• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Introduction
 Canal traffic
 Canal operations
 Supporting operations
 Administration and staff
 Financial report
 Statistical tables
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: Annual report, Panama Canal Commission
Title: Annual report /
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097367/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report /
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Panama Canal Commission ( 1980-<1994> )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 1989
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Fiscal year 1980-
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends Sept. 30.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Vols. for 1992- distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1998.
Statement of Responsibility: Panama Canal Commission.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097367
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07777425
lccn - 96645119
issn - 1936-5306
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Preceded by: Annual report, fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Front Matter
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Canal traffic
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Canal operations
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Supporting operations
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Administration and staff
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Financial report
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Statistical tables
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
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        Page 60
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        Page 123
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        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Back Matter
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Cover
        Page 131
        Page 132
Full Text




jUL 16 191 -


DEPG9


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION



ANNUAL REPORT


FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1989













PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Balboa, Republic of Panama
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR







FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR

It is a pleasure to submit the annual report of the Panama Canal
Commission for fiscal year 1989.

This historic year concluded the first decade of operation of the Commission
under the terms of the Panama Canal Treaty and the Canal's 75th year of
service to world shipping. A number of elements in Canal traffic, as well as
tolls revenue, experienced declines this year, reversing a four year growth
trend. Oceangoing transits decreased modestly by 2.0 percent, with Panama
Canal net tonnage and tolls revenue each reflecting declines of about 2.8
percent over the previous year. Transits by PANAMAX size vessels, the
largest vessels the waterway can presently handle, also decreased by 4.5
percent. A slowing of the United States and Japanese economies and shifts
in Canal traffic patterns have been responsible for the downturn in Canal
traffic.

The political crisis in Panama, which has been impinging on relations
between Panama and the United States for more than two years, continued
to intensify. This condition had a serious adverse impact on the morale of the
Canal work force, and provoked broad concern for the safe and efficient
operation of the waterway. A variety of contingency measures were
temporarily invoked to ensure the normal flow of Canal traffic.
Nevertheless, it is imperative that the political situation be effectively
resolved.








Despite the political unrest, all necessary maintenance, modernization and
improvement programs were accomplished without interruption. These
programs included the Pedro Miguel Locks overhaul, completion of a major
project to widen Bohio Curve, continued widening of the Pacific entrance of
the Canal, delivery of a new dredge tender and six new launches, and
excellent progress on the installation of a modern marine-type foam fire
fighting system at Miraflores Locks.

Training programs continued to receive high priority to develop and refine
critical skills and accelerate Panamanian participation in the management
and operation of the Canal. As of the end of the fiscal year, Panamanians
comprised nearly 86 percent of the Isthmian work force, with broad
responsibilities throughout the organization.

Mr. Robert W. Page was elected Chairman, Board of Directors of the
Panama Canal Commission, effective June 1, 1989, succeeding Mr. William
R. Gianelli who had served in that capacity for eight years. The Board of
Directors also recommended a toll rate increase of 9.8 percent, which was
approved by the President to take effect at the beginning of FY 1990. The
increase was necessary to allow the Commission to meet its legal obligation
to recover through tolls and other revenues all costs of operating,
maintaining and improving the Canal.

The past year tested the capability of the Commission employees to perform
under extraordinary trying circumstances, and they successfully met the
challenge. Their pride, commitment and special dedication to the waterway
were key elements in preserving the traditional high standards of Canal
transit service. With a view to the next decade, Canal management remains
committed to operating an efficient, modern Canal for the benefit of world
commerce.




D. P. McAuHii
Administrator
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Page
ORGANIZATION CHART............... .............. ......... vi

INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION ............................................ I
THE CANAL .................................................... I
TOLL RATES .............................. .......... ............ 2
BOARD OF DIRECTORS ................... ......... .............. 3
OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA ....................... 3
OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C ............... ....... ............ 3

CHAPTER I-CANAL TRAFFIC
TRAFFIC ......................................... .. ............. 5
COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS ................... 6
COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES ............................. 6

CHAPTER II-CANAL OPERATIONS
TRANSIT OPERATIONS ................... ..................... .. 13
MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS .......... 15

CHAPTER Ill-SUPPORTING OPERATIONS
LOGISTICAL SERVICES .............. .......................... 19
COM M UNITY SERVICES ............................. ............ 20
SANITATION AND GROUNDS .......................... .......... 21

CHAPTER IV-ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF
PERSONNEL: FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL ................. 23
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM ................................ 23
PUBLIC AFFAIRS ..................... ............ .............. 24
OM BUDSM AN ............................ ........... ........... 24
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ......................... ............. 25
GENERAL COUNSEL .................. ............... ........... 25
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES ............................ 26
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY .................................. 26
FIRE PROTECTION .............. ............. ............. 26
CANAL PROTECTION ................... ............. ............ 27
HEALTH AND SAFETY ................... ....................... 27

CHAPTER V-FINANCIAL REPORT
NARRATIVE STATEMENT ....................................... 29
RESULTS OF OPERA FIONS ...................................... 29
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES ............... ................... 29







CONTENTS

Financial Tables
Page
TABLE I.- Statement of Financial Position ..................... ......... 32
TABLE 2.- Statement of Operations .................... .... ............. 34
TABLE 3.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States
Government .................... ............. ............. 36
TABLE 4.-Statement of Cash Flows ............... ....... ............ 38
TABLE 5.-Statement of Status of Appropriations ......................... 40
TABLE 6.-Statement of Property, Plant and Equipment .................... 42
Notes to Financial Statements ................. ............. 43


CHAPTER VI-STATISTICAL TABLES
Shipping Statistics

TABLE I.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1989 ......... 50
TABLE 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1989
and 1988 ............. .. ..... ...... ........ ............ 52
TABLE 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1989 ............... 53
TABLE 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1989 56
TABLE 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1989 .... 58
TABLE 6.-Segregation of Transits by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal
Year 1989 ............. .. .... ..... ........ ............. 60
TABLE 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years ... 62
TABLE 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama
Canal from Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1989 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ............. ........... 66
TABLE 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama
Canal from Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1989 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ........................ 72
TABLE 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific .................. ....................... 80
TABLE I I.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to A tlantic ................... ......... ........... .. 101
TABLE 12.-Principal Canal Commodities by Direction-Fiscal Year 1989 ..... 124


Other Statistics

TABLE 13.- Water Supply and Usage ....................... ........... .. 126
TABLE 14.- Dredging Operations ............. ............ ............. 126
TABLE 15.- Electrical Power Generated .................... .............. 127
TABLE 16.- Fire Division Statistics ........................ .............. 127





















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreport1989unit









PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

I
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE

SECRETARY OF THE ARMY


CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
INSPECTOR GENERAL | |
ADMINISTRATOR
ASS. TO THE....................... CHAIRMAN AND SECRETARY
DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR

1 1


I
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION
EXECUTIVE PLANNING
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
GENERAL COUNSEL


I
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
ENGINEERING
INDUSTRIAL
MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
DREDGING
CONSTRUCTION


I


MARINE BUREAU
BOARD OF LOCAL INSPECTORS
PILOT DIVISION
ADMEASUREMENT
LOCKS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
CANAL SERVICES
MARINE SAFETY
CANAL OPERATIONS
MARINE TRAINING


PUBLIC AFFAIRS/INFORMATION
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY
OMBUDSMAN


GENERAL SERVICES
BUREAU
LOGISTICAL SUPPORT
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
FIRE
CANAL PROTECTION
COMMUNITY SERVICES
SANITATION AND GROUNDS
PRINTING OFFICE
AREA COORDINATION














INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION
The Panama Canal Commission is an agency of the Executive Branch of
the United States Government, provided for by the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977, and established by the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 452; 22
U.S.C. 3601 et seq), enacted September 27, 1979. The authority of the
President of the United States with respect to the Commission is exercised
through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army. The
Commission is supervised by a nine-member Board. Five members are
nationals of the United States appointed by the President with the advice
and consent of the Senate. Four members are nationals of the Republic of
Panama who are proposed by the Republic of Panama for appointment by
the President.
The Commission was established to carry out the responsibilities of the
United States with respect to the Panama Canal under the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977. In fulfilling these obligations, the Commission manages,
operates, and maintains the Canal, its complementary works, installations,
and equipment, and provides for the orderly transit of vessels through the
Canal. The Commission will perform these functions until the treaty
terminates on December 31, 1999, at which time the Republic of Panama
will assume full responsibility for the Canal.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis. The
Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all costs
of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest, depreciation,
capital for plant replacement, expansion and improvements, and payments
to the Republic of Panama for public services and annuities, in accordance
with paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraphs 4(a) and (b) of Article XIII,
respectively, of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. Revenues from tolls and
all other sources are deposited in the U.S. Treasury in an account known as
the Panama Canal Revolving Fund. The resources in this fund are available
for continuous use and serve to finance Canal operating and capital
programs which are reviewed annually by the Congress.
THE CANAL
The Panama Canal is a lock-type canal approximately 51 miles long from
deep water to deep water. The minimum width of the navigable channel is
500 feet. Navigable channel depth can vary according to the amount of water

1






INTRODUCTION


available in Canal storage areas; however, the normal permissible transit
draft is 39 feet 6 inches tropical fresh water.
Vessels transiting the Canal are raised in three steps to the level of Gatun
Lake, the principal source of Canal water, then lowered to sea level again in
three steps. The three sets of Canal locks are paired so as to permit
simultaneous lockage of two vessels in the same or opposite direction.
Since August 15, 1914, the official date of its opening, the Panama Canal
has served world trade virtually without interruption. Through this fiscal
year, a total of 704,351 vessels of all types have transited with 594,462 or 84.4
percent of the total being of the oceangoing commercial class.
TOLL RATES
Toll rates during FY 1989 were: (a) on merchant vessels, Army and Navy
transports, hospital ships, supply ships, and yachts, when carrying
passengers or cargo, $1.83 per net vessel ton of 100 cubic feet of actual
earning capacity, as determined in accordance with the "Rules of
Measurement of Vessels for the Panama Canal;" (b) on such vessels in
ballast, without passengers or cargo, $1.46 per net vessel ton; and (c) on
other floating craft, $1.02 per ton of displacement. These rates have been in
effect since March 12, 1983.
A toll rate increase of 9.8 percent was recommended by the Panama Canal
Commission's Board of Directors and approved by the President of the
United States to be effective October 1, 1989. This increase is necessary to
allow the Commission to meet its legal obligations of recovering through
tolls and other revenues all costs of operating, maintaining and improving
the waterway.
By treaty, the United States continues to provide to Colombia free transit
through the Canal of its troops, materials of war, and ships of war.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Ending Fiscal Year 1989


Honorable ROBERT W. PAGE
Chairman, Board of Directors
Panama Canal Commission
Washington, D.C.

Honorable ANDREW E. GIBSON
Short Hills, New Jersey

Honorable RICHARD N. HOLWILL
American Ambassador to Ecuador
Quito, Ecuador


Honorable OYDEN ORTEGA
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable CARLOS OZORES
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Annapolis, Maryland

Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN,Jr.
Beaufort, South Carolina


Executive Committee
Honorable ROBERT W. PAGE
Chairman
Honorable CARLOS OZORES
Honorable WALTER J. SHEA
Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.



OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Administrator ....................... Honorable D. P. MCAULIFFE
Deputy Administrator ......... Honorable FERNANDO MANFREDO, Jr.



OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C.
Assistant to the Chairman and Secretary ........ MICHAEL RHODE, Jr.






CANAL TRAFFIC


The flexibility and versatility of the Panama Canal is demonstrated in the efficient movement
of large products in a near fully assembled state. The "Super Servant 4" (upper photo)
transports an entire electrical power generating station for delivery to the Dominican
Republic. The "Sea Bridge" (lower photo) enters Gatun Locks on a northbound voyage to
deliver two huge container cranes to the Port of Baltimore on the east coast of the U.S.A.


777













Chapter I


CANAL TRAFFIC


TRAFFIC
Canal traffic and tolls revenue declined in fiscal year 1989, reversing a
four-year growth trend. The slowing of the U.S. and Japanese economies
and the shifts in Canal traffic patterns which drove the downturn were most
evident in three key Canal trades-grain, automobiles and petroleum and
products. Additionally, containerized cargo, which in recent years had been
a major contributor to Canal traffic growth, increased at relatively low rates.
Strong gains in phosphates, sulfur and manufactures of iron and steel were
insufficient to override the poor performance of other key trades.
Oceangoing transits in fiscal year 1989 declined to 12,075 or 33.1 daily
from 12,318 or 33.7 per day. Commercial vessels accounted for 11,989
oceangoing transits, declining 2.0 percent from 12,234 in fiscal year 1988.
Vessels owned or operated by the U.S. Government and free Colombian and
Panamanian Government vessels accounted for 86 transits, compared with
84 in the prior year.
The drop in the tonnage of certain cargoes which are normally carried on
large ships resulted in a decline in average ship size. Transits by vessels
having beams of 100 feet and over decreased to 2,765 from 2,894 transits in
1988, accounting for 22.9 percent of total oceangoing transits compared with
23.5 percent in the prior year. Vessels having beams of 80 feet and over
reached 5,734 transits or 47.5 percent of total oceangoing transits, versus
6,027 or 48.9 percent in 1988. The average Panama Canal net tonnage of
oceangoing commercial vessels declined 1.0 percent to 15,500 tons from the
record 15,658 tons of the prior year. A two-year summary of the key
elements of Canal traffic and tolls revenue is shown in the following table.






6 CANAL TRAFFIC


COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS

Fiscal rear
I 1989 1988 I
Oceangoing transits:
Com m ercial ...................................... 11,989 12,234
U.S. Government .................................. 74 69
F ree ............................................. 12 15
Total .............. ............ .......... .. 12,075 12,318

Daily average ................................. 33.1 33.7

Small transits:
Com m ercial ...................................... 997 844
U.S. Governm ent .................................. 287 246
F ree ............................................. 30 33
Total ........... ............ ....... 1,314 1.123


Total cargo:
Commercial ..................................... 151,644,424 156,484,063
U.S. Government .................................. 224,121 296,140
F ree ............................................. 3 ...........
Total ........................ ................ 151,868,548 156,780,203


Total Panama Canal net tons and reconstructed displace-
ment tonnage ................. .................... 186,962,894 192,422,315

Transit revenue:
Commercial tolls .................................. $327,946,771 $337,946,016
U.S. Government tolls ............................. 1,818,855 1,373,309
Tolls revenue .................. .............. $329,765,626 $339,319,325


Harbor pilotage, tug, launch, and other services ........... $70,008,117 $70,421,731

Total transit revenue............................. $399,773,743 $409,741,056


COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES
Cargo shipments through the Canal declined in fiscal year 1989. Total
commercial cargo dropped 3.1 percent to 151.6 million long tons from 156.5
million tons in fiscal year 1988, primarily as a result of sharp declines in two
bulk commodity groups-grain and petroleum. While a number of
commodities showed increases, these only partially offset the losses in the
other trades.
Displaying the characteristic volatility of the trade, grain tonnage declined
16.6 percent to 29.9 million tons from 35.9 million tons in fiscal year 1988.
The severe decline was primarily the result of a reduction in U.S. corn
exports to the Far East via the Canal, which dropped over 5 million tons to
9.6 million tons from 14.9 million tons in the prior year. The drop-off was
driven by a series of factors, particularly a shift of export corn to Pacific






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


ports as a result of highly competitive rail rates to the West Coast.
Additionally, U.S. corn exports to Japan were affected by increasing
competition from other corn producing countries, rising U.S. corn prices
and changes in the use of feedgrain by the Japanese. Corn shipments totaled
10.5 million tons, declining 35.1 percent from the 16.2 million tons shipped
through the Canal in 1988. Other components of the commodity group
experiencing declines were soybeans, which dropped 24.2 percent to 5.2
million tons from 6.9 million tons, and sorghum, which was down 10.2
percent to 1.9 million tons from 2.2 million tons in the prior year. Wheat,
with a record 11.0 million tons,accounted for the largest tonnage in the grain
commodity group, reflecting a 16.8 percent rise over the 9.4 million tons
shipped through the Canal in 1988. The increase was due to record
shipments from the U.S. to China, which totaled 8.2 million tons compared
with 5.0 million tons in the prior year.
Continuing a downward trend which began in 1986, petroleum and
products decreased 9.6 percent to 22.2 million long tons, the lowest level
since 1976. Crude oil fell 10.4 percent to 7.9 million long tons from 8.8
million tons in the prior year and petroleum products dropped 9.1 percent to
14.4 million tons from 15.8 million tons. With the exception of Ecuadorian
oil flows, which registered a 3.0 percent increase to 5.2 million tons, all crude
oil flows dropped, reflecting lower exports or use of alternatives to the
Canal. The decline in the petroleum products group was primarily due to a
sharp reduction in residual fuel oil shipments which fell 15.3 percent to 4.2
million tons.
While not suffering a major drop in terms of tonnage, automobile
shipments declined 7.8 percent to 2.0 million tons from 2.2 million tons in
1988, largely contributing to this year's downturn in Canal traffic. Because
of their configuration, automobile carriers pay the highest toll per cargo ton
in Canal traffic and, as a result, a drop in automobile tonnage translates into
a disproportionately higher reduction in Panama Canal net tonnage and
tolls revenue. The decline this year marked the third consecutive year the
automobile trade exhibited deteriorated levels. The trade continues to be
adversely affected by the establishment of Japanese car manufacturing bases
in the U.S. and by a slowdown in consumer demand. Automobiles from
Japan destined for the U.S. East Coast, totaled 1.4 million tons versus 1.5
million tons in 1988.
The nitrate, phosphates and potash group increased 17.0 percent to 14.2
million long tons from 12.1 million tons in 1988. Phosphates, which account
for 61 percent of the group, increased 23.6 percent to 8.6 million tons from
nearly 7.0 million tons in the prior year. Close to 77 percent of the
phosphates tonnage shipped through the Canal originated in the U.S. East
Coast and was destined primarily for the Far East. China received about 1.9
million long tons, Japan accounted for 1.4 million long tons and South
Korea imported 1.2 million long tons.





8 CANAL TRAFFIC


The tonnage of ores and metals rose about 2 percent to 10.5 million long
tons from 10.3 million long tons in 1988. Total ores, accounting for 65
percent of the group, increased 5.6 percent to 6.8 million long tons from 6.5
million tons in the prior year. Aluminum/bauxite ore, the leading
commodity within the group, increased 52.9 percent to 2.4 million tons.
About 76 percent of the aluminum/bauxite originated in Australia and was
primarily destined for the U.S. East Coast. The movement of metals
decreased 4.8 percent to 3.7 million tons from 3.9 million tons in 1988, with
scrap metal, the largest component of the metals group, reflecting a 5.3
percent decline to 2.0 million long tons.
The coal and coke trade exhibited an improvement, rising to 8.9 million
long tons from 8.6 million tons in 1988. The gain was due to increased coke
shipments, which had been moving upward since 1987. Coke tonnage was up
from 1.8 million tons in 1988 to 2.2 million tons in 1989, with 1.2 million long
tons of the 1989 total shipped from Japan to the U.S. East Coast. The coal
segment of this commodity group remained flat at 6.8 million long tons.
Over 71 percent of the coal shipped through the Canal constituted U.S. coal
exports, primarily destined for Japan and Taiwan.
The rate of growth of containerized cargo -- representing 79.9 percent of
the commodities grouped under the "All Other" category -- slowed further
this year to 4.5 percent, with this percentage reflecting a gain to 19.9 million
tons from 19.1 million tons in 1988. Trade between the U.S. and the Far East
constituted 53.2 percent of the containerized cargo moving via the Canal,
with U.S. exports to the Far East totaling 5.7 million tons compared with 5.8
million tons in the prior year and U.S. imports from the Far East accounting
for 4.9 million tons versus 4.8 million tons in 1988. The sluggish performance
of this important container trade route reflected the slowing economies of
both the U.S. and Japan and the continued competition exerted in this trade
by the U.S. intermodal system. In contrast, the U.S. West Coast/ Europe
route, the second most important container flow with a share of 13.4 percent,
increased 13.8 percent to 2.7 million tons from 2.3 million tons in 1988.
A number of commodity groups, such as manufactures of iron and steel,
chemicals and petroleum chemicals, and canned and refrigerated foods,
registered gains in 1989. These gains were offset by declines in other
commodities including miscellaneous minerals, other agricultural com-
modities and lumber and products.
Trade between the East Coast United States and Asia continued to
dominate Canal traffic, accounting for 39.4 percent of total commercial
cargo. Cargo on this route declined, however, by 5.8 percent to 59.7 million
long tons from 63.4 million long tons in the prior year.
1 he following tables show the principal commodity groups moving in
oceangoing commercial vessels in 1989 and a comparison of the major trade
routes in 1989 and 1988.






PRINCIPAL COMMODITY GROUPS
TRANSITING THE CANAL
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL CARGO FY 1989

PERCENT OF TOTAL CARGO


I I I I I I I I I


GRAINS
PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS
NITRATES, PHOSPHATES, POTASH

ORES & METALS

LUMBER & PRODUCTS

COAL & COKE
MFRS. OF IRON & STEEL

CHEMICALS & PETROCHEMICALS
MISC. AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES

CANNED & REFRIGERATED FOODS

MISC. MINERALS
MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT

ALL OTHER


19.7%


14.7%


3.... ...4.. 9.4%

BSg i: 6.9%

S ...:.. X : 6.2%

5.9%
5.2%

5.0%

3.4%
3.3%

2.3%
1.6%


.t~ I


16.4%


0 5 10 15 20

MILLIONS OF


25 30
LONG TONS


35 40 45 50


.5-5 -


I m m . . .








Major Voyage Trade Routes in Canal Traffic o

it.nal ltear Pe en of
1959 1918 I I reate ore
(f/'i reate)
I Panama n [ Panama I Inama ,
Canal Long Canal Lting Canal long
Net Toni Net Toni, Ve T-on,
Tons Carug Tun, Cargo lons Cargo
Trade Route (In thousands of long Ions]
East Coast United States-Asia ...................................................... 71,582 59,746 76,667 63,442 (6.6) (5.8)
East Coast United States-West Coast South America .................................. 19,314 14,121 16,370 12,335 18.0 14.5
Europe-W est Coast United States/Canada............................................ 11,807 14,178 12,731 14,956 (7.3) (5.2)
Round the W world ................................................................. 11,724 5,976 10,597 5,515 10.6 8.4
Europe-West Coast South America ................................................. 10,898 7,512 10,599 7,287 2.8 3.1
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania........................................... 5,424 6,968 4,680 5,499 15.9 26.7
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) ...................................... 5,209 2,589 5,101 2,320 2.1 11.6
Europe-Asia .... ............................................................. 4,895 3,728 4,684 2,867 4.5 30.0
W est Indies-Asia .. ............................................................ 4,468 2,840 3,959 3,079 12.9 (7.8)
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America ................................. 3,703 3,521 3,847 3,186 (3.7) 10.5
Europe-West Coast Central America ........ .................................... .. 3,256 1,938 3,388 2,262 (3.9) (14.3)
East Coast Canada-Asia ............................................................ 3,171 3. 449 3,006 2,834 5.5 21.7

Subtotal ....................................... ............................. 155,451 126,566 155,629 125,582 (0.1) 0.8

All other routes ............................. .............. .................. 30327 25070 35,877 30,901 (15.5 (18.9

Total ....................................... .............................. 185778 151636 91506 156,483 (3.0) (3.1)





CANAL OPERATIONS


I.


I.




* t


Mi


1*'-.4.-
w4~a.j~


Workmen prepare the foundation for a new towing locomotive turntable at the north end of
the Gatun Locks center wall. This is part of an ongoing project to replace lowing locomotive
turntables at all locks to allow earlier attachment of locomotive wires to transiting vessels for
improved control during lockages.
















Chapter II


CANAL OPERATIONS


Canal operations are comprised of Transit Operations and Maintenance
and Related Canal Projects. The various functions are divided among a
number of operating bureaus within the Canal agency.
TRANSIT OPERATIONS
Daily average transits by oceangoing vessels averaged 33.1 per day during
fiscal year 1989. Average time in Canal waters decreased from 21.9 hours in
fiscal year 1988 to 17.4 hours in fiscal year 1989.
Percent Percent
Vessels of total Vesse/l of total
of 600-foot oceangoing of 80-foot oceangoing
Fmscal ear length and over transit beam and over transits
1989 ........................ 3,913 32.4 5,734 47.5
1988 ........................ 4,047 32.9 6,027 48.9
1987 ........................ 4,005 32.5 5,902 48.0
1986 ........................ 4,131 34.4 5,898 49.1
1985 ........................ 3,862 33.1 5,514 47.3
1984 ........................ 3,865 33.9 5,496 48.3
1983 ........................ 4,157 35.1 5,869 49.5
1982 ........................ 5,534 39.1 7,226 51.1
1981 ........................ 4,855 34.7 6,364 45.5
1980 ........................ 4,598 33.8 6,089 44.7
The number of vessels transiting at more than 36-foot draft decreased 3.9
percent: 1,698 vessels during FY 1989 compared to 1,766 during fiscal year
1988. The maximum allowable draft remained at 39 feet 6 inches during the
entire fiscal year.
Total jobs performed by Commission tugs decreased from 38,736 in fiscal
year 1988 to 38,579 in fiscal year 1989.
Fiscal tear
I 1988 1989 1
Oceangoing transits ........................... .............. 12,318 12,075
Tug jobs:
Balboa ..................................................... 26,854 25,759
C ristobal ................................................... 11,882 12,820
Tug operating hours ............................................. 60,289 61,601










































Maintenance crews work to replace the pneumatic fender units on the knuckle of the lock's wing wall. These fenders effectively protect
against vessel contact with the lock wall. New, durable high strength flat fender units (visible on the left) have proven to be more resistant
to abrasion and deterioration than the rubber strip fenders.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS
Maintenance and improvements to the Canal continued to progress
smoothly throughout the year. The various divisions and units of the
Engineering and Construction Bureau are generally responsible for the
overall physical maintenance and improvement of the waterway. The
Marine Bureau operates and maintains the locks and related facilities. The
use of alternative procurement sources in support of these programs
continued to be necessary because of procurement inconveniences stemming
from the ongoing political crisis in Panama.
Channel Improvements: Routine maintenance dredging, as well as
channel widening at the Pacific entrance, proceeded as scheduled. A major
project to widen Bohio Curve was completed, culminating a series of
projects to widen critical points in the Gatun Lake ship channel, resulting in
improved visibility and greater navigational safety. Statistics on the volume
of material dredged appears in Table 14 of this report.
Locks: Miter gates 68 and 69 were rehabilitated in conjunction with the
overhaul at Pedro Miguel Locks. Work was performed on exposed
underwater machinery, topside machinery and rehabilitation of 500 feet of
conductor slot. Repair work on miter gate 64 is underway at the Mount
Hope repair facility.
Installation of an improved locks fire protection system is on schedule and
should be completed in FY 1990. The system provides for fire monitors
capable of dispensing water and foam at strategic locks locations.
A new locomotive turntable was installed at the north end of Gatun
Locks. A similar project is underway at the north end of Miraflores Locks
and should be completed by mid-FY 1990.
A long term program to rehabilitate approximately 50,000 feet of the
locomotive tow track's waterside rail was accomplished, as well as critical
sections of landside rail, rack sections and conductor slot. Remaining tow
track work should be completed by the end of FY 1990.
A new locks wall rendering system, utilizing state-of-the-art high strength,
wider load distribution rendering is being installed at all locks. The new
fenders are more durable and resistant to abrasion and deterioration.
High voltage striker ballasts were installed in the high mast lighting system
at all locks to virtually eliminate a lapse in restarting lights following power
outages. Also, 98 percent of all power cables under 600 volts and 95 percent
of all control cables at Gatun Locks were replaced, and 75 percent of the
PCB transformers at Miraflores Locks were replaced with cast coil
transformers.
New digital telephone switches were installed at Pedro Miguel and
Miraflores Locks, permitting touch-tone capability. Similar switches will be
installed at Gatun Locks in FY 1990.
Dams and Spillways: Generator No. I at Gatun Hydroelectric Station was
overhauled. Maintenance and repair of Madden Dam sluice gates were also
performed. Four new replacement power transformers were installed at the
Madden Dam substation.






16 CANAL OPERATIONS


Floating Equipment Maintenance: Significant marine-related main-
tenance work included scheduled major overhauls of the tugs Burgess,
Chame, AMehaffe., and Morrow and Barge No. 831; interim overhauls of the
tugs Chagres, Esperanza, and Paz; repair work on the tugs Amistad, Alianza
and Guia, and main engine work on the tugs Rousseau and Rodman.
Overhaul of the tug Parfitt and repairs to the tug Mehaffey were underway at
year end.
Acquisitions/Contracts: Major acquisitions in support of Canal
operations consisted of the delivery of the new dredge tender GAMBOA;
four aluminum twin-screw pilot/linehandler launches; two high speed, 40-
passenger launches: and a radial arm drill press for the Industrial Division.
Two new tractor tugs are under construction in the United States and should
be delivered in the second quarter of FY 1990.
Contracts were awarded for the partial replacement of the 44 KV
transmission lines, relocation of the Pacific side launch linehandler facilities,
improvement to the Rodman Fire Station, replacement of the craneboat and
tug landings at Gamboa, construction of a radar surveillance facility at the
Atlantic entrance, construction of fire stations at the west side of Miraflores
and Pedro Miguel Locks, and improvements to the Paraiso landing.





























T.t

o






>

The "Nutria," one of two new 40-passenger launches acquired by the Panama Canal Commission for a new trans-
Isthmian 'water jitney' service, awaits southbound passengers at the recently constructed Gatun landing. These 0
launches provide safe, dependable transportation for employees on official business. rn














Chapter III


SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


Supporting operations of the Panama Canal Commission provided
essential support services to the operation and maintenance of the waterway
and the Agency's facilities, as well as to other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus
and to employees and their dependents. These operations included logistical
services, community services, sanitation and grounds management,
transportation services, public utilities, fire protection, Canal protection,
health and safety and other employee services.
LOGISTICAL SERVICES
The Logistical Support Division provided centralized procurement,
inventory management, warehousing, distribution, contract administration,
and supply and property disposal support to Canal operations. A total of
$69.0 million in goods and services were procured in fiscal year 1989,
including $23.4 million from sources in Panama. This reflects $9.5 million
for Bunker "C" fuel oil for thermoelectric power generation purchased from
Refineria Panama, S.A. and $2.1 million for light diesel fuel purchased from
Esso Standard Oil. Major contracting obligations included $4.2 million for
an optional tractor tugboat, $1.6 million for pilot/ linehandler launches, $1.0
million for high-speed passenger boats, $781,470 for crew boats, $108,190
for a survey boat, $564,800 for a submerged line barge, $348,800 for a fuel
barge, $114,800 for buoys, $471,500 for spillway stony gates, $790,960 for
towing locomotive windlass parts, $328,100 for circuit breaker conversion,
$113,000 for electronic positioning system, $2.9 million for catastrophic
insurance, and $2.7 million for vehicles.
Approximately $16.8 million in Commission inventory items were issued
for Commission use, and $18.8 million was obligated for new inventory
purchases during the year. A total inventory of 39,510 line items with an
average cost value of $31.8 million was on hand at year end.
Activities of the Excess Disposal Unit included no-cost transfers to other
U.S. Government agencies of excess equipment having an original
acquisition value of approximately $1.1 million, while surplus property sold
to the Government of Panama at current fair market value amounted to
approximately $9,215.






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


The New Orleans Branch in Louisiana expedited urgent purchases and
coordinated all Commission cargo shipments from the United States to
Panama. Under the coverage of the Military Sealift Command's contract,
16,993 measurement tons of containerized and breakbulk cargo were
shipped to Las Minas. An additional 4,629 measurement tons of general
cargo and vehicles were shipped under commercial contract with an ocean
freight shipper from New Orleans to the Republic of Panama.
COMMUNITY SERVICES
During Fiscal Year 1989, the Community Services Division managed
employee housing, Commission-owned buildings, a technical resource
center and the employee fitness program for the agency.
The housing portion of the operation dedicated its resources to managing,
maintaining, repairing, performing preventive maintenance and bringing up
to standards the safety and security aspects of the quarters inventory, and
assisting residents with physical security inspections and supporting
neighborhood crime watch programs. As part of the implementation of the
multiyear housing management plan, the division identified Diablo and
Margarita as housing areas for future transfer to the Government of
Panama. As a result of the Presidential mandate to move U.S citizens off the
economy, the division entered into an interservice agreement with the U.S.
Department of Defense (DOD), whereby 70 Department of Defense
Dependents' Schools (DODDS) employees occupied Commission housing
units. At the end of the fiscal year, the agency retained the use of 1,545
housing units for its United States citizen and other eligible employees. This
represents only 35% of the inventory of approximately 4,300 units owned by
the Panama Canal Company immediately prior to entry into force of the
Panama Canal Treaty in 1979, indicating that a total of 65% of those units
have been transferred in use to Panama in 10 years since Treaty
implementation. No houses were transferred in FY 1989.
The buildings management activity is responsible for the maintenance and
operation of Commission buildings and structures (not specifically assigned
to other Commission units) and for a centralized custodial service. As an
ongoing project, this unit continued to modify facilities to comply with
OSHA standards for handicapped personnel and increased physical security
to all buildings. No buildings were transferred to the Government of
Panama during the year.
The technical resources center provided mission-support information and
research to all units of the Commission and other U.S. agencies and
maintained a collection of library and three-dimensional materials relating
to the history and operation of the Panama Canal. This unit supported the
professional development of the pilot understudies, apprentices, clerical
trainees and other employees through workshops and publications. It
participated in the preparation of materials, events and other activities
related to the celebration of the 75th Anniversary of the Panama Canal.
Online access to computer data banks in the United States expanded its
reference and acquisition services during the year.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


The division also administered a variety of duty-related as well as off-duty
fitness programs and facilities for Commission employees and their
dependents. It continued training other Commission units in rescue, water
safety, advanced lifesaving, drown-proofing, survival floating and water
safety and it was responsible for certifying swimming proficiency of job
applicants and employees. It also organized a number of special events
commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the Panama Canal. The Employee
Fitness Program, in combination with the agency's occupational health
program, was one of seven runners-up selected out of 80 nominations
submitted for the 1989 U.S. Office of Personnel Management Director's
Awards for Outstanding Health/ Fitness Programs in the Federal
Government.
SANITATION AND GROUNDS
Approximately 2,900 acres of improved grounds and turf within
residential areas, and around Commission buildings, the locks and other
industrial facilities were maintained. Field crews cleared vegetation along
utility line rights-of-way, saddle dams, drainage systems, and around aids-
to-navigation towers and targets. A grass cutting contract awarded during
FY 1989 to maintain a 50-acre segment of the grounds within Diablo Heights
was overseen by this division in addition to the regular monitoring of
garbage and refuse collection. This latter function became a significant task
for this activity in FY 1989 as the Government of Panama continued its
unsatisfactory once a week garbage collection service in Canal operating and
housing areas. Nine years ago, DIMA, an agency of the Government of
Panama, assumed the responsibility for refuse collection in the Canal area.
In September 1988, they reduced the frequency of refuse collection from
three times per week to once per week due to lack of funds following the U.S.
Government's withholding of public service payments to Panama. However,
the effects of this reduced schedule of refuse collection at Commission
facilities and employee residences were alleviated to some extent by issuing
additional refuse containers, spraying insecticides for fly control, and
through the routine distribution to residents of free large plastic bags for
garbage. Notwithstanding Commission efforts to minimize litter,
objectionable odors and house flies, refuse collection slipped below
reasonable standards for tropical areas with a notable effect on the
environment and community morale.
Surveillance and control of mosquito vectors, public health pests, and
vermin were carried out with special emphasis on clearing existing drainage
networks and the elimination of old tires and other artificial containers
which might provide breeding sites for Aedes aegypti. This vector of dengue
and yellow fever which reinfested Panama City in 1985, continued to spread
to many of the towns and cities in the interior provinces. Increased
surveillance revealed several breeding foci in transferred housing areas, but
we have been successful so far in keeping this infestation from invading any
Panama Canal housing and operating areas. In addition to the above
activities, some 1,600 service calls were handled by Sanitation Branch
environmental health technicians, which included complaints about pest






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


mosquitoes, cockroaches, flies, ticks and fleas, bats, rodents, venomous
snakes and other public health pests. These technicians also monitored food
service establishments, drinking water quality, and the general sanitation of
swimming pools, employee rest rooms, and barber and beauty shops. Over
150 cockroach control applications were made aboard Commission
launches, towboats, and dredges. Sixty Locks Division towing locomotives
were similarly treated.
Two Atlantic and Pacific sanitary landfills handled some 67,400 tons of
solid wastes in FY 1989, an increase of 6 per cent compared to last year.
However, the safety, security, and efficiency of refuse disposal operations
were compromised by large numbers (over 100 in one instance) of aggressive
human scavengers, especially at our Pacific site. Their trespassing and
uncontrolled salvaging of outdated food and other materials greatly
interfered with the orderly operation of the landfill and represented a hazard
to Commission employees working the sites.
The first human death within the Canal operating area due to stinging by
Africanized honeybees occurred in February when a DODDS teacher
drowned while attempting to swim to shore following an Africanized bee
attack on his small boat in Gatun Lake. Although badly stung, two survivors
were able to make it to shore and later received emergency treatment. Over
the past eight years, our entomologists have continuously monitored and
gathered data on all Africanized bee swarms and nests controlled by
Commission bee teams. Analysis of this data shows that Africanized
honeybee populations have declined about 50% from levels seen during 1983
through 1985 and have now reached a level of stability. Numbers of control
operations were slightly lower in FY 1989, with 127 bee colonies destroyed
by Commission bee control teams as compared to 150 controlled in FY 1988.
Three Africanized bee swarms were removed from transiting ships in FY
1989, the same number of shipboard swarms controlled in FY 1988.














Chapter IV


ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


PERSONNEL
FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL
At the end of fiscal year 1989, the total Isthmian force of the Commission
was 8,577 compared to 8,522 employees in fiscal year 1988. Of the total
Isthmian force, 7,584 were permanent and 993 temporary. Of the permant
Isthmian work force, 6,513 (85.9%) were Panamanians, 975 (12.8%) were
U.S. citizens and 96 (1.3%) were third country nationals. Eighteen persons,
all U.S. citizens, were employed by the Commission in New Orleans and
Washington, D.C.
The total Commission payroll was $200.5 million in fiscal year 1989
compared to $202 million in fiscal year 1988. Of the total Commission fiscal
year 1989 payroll, $143.6 million was paid to non U.S. citizen employees and
$56.9 million to U.S. citizen employees.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM
The Panama Canal Commission's Multi-Year Affirmative Employment
Plan for Minorities and Women for FY 1988-1992, the Agency's FY 1988
Report of Accomplishment, and the FY 1989 Affirmative Action Program
Plan for the hiring, placement, and advancement of people with disabilities
were approved by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Formal EEO complaints reflected a decrease from the previous fiscal year
by 50 percent. Three workshops on the prevention of sexual harassment
were conducted this year. National Disability Employment Awareness
Month, Black History Month, National Hispanic Heritage Month, and
Women's Week were commemorated. Educational activities included
blocks of EEO training which were provided to approximately 60 employees
and supervisors. Panamanian Preference Program monitoring reflected
increasing participation of Panamanian nationals at all levels. The
composition of the work force by sex, minority group and citizenship for FY
1989 is reflected below:






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


Sex
M ale ................................. ............................. 87.7%
Fem ale ................................................................. 12.3%
Minority Group
Hispanic. Bila s t'hite Orienltal Indians
64.3% 23.2% 10.6% 1.5% 0.4%

PUBLIC AFFAIRS
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for handling all public affairs,
guide services and informational activities of the Panama Canal
Commission, both locally and internationally. In this connection, through
the Commission publication The Panama Canal Spillway, local press
releases, video tapes, films and exhibits, matters of related interest were
disseminated to the work force and the public at large. The Graphic Branch
assisted in the accomplishment of this task by providing a broad range of
photographic and audio-visual support services.
The workload of the Office of Public Affairs remained heavy throughout
the year due to multiple media requirements associated with the escalating
political events in Panama; a variety of preparations for the celebration of
the 75th anniversary of the Panama Canal and the 10th anniversary of the
Panama Canal Commission; and, interest in the scheduled change of
administrators on January 1, 1990. These events generated frequent visits to
the Canal by international media representatives who were interested in
developing their assessment of the impact of such events on the Panama
Canal and future operations.
The guide service handled a total of 284,142 visitors at the Canal and
conducted 663 VIP tours. Visitors included representatives of major news
services, accompanied by photographers and film crews; officials from
various sectors of the shipping industry and shipping related publications;
and government and business officials from around the world.
OMBUDSMAN
The Office of the Ombudsman was established pursuant to implementing
legislation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The office responds to
employees and dependents' complaints, grievances, and requests for
information; and channels many issues to the proper authorities for
processing under existing statutes or administrative regulations. Generally,
the Office of the Ombudsman investigates administrative problems,
inefficiencies, omissions and policy conflicts existing within the Panama
Canal Commission and other U.S. Government agencies on the Isthmus of
Panama resulting from the treaty. The office provides the widest latitude
possible for handling problems affecting employee morale and the quality of
life.
The Office of the Ombudsman experienced a heavy workload during fiscal
year 1989 as a result of the continued political unrest in Panama. A hotline
continues to be operated by the office on a daily basis as a means to receive
complaints from employees and dependents and to provide up-to-date
information on current conditions. Many of the calls received by the office






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


continue to accentuate the serious deterioration in the quality of life and
services, concerns for personal and community safety, and the escalating
incidents of harassment by local law enforcement personnel from the regime
of General Manuel Antonio Noriega. The office maintains close contact
with officers of the three Residents' Advisory Committees as a means to
assure close communication between the Commission and these community
groups on matters of concern to residents in Commission housing areas.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
The continued deleterious effects of the intensified political turbulence
virtually dominated union concerns throughout the period. Although
overshadowed to a great extent by these issues, labor-management relations
included some of the more traditional activities characteristic of the federal
sector. A new agreement with the marine engineers became effective on
April 17 for the term of five years. Also, a one-year extension of the fire
fighter agreement and a three-year renewal of the non-professional
bargaining unit agreement became effective on April 7 and September 16,
respectively.
GENERAL COUNSEL
On December 23, 1985, the President signed into law the Panama Canal
Amendments Act, Public Law 99-209, which authorized the Commission to
settle all vessel-accident claims, regardless of the amount and irrespective of
the situs of the accident. Prior to the enactment of this act, the Commission
was precluded from considering claims of more than $120,000 for out-of-
locks accidents. At the time of the passage of the Panama Canal
Amendments Act, 30 out-of-locks vessel-accident claims had been filed and
were pending with either the United States Congress or the Commission.
Since the enactment of the Amendments Act, the Commission has steadily
reduced this backlog of vessel-accident claims. By the end of fiscal year 1989,
29 of these claims had been settled, and $16,349,572 (out of a total of
$24,002,715 claimed) had been paid to the aggrieved shipowners.
The Amendments Act also permitted dissatisfied claimants to sue the
Commission for out-of-locks vessel-accident damage. Two such lawsuits
were filed before the passage of the Amendments Act and an additional eight
have been filed since its enactment. By September 30, 1989, one case had
been dismissed by the court, and 9 suits had been settled for payments
totaling $3,182,803. There are no lawsuits currently pending resolution.
The principal area of settlement in the Office of General Counsel was in
the area of marine accidents where 35 claims for vessel damage, totaling
$3,405,287, were settled in the amount of $2,041,524.
On a matter of significant importance to the Canal agency, the United
States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, located in New Orleans,
Louisiana, ruled that the Commission, as a non-commercial enterprise, was
not liable to pay prejudgment and postjudgment interest on a vessel claim in
which it had been found liable.
The previous ruling in a lower court was against the Commission,
awarding interest on damages, but was reversed by the Court of Appeals.






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


The precedent-setting case will save the Commission millions of dollars over
the next ten years.
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES
The Motor Transportation Division operated and maintained a
consolidated motor pool of 944 vehicles designed to meet the vehicular
transportation requirements of the Commission. The vehicle fleet in fiscal
year 1989 included 655 trucks of various types, 205 passenger-carrying
vehicles, 42 special-purpose vehicles and 42 special equipment. Vehicle
mileage increased slightly from 7,317,387 in FY 1988 to 7,433,137 in FY
1989. Fully equipped shops, including a tire retreading facility and heavy
duty repair shops, provided facilities for overhauls, maintenance and repairs
to the Motor Transportation Division fleet and equipment of other
Commission units. The vehicle inspection facilities located within the Motor
Transportation Division, also were used by U.S. Army personnel, under
agreement with the Government of Panama to conduct inspections of
privately-owned vehicles and by the Motor Transportation Division to
perform Commission vehicle inspections.
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY
Panama Canal Commission facilities include electric power generation
and distribution systems, communication systems, water purification and
distribution systems, and a central chilled water air conditioning system for
certain public buildings.
Total Canal area energy demand during fiscal year 1989 was 524 gigawatt
hours, a 0.2 percent decrease from the 525 gigawatts used last year. The peak
hourly demand of 83.6 megawatts reached on March 6, 1989, shows a slight
decrease from the 84 megawatt peak reached in fiscal year 1988. Electrical
power consumption for Commission operations only was 78.7 gigawatt
hours, 1.6 percent below the previous year. Gasoline and petroleum distillate
fuels consumed by the Commission during FY 1989 (excluding fuel for
power generation), totaled 5.1 million gallons, 11.1 percent higher than in
FY 1988. Combined fuel and electrical energy consumption by the
Commission, calculated in Btu's, also showed an overall increase, 3.6
percent, in comparison with FY 1988.
The water treatment and distribution systems operated by the
Commission provide potable water for the Canal area and areas of the
Republic of Panama. The Pacific side system serves the Canal area, portions
of Panama City, and suburban areas. During fiscal year 1989, the two
systems supplied 3.38 billion cubic feet of potable water to consumers, a
slight increase of about 0.60 percent from the previous year. Water supplied
by the Panama Canal Commission to Panama City and Colon metropolitan
areas amounted to approximately 57.0 million gallons per day.
FIRE PROTECTION
The Panama Canal Commission Fire Division and the Bomberos of the
Republic of Panama, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977,
are responsible for providing fire protection, firefighting, and rescue






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


operation in canal operating areas, defense sites, civilian and military areas
of coordination and shipboard firefighting on all vessels in Canal area
waters.
Commission responses for FY 1989 totaled 7,911 compared to 6,497 for
FY 1988. The marine stand-by program for hazardous ships at the locks
accounted for slightly more than 26 percent of the responses this year. This
service is provided by Fire Division personnel with foam apparatuses on
stand-by at the locks as a marine safety measure for certain vessels
designated by the Marine Bureau because of dangers of certain cargos. The
critical period is considered to be when a vessel is entering the locks.
There were 1,784 responses for ambulance service compared to 1,745 in
FY 1988. This division also responded to a total of 101 bomb threats during
FY 1989 as compared to 42 in FY 1988. Excluding ship fires, there were 526
fires this year, nearly a 19 percent reduction over FY 1988. Most incidents
were grass and brush fires, which frequently occurred during the vulnerable
dry season. Additional fire statistics appear in Table 16 of this report.
In accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, formal joint
training was conducted on 10 occasions with the Bomberos of the Republic
of Panama as compared to 5 for last year. This figure is in addition to
regularly occurring joint responses to fires and other emergencies.

CANAL PROTECTION
The Canal Protection Division has the mission of providing security for
installations and facilities devoted to the management, operation and
maintenance of the Panama Canal. During the year, security hardware
improvements continued at the most critical installations and support
facilities. Due to the ongoing political crisis, special emphasis was placed on
personal protection and agency security awareness programs. Close
coordination was provided with U.S. Military Forces in support of training
exercises and contingency operations at Commission installations.
Following a security consultant study, implementation is underway of
pertinent study recommendations. Foremost is the installation of a Security
Control Center to centralize monitoring of all Commission security systems.
This center will also vastly improve communications, command and control
functions for Canal Protection.

HEALTH AND SAFETY
The Occupational Health and Safety Divisions are components of the
Office of Personnel Administration. The Personnel Director is the
Designated Agency Safety and Health Official. The Panama Canal
Commission is committed to ensuring a safe and healthful workplace for its
employees, an objective which enjoys support from top management down.
During fiscal year 1989, the Commission experienced 486 performance-
of-duty accidents/illnesses for which employees required medical attention
beyond first aid, as compared to 497 such accidents/illnesses in fiscal year
1988. The incident rate declined slightly, from 5.8 per 100 employees in fiscal






28 ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


year 1988 to 5.7 in fiscal year 1989. There were two fatalities in fiscal year
1989 due to a vehicle accident.
The health and safety of the Commission workplace were advanced
during fiscal year 1989 through continued training; alcohol and drug testing;
counseling services; formal workplace inspections and evaluations; a health
fair: upgraded in-service health evaluations for employees in safety-sensitive
positions; and program publicity. A Hazard Communication Policy was
implemented, a Dive Safety Policy and a Safe Diving Practices Manual were
issued, and an AIDS policy was developed. Clinics were held on handling
stress and smoking cessation. The certified Safety and Health Committee
continued its active role in the safety and health program.














Chapter V


FINANCIAL REPORT


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1989
The financial statements of the Panama Canal Commission, appearing as
Tables 1 through 6, with accompanying notes, present the financial position
of the Commission at September 30, 1989, and the results of its operations
for the fiscal year then ended.
Effective January 1, 1988, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of
1987,Public Law 100-203, converted the Panama Canal Commission from
an appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency. In accordance with
this legislation, the Panama Canal Commission fund was terminated and its
unappropriated balance plus all unexpended balances of appropriations still
available to the Commission were transferred to a newly established fund
entitled the Panama Canal Revolving Fund.
The accounts and statements of the Panama Canal Commission have been
examined by the Office of Inspector General of the Commission and are
subject to examination by the United States General Accounting Office.
Detailed audit reports of the United States General Accounting Office are
directed to the Congress and are presented as Congressional documents.
Summary information concerning the operating results and capital
expenditures follows:
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Fiscal year 1989 operations resulted in a net loss of $7.3 million. This
amount plus the $2.4 million loss from fiscal years 1988 and 1987 operations
will be recovered from subsequent revenues as required by section 1341(b)(2)
of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-70).
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
Accrued capital expenditures for fiscal year 1989 amounted to $39.6
million. The principal expenditures were $6.4 million for the purchase of two
tugboats, $3.4 million for the installation of a fire protection system at
Miraflores Locks, $2.7 million for the purchase of a dredge tender, $2.5






30 FINANCIAL REPORT

million for the replacement of locomotive turntables, $1.9 million for the
replacement of motor vehicles, $1.3 million for the purchase of two water
bus type launches, $1.1 million for the purchase of two pilot/linehandler
launches, $0.9 million for continued replacement of the Commission's
telephone system, and $0.8 million for cast coil transformers.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 1.-Statement of Financial Position


1989


PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT:
At cost (Note Ic) ................................. $969.630,333
Less accumulated depreciation and valuation
allowances (Notes le and 2) ..................... 484,884,187
484,746,146


CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash:
U.S. Treasury account .........................
Cash in commercial banks and on hand..........
Postal, other trust funds and cash in transit ......


Accounts receivable ................... ...........

Inventories, less allowance for obsolete and excess
inventory of $400,000 each year (Note Ig)..........

O their current assets ................... ..........









OTHER ASSETS:
Deferred charges:
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note Ih) .......
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes I m and 5) ...........................
Retirement benefits to certain former
employees of predecessor agencies (Note I h)....
Other .................. ............ .... .


Unrecovered costs due from subsequent revenues
(N otes Ib and 4) ................................



-I OTA ASSEIS ................................

Ihe accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


93,226,977
6,077,070
2,537,751
101,841,798

11,371,717


37,723,209

379,561

151,316,285








151,440,000

78,871,578

6,186,000
492,149
236,989,727


9,728,161

246,717,888

$882,780,319


Assets


1988


$936.111,054

464,872,854
471,238,200









138,872.443
5,800.906
2,442,789
147,116,138

14.894,155


36,928,949

382.019

199,321,261









166.584,000

79,126,504

6.746,000

252,456,504


2,408,665

254,865,169

$925,424,630







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


September 30, 1989 and 1988



Capital and Liabilities 1989 1988

CAPITAL:
Investment of the United States Government:
Interest-bearing (10.219% and 10.379%, respectively)
(Note 6) ................................... $147,893,234 $102,773,553
Non-interest-bearing........................... 325,398,450 371,024,286

473,291,684 473,797,839
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable:
U.S. Government agencies ..................... 4,146,044 4,245,938
Government of Panama ....................... 8,062,973 8,475,439
Other ....................................... 12,420,588 34,802,392
24,629,605 47,523,769
Accrued liabilities:
Employees' leave.............................. 46,058,824 44,033,669
Salaries and wages ............................ 8,086,607 7,139,405
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note Ih) ....... 15,144,000 15,144,000
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes Im and 5) ........................ 6,536,705 7,033,467
Retirement benefits to certain former employees
of predecessor agencies (Note Ih) ............. 790,000 844,000
Employees' repatriation ........................ 857,000 687,000
M arine accident claims ........................ 15,387,115 13,822,471
O their .............. ........................ 1,766,127 1,923,101
94,626,378 90,627,113
Other current liabilities:
Advances for capital-unexpended (Note Id) ...... 10,336,538 14,332,082
O their ......................... ... ........... 1,697,007 1,889,140
12,033,545 16,221,222

131,289,528 154,372,104
DEFERRED CREDIT:
Advances for capital being amortized
(Notes Id) ........................ .......... .. 46,898,321 40,941,046

LONG-TERM LIABILITIES AND RESERVES:
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note Ih) ........... 136,296,000 151,440,000
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes Im and 5) ............................... 72,334,873 72,093,037
Retirement benefits to certain former employees
of predecessor agencies (Note lh) ................. 5,396,000 5,902,000
Employees' repatriation ............................ 6,875,000 6,053,000
Lock overhauls (Note li)........................... 371,865 211,633
Marine accidents (Notes lj and 7) ................... 7,000,000 17,683,380
Casualty losses (Note lj) ........................... 993,865 941,882
Floating equipment overhaul (Note Ik) .............. 2,033,183 1,988,709

231,300,786 256,313,641

TOTAL CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES................ $882,780,319 $925,424,630

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 2.-Statement of Operations
Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1989 and 1988


OPERATING REVENUES:
Tolls revenue ...................................
O their revenues ..................................

Total operating revenues .......................

OPERATING EXPENSES:
Payments to the Government of Panama:
Public senr ices ..............................
Fixed annuity ..............................
Tonnage ...... .............................



Maintenance of channels and harbors ..............
Na\igation service and control ....................
Locks operation .................................
General repair, engineering and maintenance
services ......................................
Supply and logistics .............................
Utilities ........................................
Housing operations ..............................
General and administrative .......................
Interest on interest-bearing investment (Note 6) .....
Other ........................ . ................

Total operating expenses .......................


1989 1988
$329,765,627 $339,319,326
106,034,363 110,089,660

435,799,990 449,408.986



10,000,000 10,000,000
10,000,000 10,000,000
59,819,225 59,635,398

79,819.225 79,635,398


36,506.857
79,796.645
48,988,652

22,004,849
20,488,618
30,016,519
5,418,893
76,587,612
13,878,234
29,613,382


42.258,524
77.384,665
47,709,751

25,071,192
21,030,820
31,895,242
5,553,796
73,107.100
11,250,757
36,329,982


443,119,486 451,227,227


NET OPERATING REVENUE (LOSS) (Notes lb and 4) $(7,319,496) $(1,818,241)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.










Table 3.-Stalement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government

Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1989


I \ I S1 I1 N I A l OC IOHBIR I. 1988 ...........................
Appropriation h\ the Congress for fiscal Near 1988 .............


I unds transferred b\ Public I am. 100-203, effective January I. 1988:
1 transferred from emergency fund ..........................
I ransferred front operating funds ..........................
1 transferred lrom capital fund'.........................
Adjusitm nt for interest accrued 10 I 79-12 31 85 ...........





INCREASES IN IN\ESI MENI:
Plant reactivations ...........................................
Prior \ear receipts deposited into the U.S. Treasury ..............
Expenditures from capital appropriations .......................
Expenditures from operating appropriations .....................
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund ...............
Repayment to the General Fund of the U.S. Treasury
for fiscal year 1980 appropriation ............... ............
Payment of interest accrued 10 1, 79-12,31 85................
Funds covered into the U.S. Treasury ..........................
Property transferred from other U.S. Go\crnment agencies........
Uncovered costs due from subsequent revenues (Notes I b and 4)...


DECREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Tolls and other receipts deposited into PCC Fund ...............
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Revolving Fund ...........
Due U.S. Treasury for undeposited receipts .....................
Property transferred to the Gosernment of Panama .............
Property transferred to other U.S. Government agencies ..........
Unwarranted appropriated funds...............................
Net loss (Notes Ib and 4) .....................................


INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30. 1989 .......................


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


Inhtrted Capiall

S Interes \on-lt-i'ret- I
Iloerinig laranei

5102.773,553 $371,024,286


102.773.,553 371.024,286


486,757.576














. .. ... .....
486.757.576



441.388.274



249,621



441.637,895
$147.893.234

(Note 6)


420,341



(486.757,576)






7.319.496
(479,017.739)



(441.388.274)
676,875




7.319.496
(433.391,903)
$325,398,450


und


......... .


............
............
............
............

............
. . . . . 1 .
............

............



............
............
............
............
............
............


. . . . . .


...........


s.. .. . .. .. .























s. ... .. .. .7
............









............







............







...........



............


( aptial
I iund,

$ .......... .










































. . . . . .


7oral
S473.797,839


473,797.839














420.34 1










7,319.496
7.739.837




676,875
... 249,62 i



7,319,496
8,245,992
5473.291.684


. . .. . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. . .... .
... .. .. ... . ... .. .. .. ... .. . .... .

... ......







Table 3B.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government "
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1988 Z
Inverted Capital
SInterest- Non-Interet- I Enlergence Operating Capital >
Bearing Bearing Fund Fun di Ft/d Total
INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER I, 1987 ........................... $64.711,276 $287.336,291 S10.000.000 $55,658,038 $26,086,026 $443,791,631 >
Appropriation by the Congress for fiscal year 1988 ............... ........... ............ ............ 420,588.000 33,715,000 454,303,000 z
64,711,276 287,336,291 10,000.000 476.246,038 59,801,026 898,094,631 >
Funds transferred by Public Law 100-203. effective January I. 1988: r"
Transferred from emergency fund .......................... ............ 10,000,000 110,000,000) ............ ............ ............
Transferred from operating funds .......................... ............ 202,316,621 ............ (202,211,390) ............ 105.231
Transferred from capital funds............................. ............ 54,060,961 ............ ............ (54,060,961) ............
Adjustment for interest accrued 10/1/79-12/31/85 ........... 61,653,129 (61.653.129) ......... ........... ............ ...........
61.653,129 204,724,453 (10,000,000) (202,211,390) (54,060,961) 105.231
126,364,405 492,060,744 ............ 274,034.648 5,740,065 898,199.862
INCREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Plant reactivations ........................................ .. ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........
Prior year receipts deposited into the U.S. Treasury .............. ............ 1.088,117 ............ ............ ............ 1,088.117
Expenditures from capital appropriations ....................... 5,740,065 ............ ............ ............ (5,740,065) ............
Expenditures from operating appropriations ..................... 109,394,668 ............ ............ (109.394,668) ............ ............
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund ............... 317,977,051 (317,977,051) ............ .......... ............ ............
Repayment to the General Fund of the U.S. Treasury
for fiscal year 1980 appropriation ............................ 85,582,579 (85,582,579) ............ ............ ............ ............
Payment of interest accrued 10/ 1/79-12/31/85................... ........... (61,653,129) ............ ............ ............ (61.653.129)
Funds covered into the U.S. Treasury .......................... (85,582,579) ............ ............ ............ ............ (85,582,579)
Property transferred from other U.S. Government agencies ................................ ........................ ........................
Uncovered costs due from subsequent revenues (Notes lb and 4)... ............ 1.818.241 ............ ............ ............ 1,818,241
433,11 1,784 (462,306.401) .......... . (109,394,668) (5,740,065) (144,329,350)
DECREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Tolls and other receipts deposited into PCC Fund ............... 112,765,084 ............ ............ ............ ............ 112,765,084
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Revolving Fund ........... 343.508,525 (343,508.525) ............ ............ ............ ............
Due U.S. Treasury for undeposited receipts ..................... ............ 420.341 ............ ............ ............ 420,341
Property transferred to the Government of Panama .............. 51,992 ............ ............ ............ ............ 51.992
Property transferred to other U.S. Government agencies .......... 377,035 ............ ............ ............ ............ 377,035
Unwarranted appropriated funds ............................... ............ ............ ............ 164,639,980 ............ 164.639,980
Net loss (Notes Ib and 4) ..................................... ............ 1.818,241 ......... .. .......... ............ 1,818,241
456,702,636 (341,269.943) ............ 164,639,980 ............ 280,072,673
INVESTMENT AF SEPTEM BER 30, 1988 ........... ........... $102,773,553 $371,024,286 $ ........... $......... ... $ .......... $473,797,839
(Note 6)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 4.-Statement of Cash Flows



INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH


Cash Flows from Operating Activities:
Cash received.
Tolls .......................................
O their collections ............................
Decrease (increase) in receivables ..............
Total cash received ........................

Cash disbursed:
Operating expenditures.......................
(Increase) decrease in inventories..............
(Decrease) increase in liabilities ...............
Total cash disbursed .......................
Net cash from operations.................

Other adjustments:
Cash from Panama Canal Commission Fund ...
Restoration of funds previously withdrawn .....
Operating revenues deposited into Panama Canal
Comm mission Fund .........................
Net operating cash received from Treasury..

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities.......

Cash Flows from Extraordinary Activities:
Payment of interest on net direct investment (Note 9)
Repayment of 1980 appropriation (Note 9) .........

Net cash provided by/(used in) extraordinary activities ...

Cash Flows from Capital Activities:
Capital expenditures ......................... .
Increase/( Decrease) in liabilities ................ ..

Net cash provided by/(used in) capital activities .........

Cash Flows from Postal and Trust funds:
Postal funds ....................................
Trust funds .....................................

Net cash provided by/!(used in) postal and trust fund
activities .....................................

Net (decrease) increase in cash ........................

Cash, beginning of year .................. ...........

Cash. end of year ................... ...............



I he accompanying notes arc an integral part of this statement.


1989

$329,765,627
109,934,767
1,687,880
$441,388,274


(429,739,182)
(794.260)
(20,964,032)
(451,497,474)
(10,109,200)


1988

$339,319,326
120,011,727
(3,057,444)
$456,273,609


(463,389,231)
(1,789,780)
59,367,762
(405,811,249)
50,462,360


............ 289,663,021
............ 105,231

........... (112,765,084)
........... 177,003,168

(10,109,200) 227,465,528


............ (61.653,129)
........... (85,582,579)

............ (147,235,708)


(39,584,851)
4.324,748

(35,260,103)


(5,279)
100,242


94,963

(45,274,340)

147,116,138

$101,841,798


(27,069,345)
(231,190)

(27,300,535)


(6,630)
12,048


5,418

52,934,703

94,181,435

$147,116,138

(Note 8)







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Fiscal Years Ended September 30, 1989 and 1988



RECONCILIATION OF NFT REVENUE (LOSS) TO NET CASH PROVIDED BY
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
1989


Net Revenue (loss) ..................... ............

Adjustments to reconcile net revenue (loss) to net cash
provided by operating activities:

Adjustments not requiring outlay of cash:

D epreciation ................................
Provision for lock overhauls ..................
Provision for casualty losses ..................
Provision for floating equipment overhauls .....
Advances for capital (Note 8) .................
O their (N ote 8) ..............................
Total adjustments not requiring outlay of cash


Adjustments requiring outlay of cash:

Lock overhauls expenditures..................
Casualty losses expenditures ..................
Floating equipment overhauls expenditures .....
Total adjustments requiring outlay of cash..


Other adjustments:

Cash from Panama Canal Commission Fund ...
Restoration of funds previously withdrawn .....
Operating revenues deposited into Panama Canal
Comm mission Fund .........................
Total other adjustments ..................


Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

Decrease/(increase) in receivables..............
(lncrease)/decrease in inventories..............
(lncrease)/decrease in other assets (Note 8) .....
(Decrease)/increase in liabilities (Note 8) .......
Total changes in operating assets and
liabilities .............................

Total adjustments ............. ........ ..

Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities.......



The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


$(7,319,496) $(1,818,241)


22,963,018
6,353,000
(5,642,936)
4,934,000
4,451,618
720,370
33,779,070




(6,192,767)
(4,988,460)
(4,889,526)
(16,070,753)


21,352,682
4,387,000
2,901,952
4,019,000
8,474,087
(29,829,760)
11,304,961




(5,699,523)
(5,671,166)
(3,678,624)
(15,049,313)


............ 289,663,021
............ 105,231

............ (112,765,084)
........... 177,003,168


1,687,880
(794,260)
(427,609)
(20,964,032)

(20,498,021)


(3,057,444)
(1,789,780)
1,504,415
59,367,762

56,024,953


(2,789,704) 229,283,769

$(10,109,200) $227,465,528

(Note 8)


1988







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 5.-Statement of
Fiscal Years Ended


SOURCE OF APPROPRIATIONS:

Operating funds:

Current year operating appropriation ..........
Appropriation Public Law 99-195
(indefinite-funded interest) ..................


Restoration of funds previously withdrawn .....

Obligated operating funds brought forward:

Fiscal year 1980 .........................
Fiscal years M erged ....................
Fiscal year 1986 .........................
Fiscal year 1987 .........................




Capital funds:

Current year capital appropriation (no year) ....


Obligated capital funds brought forward:

Fiscal year 1980 .........................
Fiscal years 1981 through 1987 ............



Unobligated capital funds brought forward
(no year):

Fiscal year 1980 .........................
Fiscal years 1981 through 1987 ............


Emergency fund (no year) ........................


IOTAI SOURCE OF APPROPRIArIONS ..........



I he accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


$........... $407,088,000

....... .. .. 13,500,000
420,588,000

............ 105,231



............ 3 11,229
............ 4,006,116
............ 5,695,374
............ 45,645,319
55,658,038

476,351,269



............ 33,715,000




............ 12,070
........... 23,766,934
23,779,004


............ 8,257
........... 2,298,765
.. 2,307,022

59,801,026


10,000,000


S........... 5546,152,295

(Note 10)







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Status of Appropriations
September 30, 1989 and 1988


APPLICATION OF APPROPRIATIONS: 1989

A appropriations available ......................... $ ...........

Less appropriate expenditures-Ist Quarter:

Expenditures from operating appropriations:

Fiscal year 1980 ..................... ............
Fiscal years- M erged ................ ............
Fiscal year 1986 ..................... ............
Fiscal year 1987 ..................... .......... .
Fiscal year 1988 ..................... ............


Expenditures from capital appropriations:


Fiscal year 1980 .....................
Fiscal years 1981 through 1988 ........





Less funds transferred to the revolving fund:

From Operations:

Fiscal year 1980 .....................
Fiscal year 1980 restored .............
Fiscal years- Merged ................
Fiscal year 1986 .....................
Fiscal year 1987 .....................
Fiscal year 1988 .....................
Emergency fund .....................


From Capital:

Fiscal year 1980 .....................
Fiscal years 1981 and 1988 ...........





Less funds returned to the U.S. Treasury .....

BALANCE OF APPROPRIATIONS..................




The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


............ 12,506
............ 5,727,559
5,740,065

115,134,733


311,229
105,231
4,502,700
5,248,157
12,992,019
179,157,285
10,000,000
212,316,621


............ 7,821
............ 54,053,140
........... 54,060,961

266,377,582

........... 164,639,980

$ ........... $ ..........

(Note 10)


1988

$546,152,295


(496,584)
447,217
32,653,300
76,790,735
109,394,668


............
............
............
............
............
............
............







Table 6.-Statement of Property, Plant and Equipment
September 30, 1989 and 1988


Titles and treaty rights ..................................
Interest during construction .............. ...............
Canal excavation. fills and embankments .......................
Canal structures and equipment .................. ............
Supporting and general facilities ............................ ...
Facilities held for future use ..............................
Plant additions in progress .............. ................
Suspended construction projects ...............................

TOTAL (Notes Ic, le and 2) ............................

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


1989
l/aJ/e'id Deprt't ilaltn
.ervre uand vailuauiln
5/c Cvi- allo,,a,:,,,
40 years $14,728,889 $5,983,612
........... 50,892,311 50,892,31 1
15-100 years 347,753,732 140,138,508
4-100 years 326,975,387 157,356.034
5-100 years 146,352,516 87,790,847
10-100 years 3,330,878 2,577,077
........... 39,450,822 ............
............ 40,145,798 40.145,798


195,f
a/ I apre ta,
Cown ull uance,

$14,728,889 $5,615.390
50,892,311 50,892,311
347,555,199 131,595,146
317.897,397 151,022,970
131,459,891 83.223,723
2,824,202 2,377,516
30,607,367 ............
40,145,798 40,145,798


$969,630,333 $484.884,187 $936,1 11,054 $464,872,854






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
A summary of significant accounting policies follows:
a. Accounting and reporting. As required by section 1311(a) of the
Panama Canal Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-70), hereafter referred to as the
Act, the accounts of the Commission are maintained pursuant to the
Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950. This requires that the principles,
standards and related requirements be met, as prescribed by the Comptroller
General of the United States, after consulting with the Secretary of the
Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget
concerning their accounting, financial reporting and budgetary needs. The
Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950 also requires that the accounts be
maintained on an accrual basis.
b. Cost recovery. As required by section 1341(e)(1) of the Act, the
application of generally accepted accounting principles to the Panama
Canal Commission, a United States Government agency comparable to a
rate-regulated public utility, determines the manner in which costs are
recognized. The basis for tolls rates is prescribed in section 1602(b) of the
Act. This section of the Act, known as the"statutory tolls formula,"provides
that:

"Tolls shall be prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues
to cover as nearly as practicable all costs of maintaining and
operating the Panama Canal, together with the facilities and
appurtenances related thereto, including unrecovered costs
incurred on or after the effective date of this Act, interest,
depreciation, working capital, payments to the Republic of Panama
pursuant to paragraph 5 of Article Ill and paragraph 4(a) and (b) of
Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, and capital for
plant replacement, expansion, and improvements. Tolls shall not be
prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues sufficient to
cover payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to paragraph
4(c) of Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977."

Under this statutory tolls formula, any unrecovered costs are to be
recovered from subsequent revenues. The amount for recovery from
subsequent revenues is transferred from Invested Capital to an account
within the Other Assets classification. Unrecovered costs are charged back
to Invested Capital to the extent subsequent annual revenues exceed annual
costs.
c. Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are
recorded at cost, or if acquired from another United States Government
agency, at the value determined by the Director of the Office of Management
and Budget. Administrative and other related general expenses are






FINANCIAL REPORT


recovered currently and therefore not capitalized. The cost of minor items of
property, plant and equipment is charged to expense as incurred.
d. Advances for capital. A portion of tolls in excess of depreciation
recoveries may be programmed annually by the Board of Directors for plant
replacement, expansion, or improvements. Such funds are considered
capital advances from Canal users. Upon utilization, these advances are
amortized through an offset to depreciation expense in an amount
calculated to approximate the depreciation on assets acquired with such
advances. In fiscal years 1989 and 1988, no amounts from tolls were
programmed for such purpose.
At the direction of the Board of Directors, a system was implemented in
fiscal year 1983 whereby shippers, for a fee, can make an advance reservation
for a vessel transit. Such funds are considered capital advances from Canal
users and upon utilization, the advances are amortized through an offset to
depreciation expense in an amount calculated to approximate the
depreciation on assets acquired with such advances. This system generated
funds of S4.5 million in fiscal year 1989 and $8.5 million in fiscal year 1988.
e. Depreciation. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated over
their estimated service lives at rates computed using a straight-line method
with additional annual depreciation, identified as composite, to provide for
premature plant retirements.
The recurring costs of dredging the waterway are charged to expense.
Non-recurring dredging costs for substantial improvements and betterments
to the waterway are considered additions to plant and are capitalized and
depreciated over their estimated service lives.
f. Accounts receivable. Uncollectible accounts receivable of the
Panama Canal Commission are recognized as a reduction in revenue when
written off. Any subsequent collections of Commission accounts receivable
previously written off are recorded as revenue.
g. Inventories. Operating materials and supplies are stated at average
cost, plus cost of transportation to the ultimate destination on the Isthmus of
Panama. An allowance has been established to reflect the estimated cost of
obsolete and excess stock.
h. Retirement benefits. Employer contributions to the United States
Civil Service Retirement System, to the Federal Employee Retirement
System, and to the Republic of Panama social security system are charged to
expense. The Commission has no liability for future payments to employees
under these systems.
Non-United States citizen employees, who retired from predecessor
agencies prior to October 5, 1958, are not covered by the United States Civil
Service Retirement System but do receive benefits under a separate annuity
plan. Payments made under this annuity plan are recorded as a current year
expense. Annual amounts expended were $1.3 million in fiscal years 1989
and 1988. The Commission's liability for future annuity payments to these
former employees or their eligible widows is reflected in the statement of






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


financial position as retirement benefits to certain former employees of
predecessor agencies and an equal amount is recorded as a deferred charge.
As required by the Act, the Panama Canal Commission is liable for the
increase in the unfunded liability of the United States Civil Service
Retirement Fund which is attributable to benefits payable from that fund to,
or on behalf of, employees and their survivors under the early retirement
provisions of the Act. The annual installment to liquidate the increased
liability is determined by the Office of Personnel Management.
i. Reserve for Lock Overhauls. A reserve is provided through an annual
charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of periodic lock overhauls.
j. Reserve for Casualty Losses. A reserve is provided through an annual
charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of marine accidents and other
casualty losses.
k. Reserve for Floating Equipment Overhauls. A reserve is provided
through an annual charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of overhauls
to the Commission tugboat fleet.
1. Housing Use Rights. No monetary value is assigned to the rights
granted to the United States Government by the Republic of Panama to use
Canal Area housing transferred to the Government of Panama under the
terms of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The cost to manage, maintain
and provide livability improvements to these quarters is charged to expense.
Rental income is included in other revenues.
m. Work Injuries Compensation Benefits. The Panama Canal
Commission is liable for the cost of all benefits due under the Federal
Employees' Compensation Act which provides compensation for
performance of duty injuries for eligible employees. The costs of the FECA
program are recognized over the life of the Treaty.
2. Plant Valuation Allowances.
At July 1, 1951, certain valuation allowances for property, plant and
equipment transferred from the Panama Canal (agency) to the Panama
Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government were established, to
reduce to usable value the costs of the assets transferred. At October 1, 1979,
such valuation allowances as were applicable to the assets transferred from
the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government to the
Panama Canal Commission were carried forward and are comprised of: (a)
$4.1 million at September 30, 1989 and $4.5 million at September 30, 1988,
to reduce to usable value the cost of property, plant and equipment
transferred; (b) $50.9 million at September 30, 1989 and 1988, to offset
interest costs imputed for the original Canal construction period; and (c)
$42.3 million at September 30, 1989 and 1988, to offset the cost of defense
facilities and suspended construction projects, the latter being principally
the partial construction of a third set of locks abandoned in the early part of
World War II.
3. Budgetary Resources.
a. Cash, accounts receivable, and the borrowing authority are the






FINANCIAL REPORT


resources used to determine the Commission solvency position as prescribed
in Section 86.6 Office of Management and Budget Circular A-34,
Instructions on Budget Execution, under which the incurring of obligations
in excess of budgetary resources is a violation of the Antideficiency Act. All
cash exceeding current operating requirements is kept on deposit with the
U.S. Treasury.
b. The Panama Canal Commission has authority to borrow funds from
the U.S. Treasury not to exceed $100 million outstanding at any time for any
of the purposes of the Commission. At September 30, 1989 and 1988 none
of these funds had been borrowed.

4. Unrecovered Costs Due From Subsequent Revenues.
Pursuant to the provisions of section 1602(b) of the Act, the net losses of
$7.3 million from fiscal year 1989 and $2.4 million from fiscal years 1988 and
1987 operations, totaling $9.7 million, were deferred as an unearned cost to
be recovered from subsequent revenues. Also, section 1341(b)(2) of the Act
requires recovery of these unearned costs before determining any net
operating revenues due to the Government of Panama, as provided for
under Article XIII, paragraph 4(c), of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.

5. Cost of Work Injuries Compensation.
The Commission administers a program to compensate certain employees
for death and disability resulting from performance of duty injuries or
illnesses as set forth in the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA).
All United States citizen employees are eligible for coverage, as are non-
United States citizen employees hired prior to October 1, 1979, who elected
coverage on that date. As provided by FECA, employees and certain
dependents are beneficiaries for various periods that can extend to life.
The liability and deferred charge recorded in these statements reflect the
payments due to a Department of Labor fund established pursuant to Public
Law 100-705. The Department of Labor will be reimbursed from this fund
for all expected future payments for accidents, adjusted for inflation and
interest earned. An evaluation as of September 30, 1989, was prepared by an
independent actuarial firm. The results of that report were used to adjust the
assets and liabilities as follows:
Mtlllons of I oll/r\
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits at
Septem ber 30. 1988 ....................................... $79.1
Amount amortized in fiscal year 1989 ..................... $(7.0)
Adjustments due to study:
Accrued liability .................................... (0.5)
Long-Term liability ................................. 7.3
Change in assets and liabilities.................... (0.2)
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits at
Septem ber 30. 1989 ....................................... $78.9

6. Interest-Bearing Investment of the United States Government.
The interest-bearing investment of the United States Government in the
Panama Canal is determined based on section 1603(a) of the Act. The






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


interest-bearing investment of the United States Government at
September 30, 1989 and 1988, was determined as follows:
AMllions o/ Dollarn
Investment at September 30, 1987 ............................. $64.7
Fiscal year 1988 transactions:
Adjustment for interest accrued 10/1/79-12/31/85 ...... $61.7
Disbursem ents...................................... 433.1
R eceipts ........................................... (456.3)
Net property transfers ............................... (0.4) 0
N et change ..................................... 38.1
Investment at September 30, 1988 ............................. $102.8
Fiscal year 1989 transactions:
D isbursem ents...................................... 486.7
R eceipts ........................................... (44 1.4)
Net property transfers ............................... (0.2
N et change ..................................... 45.1
Investment at September 30, 1989 ............................. $147.9

7. Reserve for Marine Accidents.
A reassessment of the Reserve for Marine Accidents was made in fiscal
year 1989 and based on past experience, the,Board approved a reserve
balance objective of $7.0 million.
8. Statement of Cash Flows.
Fiscal year 1989 Statement of Cash Flows reflects the use of revolving
funds only. The fiscal year 1988 statement identifies as "Other adjustments"
the appropriated funds received by the Commission prior to its conversion
to a revolving fund agency on January 1, 1988. All funds received after that
date were recorded as revolving funds.
In addition, certain data in the fiscal year 1988 Statement of Cash Flows was
restated for fiscal year 1989 presentation to eliminate non fund items not
pertinent to the Statement of Cash Flows thereby improving comparison
between years.
9. Extraordinary Activities.
In fiscal year 1988, in addition to converting the Panama Canal
Commission to a revolving fund agency, Public Law 100-203, the Budget
Reconciliation Act of 1987, provided: (a) for restoring $61.7 million to the
interest-bearing investment of the United States Government in the Panama
Canal by transferring interest collections prior to January 1, 1986 to the
General Fund of the U.S. Treasury, and (b) for reimbursing to the General
Fund of the U.S. Treasury the $85.6 million unpaid balance of the
Commission's fiscal year 1980 appropriation. These transactions were
completed in fiscal year 1988.
10. Statement of Status of Appropriations.
This statement reflects the conversion of the Panama Canal Commission
from an appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency. As such, the
statement identifies: (a) expenditures made by the Commission during the
first quarter operations as an appropriated fund agency, (b) funds






FINANCIAL REPORT


transferred to the revolving fund as of January 1, 1988, and (c) funds
returned to the U.S. Treasury, also as of January 1, 1988. This statement is
not applicable for fiscal year 1989 and is shown only to conform with the two
year statement format.
11. Contingent Liabilities and Commitments.
In addition to recorded liabilities, the estimated maximum contingent
liability which could result from pending claims and lawsuits was $10.1
million at September 30, 1989 and $18.6 million at September 30, 1988. In
the opinion of management and the Commission's General Counsel, these
pending claims and lawsuits will be resolved with no material adverse effect
on the financial condition of the agency.
Commitments under uncompleted construction contracts and unfilled
purchase orders amounted to S38.0 million at September 30, 1989 and $42.2
million at September 30, 1988. Of these amounts, $0.1 million in unfilled
purchase orders were prepaid as of September 30, 1989 and 1988.
Cash and negotiable securities of a kind acceptable by the United States
Government in the amount of $12.4 million were held by the United States
depositories designated by the Panama Canal Commission at September 30,
1989 and $11.6 million at September 30, 1988, to guarantee payment by
third parties of their obligations.
The Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, Article XIIl, paragraph 4(c), provides
that an annual amount of up to $10 million per year be paid to the
Government of Panama out of operating revenues to the extent that such
revenues exceed expenditures. Payment to the Government of Panama is
subject to the limitations set forth in section 1341(e) of the Act. In the event
operating revenues in any year do not produce a surplus sufficient to cover
this payment, the unpaid balance shall be paid from operating surpluses in
future years up to the amount available from these surpluses. As of
September 30, 1989, the balance contingently payable to the Government of
Panama amounts to $91.1 million. As of September 30, 1988, the balance
contingently payable to the Government of Panama amounted to $81.1
million.
12. Treaty Impact.
On September 7, 1977, the United States of America and the Republic of
Panama signed the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The treaty provided for
the establishment of the Panama Canal Commission on October 1, 1979, to
assume certain operational responsibilities for the Canal until December 31,
1999. When the treaty terminates on December 31, 1999, the Republic of
Panama shall assume total responsibility for the management, operation,
and maintenance of the Panama Canal, which shall be turned over in
operating condition and free of liens and debts, except as the two parties may
otherwise agree. The effects of these long range requirements are not
considered in the financial statements.








Chapter VI

STATISTICAL TABLES

Shipping Statistics







STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1989

Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
INumber Long tons I Number Panama Number Displace-1
of of of Canal net of ment
transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC '


1980 ............... 13,507 $291,838,590 167,214,935 13,476 182,063,175
1981 ................ 13,884 301,762,600 171,221,762 13,847 188,656,491
1982 ................ 14,009 323,958,366 185,452,332 13,976 202,884,207
1983 ................ 11,707 285,983,805 145,590,759 11,668 169,503,918
1984 ............... 11,230 286,677,844 140,470,818 11,199 162,335,342
1985 ................ 11,515 298,497,802 138,643,243 11,498 168,941,997
1986............... 11,925 321,073,748 139,945,181 11,901 182,750,830
1987 ................ 12,230 328,372,714 148,690,380 12,206 186,416,485
1988 ................ 12,234 337,866,211 156,482,641 12,209 191,506,903
1989 ................ 11,989 327,850,613 151,636,113 11,964 185,769,083
OCEANGOING U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC I


1980 .............. .
1981 .............. .
1982 .............. .
1983 ...............
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 .............. .
1987 .............. .
1988 .............. .
1989 ...............


1980 ................
1981 .............. .
1982 .............. .
1983 .............. .
1984 ...............
1985 ...............
1986 .............. .
1987 .............. .
1988 .............. .
1989 .............. .


101 $1,515,326 396,481 73
89 1,241,442 301,776 68
110 1,546,746 285,451 67
125 1,721,925 354,873 77
137 2,388,272 329,607 88
129 2,223,938 259,524 85
85 1,553,037 176,853 53
78 1,384,125 205,701 46
69 1,361,393 296,140 46
74 1,806,539 224,121 62
FREE OCEANGOING TRAFFIC I 2


$ ......... ..........

.......... ...... ... .
.......... 2,504

.......... 20

.......... 5

.......... ..........


TOTAL OCEANGOING TRAFFIC I
1980 ............... 13,614 $293,353,916 167,611,416 13,552 I
1981 ................ 13,984 303,004,042 171,523,538 13,919 I
1982 ................ 14,142 325,505,112 185,737,783 14,052 2
1983 ................ 11,846 287,705,730 145,948,136 11,754 I
1984 ................ 11,384 289,066,116 140,800,425 11,291 I
1985 ................ 11,654 300,721,740 138,902,787 11,587 I
1986............ ... 12,023 322,626,785 140,122,034 11,955 I
1987 ................ 12,313 329,756,840 148,896,086 12,256 I
1988 ................ 12,318 339,227,604 156,778,781 12,261 1
1989 ................ 12,075 329,657,153 151,860,234 12,032 1


844,748
705,936
794,282
812,840
1,131,865
1,148,311
708,616
662,286
714,055
994,711


1,686
2,248
5,010
9,119
2,224
2,731
556
2,224
3,312
3,312


82,909,609
89,364,675
03,683,499
70,325,877
63,469,431
70,093,039
83,460,002
87,080,995
92,224,270
86,767,106


137,593
111,418
129,684
132,431
116,335
86,623
73,631
130,129
106,599
101,710


217,055
143,121
309,206
350,699
410,682
248,967
309,161
239,023
129,545
103,020


4,810
8,544
21,903
5,986
21,025
8,771
20,759
1,300
16,765
9,709


359,458
263,083
460,793
489,116
548,042
344,361
403,551
370,452
252,909
214,439







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Table I.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1989
(Continued)
Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
FNumber Long tons I INumber Panama I Number Displace-I
of of of Canal net of meant
transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transits tonnage
SMALL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 3


1980 . . . .... . . .
1981 .......... ......
1982..............
1983 ..............
1984 . . . . . . . .
1985 ..............
1986 ..............
1987 ..............
1988 . ...... ....
1989 ................


1980 ................
1981 ................
1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................
1989 ................


1980 ................
1981 .............. .
1982 .............. .
1983 .............. .
1984 .............. .
1985 .............. .
1986 .............. .
1987 .............. .
1988 ...............
1989 ...............


$74,898
65,604
73,228
73,887
76,921
73,710
89,577
90,829
79,805
96,158


52,052
44,962
50,399
48,033
48,008
45,694
55,249
55,827
49,245
60,156


SMALL U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC 3
276 $15,129 .......... 29
225 10,712 2 16
241 10,757 .......... 12
242 11,406 5 12
241 11,998 .......... 8
273 12,464 .......... 15
316 17,840 .......... 20
236 11,106 .......... 25
246 11,917 .......... 21
287 12,316 .......... 13
SMALL FREE TRAFFIC 2 3
47 $ ......... .......... 41
50 .......... .......... 41
58 .......... 70 40
56 .......... 8 39
96 .......... 59 86
46 .......... 3 32
27 .......... 80 20
43 .......... 57 26
33 .......... .......... 15
30 .......... 3 14
TOTAL PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC


1980 ................ 14,725 $293,443,943 167,612,203 14,409
1981 ................ 15,050 303,080,358 171,524,895 14,764
1982 ................ 15,271 325,589,097 185,738,781 14,930
1983 ............. .. 12,954 287,791,023 145,948,818 12,615
1984 ............. .. 12,523 289,155,035 140,801,136 12,185
1985 ............... 12,766 300,807,914 138,903,258 12,426
1986 ................ 13,278 322,734,202 140,125,818 12,899
1987 ............... 13,444 329,858,775 148,899,425 13,159
1988 ............... 13,441 339,319,326 156,780,203 13,139
1989 ................ 13,389 329,765,627 151,868,548 13,055


182,965,335
189,413,001
203,737,116
170,376,563
163,522,412
170,141,227
183,517,249
187,139,260
192,275,497
186,828,878


57
279
315

145
110
470

64
430


14,313
10,431
10,973
11,177
11,282
11,113
16,407
9,572
10,375
11,018


560
1,012
1,172
2,010
1,360
1,103
674
1,012
1,189
1,141


374,388
274,805
473,253
502,303
560,829
356,687
421,102
381,036
264,537
227,028


I Oceangoing traffic includes ships of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Free traffic includes ships of the Colombian and Panamanian Governments and ships transiting for repair by the
Commission.
3 Includes vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement tons for vessels assessed on
displacement tonnage).






Table 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1989 and 1988


Number of Transits Panama Canal Net Tonnage Long Tons of Cargo Tolls
198-89 1987-88 1988-89 1987-88 I I 1988-89 1987-88 I 1988-89 1987-.8 I
October ......................................... 981 1,025 15,905,144 16,726,129 12,602,106 13,934,687 $28,126,895 $29,596,522
November....................................... 973 981 15,902,125 16,197,159 12,155,922 12,614,114 27,931,806 28,558,801
December ....................................... 1,027 964 16,632,504 16,002,534 12,707,112 12,580,056 29,287,588 28,250,171
January ......................................... 1,021 1,043 15,838,234 16,210,013 12,348,014 12,889,541 27,867,091 28,552,643
February........................................ 933 1,061 14,518,718 15,905,398 11,752,642 12,936,870 25,554,346 28,093,490
March .......................................... 1,066 1,139 15,764,981 17,169,470 13,419,534 14,257,185 27,905,627 30,203,768
April............................................ 1,080 1,069 16,016,195 16,202,710 12,620,697 12,935,668 28,289,526 28,669,030
M ay ............................................ 1,044 1,051 15,958,912 16,466,814 12,405,048 13,037,311 27,968,462 28,966,312
June ............................................ 932 991 14,277,643 14,716,035 12,141,483 12,847,264 25,251,494 25,974,828
July ............................................. 1,052 975 14,955,575 15,486,718 12,887,341 13,141,603 26,614,606 27,349,496
August .......................................... 960 999 15,534,778 15,950,682 13,973,128 13,628,898 27,434,384 28,144,693
September ...................................... 920 936 14,464,274 14,473,241 12,623,086 11,679,444 25,618,788 25,506,456
Total ............................... 11,989 12,234 185,769,083 191,506,903 151,636,113 156,482,641 $327,850,613 $337,866,211

Average per month .......................... 999 1,020 15,480,757 15,958,909 12,636,343 13,040,220 $27,320,884 $28,155,518

NOTE: The above includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and over on vessels paying tolls on a
displacement tonnage basis. Statistics on these vessels, except as relates to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above.








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 53


Table 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1989

Measured tonnage

Num- I Panama Long
ber of Canal Registered tons of
Flag transits net gross 2 Tolls cargo
Antigua-Barbuda ............................... 11 24,587 28,604 $43,949 16,580
Australia ...................................... 4 96,908 38,772 159,414 1,498
Austria ....................................... I 28,421 35,964 52,010 51,844
Bahamas ...................................... 327 4,306,325 4,980,074 7,750,033 2,384,673
Bangledesh .................................... 2 16,170 18,700 29,591 1,567
Barbados ....................................... 7 16,443 23,884 30,091 16,648
Belgium ....................................... 31 737,960 866,072 1,350,467 885,612
Bermuda ...................................... 10 127,875 162,444 229,576 150,452
Brazil ......................................... 31 622,960 767,402 1,129,969 731,384
Bulgaria ...................................... 13 134,178 161,398 232,353 81,853
Burma ........................................ 59 1,097,214 1,219,054 1,982,767 1,268,929
Canada ............... ........................ 8 20,396 12,465 33,702 24
Cayman Islands ................................ 5 52,275 52,478 95,351 53,065
Chile ......................................... 94 895,633 992,579 1,609,199 981,978
Colombia ..................................... 126 1,217,841 1,091,134 2,224,408 279,191
Cuba .................................... ...... 150 917,505 1,070,397 1,656,132 775,454
Cyprus....................................... 614 6,850,316 7,908,303 12,266,308 8,020,480
Czechoslovakia ................................ 2 20,527 23,985 37,564 31,005
Denmark...................................... 251 4,867,405 5,890,656 8,804,631 3,433,950
East Germany ................................. 58 360,120 407,470 629,857 113,273
Ecuador ...................................... 322 2,949,800 3,406,524 5,122,979 2,127,209
Egypt ......................................... 5 74,929 88,792 130,178 94,022
El Salvador.................................... 1I 1,143 1,146 1,669 ........
Faroes ........................................ 1 376 631 549 .......
Finland ........................................ I 11,556 14,249 21,147 15,223
France........................................ 58 954,158 900,467 1,759,450 753,585
Greece ........................................ 542 8,602,522 9,827,007 15,193,579 10,698,041
Guatemala .................................... 8 28,032 33,032 50,002 38,601
Honduras ........... .............. ... ... .... 19 39,589 37,573 71,246 45,078
Hong Kong .................................... 15 263,757 314,963 482,675 422,233
India ......................................... 31 538,150 645,148 910,202 527,276
Iran .......................................... 10 104,523 127,770 179,750 26,045
Ireland ........................................ 3 4,964 5,737 7,795 1,265
Israel ......................................... 68 1,381,286 1,812,532 2,527,753 960,332
Italy ......................................... 110 1,392,381 1,725,156 2,482,062 1,163,054
Japan........................................ 640 11,493,799 7,985,487 19,494,306 3,384,839
Kuwait ............................ .......... 42 507,965 646,713 925,148 536,881
Liberia....................................... 1,090 23,014,493 23,289,290 40,467,242 21,589,524
M alaysia ...................................... 33 518,601 580,179 937,307 801,181
M aldive Island ................................. I 9,711 11,720 17,771 16,153
M alta..................................... .... 53 609,657 723,415 1,087,947 756,787
M auritius ..................................... 1 13,887 16,432 25,413 16,339
M exico ....................................... 58 1,123,292 1,378,182 1,885,941 742,591
M orocco ....................................... 18 193,668 238,934 331,447 207,152
Netherlands ................................... 297 3,146,154 3,233,737 5,659,940 1,976,984
Netherlands-Antilles ............................ 2 4,147 2,283 7,400 5,484
Norway ........................... ........ .... 377 6,287,553 6,660,574 11,245,769 6,769,721
Panama.................................. ... 2,423 43,006,621 43,016,124 75,059,139 31,260,953
People's Republic of China ...................... 215 4,320,366 5,275,572 7,664,975 5,082,945
Peru ......................................... 108 1,161,886 1,285,126 2,056,489 1,255,279
Philippines ...... ................... ..... ..... 374 6,997,576 7,784,450 12,531,369 9,520,162
Poland........................... ...... ..... 91 886,204 1.037,732 1,598,637 743,422
Portugal ...................................... 3 38,636 52,923 69,844 62,777
Qatar ..................... .................... 3 36,706 45,294 67,172 24,403
Samoa ........................................ 2 18,398 21,100 33,668 13,096
Saudi Arabia ........................ ........... 15 96,199 95,768 159,745 17,826
Singapore ..................................... 304 5,502,740 5,256,728 9,577,713 4,002,476
Somali Republic ............................... 3 27,945 31,629 51,139 20,260
South Korea................................... 187 4,542,391 4,585,093 8,062,705 3,382,325
Spain ......................................... 44 396,902 400,586 722,940 418,560
Sri Lanka ..................................... 47 476,540 560,952 827,995 220,245
St. Vincent & Grenadines ........................ 38 371,602 438,533 677,478 438,351
Sweden ............................ ............ 51 2,035,545 1,418,716 3,707,709 472,876
Switzerland.................................... 8 202,645 243,963 370,840 322,691
Taiwan ....................................... 217 6,120,581 7,292,815 11,158,310 4,670,621
Toga .......................................... 6 44,984 58,770 82,321 20,055
Turkey........................................ 15 351,026 414,137 628,719 519,085
U.S.S.R ....................................... 597 4,680,814 5,400,989 8,253,341 2,469,616
United Kingdom ............................... 435 6,751,501 8,337,574 12,081,880 5,489,842
United States .................................. 636 6,895,723 6,578,644 11,793,976 4,040,884
Vanuatu ...................................... 89 312,106 348,719 542,046 254,842








STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1989-Continued


Measured tonnage
um- I Panama I
ber of Canal Registered
transmits net gross 2


Tolls


Long
tons of
cargo


Venezuela ..................................... 147 570,163 699,773 1,025,127 576,816
Wesi Germany ................................. 219 2,890,496 3,441,644 5,223,363 1,867,714
Yugoslavia .................................... 101 1,342,339 1,566,380 2,434,360 1,512,931
N.A ) ... .................................... .. I 9,296 .......... 13,572 ............
Total ................................... 11,989 185,769,083 195,149,242 $327,850,613 151,636,113

1 Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net Ions and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons
and over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Includes I transits where no registered tonnage was reported.
No flag of registry was reported.
NOTE.-In Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as transports, supply ships, tankers, etc.,
with a measurement of 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) and over, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons and over, are classified as oceangoing commercial vessels. Statistics on
these vessels, except as related to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above. As
displacement tonnage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table shows statistics covering
25 vessels which transited the Canal during fiscal year 1989 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.


Flag
Canada .........................................
Chile ...........................................
Colombia .......................................
Ecuador ........................................
France ..........................................
Japan ..........................................
M exico .........................................
Panama ........................................
United Kingdom .................................
United Kingdom .................................
Total .................. .............


Type
Navy
Floating Dry Dock
Dredge
Navy
Navy
Navy
Navy
Dredge
Navy
Dredge


Num- Displace-
ber of meant
transit tonnage Tolls
1 2,910 $2,968
I 817 833
2 3,285 3,351
2 2,200 2,244
6 40,226 41,031
3 13,210 13,474
2 3,500 3,570
1 3,681 3,755
6 23,781 24,257
1 8,100 8,262
25 101,710 $103,744






Table 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic' by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1989
Iaden Ballast
Atlantic Pacific Atlantic Pacific I
to to to to Grand
Tipe of Vtssel Pacific Atlantic Total Pacific Atlantic Total Total
CARGO AND CARGO PASSENGER SHIPS:
Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits ........ ......... ........ .... ... 1,754 1,499 3,253 399 323 722 3,975
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 36,707 34,489 71,196 14,995 6,049 21,044 92,240
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $67,239 $63,116 $130,354 $21,893 $8,831 $30,724 $161,078
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 54,193 30,277 84,470 ........ ....... .. ....... 84,470
Container Cargo Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 804 847 1,651 20 11 31 1,682
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 17,049 18,566 35,615 267 129 397 36,012
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $31,200 $33,975 $65,175 $390 $189 $579 $65,754
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 12,662 11,949 24,611 ........ ......... ........ 24,611
General Cargo Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 764 745 1,509 78 69 147 1,656
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 6,234 6,222 12,456 513 281 794 13,250
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $11,408 $11,387 $22,795 $749 $410 $1,159 $23,954
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 5,106 4,666 9,772 ........ ....... ........ 9,772
Passenger Ships: 2
Num ber of transits .................................. 118 58 176 ........ 2 2 178
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 2,467 1,289 3,756 ........ 14 14 3,770
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $4,515 $2,358 $6,874 ........ $21 $21 $6,895
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ......... ........
Refrigerated Cargo Ships: r..
Number of transits .................................. 742 1,209 1,951 536 46 582 2,533
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 3,755 6,896 10,651 3,193 194 3,387 14,038 ..
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $6,872 $12,620 $19,492 $4,661 $283 $4,944 $24,436
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 701 3,311 4,012 ........ ........ ........ 4,012 i
Tank Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 674 463 1,137 165 237 402 1,539 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 9,848 7,879 17,727 3,739 3,382 7,121 24,848 t"
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $18,022 $14,418 $32,440 $5,459 $4,938 $10,397 $42,837 --
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 15,221 12,942 28,162 ........ ........ ........ 28,162 >
t"
CA





OTHER TYPE SHIPS: >
Naval Vessels: z
Number of transit .................................. ....... ........ ........ 8 12 20 20 >
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ........ ........ ........ 36 50 86 86 2
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... ........ ........ ........ $37 $51 $88 $88 >
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ...................... I 1 r)
Barges, Dredges, Drydocks, Tugs, etc.:
Number of transits ..................... ............. 173 101 274 76 56 132 406 Z
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 713 439 1,152 217 243 460 1,611 >
Displacement tonnage (thousands)........................ ........ ... .... ........ 6 10 16 16 r
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $1,307 $815 $2,122 $324 $364 $688 $2,810 n
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ...... .................. 393 216 608 .......... ....... ...... 608 0
SUMMARY:
Total Cargo and Cargo/ Passenger Ships:
Number of transits .................. ...... .... ...... 4,856 4,821 9,677 1,198 688 1,886 11,563
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 76,060 75,341 151,401 22,708 10,049 32,757 184,158 n
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $139,256 $137,874 $277,130 $33,152 $14,672 $47,824 $324,954
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 87,882 63,145 151,027 ........ ........ ........ 151,027 z
Total Other Type Ships:
Number of transits .......... ...... ................ 173 101 274 84 68 152 426
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 713 439 1,152 217 243 460 1,611
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ........ ........ ........ 43 59 102 102
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $1,307 $815 $2,122 $361 $415 $776 $2,898
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 393 216 608 1 ........ I1 609
Grand Total Ships:
Number of transits .................................. 5,029 4,922 9,951 1,282 756 2,038 11,989
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 76,773 75,780 152,553 22,924 10,292 33,216 185,769
Displacement tonnage (thousands) ..................... ........ ........ ........ 43 59 102 102
Tolls (thousands of dollars) .......................... $140,563 $138,689 $279,252 $33,513 $15,087 $48,599 $327,851
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ....................... 88,275 63,361 151,635 1 ........ 1 151,636

1 Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels paying tolls on net tonnage basis, or of 500 displacement tons and over
for vessels paying on displacement tonnage.
2 Vessels certificated for more than 12 passengers.








58 STATISTICAL TABLES



Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1989

Laden Ballast

I Ntm- I I rNurm-
ber Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
Anugua-Barbuda................... 9 21.763 $39,826 2 2,824 $4,123
Australia.......................... 2 48,454 88,671 2 48,454 70,743
Austria ........................... I 28,421 52,010 ....... ......... ..........
Bahamas.......................... 288 3,953,509 7,234,921 39 352,816 515,111
Bangledesh ........................ 2 16,170 29,591 ..... ......... ...........
Barbados.......................... 7 16,443 30,091 ....... ......... ...........
Belgium ........................... 31 737,960 1,350,467 ....... ......... ......
Bermuda .......................... 9 115,887 212,073 1 11,988 17,502
Brazil............................. 30 595,804 1,090,321 1 27,156 39.648
Bulgara .......................... 9 98,523 180,297 4 35,655 52,056
Burma ............................ 51 1,029,283 1,883,588 8 67,931 99,179
Canada ........................... 2 2,582 4,725 5 17,814 26,008
Cayman Islands .................... 4 51,430 94,117 I 845 1,234
Chile ............................. 81 812,814 1,487,450 12 82,819 120,916
Colombia ......................... 118 1,197,322 2,191,099 6 20,519 29,958
Cuba ............................. 131 855,606 1,565,759 19 61,899 90,373
Cyprus ............................ 544 6,121,207 11,201,809 70 729,109 1,064,499
Czechoslovakia .................... 2 20,527 37,564 ....... ......... ...........
Denmark .......................... 220 4,589,783 8,399,303 31 277,622 405,328
East Germany ..................... 43 281,303 514,784 15 78,817 115,073
Ecuador .......................... 252 2,200,072 4,026,132 68 749,728 1,094,603
Egypt ............................. 4 56,167 102,786 1 18,762 27,393
El Salvador........................ ..... ........... ........... I 1,143 1,669
Faroes ............................ ..... ........... ...... ........ 1 376 549
Finland ........................... 1 1 1,556 21,147......... ...........
France ............................ 45 879,322 1,609,159 7 74,836 109,261
Greece ............................ 442 7,118,639 13,027,109 100 1,483,883 2,166,469
Guatemala ........................ 7 24,528 44,886 1 3,504 5,116
Honduras ......................... 15 36,342 66,506 4 3,247 4,741
Hong Kong........................ 15 263,757 482,675 ....... ........ ...........
India ............................. 20 336,494 615,784 II 201,656 294,418
Iran .............................. 7 73,370 134,267 3 31,153 45,483
Ireland............................ I 1,480 2,708 2 3,484 5,087
Israel ............................. 68 1,381,286 2,527,753 ....... .......... ............
Italy.............................. 97 1,214,016 2,221,649 13 178,365 260,413
Japan............................. 497 7,296,986 13,353,485 140 4,196,813 6,127,347
Kuwait ........................... 41 495,997 907,675 I 11,968 17,473
Liberia............................ 898 18,342,612 33,617,849 192 4,671,881 6,820,355
Malaysia .......................... 31 486,891 891,011 2 31,710 46,297
M aldive Island ..................... I 9,711 17,771 ....... ..... ... ......
Malta ............................. 46 534,723 978,543 7 74,934 109,404
M auritius ......................... I 13,887 25,413 .....
Mexico ........................... 34 655,039 1,198,721 22 468,253 683,649
Morocco .......................... I1 131,600 240,828 7 62,068 90,619
Netherlands ....................... 253 2,882,582 5,275,125 44 263,572 384,815
Netherland-Antilles................. I 3,635 6,652 I 512 748
Norway........................... 329 5,583,627 10,218,037 48 703,926 1,027,732
Panama........................... 1,916 33,150,588 60,665,576 506 9,856,033 14,389,808
People's Republic of China .......... 184 3,668,217 6,712,837 31 652,149 952,138
Peru.............................. 100 973,338 1,781,209 8 188,548 275,280
Philippines ........................ 334 6,256,508 11,449,410 40 741,068 1,081,959
Poland............................ 82 823,728 1,507,422 9 62,476 91,215
Ponugal .......................... 2 36,312 66,451 I 2,324 3,393
Q atar ............................. 3 36,706 67,172 ....... ......... ...........
Samoa ............................ 2 18.398 33,668 ..... ..
Saudi Arabia ...................... 8 52,148 95,431 7 44,051 64,314
Singapore ......................... 239 4,172,197 7,635,121 65 1,330,543 1,942,593
Somali Republic ................... 3 27.945 51,139 ....... ...
South Korea....................... 171 3,867,066 7,076,731 16 675.325 985,974
Spain............................. 40 387,738 709,561 4 9,164 13,379
Sri Lanka ......................... 34 357.424 654,086 13 119.116 173,909
St Vincent & Grenadines............ 33 364,702 667,404 5 6,900 10,074
Sweden ........................... 50 1,988,685 3,639,294 I 46,860 68,416
Switzerland........................ 8 202,645 370,840 ....... ......... ...........
Taiwan ........................... 212 6,006,111 10,991,183 5 114,470 167,126
Toga ............................. 6 44,984 82,321 ....... ......... ...........
Turkey............................ 13 314,112 574,825 2 36,914 53,894
U.S S R. ......................... 488 3,836,089 7,020,043 109 844.725 1,233,298







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 59



Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1989-Continued
Laden Ballast
I Na- II INu- I
ber Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
United Kingdom ................... 360 5,924,783 $10,842,353 68 826,718 $1,207,008
United States ...................... 462 4,665,460 8,537,792 174 2,230,263 3,256,184
Vanuatu .......................... 76 233,437 427,190 13 78,669 114,857
Venezuela......................... 128 520,780 953,027 19 49,383 72,099
West Germany..................... 201 2,711,456 4,961,964 18 179,040 26!,398
Yugoslavia ........................ 95 1,282,553 2,347,072 6 59,786 87,288
N .A .*............................. ..... ........... ........... 9,296 13,572
Total ................ 9,951 152,553,220 $279,251,118 2,013 33,215,863 $48,495,751

Above table involves only commercial vessels of 300 net tons or over, Panama Canal measurement.
No flag of registry was reported.








Table 6.-Segregation of Transits' by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal Year 1989


2.000 4.000
Under to to
2.000 3.999 5,999
Antigua-Barbuda ................... 4 3 4
A ustralia .......................... ...... ...... ......
A ustria ............................ ...... ...... ......
Baham as ........ ................... 15 12 2
Bangledesh ........................ ...... ...... ......
Barbados ........................ .... 7 ......
Belgium .......................... ...... ...... ......
Berm uda .......................... ...... ...... ......
B razil ............................. ...... ...... ......
Bulgaria ........................... ...... ...... ......
Burma ........................... ...... ...... ......
Canada ........................... 3 3 ......
Cayman Islands ..................... 2 ...... I
C while ............................. 11 ...... ......
Colom bia ......................... 35 2 ......
C uba ............................. ...... 65 ......
Cyprus ............................ 66 20 16
Czechoslovakia..................... ...... ...... ......
Denmark .......................... 76 1 1
East Germ any...................... ...... ...... 27
Ecuador ........................... 3 2 25
Egypt ............................. ...... ...... ......
El Salvador ........................ I ...... ......
Faroes ............................ 1 ...... ......
Finland ........................... ...... ..... ......
France ............................ 6 2 4
Greece ............................ 31 4 31
Guatem ala......................... .... ...... 8
H onduras ............... ......... 18 ...... .
H ong Kong ........................ ...... ...... 2
India ............................. ...... I
Iran .............................. ...... ..... ......
Ireland ............................ 2 I ......
Israel ............................. ...... ...... ......
Italy .............. ............... ...... ...... ......
Japan ........................ ... 205 13 57
K uw ait ............................ ...... ..... ......
Liberia ............................ ...... 8 5
M alaysia .......................... 4 ...... ......


6.000 8.000 10,000 15,000 20,000 30,000 40.000
to to to to to to to
7,999 9,999 14,999 19,999 29,999 39.999 over


...... .. .. ...... .... ...... ......
6 36 105 53 90 5 3
2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

.. ...... ...... 1 21 9 ......
5 4 ...... I ......
2 ...... 10 1 7 3 8
2 2 7 ...... 2 ...... ......
8 12 21 2 16 ......
...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ......
2 15 62 I ...... 1 ......
3 ...... 84 ...... ...... ...... ......
3 49 30 3 ...... ...... ......
75 80 132 136 51 37 1
...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... . ..
4 17 26 6 16 ...... 104
8 18 5 ...... ...... ...... ......
126 65 19 44 36 ...... ......
2 ...... ...... 3 ...... ......

...... ...... ...... .... .... . ...... ......
...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... ......
...... ...... 3 11 25 ...... 1
7 37 156 90 58 128 ......
...... .... ...... ...... .. .. ...... ......
...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... ......
...... 2 1 ...... 6 4 ......
...... ...... 4 13 7 3 2
...... 3 7 ...... ...... ...... ......

...... ... ..... ...... 68 ...... ......
3 44 8 27 24 4 ......
64 25 31 52 114 42 34
...... ...... ...... 42 ...... ...... ......
55 81 195 253 216 221 56
...... 2 9 7 .3 8 ......


A average
grots
Registered tonnage
gross per
tonnage ve1se/
28,604 2,600
38,772 9,693
35,964 35,964
4,980,074 15,230
18,700 9,350
23,884 3,412
866,072 27,938
162,444 16,244
767,402 24,755
161,398 12,415
1,219,054 20,662
12,465 2,078
52,478 10,496
992,579 10,789
1,091,134 8,799
1,070,397 7,136
7,908,303 12,880
23,985 11,993
5,890,656 23,469
407,470 7,025
3,406,524 10,645
88,792 17,758
1,146 1,146
631 631
14,249 14,249
900,467 17,317
9,827,007 18,131
33,032 4,129
37,573 1,978
314,963 20,998
645,148 20,811
127,770 12,777
5,737 1,912
1,812,532 26,655
1,725,156 15,683
7,985,487 12,536
646,713 15,398
23,289,290 21,366
580,179 17,581






M alive Island ..................... .... .............. ...... ..... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... 11,720 11,720 'V
Malta ............................. 6 2 3 I 10 13 9 3 5 1 53 723,415 13,649 >
M auritius ......................... ...... ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 16,432 16,432 Z
Mexico ......................... 3....... .. 3 ...... 9 8 4 28 ...... 56 1,378,182 24,610 >
M orocco ........................ ...... 2 ...... 8 ...... ...... ...... 8 ...... ...... 18 238,934 13,274
Netherlands ........................ 15 40 34 42 37 76 8 34 11 ...... 297 3,233,737 10,888 >
Netherland-Antilles ................. 2 ...... ...... ..... .. . .... ... . .. .. .. .... ... 2 2,283 1,142 n
Norway ........................... 12 8 4 8 77 39 89 97 41 2 377 6,660,574 17,667 >
Panama ........................... 113 168 239 122 153 444 311 371 304 197 2,422 43,016,124 17,761 2
People's Republic of China .......... ...... 4 ...... 1 3 24 33 97 53 ...... 215 5,275,572 24,538 >
Peru .............................. 2 33 7 1 5 39 6 ...... 15 ...... 108 1,285,126 11,899
Philippines ........................ ...... 6 33 7 22 62 66 84 93 1 374 7,784,450 20,814
Poland ............................ 2 8 11 7 24 24 4 ...... 10 ...... 90 1,037,732 11,530 O
Portugal .......................... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... 3 52,923 17,641
Q atar ............................. ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 ...... ...... ...... 3 45,294 15,098
Sam oa ............................ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 21,100 10,550
Saudi Arabia ...................... ...... ...... ...... 15 ...... ...... ...... .. ... ..... .... 15 95,768 6,385
Singapore ......................... 2 1 1 79 29 76 9 45 48 14 304 5,256,728 17,292 C/
Somali Republic.................... ..... ...... ..... ..... ...... 3 ...... ..... .... ...... 3 31,629 10,543 O
South Korea ....................... 11 ...... ...... ...... ...... 19 42 62 44 9 187 4,585,093 24,519 z
Spain ............................. 6 7 18 ...... ...... ...... 6 6 ...... 1 44 400,586 9,104
Sri Lanka ......................... .... .. ..... ....... 34 8 ...... 5 ...... ...... 47 560,952 11,935
St. Vincent & Grenadines ............ 7 1 6 4 ...... 5 7 7 1 ...... 38 438,533 11,540
Sweden ........................... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 23 8 11 9 51 1,418,716 27,818
Switzerland ........................ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 3 5 ...... 8 243,963 30,495
Taiwan ........... ................. 12 I ...... ...... ...... ...... 5 73 73 53 217 7,292,815 33,607
Toga .............................. ...... ...... ...... ...... 6 ...... .... .... .. ..... ...... 6 58,770 9,795
Turkey ............................ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 2 3 7 1 15 414,137 27,609
U.S.S.R. .......................... 9 54 56 147 102 158 58 9 4 ...... 597 5,400,989 9,047
United Kingdom ................... 6 1 26 35 30 95 60 88 60 27 428 8,337,574 19,480
United States ...................... 249 13 17 21 7 172 63 43 23 21 629 6,578,644 10,459
Vanuatu.......................... 59 ... ... 2 22 2 ...... ...... 2 2 ...... 89 348,719 3,918
Venezuela .................... ..... 116 I ...... ...... 7 11 5 ...... ...... 7 147 699,773 4,760
West Germany ..................... ...... 18 ...... 3 29 38 91 27 13 ...... 219 3,441,644 15,715
Yugoslavia .................. .... ....... ...... .. ..... 7 18 33 31 6 6 ...... 101 1,566,380 15,509
Total ....................... I,115 514 641 893 1,087 2,267 1,705 1,839 1,340 552 11,953 195,149,242 16,326
Percent of Total.............. 9.3 4.3 5.4 7.5 9.1 19.0 14.3 15.4 11.2 4.6 100.0
I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement.
2 Excludes 25 vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage basis and 11 transits where no registered tonnage was reported.







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years
South North
A4lantic to Pactric [Thousands of long Ions] Pacific to Atlantic
1987 1983 1989 | Commodity 1989 1988 1987
697 846 768 Canned and Refrigerated Foods ............... .. ................................... 4,163 4,021 3,513
87 88 50 Canned Foods ........................... ........... 128 122 89
2 2 3 Fish ........................ ............................................... 25 22 20
5 4 8 F ruit ......................................................................... 15 18 18
72 72 25 M ilk ......................................................................... 71 64 43
7 11 14 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 17 18 8
610 757 717 Refrigerated Foods ................................................................. 4,034 3,899 3,424
17 16 9 Bananas ...................................................................... 1,366 1,163 965
8 8 8 D airy Products ................................................................ 23 28 30
131 179 169 Fish .......................................................................... 836 774 795
123 158 176 Fruit, excluding bananas ............................... ....................... 954 1,015 827
13 23 4 M eat ......................................................................... 80 112 62
317 372 352 Other and unclassified ......................................................... 775 807 745
4,862 5,522 6,000 Chemicals and Petroleum Chemicals ..................................................... 1,626 1,292 980
893 976 1,220 Caustic Soda ...................................................................... 5 5 4
3,115 2,941 2,845 Chemicals, unclassified .............................................................. 1,439 1,167 897
854 1,606 1,935 Petroleum Chemicals, miscellaneous ................................................. 182 120 78
5,902 5,390 5,301 Coal and Coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............................................... 3,634 3,186 2,020
29,936 3 ,756 28,127 Grains ............................................................................... 1,790 3,109 2,432
127 124 5 Barley ............................................................................ 202 203 592
15,883 16,165 10,475 Corn ............................................................................. 10 2 ......
8 6 5 Oats ..... .............. ............................... ...................... 1 38
76 98 171 R ice .............................................................................. 350 365 344 >
2,624 2,163 1,942 Sorghum ... .................................................................. ...... ...... ......
7,758 6,871 5,180 Soybeans ......................................................................... 63 42 31
3,166 6,997 9,893 Wheat ......................................................................... 1,134 2,445 1,356 -
294 332 457 Other and unclassified .................. ......................................... 30 52 71
928 1,671 2,465 Lumber and Products.................... .................... .... ................ 6,981 7,863 7,782 >
24 61 69 Boards and planks ............................................................... 3,949 4,703 4,128 -
30 27 11 Plywood, veneers, composition board ................................................ 788 847 1,023 >
853 1,129 1,253 Pulpwood ......................................................................... 1,831 1,850 1,795 w
20 453 1,131 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 412 463 835 r
540 531 506 Machinery and Equipment .............................................................. ,927 2125 2,387






47 46 44 Agricultural machinery and implements .............................................. 22 28 18 t
342 322 309 Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts .......................................... 1,717 1,899 2,120 >
66 73 73 Construction machinery and equipment .............................................. 113 139 156
24 47 32 Electrical machinery and apparatus ................................................... 21 17 24
2 1 1 M otorcycles, bicycles and parts .......................................... ............. 8 7 6
59 42 48 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 47 35 63
3,346 2,736 4,325 Manufactures of Iron and Steel .......................................................... 3,526 4107 3,626
203 137 189 Angles, shapes, and sections ........................................................ 258 296 301 Z
3 8 20 Nails, tacks, and spikes ............................................................ 67 99 50 >
2,005 1,379 2,672 Plates, sheets, and coils ............................................................. 1,424 1,406 1,495
91 144 261 Tubes, pipes, and fittings .......................................................... 372 461 248 8
643 677 605 Wire, bars, and rods ................. .......... ..................................... 303 245 291
401 392 577 Other and unclassified ..................... ...... ........................... 1,101 1,600 1,241
261 144 142 M inerals, miscellaneous ................................................................. 3,337 4,977 4,851
16 17 15 A asbestos .......................................................................... 4 4 3 c
3 1 1 Borax ............................................................................ 393 431 379
..... 1 ...... Infusorial earth .................................................................... 1 1 22
118 41 21 Salt .............................................................................. 707 800 1,110
115 75 98 Soda and sodium compounds ........................................................ 78 158 112
8 9 7 Sulfur ................................................. ......................... 2,154 3,583 3,226
9,888 10,289 11,702 Nitrates, Phosphates, and Potash ................... ................................. 2,502 1,848 2,114
781 521 558 Ammonium compounds ............................................................ 18 23 16
2 11 ...... Fishm eal .......................................................................... 1,427 1,080 1,296
27 52 43 Nitrate of soda.............................. ................................. 321 328 265
6,269 6,725 8,187 Phosphates ........................................................................ 416 233 242
347 280 223 Potash...................................................................... 106 20 81
2,462 2,700 2,691 Fertilizers, unclassified ........................................................... 214 163 213
3,569 3,462 3,130 Ores and M etals ....................................................................... 7,379 6872 5,412
717 736 736 Ores.................. .................... ................................ 6,097 5,735 4 195
114 178 135 Alumina/bauxite................... ............................. ............. 2,250 1,382 732
7 7 31 Chrom e ....................................................................... 66 25 22
35 39 48 Copper ....................................................................... 570 857 725
61 133 117 Iron .......................................................................... 282 764 526
2 ...... Lead ......................................................................... 221 209 189
35 71 97 M anganese .................................................................... 281 195 190
T in ........................................................................... 31 9 15
104 42 37 Zinc .......................................................................... 540 659 657 m
tA







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years-Continued


South Norlh
Atlantc to Pati- IThousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
19,' IIS 11SI Commoduy I 1989 1988 1987
361 264 271 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 1,855 1,634 1,139
2.852 2,726 2.394 M etals ............... .................................................. ...... 1,282 1137 1,216
365 415 283 Aluminum ................................... ............... .............. 14 38 51
15 14 2 Copper ....................................................................... 872 773 827
30 105 83 Iron .......................................................................... 12 4 25
3 7 ...... Lead ......................................................................... 67 6 1 50
2.390 2.121 1.929 Scrap ......................................................................... 90 10 23
14 13 22 Tin, including tinplate .......................................................... 7 10 I I
14 15 25 Zinc .......................................................................... 163 168 150
19 36 52 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 58 72 79
1.514 2,422 1,836 Other Agricultural Commodities ..................................... 3,324 2,998 3,346
30 45 123 Beans, edible ...................................................................... 55 84 49
2 32 5 Cocoa and cacao beans ............................................................. 50 46 42
13 19 14 Coffee, raw and processed ........................................................... 275 292 355
2 ...... ...... Copra and coconuts ................................................................ ...... 6 8
9 25 116 Cotton, raw ....................................................................... 82 87 77
7 11 54 M classes .......................................................................... 672 578 656
49 72 42 Oilseeds ....................................................................... 106 1 1 238
1 5 Peas, dry .......................................................................... 52 89 44
3 4 3 Rubber, raw ... ............................................................... 137 116 48
1 ...... ...... Skins and hides .................................................................. 1 .. >
1,399 2,213 1,473 Sugar ............................................................................ 1,891 1,581 1,825 -
1 1 ...... W ool, raw ........................................................................ 4 9 3
13,093 11,851 9,838 Petroleum and Products ................ ............................................ 12,396 12,740 12,840 --1
139 52 30 A sphalt ................................. .. ..................................... 1 ...... 2 C
3,393 2,820 2,089 Crude oil ......................................................................... 5,784 5,967 5,566 >
1,171 1,416 1,404 Diesel oil ......................................................................... 418 467 199
1,784 1,557 995 Fuel oil, residual ................................................................... 3,179 3,371 4,118 >
2,428 2,009 1,554 Gasoline .......................................................................... 486 252 257
1,001 1,007 847 Jet fuel ........................................................................... 5 39 32 t-
98 59 94 Kerosene .......................................................................... .. ... ...... 6 4






1,123 1,092 1,065 Liquified gas ................................................................... 90 14 151
597 656 659 Lubricating oil ....... ....... 156 221 253 z
1,147 1,098 923 Petroleum coke ... ............................................................. 2,261 2,338 2,103 >
213 85 179 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 14 71 153
12,470 13358 14,136 Miscellaneous .......................................... ............................. 10,777 10367 10,381 >
15 17 29 Bricks and tile ..................................................................... 13 4 7 )
6 39 77 Carbon black ... ................................................................ 2 1 84 >
249 150 234 Cem ent ...... ..................................................................... 4 1 3 Z
440 472 553 Clay, fire and china........................... ... ..................... ........ .. 39 25 27
11 8 7 Fibers, plant ....................................... ................................ 4 5 7
191 185 148 Flour, wheat ...................................................................... 6 36 1
18 17 11 Glass and glassware .............................................................. 6 6 5
37 30 12 Groceries, miscellaneous ........................ .................................. 65 53 46
12 9 6 Liquors and wines ................................ . ........................... 9 9 27
21 63 121 Marble and stone ................................................................ 4 10 2
5 4 3 Oil, coconut .................................................................. 51 50 38
2 1 Oil, fish ....... .................................................................. 395 140 125 5
167 155 161 Oil, vegetable .. ............................................................... 171 125 114
984 911 892 Paper and paper products .............................. ........ ............ 527 458 409
2 2 1 Porcelainware ........................... ... ..................................... 2 8 3
166 105 81 Resin............................. ............................ ............... 2 3 2
16 16 19 Rubber, manufactured ......... ................................................... 8 13 14
1 4 Seeds, excluding oilseeds ............................................................ 23 21 33
15 11 16 Slag, clinkers, and dross. .. ................................. 28 11 .
77 80 97 Tallow................... ................................................. 34 21 23
24 15 15 Textiles ......................... .............................................. 18 22 38
3 1 1 Tobacco and manufactures ......................................................... 1 1 2
7 7 17 W ax, paraffin ..... ................................................................ 12 75 7
10,004 11,058 11,631 All other and unclassified .................................... ..................... 9,352 9,267 9364
87,006 90,978 88,276 Total ................................ ................................... 63,361 6 504 6J684







...6








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1989 C,

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]


To W. C.
To West Coast Unted States Canada
I I F -1F


Main-
Alaska Hawaii land


Costa
Total Canada Rica


To West Coast Central America

Central
El Sal- Guare- Nica- Pan- America Balboa.
vador mala Mexico ragua ama (other) I R.P.1 Total


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ................... .. ... . .. 9,895
South Atlantic ports..................... 28 .....
Great Lakes ports ...................... .... . .....
Gulf ports ............................ 351 26,694
United States (other)' ................ .. 4 .....
Total United States.................... 383 36,589


EAST COAST CANADA:


72,567
9,543

1,310,348
7,787
1,400,245


82,462
9,571

1,337,393
7,791
1,437,217


93 . . .
24 19,095

178,087 447,019
17,179 5,796
195,383 471,910


46,342 . . .
2,559 .....
333 .....
556,550 104,011
4,802 .....
610,586 104,011


58,725


1,366,353

1,425,078


. . . 3,780 23,148 19,330
...... 19,260 ..... 13,352
1,255 ..... ..... 10,427
3,807 15,512 62,202 302,464
...... .. .. ..... 3,974
5,062 38,552 85,350 349,547


. . . . ... 16,883 16,883 51 660 3,107 . .. . ..... 7,329 4,817 251 . .. 16,164


EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ......................... ....... ...... 26,707
Panam a ................................. ..... .....
Central America (other)' .......... .......... ..... ......
Cristobal. R.P.2 .......................... ..... ..... .
Total Central America ............ ........ ..... 26,707


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ...................................
Colombia ................................
Venezuela ................................
South America (other)' ......................
Total South America ......................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ...................................
Jam aica .................................
Netherlands West Indies .....................
Trinidad/Tobago ..........................
West Indies (other) .........................
Total West Indies ........................


. . .. ... ., .
.... 61,896

..... 61,896
. . . 61,896





28,235 .. ...

28,235 .....


67,254 93,961
496 496

1,554 1,554
69,304 96,011


654,743
17,975
510,330
89,160
1,272,208


654,743
17,975
572,226
89,160
1,334,104


33,125 33,125
65,449 65,449
68,370 96,605
278,335 278,335
445,279 473,514


...... 22


4 .....
4 22


99,784 .....
27,066 .....
16,272 96,595
30,978 .....
174,100 96,595


289,475 112,077



289,475 112,077


1,640 7,879
428 .....
314,811 463,878
628 3,592
317,507 475,349


21 ..... 1,587 .....

32,926 27,301 2,506 .
...... ..... 37,204 19
32,947 27,301 41,297 19


880,840



880,840


13,951
23,906
155,094
69,148
262,099


24,729

43,414

50
68,193


...... ..... 31 15,386
...... ..... 1,385 228,686
...... ..... ..... 5,782

...... ..... 1,416 249,854


...... ..... 577 .....
46 1,510 663 3,375
630 ..... 60,066 6,518
9,842 ..... 605 2,000
10,518 1,510 61,911 11,893


32,232 2,766 4,917 20
3,179 5,514 ..... 1,085
3,885 ..... 34 2,303
...... 10,942 10 .....
19 225 ..... 7,821
39,315 19,447 4,961 11,229


151,325
54,266
12,015
2,857,918
14,572
3,090,096


1,297,831
230,071
5,782

1,533,684


24,047
29,928
1,097,592
85,815
1,237,382


64,664
11,365
49,636
40,759
45,338
211,762








EUROPE:
Belgium .................................
France ..................................
Italy ....................................
Netherlands ..............................
Norway .................................
Spain-Portugal ............................
Sweden ..................................
U.S.S.R ..................................
United Kingdom ...........................
West Germany ............................
Europe (other)' ............................
Total Europe ............................

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST):

AFRICA:


. .. .. . .. .
.. .. . .. .
. .. .. . ..
. ... . ..
..... I
. ... .. .
. .. . . .
.. .. .. .
. .. .. .. .
7,601 .....
7,601 1


410,551
194,857
222,271
531,617
215,158
266,775
54,358
5,846
110,182
402,669
937,352
3,351,636


410,551
194,857
222,271
531,617
215,158
266,776
54,358
5,846
110,182
402,669
944,953
3,359,238


51,683 18,843
27,202 . . .
16,186 . . .
49,707 3,871
1,975 . . .
150,172 1,476
1,040 .....
...... 28
15,403 .....
63,104 12,355
147,018 3,958
523,490 40,531


91,212 51,396
138 .....
1,000 .....
5,973 .....
13,336 29,537
1,135 .....

4,578 38,258

16,066 .....
13,722 48,760
147,160 167,951


135
506
2,520

92

26,803

159
11,193
41,408


21,819 134 4,360 .....
21,603 ..... ..... 2,743
14,873 ..... 999 3,593
4,063 13 1,751 .....
8,261 ..... ..... .....
22,178 ..... 621 2,483
2,368 ..... ..... .....
346,241 ..... 7,606 .....
21,263 ..... 15,976 .....
14,284 4,486 3,963 .....
101,144 6,499 25,535 10
578,097 11,132 60,811 8,829


187,764
24,619
20,971
18,191
51,134
27,985
2,368
423,514
37,239
51,313

1,055,919


..... ..... 132,635 132,635 ...... ......... . ... ..... .... 7,480 ..... ..... .... ... 7,480


. . . . .. 20,449 20,449 956,052 . . .


87 179 305,179 . . .. ....... 575 . .. 306,020


GRAND TOTAL ........................ 36,219 125,193 6,708,639 6,870,051 1,882,027 637,019 1,409,219 859,586 2,982,797 647,801 75,458 215,275 631,352 7,458,507


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ................... 0.0 0.1


7.6 7.8 2.1 0.7 1.6 1.0 3.4 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.7








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1989 0

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


To West Coast South America


To Oceania


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States
North Atlantic ports .........................................
South Atlantic ports .........................................
Great Lakes ports ...........................................
G ulf ports .................................................
United States (other)' ................................ ........
Total United States ........................................

EAST COAST CANADA:

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ......................................................
Panam a ......................................................
Central America (other)'. .........................................
Cristobal, R.P.2 ................................................
Total Central America ..........................................

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ........................................................
Colombia......................................................
Venezuela ....................................................
South America (other)' ...........................................
Total South America ...........................................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ........................................................
Jam aica ......................................................
Netherlands W est Indies ..........................................
Trinidad/Tobago ...............................................
W est Indies (other)' .............................................
Total W est Indies .............................................


Chile Colombia Ecuador


113,453
117,638
1,216
1,490,297
88,818
1,811,422


57,705
23,740

532,864
23,662
637,971


74,777
146,895
87
630,307
61,214
913.280


South I I
America Aus- French New Oceania
Peru (other) I Total traha Oceania Zealand (other) I Total


58.733 24,900
23,848 14,205
21,940 10,016
772,030 86,423
40,879 20.629
917,430 156,173


329,568
326,326
33,259
3,511,921
235.202
4.436,276


157,095 392 39,166 60,999
148.669 100 142,429 44,854

1,900,824 21 190,646 58.593
132,052 438 93,301 50,066
2,338,640 951 465,542 214,512


11,098 28,370 45,260 11,545 5,578 101.851 192,449 1,397 24,558 54,303 272,707


22,942


9,352
32;294


40
99,043
1,247,287
6,444
1,352,814




140,223
46,576
120
186,919


68,351
567
3,045

71,963


18,738
37,326
41,819
55.095
152,978


167


5,963
62,951
69,081


101,959
5,467
8,223
3,211
118,860


173,966
18,061
90,846
4,488
287,361


19,894

16,914

9,680
46,488


94,712 6,782
3,784 1,871
40 .....
336 280
98,872 8,933


...... 676
132,226 2,544
90,097 30,198
16,090 . . .
238,413 33,418


73,930 12,753

9,437 88,763

16 . .
83,383 101,516


294,746
11,689
11,308
13,179
330,922


193,420
289,200
1,500,247
82,117
2,064,984


106,744

255,337
52,539
72,767
487,387


456 ..... 12,308 .....

7,500 ..... ..... .....
II ... ... .. ..
7,967 ..... 12,308 . . .


3,499 ..... ..... .....

57,050 .. .. .... ......
409 5,025 ..... .....
60,958 5,025 . . .... .



25 ..... 793 7
50 ..... ..... 119
1,673 ..... 18 93
28,860 700 18 762
30,608 700 829 981


257,652
336,052

2,150,084
275,857
3,019,645


12,764

7,500
II
20,275


3,499 Vn

57,050 >
5.434 t
65,983 )



825 r-'
169 H.
1,784 >
30,340 O
33,118 0
m







EUROPE: 5,
Belgium ...................................................... 178,559 11,591 47,430 55,755 13,431 306,766 3,395 15,214 14,223 12,578 45,410
France ...................................................... 24,112 3,024 9,000 38,401 10,427 84,964 8,571 153,923 6,178 43,133 211,805 Z
Italy ......................................................... 13,425 842 12,012 10,740 10,031 47,050 677 6,422 4,237 3,350 14,686
Netherlands ................................................... 45,454 3,563 6,045 35,312 2,746 93,120 65,221 15,340 23,602 33,942 138,105
Norway ...................................................... 2,000 ...... ...... ...... 640 2,640 .... ... 10 .... 10 >
Spain-Portugal ................................................. 33,281 10,180 19,434 24,072 4,214 91,181 6,402 755 2,038 2,610 11,805 C)
Sweden- ...................................................... 21,229 2,888 3,227 7,395 389 35,128 18,443 ..... 3,022 30,108 51,573 >
U.S.S.R .. .................................................... 3,026 47,325 25,271 32,187 126,564 234,373 ....... ... 23,641 ..... 23,641
United Kingdom ............................................... 67,840 4,650 6,550 7,926 343 87,309 40,141 13,279 61,684 42,405 157,509 >
West Germany .................................. ........... 130,916 11,914 37,113 33,067 4,416 217,426 47,478 10,076 8,841 55,945 122,340 r
Europe(other)' ............................................... 113,373 103,635 87,571 162,769 43,451 510,799 59,927 104,080 18,486 81,576 264,069 (-
Total Europe ................................................ 633,215 199,612 253,653 407,624 216,652 1,710,756 250,255 319,089 165,962 305,647 1,040,953 0

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST): 834 9 277 ...... 70 1,190 35 61 ..... ..... ..96

AFRICA: 24,862 ...... 77,078 7,872 444 110,256 709 687 164,881 ..... 166,277 L.L,

GRAND TOTAL ............................................. 4,053,458 1,159,984 1,742,257 1,765,139 522,784 9,243,622 2,881,621 327,910 834,080 575,443 4,619,054

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ........................................ 4.6 1.3 2.0 2.0 0.6 10.5 3.3 0.4 0.9 0.7 5.2







Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1989 o

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


To Asia


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States.
North Atlantic ports ...................
South Atlantic ports ...................
Great Lakes ports .....................
Gulf ports .............. ........... .
United States (other)'..................
Total United States ..................

EAST COAST CANADA:

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ................................
Panama ...............................
Central America (other)I ...................
Cristobal, R.P.2..........................
Total Central America ...................

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil .................................
Colombia ..............................
Venezuela ..............................
South America (other)' ....................
Total South America .....................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba..................................
Jam aica ...............................
Netherlands West Indies ...................
Trinidad/Tobago ........................
West Indies (other) .......................
Total West Indies .......................


Hong Indo-
China Taiwan Kong nesia


504,985 1,054,095 206,810 ....
426,286 616,203 299,504 20,99
3,986 17,915 ..... ....
10,335,688 4,043,745 125,390 180,05
196,665 409,251 100,711 3,44
11,467,610 6,141,209 732,415 204,49


9

1 1
5
5 2


Philip-
pine Singa- South Thai-
Japan Islands pore Korea land U.S.S R.


2,406,099 48,552 91,899 1,906,660 20,754 . ...
1,552,631 22,823 92,404 364,973 1,385 . . .
101,239 ..... .... 130,864 18,540 .....
9,150,803 216,700 286,963 3,543,725 151,147 316,398
763,551 5,077 67,214 332,034 1,890 .. ..
23,974,323 293,152 538,480 6,278,256 193,716 316,398


Percent
I of total
Pacific-
Asia Grand bound
(other) t Total total cargo


397,470 6,637,324 7,458,424 8.4
395,070 3,792,278 4,518,517 5.1
58,924 331,468 376,742 0.4
1,222.388 39,572,998 49,608,401 56.2
245,323 2,125,161 2,675,762 3.0
2,319,175 52,459,229 64,637,846 73.2


338,320 184,914 38,926 . .. 514,337 . .. 7,435 485,663 80,043 . .. 123,368 1,773,006 2,180,662 2.5


52,408



52,408



3,555
70,578

74,133


897,028



182
897,210


23,686 8,444 .....
370 . . .... .

936 42 .....
24,992 8,486 .....


3,249 8,081 .....

. . 59 178
4,279 5,239 .....
7,528 13,379 178


27,550 ..... 12,661
30,699 30,141 . . .
41,118 1,957 . . .
32,544 3 . . .
51,912 2,838 2,999
183,823 34,939 15,660


107,271 12,150 27,431
1,407 . .. 36
684 . . . . .
8,930 .. . 96
118,292 12,150 27,563


358,576 ..... 3,673
98,968 ..... .....
388,226 ... . ......
81,296 ..... 1,776
927,066 . ... 5,449


248,439 . . ..... .
23,282 ..... 345
3,152 . .. 824
13,678 . . .... .
100,056 525 357
388,607 525 1,526


26,742 41,437 .....
19 . .. . . .
19... .........
368 .... . . .
27,129 41,437 .....


20,871 ..... .....

3,499 9,709 . . .
6,545 ..... .....
30,915 9,709 . . .


. . . . .. 145,541
15,538 . . .... .
3,300 .... .... .
9,772 . . ..... .
97,198 ... 4. .....
125,808 . . 145,541


63,019

1,386
523
64,928


130

6,628
10,520
17,278


91,185
16,442
2,938
13,424
47,728
171,717


362,588 2,061,890 2.3
1,832 244,088 0.3
2,070 26,660 0.0
10,895 25,643 0.0
377,385 2,358,281 2.7


394,580 1,370,073 1.6
102,523 466,692 0.5
478,877 3,722,264 4.2
109,655 403,159 0.5
1,085,635 5,962,188 6.8


1,422,404 1,593,812 1.8
116,447 161,783 0.2
53,289 423,880 0.5
69,421 294,034 0.3
303,795 730,575 0.8
1,965,356 3,204,084 3.6








EUROPE:
Belgium ...............................
France ................................
Italy ..................................
Netherlands .............................
Norway.................................
Spain-Portugal ..........................
Sweden ................................
U.S.S.R ................................
United Kingdom .........................
West Germany ..........................


1,779

230
9,959





1.836
505


594 ..... 1,864
7 ..... 1,041
...... ..... 332
38,461 267 .....

144 108 .....


1,101 3,473 7,782
...... 221 .....
1I60 5953 43 o~


7,254 ..... .....
7,872 ..... 77
4,439 ..... .....
54,652 . . .....
13,935 ..... .....
1,946 ..... .....
9 ..... .....

10,486 6,205 11,282
32,202 ..... .....
828 8n50 flt


240 ..... .....
7,096 ..... .....

16,516 5,977 . . .

98 ..... .....

...... ..... 856
1,999 ..... .....
320 ..... .....
2047 Al


24

38,664

6,609


19,839
676


11,731 1,013,905 1.1
16,117 559,564 0.6
5,001 326,165 0.4
164,496 995,236 1.1
13,935 284,852 0.3
8,905 556,824 0.6
9 144,476 0.2
856 688,230 0.8
62,167 469,809 0.5
35,255 892,107 1.0
n7 O cl e3


u PC 0 C .................... ..... ,, Jr' ..... ..... I,. 3, 3 1 -. (2
Total Europe .......................... 14,309 58,910 10,022 11,449 215,675 6,205 18,209 46,748 5,977 856 103,965 492,325 8,182,681 9.3 Q

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST): ...... 5,582 1,684 ..... 3,076 ..... ............... ..... 474 10,816 152,217 0.2

AFRICA: 708 694 2,700 124 28,070 8 978 2,651 371 ..... 2,272 38,576 1,597,630 1.8 CA

GRAND TOTAL ...................... 12,844,698 6,607,652 842,551 231,906 26,169,446 312,040 599,640 6,997,170 331,253 462,795 2,803,177 58,202,328 83,275,589 .....


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ..................


14.6 7.5 1.0 0.3 29.6 0.4 0.7


7.9 0.4 0.5


3.2 65.9


100.0%


I Includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.







Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1989 J

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes
[Long tons]

ToE. C.
To East Coast United States Canada To East Coast Central America
North South Great United I I I Central
Atlantic Atlantic Lakes Gulf Stales America Cristobal
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA. ports ports ports ports (other) I Total Canada Mexico Panama (other)' R. P2 Total
United States:
Alaska .......................................... .. .... .. ....... ....... 123,077 ......... 123,077 46,903 ....... ....... 268 ....... 268
Hawau ...................................... .... 61,295 ......... ....... 177,901 ......... 239,196 12 ..................... ....... ........
Mainland .......................................... 293,016 98,561 ....... 320,447 83,146 795,170 113,495 .. ... 645 31 11,061 11,737
Total United States ................................. 354,311 98,561 ....... 621,425 83,146 1,157,443 160,410 ....... 645 299 11,061 12,005

WEST COAST CANADA .................... ............. 478,261 412,808 ....... 493,544 449,166 1,833,779 ......... 40,766 ....... 17,460 ....... 58,226

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ............................................. 6,364 ......... ....... 19,052 147 25,563 ......... 4 ....... 1,996 ....... 2,000
El Salvador ............................................ 1,647 ......... ....... 12,787 12,504 26,938 ......... 64 ....... ....... 12,200 12,264
Guatemala ............................................. 20,622 6.106 ....... 127,820 12,772 167,320 ......... 37,561 ....... ....... 273 37,834
Honduras.............................................. 9,256 ......... ....... .. ....... ......... 9,256 ......... ....... ....... ....... 24 24
Mexico ............................................... 203,610 386 ....... 346,837 ......... 550,833 11,318 471,061 ....... 23 424 471,508
Nicaragua ............................................. 46 ......... ....... 1,310 ......... 1,356 15,465 129 ....... 3,061 15,128 18,318
Panam a ............................................... 18,675 4,943 ....... 27,874 ......... 51,492 ......... ....... 2,047 847 ....... 2,894
Central America (other)'. ............................................................................................... 1,067 .............. 281 1,348
Balboa, R.P. ............ ................................ 694 533 ....... 320 1,140 2,687 ...... ... ... 59.. ...... 591
Total Central America................................... 260,914 11,968 ........ 536,000 26,563 835,445 26,783 509,886 2,047 6,518 28,330 546,781 ^

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA: >
Chile ................................................. 761,429 194,682 ....... 510,468 314,709 1,781,288 34,709 31,145 ....... 1,968 9,586 42,699
Colombia .............................................. 100,187 57,457 ....... 82,084 130,731 370,459 1,740 700 46 3,308 ....... 4,054
Ecuador............................................... 2,656,545 130,479 ....... 1,683,550 358,848 4,829,422 54,126 2,558 437,301 53 15,630 455,542 -
Peru.................................................. 1,887,534 111,564 ....... 265,709 106,588 2,371,395 75 66,672 641 ....... 188 67,501
South America (other)' .................................... 64,833 24,400 ..... 46,663 4,059 139,955 222 5,590 422 4,930 704 11,646
Total South America .................................... 5,470,528 518,582 ....... 2,588,474 914,935 9,492,519 90,872 106,665 438,410 10,259 26,108 581,442 r

>

r-
mT
cti







OCEANIA:
A ustralia ..............................................
British Oceania ..........................................
French Oceania .........................................
New Zealand ...........................................
Oceania (other)' .........................................
Total Oceania ...................... .................

ASIA:


630,525 135,242 38,489 2,432,122 121,795
......... ......... ....... ......... 9,200
......... ......... ....... 2,779 .........
140,430 31,166 ....... 156,547 50,932
96,081 36,186 ....... 21,214 19,740
867,036 202,594 38,489 2,612,662 201,667


3,358,173
9,200
2,779
379,075
173,221
3,922,448


China ................................................. 123,160 47,602 ....... 1,367,248 54,755 1,592,765
Taiwan................................................ 739,226 327,069 ....... 43,704 152,455 1,262,454
Hong Kong ............................................ 342,058 168,156 ....... 2,297 65,583 578,094
Indonesia .............................................. 91,642 20,860 ....... 116,449 286,957 515,908
Japan................................................. 2,949,679 1,149,551 186,097 2,214,106 657,533 7,156,966
Philippine Islands .................... .................... 30,421 9,212 ....... 67,800 92,619 200,052
Singapore....................................... ...... 311,985 169,529 ....... 56,490 41,251 579,255
South Korea............................................ 368,180 113,260 ....... 209,895 213,130 904,465
Thailand .............................................. 5,027 ......... ....... ......... 5,132 10,159
U.S.S.R.............................................. ......... ......... ............... ......... .........
Asia (other)' ............................................ 601,301 297,468 ....... 220,117 302,458 1,421,344
Total Asia ............................................ 5,562,679 2,302,707 186,097 4,298,106 1,871,873 14,221,462


561,725 134,469 ....... ....... ....... 134,469

2,362 ..................... ................
33,398 31,621 ....... ....... ....... 31,621
34,668 ...... ...........................
632,153 166,090 ....... ....... ....... 166,090


175,959 .....................................
103,156 ....... ....... 3,553 23,550 27,103
78,041 ....... ....... 326 54,548 54,874
......... 658 ....... ....... ....... 658
69,254 80 ....... 174 24,857 25,111
11,373 .....................................
52,669 ....... ....... ....... 9,237 9,237
58,959 21 ....... 1,832 19,520 21,373

1,261 ............................ ........
19,856 15,813 ....... 5,687 130,323 151,823
570,528 16,572 ....... 11,572 262,035 290,179


GRANDTOTAL ...................................... 12,993,729 3,547,220 224,586 11,150,211 3,547,350 31,463,096 1,480,746 839,979 441,102 46,108 327,534 1,654,723


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ............................... 20.5


5.6 0.4 17.6


5.6 49.7 2.3 1.3 0.7 0.1 0.5


See footnotes at end of table.








Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1989

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


To Easi Coast South America


To West Indies


South
Colom- Vene- America
Brazil bia zuela (other) I


I I Haiti Nether-
Domini- lands
can West
Total Cuba Republic Jamaica Indies


Trini- West
Puerto dad/ Indies
Rico Tobago (other) I Total


WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States
A laska...................................... ...... ....... ......... ....... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 61,887 ....... ....... 61,887
H aw aii ..................................... ...... ....... ......... ....... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... .........
Mainland ................ .................. 216,046 13,698 86,483 6,177 322,404 67 ....... 3,571 53,721 46,299 ....... 250,297 353,955
Total United States ........................... 216,046 13,698 86,483 6,177 322.404 67 ....... 3,571 53,721 108,186 ....... 250,297 415.842

WEST COAST CANADA ......................... 315,992 21,417 112,764 35,208 485,381 35,932 9,611 29,858 ......... 70,874 ....... 118 146,393


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ...................................... 631 874 ......... ....... 1,505
El Salvador ..................................... 2,379 46 731 ....... 3,156
Guatemala ...................................... 1,104 ....... .......... 18,484 19,588
Honduras ....................................... ..... ....... ......... ....... ........ .
M exico.......................................... 11,850 180 20 ....... 12,050
Nicaragua....................................... 2,962 94 4 606 3,666
Panama ........................................ ....... 855 1,491 2,313 4,659
Central America (other)' ............................ ....... 18,050 39,766 ....... 57,816
Balboa, R.P. .................................... ....... 2,461 ......... 4,134 6,595
Total Central America............................ 18.926 22.560 42.012 25,537 109,035


WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile .......................................... 21 50,906
Colombia ....................................... ....... 50,768
Ecuador ........................................ 2,892 49
Peru ........................................... ....... 31,509
South America (other)' ............................ ....... 27,544
Total South America ............................. 2,913 160,776


57,087 18,700
497 .......
6,500 .......
79,992 7,598
10,488 .......
154,564 26,298


126,714
51,265
9,441
119,099
38,032
344,551


....... ....... 1,381 ......... 1,272 4,990 .......
....... ....... ....... 11,019 .......................
....... 8,470 ....... 9 15,791 14,763 6,813
....... ...... .. ..... .. ....... .. ...... 14 18,927
5,400 3,644 ....... ......... 4,671 ....... .......
7,190 930 118 ......... ......... ....... .......
....... 9,041 4,685 ......... 12,726 ....... 2,882
4,110 ....... ....... 837 70,754 ....... 30
1,800 ....... ................ 116 ....... ......
18,500 22,085 6,184 11,865 105.330 19,767 28.652


7,643
11,019
45,846
18,941
13,715
8,238
29,334
75,731
1,916
212.383


....... 41,886 ....... ......... 91,163 ....... 2,278 135,327
....... 4,631 ....... ......... 22,996 ....... 6,898 34.525
58,404 ....... ....... 38,917 1,360,440 ....... 66,168 1,523,929
39,935 20 ....... ......... 4,604 ....... 143 44,702
68,730 ......... ....... 9,171 8 ....l. 1,728 80,470
167,069 46,537 ....... 48,088 1,480,044 ....... 77,215 1,818,953







OCEANIA:
Australia ....................................... ....... ....... 478,326 ....... 478,326
British Oceania ................................... ....... ........................ ......
French Oceania .................................. ....... .................................
New Zealand .................................... ....... ....... 39,883 ....... 39,883
Oceania (other) .................................. .................................
Total Oceania .................................. .............. .. 518,209 ....... 518,209

ASIA:
China .......................................... ....... 5,000 31,340 ....... 36,340
Taiwan ......................................... 497 380 2,311 96 3,284
Hong Kong .................. ................... 697 471 3,471 741 5,380
Indonesia ....................................... ....... ................................
Japan.......................................... 22,723 32,746 70,015 12,194 137,678
Philippine Islands ................................. ....... ................................
Singapore ....................................... 52 282 4,735 76 5,145
South Korea..................................... 680 717 2,164 578 4,139
Thailand ....................................... ........... .............................
U.S.S.R ...............................................................................
Asia (other)' ..................................... 13,857 10,748 33,860 12,128 70,593
Total Asia ..................................... 38,506 50,344 147,896 25,813 262,559


344 ....... 1,535 292 ......... 3,277 3,685
....... ....... ....... ......... 3 ....... .......
....... ....... ....... ......... 2,897 ....... .......
....... 15,626 6,318 217 627 2,160 11,135
3,048 ...... ......... 10,306 ....... ......
344 18,674 7,853 509 13,833 5,437 14,820


9,133
3
2,897
36,083
13,354
61,470


234,270 ....... ................................ ....... 234,270
....... 7,633 21,010 3,860 8,865 1,976 4,038 47,382
....... 3,624 23,949 10,512 4,025 2,505 6,053 50,668
....... 2,030 18 .......... 56,484 ....... ....... 58,532
23,397 31,595 43,698 4,828 72,499 3,600 28,173 207,790
....... 3,270 ....................................... ... 3,270
....... 2,276 ....... 2,121 9,273 1,422 1,635 16,727
7,991 6,720 17,229 1,582 5,823 954 4,432 44,731
138,270 .............................................. .. 138,270
287,807 ...... ............... ........................ 287,807
55,632 33,961 10,920 7,119 64,280 4,487 39,981 216,380
747,367 91,109 116,824 30,022 221,249 14,944 84,312 1,305,827


GRAND TOTAL............................... 592,383 268,795 1,061,928 119,033 2,042,139 969,279 188,016 164,290 144,205 1,999,516 40,148 455,414 3,960,868


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo .......................... 0.9 0.4


1.7 0.2 3.2 1.5 0.3 0.3


0.2 3.2 0.1 0.7


See footnotes at end of table.


m


-v
z

;la.

C

z


C
0



rJ2


z







Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1989

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons)


WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska .............................
Hawaii .............................
M mainland ...........................
Total United States ..................


Den-
Belgium mark Finland France


To Europe

Nether- Spain/ United Yugo- West Europe
Italy lands Portugal Sweden U.S.S.R. Kingdom slavia Germany (other)


123,641 ....... ....... 27,599 39,476 ......... 6,223 ...... ....... 8,020 ....... 41,957

467,230 70,885 ....... 258,358 166,840 2,025,215 230,767 31,297 14,921 193,675 14,596 320,784
590,871 70.885 ....... 285,957 206,316 2,025,215 236,990 31,297 14,921 201,695 14,596 362,741


WEST COASTCANADA ................. 640,307 600 ....... 336,573 315,911 1,035,016 389,377 631 139,974 1,734,459 38,551 300,715 1,503,004 6,435,118


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica .............................
El Salvador.............................
Guatemala .............................
Honduras ..............................
M exico ................................
Nicaragua ..............................
Panama ...............................
Central America (other)t ...................
Balboa, R.P.t ...........................
Total Central America ...................

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ..................................
Colombia ..............................
Ecuador ...............................
Peru ..................................
South America (other)i ....................
Total South America ....................


6,109 ....... ....... ....... 172 1,953 ......... ....... 26,638 ......... ....... 1,543 78
392 ....... ....... 197 ......... 495 289 ....... 14 10 ....... 21,464 9,280
660 ....... ....... 1,195 1,653 49,567 192 ....... 97,075 ......... ....... 4,789 37
... ... .. ..... .. ..... ...... ....... .. ...... 5,615 ....... ....... ......... ....... 57 .........
63,911 ....... ....... 2,659 56,960 725 43,966 785 ....... 632 ....... 12,541 122,053
86,196 ....... ....... ....... 488 12,776 18,540 ....... 46,699 ......... ....... 19,541 16,986
61,844 ....... ....... ....... 74,509 ......... 6,054 7,625 ....... ......... ....... 85,525 9,298
950 ....... ....... 5,109 61 1,820 2,679 1,298 404 643 ....... 24,826 7,968

220,062 .............. 9,160 133,843 67,336 77,335 9,708 170,830 1,285 ....... 170,286 165,700


415,941 ....... 33,210 89,100
8,555 ....... ....... 2,622
174,617 ....... ....... 3,611
224,963 ....... ....... 19,115
8,254 ....... ....... 48,699
832,330 ....... 33,210 163,147


221,769
172
94,967
115,057
21,696
453,661


463,798
28,507
21,903
126,126
63,977
704,311


200,707 31,812 .......
2,619 411 .......
26,705 604 20,668
54,289 12,741 50,797
17,161 ....... 405,324
301,481 45,568 476,789


188,144 45,964
616 796
7,712 20,133
56,807 128,479
19,479 18,411
272,758 213,783


506,585
124,008
118,699
426,710
46,584
1,222,586


464,683
11,384
108,220
287,237
92,574
964,098


36,493
32,141
155,168
5,672
304,232
201,226
244,855
45,758

1,025,545


2,661,713
179,690
597,839
1,502,321
742,159
5,683,722


Total


340,115
49,312
5,046,212
5,435,639


93,199
49,312
1,251,644
1,394.155







OCEANIA:
Australia............................... 23,397 ...... ....... 1,050 4,239 705 603 465 .......
British Oceania .......................... ... ... ....... ....... ....... .......... 34,709 ......... ....... .......
French Oceania .......................... 29 ....... ....... 1,628 ......... 3,251 ......... ....... .......
New Zealand............................ 187,505 ....... 2,952 4,294 9,028 78,513 56 8,804 6,599
Oceania (other)' ......................... 6,215 ............... 310 1,423 ...... ......... .. ...... ...... .
Total Oceania ......................... 217,146 ....... 2,952 7,282 14,690 117,178 659 9,269 6,599


ASIA:
China ................................. 13,981 ....... ....... 29 ......... .........
Taiwan ................................ 4,294 ....... ....... 116 ......... 808
Hong Kong ............................. 273 ....... ....... 342 ......... 290
Indonesia .............................. ......... .......................................
Japan ................................. 4,397 ....... ....... 9,734 ......... 86,280
Philippine Islands ........................ ...................... ..... ........... 16,979
Singapore .............................. 292 ....... ....... 128 ......... 232
South Korea ............................ 519 ....... ....... 193 ......... 1,829
Thailand ...............................................................................
U.S.S.R................................ ......... ......................................
Asia (other)I ...................... ...... 1,591 ....... ....... 716 ......... 16,476
Total Asia ............................ 25,347 ....... ....... 11,258 ......... 122,894


29,506 .......
146,500 .......
143 .......
43,882 .......
5,032 .......
225,063 .......


24,219


8,555
2,854
35,628


60,331

1,067
46,834
34,109
142,341


.... . ...... ..... 2 ....... ......... .........
19 ....... ....... 243 ....... 515 404
364 253 ....... 600 ....... 655 1,156

......... 22 ....... 14,297 ....... 2,284 17,608
........ ....... ....... ......... ....... ......... .........
35 ....... ....... 310 ....... 336 3,555
......... ....... ....... 413 ....... 491 1,605

......... ....... 7,700 ......... ....... ......... .........
37 ....... ....... 2,377 ....... 6,697 15,139
455 275 7,700 18,242 ....... 10,978 39,467


GRAND TOTAL ...................... 2,526,063 71,485 36,162 813,377 1,124,421 4,071,950 1,006,297 96,748 816,813 2,453,502 266,930 2,102,934 4,208,765 19,595,447


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo .................


4.0 0.1 0.1 1.3


1.8 6.4 1.6 0.2 1.3


3.9 0.4 3.3 6.6 30.9


See footnotes at end of table.


144,515
181,209
6,118
397,022
49,943
778,807


14,012
6,399
3,933

134,622
16,979
4,888
5,050

7,700
43,033
236,616








Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1989 3
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]
To Asia
(Middle
East) To Africa Percent
oftotal
AArianiic-
(Middle South Africa Grand bound
East) Algeria Egypt Morocco Africa Tunisia (other) I Total Total cargo
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ............................................................... ...... ....... ......... 55,246 ....... ....... ....... 55,246 627,496 1.0
Hawaii ................................................................... ...... ......................... ....... ....... ....... ......... 288,520 0.5
M mainland ............................................................. 56,031 8,319 674,827 32,347 ....... ....... 80,169 795,662 7,494,666 11 8
Total United States ................................... .................. 56,031 8,319 674,827 87,593 ....... ....... 80,169 850,908 8,410,682 13.3

WEST COAST CANADA ....................................................... 247,165 315,684 2,000 756,439 ....... 191,405 175,578 1,441,106 10,647,168 16.8

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ................................................................ ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 92 92 73,296 0.1
El Salvador ............................................................... ....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 85,518 0.1
Guatemala ................................................................ ......... 12,795 13,779 ......... 84 ....... I 26,659 452,415 0.7
Honduras................................................................................................................... 7,174 7,174 41,067 0.1
M exico .................................................................. ....... 22,007 ......... ......... ....... 273,088 ,714 296,809 1,660,465 2.6
Nicaragua ................................................................ ....... ....... ......... 13,779 ....... ....... 130 13,909 262,178 0.4
Panama .................................................................. 9,220 ....... ........ .......... ....... ....... 3,403 3,403 345,857 0.5
Central America (other) ........................................................ 459 ....... ......... ......... ....... ..... ................. 181,112 0.3
Balboa, R.P.2t........................................................................................................... ..... ................ 11,789 0.0
Total Central America ...................................................... 9,679 34,802 13,779 13,779 84 273,088 12,514 348,046 3,113,697 4.9

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA: H
Chile .................................................................... 1,980 8,858 1,034 ......... ....... ....... 17,451 27,343 4,811,773 7.6
Colom bia ................................................................. 626 ....... ......... 55,117 ....... ....... ....... 55,117 697,476 1I 1
Ecuador .................................................................. 63,987 2,506 ................. ....... ....... ....... 2,506 7,536,792 11.9
Peru ..................................................................... 20,834 18,109 ......... 5,638 ....... ....... 7,698 31,445 4,157,372 6.6
South America (other)' ........................................................................... ........ ....... ....... 307 307 1,012,791 1.6
Total South America....................................................... 87,427 29,473 1,034 60,755 ....... ....... 25,456 116,718 18,216,204 28.8 ,


t'







OCEANIA:
A ustralia .................................................................
British Oceania .............................................................
French Oceania ............................................................
New Zealand ..............................................................
Oceania (other)' ............................................................
Total Oceania ................................... ............... ...........

ASIA:
China ....................................................................
Taiwan ...................................................................
Hong Kong ...............................................................
Indonesia .................................................................
Japan ....................................................................
Philippine Islands ..........................................................
Singapore..................................................................
South Korea ...............................................................
Thailand .................................................................
U.S.S.R .................................................................
Asia (other)I ...............................................................
Total Asia ................................................................


....... 2,573 ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... 2,573

....... 2,573 ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... 2,573


4,686,341 7.4
190,412 0.3
14,156 0.0
919,655 1.5
271,186 0.4
6,081,750 9.6


... .. ..... .. ....... .. ....... .. .... .. ..... .. .... .. ...... 2,053,346 3.2
24 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 1,449,802 2.3
21 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 771,011 1.2
... .. ..... .. ....... .. ..... .. ..... .. .... .. ..... .. ...... 575,098 0.9
68 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 3,168 3,168 7,734,657 12.2
....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ...... ....... 231,674 0.4
....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 667,921 1.1
. ... .. ...... ........ ........ .. ..... .. .... .. ..... .. ...... 1,038,717 1.6
....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 148,429 0.2
.. .. ..... .. ....... .. ....... .. .... .. ..... .. ..... .. ...... 296,768 0.5
571 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... .. ..... 1,923,600 3.0
684 ....... ......... ........ ....... ........ 3,168 3,168 16,891,023 26.7


GRAND TOTAL ....................................... 400,986 390,851 691,640 918,566 84 464,493 296,885 2,762,519 63, 360524.


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ................................................... 0.6 0.6


1.1 1.4 0.0 0.7 0.5


4.4 100.0%


I Also includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.







80 STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 509 429 308
Caustic soda ................................. 149 98 80
Chemicals, unclassified ................. ........ 197 176 111
Toluene ..................................... 39 30 50
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 124 125 67
G rains ........................................... ...... ....... 51
C orn ........................................ ... ....... 51
Lumber and products .............................. ...... 2 ..
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ ....... 2 .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. 7 1 20
Manufactures of iron and steel..................... 2 ....... 9
Plates, sheets and coils......................... ....... ....... 6
W ire, bars and rods ........................... ....... ....... 3
Other and unclassified ......................... 2 ...... .......
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ I 1 ....... .......
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 66 ....... .......
Ammonium compounds ....................... 29 ....... .......
Phosphates .................................. 37 ....... .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 28 ......
Other agricultural commodities ..................... ....... 2 ..
C offee ....................................... ..... 2 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 744 566 278
D iesel oil .................................... 19 ......
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 54 37 28
Gasoline ..................................... 221 254 86
Jet fuel ...................................... 101 ....... .......
K erosene .................................... 11 ....... .......
Liquefied gas ................................. ....... 1 2
Lubricating oil ............................... 290 271 162
Other and unclassified ......................... 48 3 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 34 11 16
Container cargo .............................. 30 10 7
All other and unclassified ...................... 4 1 9
Total ................... ................. .... 1401 1,01 682


EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 24 ..............
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 171 200 819
Phosphates .................................. 171 200 819
M miscellaneous .................................... ....... ....... 13
All other and unclassified ...................... ....... ....... 13
Total ................ ...... .............. 195 200 832


EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... ....... 3 .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 1 3 11
C austic soda ................................. I 2 .......
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ ....... I 10
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. ....... ...... 1







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 81


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
S 1989 1988 1987
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............ 39 174 .......
C oal ........................................ 39 174 .......
Grains .......................................... 1,368 946 1177
B arley ....................................... ..... 9 .......
Corn ........................................ 571 460 443
R ice ........................................ 57 14 9
Sorghum .................................... 133 ....... 103
Soybeans .................................... 318 218 288
W heat ....................................... 277 245 331
Other and unclassified ......................... 12 ....... 3
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 1 2 10
Machinery and equipment .......................... 3 2 1
Construction machinery and equipment .......... ....... 2 .......
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 ....... 1
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 1 4 11
M inerals, m iscellaneous............................ ...... ........ 31
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 917 605 726
Ammonium compounds ....................... 129 95 146
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 116 83 103
Fishm eal ................................... .. ....... 8 .......
Phosphates .................................. 662 403 466
Potash ...................................... 10 16 1
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 29 16 22
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 2 33 42
Beans, edible ............................. .... I 4 .......
C otton, raw ................................. .. ....... 1 .......
O ilseeds ..................................... ....... 28 42
Peas, dry .................................... I ....... .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 276 197 152
A sphalt ...................................... .. .. ....... 3
Diesel oil .................................... 113 79 80
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 34 33 .......
G gasoline ..................................... 113 77 49
Jet fuel ...................................... 6 2 6
Kerosene .................................... 7 3 6
Liquefied gas ................................. 2 2 2
Lubricating oil ............................... 1 ....... 6
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 104 71 51
Flour, wheat ................... .............. ....... .......
Oil, vegetable...... ........... ................ 24 21 8
Paper and paper products ...................... 17 23 16
Tallow ...................................... 48 12 18
All other and unclassified ...................... 14 15 9
Total................... ................. 2,741 2056 2,234

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 2 28 21
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 264 241 296
Caustic soda ................................. 88 54 113
Chemicals, unclassified ................ ........ 157 169 163
Benzene ....................... ......... 6 3 .......







82 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals-Continued
Toulene ..................................... 6 5 5
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous.................. 7 10 15
Coal and coke .................................... 591 59 174
Coal ........................................ 591 59 171
C oke ......................................... ....... ...... 3
Grains......................................... 1331 2245 1,668
Corn ........................................ 259 719 473
O ats ........................................ 2 5 4
R ice ........................................ 97 13 29
Sorghum .................................... 33 136 .......
Soybeans .................................... 48 324 221
W heat....................................... 889 1,043 941
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 5 .......
Lumber and products .............................. 7 34 7
Boards and planks ............................ ....... 21 .......
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ I 1 1
Pulpwood ................................... 3 7 5
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 5 1
Machinery and equipment .......................... 92 62 60
Agricultural machinery and implements .......... 18 18 17
Automobiles, trucks, accessories, and parts ....... 27 17 16
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 27 18 17
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 7 5 5
Motorcycles, bicycles and parts ................ .. ... .. ..... 1
Other and unclassified ......................... 13 4 4
Manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 28 28 23
Angles, shapes, and sections .................... 8 6 6
Nails, tacks and spikes ......................... 1 2 .......
Plates, sheets, and coils ........................ 10 2 4
Tubes, pipes, and fittings ....................... 6 7 9
W ire, bars, and rods ........................... 2 1 2
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 10 2
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 24 34 19
A sbestos ..................................... 2 2 .......
Infusorial earth ............................... ....... .......
Soda and sodium compounds ................... 17 24 14
Sulfur ....................................... 5 7 5
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 593 700 738
Ammonium compounds ....................... 11 9 18
Fertilizers, unclassified .......................... 359 365 370
N itrate of soda ............................... ....... 2 ......
Phosphates .................................. 187 292 275
Potash ...................................... 36 32 75
Ores and metals .................................. 58 134 175
O res ........................................ 18 14 26
Other and unclassified ..................... 18 14 26
M etals ................ ..................... 40 120 149
Alum inum ............................... 2 1 2
Copper ............................... ....... ....... I
Iron ..................................... ....... 16 ......
Scrap ................................. 36 102 146
Tin, including tinplate ..................... I ....... ......
Other and unclassified ..................... I I .......







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 83


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1989 1988 1987
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA-Continued
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 12 16 79
Beans, edible ................................. I 1 .......
Copra and coconuts ........................... ....... ....... 1
Cotton, raw .................................. 2 3 2
O ilseeds ..................................... 7 1 2
Peas, dry ................................ ... ....... 1 .......
Rubber, raw ................................. 1 2 1
Sugar .................. .................. ....... 8 73
Other and unclassified ......................... I ....... .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 558 643 108
C rude oil .................................... 3 ....... .......
Diesel oil .................................... 301 327 27
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 27 1 .......
Gasoline ..................................... 114 46 4
Jet fuel ......................... . ........ 54 182 .......
Kerosene .................................... 1 .
Liquefied gas ................................. ....... 11 13
Lubricating oil ............................... 58 76 61
Petroleum coke ............................... ....... ....... 2
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 1
M miscellaneous ........................ ...... ...... 876 855 808
Bricks and tile ................. ...... ........ 4 2 2
Carbon black.......................... .... ... .... . 1
Clay, fire, and china........................... 11 7 10
Fibers, plant ................................. 2 3 6
Flour, wheat ................................. 50 53 56
Glass and glassware ........................... 2 2 2
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 1 3 3
M arble and stone ............................. 20 7 .......
Oil, coconut .................................. 3 3 4
Oil, vegetable ................................. 36 23 23
Paper and paper products ...................... 147 138 143
Resin ....................................... 25 32 39
Rubber, manufactured ......................... 7 3 5
Tallow ...................................... 42 56 42
Textiles ...................................... 4 7 11
Container cargo .............................. 454 431 363
All other and unclassified ...................... ..6___ 8 84 98
Total .................. ................... 4,436 5,079 4 176

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 5 3 2
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 6 13 14
G rains........................................... 135 132 122
Corn ...................... ................. 35 24 23
R ice .................................. ............ 2 .......
Soybeans .................................... 28 28 10
W heat ....................................... 71 78 89
Other and unclassified ......................... I ....... .......
M inerals, miscellaneous............................ I ....... 2
Nitrates, phosphates and potash..................... ....... 3 .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 5 6 4
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ 4 ....... .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 161 123 109







84 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA,
R.P.-Continued
Petroleum and products-Continued
D iesel oil .................................... 103 69 23
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 28 7 83
G gasoline ..................................... 8 27 2
Jet fuel ...................................... 19 .....
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 20 1
M miscellaneous .................................... 33 33 63
Flour, w heat ................................. ....... 6 .......
O il, coconut ................................. .. ....... 1 .......
O il, vegetable ............................. ........... .......
T allow ...................................... 1 1 2
All other and unclassified ...................... 32 24 61
Total ............... ........ ............. 350 313 316

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 12 19 13
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 838 690 576
Caustic soda ................................. 660 536 458
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 158 147 107
Benzene ..................................... 3 .......
T oulene ..................................... 1 4 5
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous..... ............. 16 3 5
Coal and coke .................................... 3 19 .......
G rains ........................................... 86 122 34
C orn ........................................ 8 10 .......
Sorghum .................................... 24 ....... .......
Soybeans .................................... 54 112 34
Lumber and products .............................. 20 28 26
Pulpwood ................................... 20 28 26
Machinery and equipment .......................... 6 7 1
Agricultural machinery and equipment ........... 2 2 .......
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ........ 1 2 1
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 3 1 .......
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. ....... 1 .......
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... 1 .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 25 ....... .......
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ 18 11 27
S alt ......................................... .. .. ........ 7
Soda and compounds .......................... 18 10 20
S ulfur ....................................... .... .. .......
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 1,026 552 579
Ammonium compounds ....................... 18 19 17
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 101 86 172
Phosphates .................................. 864 408 374
Potash ...................................... 43 39 16
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 16 5 2
Petroleum and products ........................... 313 207 313
C rude oil .................................... 21 .....
D iesel oil .................................... ....... 65
G gasoline ..................................... 28 I 121
Jet fuel ...................................... 4 ....... 1
K erosene .................................... 1
Liquefied gas ................................. 57 59 63







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 85

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1989 1988 1987
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA-
Continued
Petroleum and products-Continued
Lubricating oil ............................... 23 32 28
Petroleum coke ............................... 155 48 85
Other and unclassified ......... ................ 24 2 5
M miscellaneous .................................... 657 571 498
Carbon black.............................. . ..... 33 .....
Clay, fire and china ........................... 33 25 31
Oil, vegetable ................................. 1 I 2
Paper and paper products ...................... 7 38 13
R esin ....................................... 5 I 1
Container cargo .............................. 607 467 441
All other and unclassified ...................... 4 6 10
Total ................... ................ 3,020 2,231 2069

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 394 368 262
Canned foods, miscellaneous ................... 8 ....... .......
Refrigerated foods ............................ 386 368 262
F ish ..................................... 1 ....... 1
Fruit, excluding bananas ................... 167 150 115
Other and unclassified ..................... 218 218 146
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 3,639 3,445 2,846
Caustic soda ................................. 219 163 151
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 1,979 1,979 1,860
Benzene ..................................... 84 106 58
Toulene ..................................... 139 122 133
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 1,218 1,075 644
Coal and coke .................................... 4,416 4,812 5,669
Coal ......................... .............. 4,206 4,732 5,610
Coke ........................................ 210 80 59
Grains........................... ........ .... . 24,727 28,701 26277
Barley ....................................... .. ..... 91 110
Corn ........................................ 9,593 14,939 14,881
Oats ...................................... ....... ...... 1
R ice ........................................ ....... 33 15
Sorghum .................................... 1,750 2,025 2,521
Soybeans .................................... 4,684 6,143 7,098
W heat ...................................... 8,283 5,188 1,452
Other and unclassified ......................... 417 282 199
Lumber and products ............................. 2,013 1,117 510
Boards, and planks ............................ 37 20 .......
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ 2 12 .......
Pulpwood ................................... 899 705 510
Other and unclassified ......................... 1,075 380 .......
Machinery and equipment.......................... 51 49 29
Agricultural machinery and equipment ........... ....... 3 2
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts........ 14 7 2
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 13 8 4
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 6 22 3
Other and unclassified ......................... 18 9 18
Manufactures of iron and steel...................... 1,425 115 199
Angles, shapes, and sections .................... 35 1 11
Nails, tacks and coils .......................... 13 ....... .......







86 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1 1989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Manufactures of iron and steel-Continued
Plates, sheets, and coils ........................ 1,031 86 100
Tubes, pipes and fittings ....................... 85 ....... .......
W ires, bars, and rods .................. ........ 108 6 22
Other and unclassified ......... ....... ......... 153 22 66
Minerals, miscellaneous ........................... 11 5 7
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 5,230 5,256 4,521
Ammonium compounds ....................... 54 88 60
Fertilizers, unclassified................... ...... 418 842 343
Phosphates .................................. 4,726 4,282 4,011
Potash ...................................... 32 44 107
Ores and metals .................................. 1,659 1,870 2,028
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... 87 49 47
M etals .................................. .... 1,572 1,821 1,981
Alum inum ............................... 1 5 .......
Copper .................................. ....... 13 6
Iron ............................. ..... .... 35 .......
Scrap ................................... 1,559 1,762 1,971
Tin, including tinplate ..................... 1 ....... .......
Zinc .................................... 5 1 4
Other and unclassified ..................... 6 5 .......
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 240 113 181
Beans, edible ................................. 120 38 28
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ ....... 27 .......
C otton, raw .................................. 112 ....... .......
M olasses .................................... 8 8 .......
O ilseeds ..................................... ....... 40 3
Sugar ........................................ .. .. .. ....... 150
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,719 2,261 2,062
D iesel oil .................................... 37 108 .......
Fuel oil, residual ............................. ........ 55 .......
Gasoline ..................................... 17 274 414
Jet fuel ...................................... 287 457 225
Kerosene .................................... 38 30 26
Liquefied gas ................................. 373 179 192
Lubricating oil ............................... 140 97 114
Petroleum coke ............................... 768 1,051 1,061
Other and unclassified .......... ............... 59 10 30
M miscellaneous .................................... 6,935 6,716 5,895
Carbon black ................................. 56 ....... .......
Clay, fire and china ........................... 456 371 369
Fibers, plant ................................. .... ........ I
Flour, wheat ................................. 30 31 .......
Glass and glassware ........................... ....... 3 .......
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 3 11 22
M arble and stone ............................. 11 4 8
O il, vegetable ................................. 61 55 71
Paper and paper products ...................... 291 240 355
Resin ....................................... 16 32 40
Rubber, manufactured......................... 5 1 1
Tallow ...................................... 2 6 6
T textiles ...................................... .. .. ........ 2
Tobacco and manufactures ..................... ....... ....... 3
W ax, paraffin ................................ 10 1 .......







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 87

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1989 1988 1987
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
Container cargo .............................. 5,730 5,801 4,781
All other and unclassified ...................... 264 160 236
Total.................. ................. 52459 828 50486


EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST UNITED
STATES:
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 4 ....... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... ....... 11 45
O res and m etals .................................. ...... ....... 35
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... ....... ....... 30
M etals, miscellaneous ......................... ...... ....... 5
M miscellaneous .................................... 13 6 6
All other and unclassified ...................... 13 6 6
Total........ ....... .... ................. 17 17 86

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 1 I .......
Grains, miscellaneous .............................. 2 4 22
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. I I .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... ....... I .......
M miscellaneous .............. ...................... 12 10 11
Paper and paper products ...................... 5 3 7
All other and unclassified ...................... 7 7 4
Total................ ............. ........ 16 17 33

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST SOUTH
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 2 13 19
G rains........................................... ....... ....... 1I
W heat ....................................... ... ....... I 1I
Lumber and products.............................. I ....... 4
Pulpwood ................................... 1 ....... 4
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. ....... ....... 2
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 17 ....... 2
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 7 10 9
Asbestos ..................................... 7 10 9
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 19 37 16
Potash ................ ..................... 19 37 16
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 22 ..... .......
M miscellaneous .............. ..................... 34 31 37
Paper and paper products ...................... 16 24 19
Resin ............................................. .. .. ....... 4
All other and unclassified ...................... 18 7 14
Total ............... ........ ............. 102 91 100

EAST COAST CANADA TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 11 2 6
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. ...... ....... 1







88 STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
F 1989 1988 1987
EAST COAST CANADA TO OCEANIA-Continued
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. ....... 2 1
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 10 ....... .......
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ ....... ....... 21
Nitrates, phosphates and potash...................... ...... 18 15
Potash ................ ..................... ...... 18 15
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 55 3 27
M miscellaneous .............. ..................... 197 139 127
Paper and paper products ....................... ....... 20 35
All other and unclassified ...................... 197 119 92
Total .............. ......... ............. 273 164 198

EAST COAST CANADA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 49 64 40
Refrigerated foods ............................ 49 64 40
Fish ..................................... 39 47 22
M eat .................................... ........ 11 .....
Other and unclassified ..................... 10 6 18
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... ....... 5
Grains................ .......................... 276 292 289
Soybeans .................................... 35 40 106
W heat ....................................... 241 252 174
Other and unclassified ......................... ...... ...... 9
Lumber and products .............................. 282 274 240
Boards and planks ............................ 18 ....... 4
Pulpwood ................................... 247 251 228
Other and unclassified ......................... 17 23 8
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. 8 10 5
Manufactures or iron and steel, miscellaneous......... 448 133 265
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ 4 ....... .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash..................... ....... 40 16
Ores and metals .................................. 238 222 318
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... 31 41 70
Metals ....................... ............. 207 181 248
Alum inum ............................... 3 1 2
C opper .................................. .. .. ........ 6
Iron ...................................... ..... ....... 16
Scrap ................................... 202 176 222
Z inc ................................... ........ 4 2
Other and unclassified ..................... 2 ... .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 468 428 493
Flour, wheat ................................. ....... 33 83
M arble and stone .............. ............... 74 37 8
Paper and paper products ...................... 185 154 127
R esin ....................................... ....... 7 34
Container cargo .............................. 197 170 223
All other and unclassified ...................... 12 27 18
Total ............... .... .............. .. 1,773 1,463 1,671

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA,
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... 16 3
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 427 297 398
Ammonium compounds ....................... 51 95 142







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 89

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA-Continued
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash-Continued
Phosphates .................................. 49 2 22
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 327 200 234
Petroleum and products ........................... 856 2,039 2,655
A sphalt ...................................... 21 8 8
Crude oil .................................... 382 565 624
D iesel oil .................................... 20 78 118
Liquefied gas .............................. ... 399 427 509
Fuel oil, residual ............................. ........ 946 1,376
G gasoline ..................................... 34 5 1
Jet fuel ........................... ........ ....... 10 .......
Other and unclassified ......................... ..... ....... 19
M miscellaneous .................................... I 4 22
All other and classifiedd ...................... 1 4 22
Total ............... .... ................ 1,284 2,356 3,078


EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash, miscellaneous ....... 71 49 6
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 8 9 II
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ ....... 3 12
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous .............. 157 78 171
M miscellaneous ..................... .............. 82 102 83
All other and unclassified ...................... 82 102 83
Total ....................... ............ .. 318 241 283


EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Petroleum and products ........................... 250 176 27
D iesel oil .................................... 63 33 11
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 187 143 16
M miscellaneous .................................... ....... __
All other and unclassified ...................... .......I __
Total ........................ ............. 250 177 28


EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO ASIA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 45 51 26
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 123 84 282
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... ...... I .......
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... ....... 1 .....
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 48 20 46
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 20 142 1
Beans, edible .............................. .. ........ 1 .......
C offee ....................................... ....... I
Sugar ....................................... 20 140 .......
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous .............. 10 39 .......
M miscellaneous ..................... .............. 120 105 150
All other and unclassified ...................... 120 105 150
Total ...................................... 366 442 505







90 STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 6 7 13
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... 1 I
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 54 53 42
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 494 555 479
Ores and metals .................................. 75 42 35
Ores ........................... 17 12 29
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 12 12 28
Other and unclassified ..................... 5 ....... 1
M etals, miscellaneous ......................... 58 30 6
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 10 9 2
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ 2 2 .......
C offee ....................................... 8 7 2
Petroleum and products ........................... 510 437 253
A sphalt...................................... ....... 41 82
D iesel oil .................................... 88 13 29
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 171 ....... .......
Gasoline ..................................... 204 205 81
Jet fuel ...................................... 34 165 61
Liquefied gas ................................. 13 13 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 123 121 109
Paper and paper products ...................... 6 18 21
All other and unclassified ...................... 117 103 88
Total .................. ................. 1272 1. 225 934

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 108 50 51
M miscellaneous .................................... 66 37 60
All other and unclassified ...................... 66 37 60
Total ............... . .............. 174 87 111

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Grains......................................... 14 ....... 3
Soybeans .................................... 14 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 3
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 127 101 75
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 17 12 8
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 17 12 8
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 13 54 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,010 1,019 757
Crude oil .................................... 704 751 716
D iesel oil .................................... 24 29 32
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 249 147 5
Gasoline .................... ................. 30 60 3
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 32 1
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 19 ....... .......
O ilseeds ..................................... 19 ......
M miscellaneous .................................... 25 18 21
All other and unclassified ...................... 25 18 21
Total .................... .............. .. 225 _1204 864







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 91

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1989 1988 1987 I
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 21 10 26
Coal and coke .................................... 163 38 .......
Grains, miscellaneous.............................. 9 10 1
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 202 90 39
M inerals, miscellaneous................... ........ 21 8 16
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 142 158 137
Ammonium compounds ....................... 17 ....... .......
Fertilizers, unclassified ................... ...... 125 158 137
Ores and metals .................................. 20 59 49
Ores .............. ........... .......... .. . .11 32 8
Alumina/bauxite ................ ....... 11 9 8
Iron ..................................... ....... 23 .......
Metals, miscellaneous ................ ....... 9 27 41
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 1 53 40
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 53 40
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,378 1,550 2,563
Crude oil .................................... 859 915 1,602
D iesel oil .................................... 210 185 179
Fuel oil, residual ............................. ........ 7 29
Gasoline ..................................... 131 239 513
Jet fuel ...................................... 79 28 28
Liquefied gas ................................. 56 134 96
Lubricating oil ............................... 38 37 48
Other and unclassified ......................... 5 5 68
M miscellaneous .................................... 108 131 87
All other and unclassified ...................... 108 131 87
Total................. .................. .. 2 .065 2 107 2,958


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Petroleum and products ........................... 6 8 77
D iesel oil .................................... ... ........ 24
Fuel oil, residual .............................. ... ........ 39
Gasoline ..................................... 6 ....... 14
Lubricating oil ............................... ....... 8 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 6 4 5
All other and unclassified ...................... 6 4 5
Total ...................................... 12 12 82


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO HAWAII:
Petroleum and products ................... ....... 62 19 90
Jet fuel ...................................... 62 19 90
Total ..................... . ............ 62 19 90


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO OCEANIA:
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 57 ....... .......
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous .............. .............. 26
M miscellaneous .................................... 9 3 4
All other and unclassified ...................... 9 3 4
Total ...................................... 66 3 30






92 STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1989 1988 1987
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 50 60 59
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... 3 10
Coal and coke .................................... 89 260 59
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 56 64 12
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 68 126 420
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 61 1 1
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 61 1 1
Ores and metals .................................. 479 474 382
Ores ................ .................... 202 124 79
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 56 11 10
C hrom e ................................. 11 ......
Iron ..................................... 54 54 56
M anganese ................................ 81 54 4
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... 5 9
M etals ................ ..................... 277 350 303
Aluminum ....................... ......... 266 334 293
Other and unclassified ..................... 11 16 10
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 40 22 10
Cotton, raw ................. ............... ...... 3 .......
M olasses .................................... 36 .....
Other and unclassified ........ .......... ....... 5 19 10
Petroleum and products ........................... 123 118 382
G gasoline ..................................... 27 ....... 113
Jet fuel ...................................... 61 ....... 87
Kerosene .................................... 35 ..... .. ...
Liquefied gas ................................. ....... 118 150
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 32
M miscellaneous .................................... 120 142 88
Container cargo .............................. 60 36 16
All other and unclassified ...................... 60 106 73
Total ................... . ..... .......... 1,086 1,270 1,423

WEST INDIES TO WEST COAST UNITED STATES:
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 16 ....... 19
Nitrates, phosphates and potash..................... 53 ....... 35
Ores and metals ................................. 22 ....... 7
Ore, alumina/bauxite .......................... 22 ....... 7
Petroleum and products ........................... 359 133 254
A asphalt ...................................... ... ....... 25
C rude oil .................................... ....... 47 .......
D iesel oil .................................... 98 ....... .......
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 54 ....... .......
Gasoline ..................................... 179 55 105
Jet fuel ...................................... 28 31 29
Lubricating oil ............................... ....... ....... 46
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 49
M miscellaneous .................................... 24 9 93
All other and unclassified ...................... 24 9 93
Total ....................... ............ .. 474 142 408

WEST INDIES TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 4 ..............




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