sheets and coils ........................ 900 1,031 86
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 10 85 .......
W ires, bars and rods .......................... 100 108 6
Other and unclassified ......................... 108 153 22
M inerals, miscellaneous............................ 65 11 5
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 5,361 5,230 5,256
Ammonium compounds ....................... 8 54 88
Phosphates .................................. 4,956 4,726 4,282
Potash ...................................... 93 32 44
Fertilizers, unclassified............. ............ 304 418 842
Ores and metals .................................. 1,958 1,659 1,870
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... 56 87 49
M etals ....................................... 902 1,572 1,821
A lum inum ............................... ....... I 5
C opper .................................. 6 ....... 13
Iron ..................................... 3 ....... 35
Lead .................................... 3 ....... . .
Scrap ................................... 1,853 1,559 1,762
Tin, including tinplate ..................... ....... I .......








86 STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1990 1989 1988
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Ores and metals-Continued
Metals-Continued
Z inc............................ ... .... ........ 5 I
Other and unclassified ..... ................ 37 6 5
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 125 240 113
Beans, edible ................................. 67 120 38
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ .... ....... 27
Cotton, raw .................................. 45 112 .......
M olasses ..................................... 11 8 8
Oilseeds ..................................... 2 ....... 40
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,836 1,719 2,261
Diesel oil .................................... 273 37 108
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 93 ....... 55
Gasoline ..................................... 55 17 274
Jet fuel ...................................... 289 287 457
Kerosene .................................... 66 38 30
Liquefied gas ................................. 319 373 179
Lubricating oil ............................... 104 140 97
Petroleum coke .................. ............ 591 768 1,051
Other and unclassified ......................... 46 59 10
M miscellaneous .................................... 7229 6,935 6,716
Carbon black ................................ 21 56 .......
Cem ent ...................................... 4 ....... .......
Clay, fire and china ........................... 535 456 371
Flour, wheat ................................. ....... 30 31
Glass and glassware ........................... ....... ....... 3
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 43 3 II
Marble and stone ............................. 16 I I 4
Oil, vegetable ................................. 67 61 55
Paper and paper products ...................... 292 291 240
Resin ........................................ 14 16 32
Rubber, manufactured......................... 6 5 I
Tallow ...................................... ....... 2 6
W ax, paraffin ................................ 8 10 1
Container cargo .............................. 6,117 5,730 5,801
All other and unclassified ...................... 106 264 160
Total ..................... ................ 52,066 52,459 5J .S2

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST UNITED
STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... I ....... .......
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ ....... 4 .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ ....... ....... 11
M miscellaneous .................................... 53 13 7
Container cargo ................... ......... 53 13 7
Total ................ ........ ............ 54 17 17

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 2 I 1
Grains, miscellaneous .............................. 8 2 4
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ 4 ....... .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ ....... I I
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ ....... ....... I
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 6 ....... .......
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ I I .......








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 87


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1990 1989 1988 I
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA-Continued
M miscellaneous .................................... 8 11 10
Beans, edible .............................. ... ....... I .......
Flour, wheat ................................. 2 3 .......
O il, vegetable................................. I ....... .......
Paper and paper products ...................... 4 5 3
Container cargo .............................. ....... ....... I
All other and unclassified ...................... I 2 6
Total ............................ . .. ........ 28 16 17

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST SOUTH
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 1 2 13
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 98 ....... ......
C oal ........................................ 98 ....... .......
Lumber and products ............................. ....... .
Pulpwood ....................................... ........ I .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 2 ....... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 19 17 .......
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 4 7 10
A sbestos ..................................... 4 7 10
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 73 19 37
Phosphates ................................... 10 ...... .......
Potash ...................................... 63 19 37
Ores and metals, miscellaneous .......... ..... ... ....... 22 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 28 34 31
Flour, wheat ................................. 9 8 3
Paper and paper products ...................... 15 16 24
Container cargo .............................. 3 1 I
All other and unclassified ...................... I 9 3
Total ..................... ............... 227 102 91

EAST COAST CANADA TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 14 11 2
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ I ....... .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ ........ ....... 2
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 7 10 .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 30 ....... 18
Potash ...................................... 30 ....... 18
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... ....... 55 3
M miscellaneous .................................... 154 196 139
Paper and paper products ...................... 32 30 20
Container cargo .............................. 122 166 119
Total ...................... .............. 206 273 164

EAST COAST CANADA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 59 49 64
Refrigerated foods ................. ......... 59 49 64
Fish ..................................... 50 39 47
M eat .................................. . ... ....... I I
Other and unclassified ...................... 9 10 6
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 7 ..............
G rains........................................... 116 276 292
Soybeans .................................... 10 35 40
W heat ........................... ....... .... 106 241 252









STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]


EAST COAST CANADA TO ASIA-Continued
Machinery and equipment, Miscellaneous ............
Lumber and products ................. ......... ..
Boards and planks ............................
Pulpwood ....................................
Other and unclassified .........................
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........
M inerals, miscellaneous............................
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ....................
Ores and metals ..................................
Ores, miscellaneous ...........................
M etals .......................................
A lum inum ...............................
Copper ..................................
Lead ....................................
Scrap ...................................
Z inc .....................................
Other and unclassified .....................
Petroleum and products ...........................
Fuel oil, residual..............................
Jet fuel ......................................
Lubricating oil ...............................
Miscellaneous ....................................
Flour, wheat .................................
M arble and stone .............................
Paper and paper products......................
Resin...................... . ..........
Slag, clinkers and dross........................
Container cargo .............................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total .................................

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ....
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........
Nitrates, phosphates and potash ....................
Ammonium compounds .......................
Phosphates ...................................
Fertilizers, unclassified.........................
Petroleum and products ...........................
A sphalt ......................................
Crude oil ....................................
Diesel oil ....................................
Fuel oil, residual..............................
Gasoline .....................................
Jet fuel ......................................
Liquefied gas .................................
Other and unclassified .........................
Miscellaneous .................................
Cement ......... ............................
Paper and paper products......................
Container cargo ............................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total ................ ................


Fiscal rear
I 990 1989 1988

....... 2 1
18-4 282 274
....... 18 .......
165 247 251
19 17 23
7 8 10
383 448 133
....... 4 .......
96 ....... 40
225 238 222
77 31 41
148 207 181
....... 3 1
1 ....... .......

146 202 176
... .. . ..... 4
....... 2 .......
126 ....... .......
93 ....... .......
25 ....... .......
8 ....... .......
449 468 428
....... ....... 33
42 74 37
166 185 154
....... ....... 7
30 10 10
209 197 170
2 2 17
1,653 1,773 1,463


2
338
41
28
269
872
22
435
90
19
64

226
16
14
13



1,226


427
51
49
327
856
21
382
20

34

399






1,284


16
2

297
95
2
200
2.039
8
565
78
946
5
10
427






2,356









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 89


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1990 1989 1988
EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 3 8 8
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 2 I 5
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 7 8 9
M inerals, m iscellaneous............................ 1 ....... 9
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 90 71 49
Phosphates ................................... 4 1 I
Fertilizers, miscellaneous....................... 86 70 48
Ores and metals,miscellaneous ...................... 6 II 9
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ 2 7 3
Petroleum and products ........................... 268 158 78
A sphalt .................................... .. ....... .......
D iesel oil .................................... 140 65 3
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 32 1 8
Gasoline ......................... ...... ...... .. ...... I
Jet fuel ..................................... 9 ....... 4
Liquefied gas ................................. 87 92 62
M miscellaneous .................................... 69 52 71
Fibers, plant ................................ ....... ....... I
Paper and paper products...................... 1 4 5
R esin ........................................ 1 1 2
Rubber, manufactured ........................... 3 2 4
T extiles ...................................... 1 I I
Container cargo .............................. 52 34 38
All other and unclassified ...................... I 1 10 20
Total .............. ......... ......... .... 450 318 241

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ I ....... .......
Petroleum and products ............... ............ 121 250 176
D iesel oil .................................... 25 63 33
Fuel, oil, residual ............................. 91 187 143
Jet fuel ................. ................... 5 .......
Total ............... ........ ............. 122 250 177

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 3 ....... .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 27 45 51
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ ....... I I
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 86 132 84
Nitrates, phosphate-; and potash .................... 124 ....... _
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 124 ....... 1
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 2 48 20
Other agricultural commodities ..................... I 20 142
Beans, edible .............................. ....... ....... 1
Coffee .............................................. ....... 1
Rubber, raw ................................. I .1 ...
Sugar ....................................... ....... 20 140
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous .............. 87 10 39
M miscellaneous ..................... .............. 74 110 106
Carbon black ................................ .. ....... I .......
Fibers, plant ................................. ....... I I
R esin ........................................ 16 17 6
T extiles ........................... ....... .. ....... 5 .......
Container cargo .............................. 54 68 81
All other and unclassified ...................... 4 18 18
Total ........................ ........... .. 403 366 442








90 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1990 1989 1988
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 2 6 7
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... .......
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ 56 54 53
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 4 1 .6
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 584 494 555
Ores and metals .................................. 68 75 42
Ores ..................... . ... .......... 66 17 12
Alumina/bauxite ................ ........ 42 12 12
Iron ..................................... 24 ......
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... 5 ..
Metals, miscellaneous ........... .............. 2 58 30
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 8 10 9
Beans, edible ................................. 1 ......
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ 3 2 2
Coffee ....................................... 4 8 7
Petroleum and products ........................... 786 510 437
A asphalt ...................................... ... ....... 41
C rude oil .................................... 286 ....... .......
D iesel oil .................................... ....... 88 13
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 49 171 .......
Gasoline ..................................... 329 204 205
Jet fuel ...................................... 122 34 165
Liquefied gas ................................. ....... 13 13
M miscellaneous .................................... 250 122 113
Bricks and tile ............................. I ....... 3
Cem ent ...................................... 114 18 .......
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... ....... ....... I
M arble and stone ............................. ....... 2 .......
Paper and paper products...................... 9 6 18
Porcelainware .............................. .............. .... I
Rubber, manufactured..................... ....... ...... I
Slag, clinkers and dross........................ 23 ....... ....
Textiles .. .................................... .....
Container cargo .............................. 92 89 80
All other and unclassified ......................I 7 8
Total ......................................225

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ 6 9 15
Manufactures of iron and steel,miscellaneous ......... 72 108 50
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 3 ....... 9
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ I ....... .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 87 55 13
Bricks and tile ................................ I ...... .......
Cem ent ...................................... 20 27 ....
Paper and paper products ...................... 2 2 2
Slag, clinkers and dross........................ 27 ....... .......
Container cargo .............................. 29 25 11
All other and unclassified ...................... 8 .......
Total ......................... ............. 170 174 87

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous......... ....... 3 2
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 1 ..............









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 91

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 199 1989 1988 I
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
G rains ..................................... .. .... ........ 14 .......
Soybeans ................................ . ..... 14 .......
Machinery and equipment,miscellaneous ............. ....... ....... 1
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 133 127 101
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 19 17 12
Ammonium compounds ....................... 14 ....... .......
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 5 17 12
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 20 13 54
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 81 19 .......
O ilseeds ..................................... ....... 19
Sugar ....................................... 81 .......
Petroleum and products ..................... ...... 1,552 1,010 1,019
Crude oil .................................... 935 704 751
D iesel oil .................................... 48 24 29
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 493 249 147
Gasoline ..................................... 30 30 60
Liquefied gas ................................. 4 2 2
Lubricating oil ............................... ....... I 30
Other and unclassified ......................... 42 ....... .....
M miscellaneous .................................... 30 22 14
Bricks and tile ................................ I ...... .......
Glass and glassware ........................... 1 ....... .......
Oil, vegetable ................................. 5 5 10
Paper and paper products...................... 1 ...... .......
R esin ..................................... ...... 2 ......
Container cargo .............................. 21 4 4
All other and unclassified ...................... 11 .......
Total .............. . . . .......... 1,836 1,225 1,204

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 4 .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 32 6 10
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ........... 152 163 38
Coal ........................................ 149 155 26
Coke ........................................ 3 8 12
Grains, m miscellaneous .............................. 1 9 10
Lumber and products, miscellaneous ................ 2 1 I
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous ............ 8 10 9
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ........ 134 202 90
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 36 21 8
Nitrates, phosphates and potash .................... 127 157 158
Ammonium compounds ....................... 33 17 16
N itrate of soda ............................... ....... 15 .......
Phosphates ................................... 3 1 1
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 91 124 141
Ores and metals .................................. 24 20 59
O res ........................................ 12 11 32
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 11 I I 9
Iron ...................................... ... ....... 23
M anganese............................... 1 ....... .......
Metals, miscellaneous ......................... 12 9 27
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 39 1 53
Cotton, raw .................................. I 1 2
Rubber, raw ................................. I ....... ......
Sugar ....................................... 37 ....... 51









92 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal vear
I 1990 1989 1988 I
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,198 1,378 1,550
A sphalt ...................................... I ....... .......
Crude oil .................................... 742 859 915
D iesel oil ................ ................... 31 210 185
Fuel oil, residual .............................. .. .. ........ 7
Gasoline ..................................... 173 131 239
Jet fuel ...................................... ....... 79 28
Liquefied gas ................................. 204 56 134
Lubricating oil ............................... 47 38 37
Other and unclassified ......................... ........ 5 5
M miscellaneous .................................... 89 97 120
Carbon black .................................. 7 20 4
Cem ent ...................................... ....... 3 14
Flour, w heat ................................. ....... 5 .......
Glass and glassware ........................... ....... .......
O il, vegetable.......................... ...... ........ .......
Paper and paper products...................... 8 13 8
R esin ........................................ 11 6 8
Rubber, manufactured ...... .................... I I 1
Container cargo ........... ................... 39 34 54
All other and unclassified ........ ....... 22 14 31
Total ................ ................... 1,845 2,065 2 107

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... I ..............
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... I .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 3 6 8
A sphalt..............................................2 ....... .......
Gasoline ..................... ........... ....... 6 .......
Lubricating oil ............................... 1 ....... 8
M miscellaneous ...................... ............. 4 5 4
Oil, vegetable ................................. 3 2 2
Container cargo .............................. I 3 2
T otal ......................... ......... 9 12 12

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO HAWAII:
Petroleum and products ........................... 61 62 19
Jet fuel ...................................... 61 62 19
M miscellaneous .................................... 108 ....... ......
C em ent ...................................... 57 ....... .......
Slag, clinkers and dross............... ........ 51 ....... .......
Total ...................................... 168 62 19

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO OCEANIA:
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 3 57 3
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ....... .......
Miscellaneous .... .............................. 2 7 .......
Paper and paper products ...................... ....... I .......
Container cargo .............................. 1I I .......
All other and unclassified ...................... 5 .
Total ............................. ......... 6 66 3

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 55 50 60
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 22 ....... 3




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