• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Organization chart
 Introduction
 Canal traffic
 Canal operations
 Supporting operations
 Administration and staff
 Financial report
 Statistical tables
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: Annual report, Panama Canal Commission
Title: Annual report /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097367/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report /
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Panama Canal Commission ( 1980-<1994> )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: 1988
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Fiscal year 1980-
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends Sept. 30.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Vols. for 1992- distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1998.
Statement of Responsibility: Panama Canal Commission.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097367
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07777425
lccn - 96645119
issn - 1936-5306
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Preceded by: Annual report, fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Organization chart
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Canal traffic
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Canal operations
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Supporting operations
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Administration and staff
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Financial report
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Statistical tables
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 89
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        Page 94
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        Page 103
        Page 104
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        Page 108
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        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Back Matter
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Back Cover
        Page 129
        Page 130
Full Text










PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION



ANNUAL REPORT


0


FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1988













PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION

Balboa, Republic of Panama
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR







FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR

It is a pleasure to submit the annual report of the Panama Canal
Commission for fiscal year 1988.

This ninth year of operation under the terms of the Panama Canal Treaty
was a successful one. Oceangoing transits increased slightly, with Panama
Canal net tonnage and tolls revenue each reflecting moderate growth of
nearly 3 percent over the previous year. These increases were primarily due
to the continued heavy movement of grains through the Canal, as well as
greater transits by larger vessels. Transits by PANAMAX size vessels, the
largest vessels the waterway can presently handle, comprised almost 24
percent of total oceangoing transits.

Unfortunately, the political crisis in Panama, which began in June 1987,
became more intense and remained unresolved at the close of fiscal year
1988. Canal traffic, however, continued to flow normally and maintenance,
modernization and improvement programs proceeded as scheduled. These
programs included the Miraflores Locks overhaul, dredging and channel
improvement projects, delivery of two new tractor tugs and initiation of a
project providing for the major upgrading of all locks fire protection
systems.

Training programs to develop and refine critical skills have also
progressed smoothly, utilizing the latest techniques in the industry. Much





of the training effort is geared toward preparing Panamanian employees to
manage and operate the Canal. Already, more than 84 percent of
Commission personnel are Panamanian citizens, with broad responsibilities
throughout the organization.

The outstanding accomplishments of the past year and the continued
efficiency of the waterway are unquestionably the product of a dedicated and
very capable work force, which has performed admirably despite difficulties
precipitated by the political situation in Panama. I am confident that the
Panama Canal will continue providing efficient and uninterrupted service to
the maritime community in the years ahead.


D. P. Mministrator
Administrator















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Page
ORGANIZATION CHART ........................................ vi

INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION ....................... ............. ............ I
THE CANAL ...................... ................ ............. I
TOLL RATES ......................... ............... ............. 2
BOARD OF DIRECTORS ......................................... 3
OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA ....................... 3
OFFICIALS IN WASHINGTON, D.C ................... ........... 3

CHAPTER 1-CANAL TRAFFIC
T R A FFIC .................... ...... ... ............................. 5
COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS ................... 6
COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES ............................. 6

CHAPTER II-CANAL OPERATIONS
TRANSIT OPERATIONS ...................... ..................... 13
MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS.......... 15

CHAPTER III-SUPPORTING OPERATIONS
LOGISTICAL SERVICES ................... ....................... 18
COMMUNITY SERVICES .................................... 18
SANITATION AND GROUNDS...................................... 19
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES ............................ 20
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY ................................ 21
FIRE PROTECTION ..................... ............. ............ 21
CANAL PROTECTION ..... ............... ........ ........ .... .... 22
HEALTH AND SAFETY ............................. ..... ........ 22

CHAPTER IV-ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF
PERSONNEL: FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL ................. 25
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM ................................ 25
PUBLIC AFFAIRS ......................... ....................... 26
O M BUDSM AN ..................................................... 26
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ...................................... 27
GENERAL COUNSEL............................................ 27

CHAPTER V-FINANCIAL REPORT
NARRATIVE STATEMENT ........................ .... .......... 31
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS ....................................... 31
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES ..................................... 32






CONTENTS


Financial Tables
Page
TABLE I.-Statement of Financial Position .............. ...... ......... 34
TABLE 2.-Statement of Operations and Non-Interest-Bearing Investment..... 36
TABLE 3.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States
Government ............... .............. ............. 37
TABLE 4.-Statement of Cash Flows ..................... ............. 38
TABLE 5.-Statement of Status of Appropriations ....................... 40
TABLE 6.-Statement of Property, Plant and Equipment .................... 42
Notes to Financial Statements ................ .............. 43


CHAPTER VI-STATISTICAL TABLES
Shipping Statistics

TABLE I.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1979 through 1988 .......... 50
TABLE 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1988
and 1987 ............... ........... ......... .............. 52
TABLE 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1988 ............... 53
TABLE 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1988 56
TABLE 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1988 .... 58
TABLE 6.-Segregation of Transits by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal
Year 1988 .............. ............. ... .... .............. 60
TABLE 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years ... 62
TABLE 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama
Canal from Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1988 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ............. .......... 66
TABLE 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama
Canal from Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1988 Segregated
by Countries in Principal Trade Routes ............... ........ 72
TABLE 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific ................. . ................. 80
TABLE I I.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to A tlantic ................... ........ ............ .. 101
TABLE 12.-Principal Canal Commodities by Direction-Fiscal Year 1988 ..... 123


Other Statistics

TABLE 13.- Water Supply and Usage ...................... .............. 125
TABLE 14.- Dredging Operations ......................... .............. 125
TABLE 15.- Electrical Power Generated ..................... ......... .. 126
TABLE 16.- Fire Division Statistics ........................ ............ .. 126






















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportl988unit


Libraries








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES


I
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
..... ....... .... ..ECR A- ..... -
SECRETARY OF THE ARMY



CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD
BOARD OF DIRECTORS




...... ........R^ ^ .... ... - A T C AR A
DEUTY ADMINISTRATOR SISECRETARYN

I


I
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION
EXECUTIVE PLANNING
PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
GENERAL COUNSEL


*


MARINE BUREAU
BOARO OF LOCAL INSPECTORS
PILOT DIVISION
ADMEASUREMENT
LOCKS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
CANAL SERVICES
MARINE SAFETY
CANAL OPERATIONS
MARITIME TRAINING


PUBLIC AFFAIRS/INFORMATION
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY
OMBUDSMAN
GENERAL AUDITOR


GENERAL SERVICES
BUREAU
LOGISTICAL SUPPORT
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
FIRE
CANAL PROTECTION
COMMUNITY SERVICES
SANITATION AND GROUNDS
PRINTING OFFICE


I
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
ENGINEERING
INDUSTRIAL
MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
DREDGING
CONSTRUCTION MGMT













INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION
The Panama Canal Commission is an agency of the Executive Branch of
the United States Government, provided for by the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977, and established by the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 452; 22
U.S.C. 3601 et seq), enacted September 27, 1979. The authority of the
President of the United States with respect to the Commission is exercised
through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army. The
Commission is supervised by a nine-member Board. Five members are
nationals of the United States appointed by the President with the advice
and consent of the Senate. Four members are nationals of the Republic of
Panama who are proposed by the Republic of Panama for appointment by
the President.
The Commission was established to carry out the responsibilities of the
United States with respect to the Panama Canal under the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977. In fulfilling these obligations, the Commission manages,
operates, and maintains the Canal, its complementary works, installations,
and equipment, and provides for the orderly transit of vessels through the
Canal. The Commission will perform these functions until the treaty
terminates on December 31, 1999, when the Republic of Panama will
assume full responsibility for the Canal.
The operation of the waterway is conducted on a self-financing basis. The
Commission is expected to recover through tolls and other revenues all costs
of operating and maintaining the Canal, including interest, depreciation,
capital for plant replacement, expansion and improvements, and payments
to the Republic of Panama for public services and annuities, in accordance
with paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraphs 4(a) and (b) of Article XIII,
respectively, of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. Revenues from tolls and
all other sources are deposited in the U.S. Treasury in an account known as
the Panama Canal Revolving Fund. The resources in this fund are available
for continuous use and serve to finance Canal operating and capital
programs which are reviewed annually by the Congress.

THE CANAL
The Panama Canal is a lock-type canal approximately 51 miles long from
deep water to deep water. The minimum width of the navigable channel is
500 feet. Navigable channel depth can vary according to the amount of water






INTRODUCTION


available in Canal storage areas; however, the normal permissible transit
draft is 39 feet 6 inches tropical fresh water.
Vessels transiting the Canal are raised in three steps to the level of Gatun
Lake, the principal source of Canal water, then lowered to sea level again in
three steps. The three sets of Canal locks are paired so as to permit
simultaneous lockage of two vessels in the same or opposite direction.
Since August 15, 1914, the official date of its opening, the Panama Canal
has served world trade virtually without interruption. Through this fiscal
year, a total of 690,962 vessels of all types have transited with 582,473 or 84.3
percent of the total being of the oceangoing commercial class.
TOLL RATES
Toll rates are: (a) on merchant vessels, Army and Navy transports,
hospital ships, supply ships, and yachts, when carrying passengers or cargo,
$1.83 per net vessel ton of 100 cubic feet'of actual earning capacity, as
determined in accordance with the "Rules of Measurement of Vessels for the
Panama Canal;" (b) on such vessels in ballast, without passengers or cargo,
$1.46 per net vessel ton; and (c) on other floating craft, $1.02 per ton of
displacement.
By treaty, the United States continues to provide to Colombia free transit
through the Canal of its troops, materials of war, and ships of war.







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Ending Fiscal Year 1988


Honorable WILLIAM R. GIANELLI,
Chairman, Board of Directors
Panama Canal Commission
Washington, D.C.

Honorable Luis A. ANDERSON
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable ANDREW E. GIBSON
Short Hills, New Jersey

Honorable RICHARD N. HOLWILL
American Ambassador to Ecuador
Quito, Ecuador


Honorable OYDEN ORTEGA
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable CARLOS OZORES
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WALTER V. SHEA
Annapolis, Maryland

Honorable CARLOS VELARDE
Panama, Republic of Panama

Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.
Beaufort, South Carolina


Executive Committee
Honorable WILLIAM R. GIANELLI
Chairman
Honorable OYDEN ORTEGA
Honorable WALTER V. SHEA
Honorable CARLOS VELARDE
Honorable WILLIAM W. WATKIN, Jr.

OFFICIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Administrator ............................ Honorable D. P. MCAULIFFE
Deputy Administrator .............. Honorable FERNANDO MANFREDO, Jr.

OFFICIAL IN WASHINGTON, D.C.
Assistant to the Chairman and Secretary ............. MICHAEL RHODE, Jr.









































The MARCHEN MAERSK (left) passes through the Panama Canal on its maiden voyage. The 60,640 deadweight ton vessel
measures 965 feet in overall length, the longest containership ever to transit the waterway. Its length can be appreciated by
corn paring the position of the bow and stern towing locomotives against those assisting the large automobile carrier on the right.













Chapter I


CANAL TRAFFIC


TRAFFIC
Canal traffic and tolls revenue continued to grow moderately in fiscal year
1988. The increase was primarily fueled by a sharp improvement in a number
of commodities, particularly grain, refrigerated products, lumber and
products, and containerized cargo. These gains offset declines in key trades
such as automobiles and petroleum and petroleum products.
Oceangoing transits in fiscal year 1988 remained at virtually the same
levels of fiscal year 1987, increasing by five transits from 12,313 to 12,318 or
33.7 daily. Commercial vessels accounted for 12,234 of total oceangoing
transits, changing very little from 12,230 in fiscal year 1987. Vessels owned or
operated by the U.S. Government and free Colombian and Panamanian
Government accounted for 84 transits, compared with 83 in the prior year.
Average vessel size resumed growth in fiscal year 1988 after the slight
contraction experienced in fiscal year 1987. Transits by vessels having beams
of 100 feet and over increased to 2,894 from 2,668 transits in 1987,
accounting for 23.5 percent of total oceangoing transits compared with 21.7
percent in the prior year. Vessels having beams of 80 feet and over totaled
6,027 transits or 48.9 percent of total oceangoing transits versus 5,908 or 48.0
percent in 1987. The average Panama Canal net tonnage of oceangoing
commercial vessels reached a record level of 15,658 tons, an increase of 2.7
percent from the 15,248 tons of the prior year.
A two-year summary of the key elements of Canal traffic and tolls revenue
is shown in the following table:







CANAL TRAFFIC


COMPARATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATIONS


Oceangoing transits:
Commercial ......................................
U.S. Government ..................................
F ree .............................................
Total ................. ...................
Daily average ............... .............

Small transits:
Commercial ......................................
U.S. Government ..................................
F ree .............................................

Total ................... ..................


Total cargo:
Commercial ......................................
U.S. Government ..................................
Free .............................................
Total ......................... .............


Total Panama Canal net tons and reconstructed displace-
ment tonnage ...................................

Transit revenue:
Commercial tolls ..................................
U.S. Government tolls .............................
Tolls revenue ............... ... .............


Harbor pilotage, tug, launch, and other services ...........
Total transit revenue .............................


Fiscal year
1988 1987

12,234 12,230
69 78
15 5
12,318 12,313
33.7 33.7


844
246
33

1,123



156,484,063
296,140

156,780,203


852
236
43

1,131



148,693,662
205,701
62
148,899,425


192,421,295 187,349,205


$337,946,016
1,373,309
$339,319,325


$328,463,544
1,395,231
$329,858,775


$70,421,731 $68,128,024
$409,741,056 $397,986,799


COMMODITIES AND TRADE ROUTES
Cargo moved by transiting ships continued upward in fiscal year 1988.
Total commercial cargo rose 5.2 percent to 156.5 million long tons from
148.7 million tons in fiscal year 1987, reflecting gains in bulk cargoes, such as
grains, coal, and lumber.
For the second consecutive year, grain shipments reflected an
improvement. Grain tonnage rose 10.8 percent to 35.9 million tons from the
32.4 million tons registered in fiscal year 1987, primarily as a result of a
doubling of wheat shipments and further improvement in the corn
movement. Corn, which accounts for the largest tonnage in the grain
commodity group, totaled 16.2 million tons, rising 1.8 percent over the 15.9
million tons shipped through the Canal in 1987. About 92.4 percent, or 14.9
million tons, was U.S. corn shipped to the Far East, out of which Japan
received 11.3 million tons, South Korea 1.8 million tons, and Taiwan 1.7






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


million tons. Wheat increased 108.8 percent from 4.5 million tons in 1987 to
9.4 million tons in 1988. Almost 53.7 percent or 5.1 million tons of the wheat
consisted of shipments destined for China compared with 1.0 million tons in
1987. The increase in corn and wheat offset declines in other components of
the commodity group; notably, soybeans, which was down from 7.8 million
long tons in 1987 to 6.9 million tons; and sorghum, which decreased from 2.6
million tons to 2.2 million tons.
Petroleum and petroleum products continued downward in 1988, falling
5.2 percent to 24.6 million long tons, the lowest level since 1977. Crude oil
dropped 1.9 percent to 8.8 million tons from the already depressed 9.0
million tons last year, despite a recovery in Ecuadorian shipments, which
increased to 5.0 million long tons from 3.5 million tons in 1987. The
petroleum products segment of this commodity group declined 6.9 percent
to 15.8 million long tons from 17.0 million tons, with the highest reduction
concentrated in residual oil shipments.
The nitrate, phosphates and potash group, the third major commodity
group in Canal trade, rose 0.8 percent to 12.1 million long tons from 12.0
million tons in 1987. Phosphates, which accounted for 57.3 percent of the
group, increased 6.9 percent to 7.0 million long tons from 6.5 million tons in
the prior year. Nearly 80 percent of the phosphate shipped through the Canal
originated in the U.S. East Coast and was primarily destined for the Far
East. China accounted for about 1.7 million long tons and South Korea and
Japan for 1.3 million long tons each.
Coal and coke tonnage increased to 8.6 million long tons from 7.9 million
tons last year, due to an upturn in coke shipments. Coke rose from 400
thousand tons in 1987 to 1.8 million tons, reflecting sharply higher flows
emanating from Japan and Australia, mainly destined for the U.S. East
Coast. The coal segment of this commodity group, on the other hand,
decreased to 6.8 million long tons from 7.2 million in the prior year. Over 73
percent of the coal shipped through the Canal constituted U.S. coal exports
primarily destined for Japan and Taiwan.
Automobile shipments, included in the machinery and equipment
commodity group, decreased to 2.2 million long tons from 2.5 million tons in
1987. The drop reflects declines in U.S. imports of Japanese cars due to
Japanese automobile production in the U.S. and the high value of the yen
relative to the U.S. dollar. Automobiles from Japan destined for the U.S.
East Coast, totaled 1.5 million tons versus 1.8 million tons in 1987.
Most other commodity groups, excluding manufactures of iron and steel,
improved this fiscal year. Significant increases were achieved in a number of
trades, such as chemicals and petroleum chemicals, refrigerated foods,
lumber and products, and ores and metals.
Trade between the East Coast United States and Asia continued to
dominate Canal traffic, with 40.5 percent of total Canal commercial cargo






8 CANAL TRAFFIC

moved on this route. Cargo movements in this trade rose 9.2 percent to 63.4
million long tons in 1988 from 58.1 million long tons in the prior year.
The following tables show the principal commodity groups moving in
oceangoing commercial vessels in 1988 and a comparison of the major trade
routes in 1988 and 1987.






PRINCIPAL COMMODITY GROUPS
TRANSITING THE CANAL
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL CARGO FY 1988


PERCENT OF TOTAL CARGO z
GRAINS 22.9%

PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS 15.7%
NITRATES, PHOSPHATES, POTASH 7.8%

ORES & METALS 6.6% 5
LUMBER 8 PRODUCTS 6.1%
COAL & COKE :::::::::::::::: 5.5%
MFRS. OF IRON & STEEL : 4.4%
CHEMICALS & PETROCHEMICALS .:. 4.4%
MISC. AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES : 3.5%

MISC. MINERALS 3.3%
CANNED & REFRIGERATED FOODS 3.1%
MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT 1.7%

A LL O THER : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::M::: ::::::::::: ::::::::::::::: ::: 15.0%


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50


MILLIONS OF LONG TONS







Major Voyage Trade Routes in Canal Traffic


Fiscal year Percent of
,- -------------------- --- Percent of
1988 1987 I Increase or
(Decrease)
[ Panama Panama 1 'Panama
Canal Long Canal Long Canal Long
Net Tons Net Tons Net Tons
Tons Cargo Tons Cargo Tons Cargo
Trade Route [In thousands of tons]
East Coast United States-Asia ................... .................... ............. 76,687 63,442 77,476 58,111 (1.0) 9.2
East Coast United States-West Coast South America .................................. 16,370 12,335 16,780 12,005 (2.4) 2.7
Europe-W est Coast United States/Canada......................... .................. 12,731 14,956 14,231 14,850 (10.5) 0.7
Europe-West Coast South America ................................................. 10,599 7,287 10,601 7,375 (0.0) (1.2)
Round the World .............................................................. 10,597 5,515 5,929 3,743 78.7 47.3
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) ...................................... 5,101 2,320 4,020 2,879 26.9 (19.4)
Europe-Asia .......................... ......................................... 4,684 2,867 4,496 3,700 4.2 (22.5)
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania ........................................... 4,680 5,499 3,983 4,780 17.5 15.0
West Indies-West Coast South America ............................................. 4,652 4,131 2,834 2,730 64.1 51.3
W est Indies-Asia .................................................................. 3,959 3,079 3,141 1,842 26.0 67.2
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America ................................. 3,847 3,186 3,288 2,961 17.0 7.6
Central American Intercoastal ...................................................... 3,284 2,810 3,985 3,313 (17.6) (15.2)
Subtotal ................................................................... 157,191 127,427 150,764 118,289 4.3 7.7

All other routes ................................................................... 34,315 29,056 35,651 30,401 (3.7) (4.4)
Total ...................................................................... 191,506 156,415 186,407 148,690 2.7 5.2





>
z




o-l
ne



















A 71


The Commission's new high speed launch BALLENA (foreground) is designed to rush personnel between work stations
along the Canal. Procurement of similar as well as larger high speed launches is contemplated in the coming fiscal years. The
GUIA, one of two new tugs received this year, can also be seen on the left providing stern assist to a PANAMAX-size vessel in z
transit.















Chapter II


CANAL OPERATIONS

Canal operations are comprised of Transit Operations and Maintenance
and Related Canal Projects. The various functions are divided among a
number of operating bureaus within the Canal agency.
TRANSIT OPERATIONS
Daily average transits by oceangoing vessels remained at 33.7 per day
during fiscal year 1988. Average time in Canal waters decreased from 24.0
hours in fiscal year 1987 to 21.9 hours in fiscal year 1988.
Percent Percent
Vessels of total Vessels of total
of 600-foot oceangoing of 80-foot oceangoing
Fiscal year length and over transit beam and over transits
1988 ........................ 4,047 32.9 6,027 48.9
1987 ........................ 4,005 32.5 5,902 48.0
1986 ........................ 4,131 34.4 5,898 49.1
1985 ........................ 3,862 33.1 5.514 47.3
1984 ........................ 3,865 33.9 5,496 48.3
1983 ........................ 4,157 35.1 5,869 49.5
1982 ........................ 5,534 39.1 7,226 51.1
1981 ........................ 4,855 34.7 6,364 45.5
1980 ........................ 4,598 33.8 6,089 44.7
The number of vessels transiting at more than 36-foot draft increased 3.6
percent: 1,766 vessels during FY 1988 compared to 1,704 during fiscal year
1987. The maximum allowable draft remained at 39 feet 6 inches during the
entire fiscal year.
Effective April 15, 1988, transit regulations were revised to allow
commercial vessels whose maximum length overall, including bulbous bow,
does not exceed 950 feet and passenger and containerships whose maximum
length overall does not exceed 965 feet. Vessels greater than 900 feet overall
length making their first transit, are newly modified or constructed, will still
be subject to denial of passage and to the requirement of prior review and
approval of vessel plans.
Total jobs performed by Commission tugs decreased from 39,492 in fiscal
year 1987 to 38,736 in fiscal year 1988. Fscal ear
I 1988 1987 I
Oceangoing transits ............. ............................. 12,318 12,313
Tug jobs:
Balboa ..................................................... 26,854 27,893
C ristobal ................................................... 11.882 I1,599
Tug operating hours ...... .................................... 60,289 58,380











































Workers pause as an engineer checks the alignment of the rail during rehabilitation of the locks locomotive tow track.
Approximately $100 million of the Canal's annual operating budget is dedicated to maintaining and improving the waterway.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


MAINTENANCE AND CANAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS
Maintenance and improvements to the Canal progressed smoothly
throughout the year. The various divisions and units of the Engineering and
Construction Bureau are generally responsible for the overall physical
maintenance and improvement of the waterway. The Marine Bureau
operates and maintains the locks and related facilities. The occasional use of
alternative procurement sources in support of these programs became
necessary because of procurement inconveniences resulting from the
political crisis in Panama.
Routine maintenance dredging, as well as channel improvements to both
entrances to the waterway, proceeded as scheduled. The Gatun approach
was completed in May 1988 and the Miraflores approach will be completed
in May 1989. Statistics on the volume of material dredged appear in Table 14
of this report.
As part of a long range program established for the periodic rehabilitation
of underwater equipment, miter gates 104 through 107 and two spare gates at
Miraflores Locks were overhauled in conjunction with other chamber work.
Other significant locks maintenance projects included the replacement of old
transformers at Gatun Locks with new, more efficient cast coil transformers;
scheduled maintenance of lock towing locomotives; locomotive tow track
work at all locks; and replacement of damaged or worn fendering.
The first major overhaul of Miraflores Spillway was completed. This
included the purchase and installation of two new flood gates and the
installation of three spare and one rehabilitated gate.
Significant marine-related maintenance work included major overhauls
of two barges, the crane barge Goliath, the tugs Schley and Amistad. and
Madden Dam Drum Gate No. 4. Partial overhaul of the tug Alianza and an
interim overhaul of the tug Progreso were completed. The tug Morrow and
the craneboat Atlas were undergoing overhaul at year end.
Major equipment acquisitions in support of Canal operations consisted of
the delivery of two new powerful tractor tugs; two diesel electric locomotive
cranes, both complying with OSHA regulations for lifting personnel; one
high speed launch for rapid movement of personnel across Gatun Lake; a
fully equipped salvage barge; four overhead bridge cranes for shops at the
Industrial Division; a new building for the assembly and storage of docking
blocks and cradles for the Syncrolift; and rental (with option to purchase) of
a large portable shelter to protect exposed work sites in the Mt. Hope
industrial area.
Contracts were awarded for the replacement of the Gatun and Miraflores
Locks north locomotive turntables; major upgrading of all locks fire
protection systems; replacement of 44kv line track span electrical towers;
remedial excavation at East Culebra Reach; and, one tractor tug, two
pilot/linehandler launches and two high speed launches.
The first phase of a multiyear program to replace Commission telephone
exchanges was completed in January 1988.











































The floating crane GOLIATH removes a flood gate during the first major overhaul of Miraflores Spillway. A Commission
photographer captures the event on film to document the procedure and prepare instructional films to aid in future
maintenance training programs.














Chapter III


SUPPORTING OPERATIONS



Supporting operations of the Panama Canal Commission provided
essential support services to the operation and maintenance of the waterway
and the Agency's facilities, as well as to other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus
and to employees and their dependents. These operations included logistical
services, community services, sanitation and grounds management,
transportation services, public utilities, fire protection, Canal security
protection, health and safety and other employee services.
Due to the political crisis in Panama, it became necessary to implement a
number of emergency and contingency support operations not otherwise
necessary in normal times. A contingency information network for quick
dissemination of vital information within the Commission was established.
An interservice support agreement with the U.S. Forces to purchase gasoline
and marine diesel fuels was activated on occasion. A logistical agreement
was reached in concept with U.S. Southern Command for the purchase of
critical foodstuff and health items if needed. In addition, a plan was
developed to procure and stock in Commission inventory a limited number
of emergency jobsite rations for use by employees in emergency situations.
Staples suitable for an average size family were procured from various
sources, including U.S. suppliers and made available to Commission
employees on a payroll deduction basis during the crisis, while supermarkets
in the city were either closed or had depleted their inventories. A shuttle bus
service was implemented on several occasions, using pickup points at
strategic locations in the terminal cities of the Isthmus to enable employees
to reach their worksites during the local bus strike, street closures and
disturbances. Many essential parts and equipment necessary for
maintenance and repair of the Canal were procured from U.S. sources, since
Panamanian suppliers were having serious difficulty meeting deadlines and
obtaining funding due to the political crisis. The Commission also activated
an emergency plan to house certain employees during the crisis by providing
sleeping accommodations to employees who could not reach their homes at
certain times due to the disturbances in the cities. Finally, as an emergency
alternative, water transportation was used frequently during the year to






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


transport pilots and Commission officials across the Isthmus when major
highways were blocked by demonstrations or other dangerous conditions
made the streets too hazardous to use.
LOGISTICAL SERVICES
The Logistical Support Division provided centralized procurement,
inventory management, warehousing, distribution, contract administration,
and supply and property disposal support to Canal operations. A total of
$70 million in goods and services were procured during fiscal year 1988,
including $20.6 million from sources in Panama. Major contracting
obligations included $3.1 million for Bunker "C" fuel oil for thermoelectric
power generation, $4.6 million for light diesel fuel, $4.0 million for a tractor
tugboat, $1.1 million for cast coil transformers, $838,000 for pilot/
linehandler launches, $1.5 million for vehicles, and $727,000 for protective
relays.
Approximately $21 million in Commission inventory items were issued
for Commission use, and $20.3 million was obligated for new inventory
purchases during the year. A total inventory of 39,157 line items with an
average cost value of $29.7 million was on hand at year end.
Activities of the Excess Disposal Unit included no-cost transfers to other
U.S. Government agencies of excess equipment having an original
acquisition value of approximately $1.26 million, while surplus property
sold to the Government of Panama at current fair market value amounted to
approximately $40,024. Additional surplus property was sold publically for
the best available prices.
The New Orleans Branch in Louisiana expedited urgent purchases and
coordinated all Commission cargo shipments from the United States to
Panama. In addition, the branch performed a major role in providing
emergency food and other procurements for the Commission during the
political crisis in Panama. Under the coverage of the Military Sealift
Command's contract, 16,071 measurement tons of containerized and
breakbulk cargo for the Commission were shipped to Las Minas, Panama.
An additional 6,890 measurement tons of general cargo and vehicles were
shipped under commercial contract with an ocean freight shipper from New
Orleans to the Republic of Panama.
COMMUNITY SERVICES
The Community Services Division is responsible for managing employee
housing, Commission-owned buildings, a technical resources center
(library) and the employee fitness program for the agency. Other services are
provided by the Office of Area Coordination.
The Housing Management Branch managed housing operations,
including routine maintenance and repairs to the Commission housing
inventory, through Commission and contract forces; assigned safety and
energy conservation a high priority; provided for the physical and personal
security of the residents through a number of strengthened physical security
programs; upgraded kitchen and bathroom facilities; concentrated its
limited funding expenditures on housing units identified to continue under
the Commission's management; released to the Government of Panama 27






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


housing units excess to the needs of the Commission; obtained concurrence
from the Government of Panama to demolish one housing unit in
Margarita. A total of 1545 housing units, representing 36% of the inventory
of approximately 4300 units owned by the Panama Canal Company.
immediately prior to entry into force of the Panama Canal Treaty in 1979
were retained by the Commission at the end of FY 1978. Unknown squatters
illegally forced their entry the night of March 14, 1988 into a number of
Commission-managed houses in Margarita. Requests to the appropriate
authorities of Panama for assistance in removing them brought no positive
response. Intruders continued to illegally occupy twelve of these housing
units at fiscal year-end.
The Buildings Management Branch managed and maintained buildings
and structures under the division's administration; performed major
renovation of six office buildings, coordinated design and minor
improvements to a number of offices, accomplished routine maintenance
and repairs; modified existing facilities to comply with standards for
handicapped personnel; accomplished work through Commission and
contract forces; provided custodial services to all Community Services
buildings and to a limited number of units managed by other divisions;
placed a high priority on safety requirements and corrections, energy
conservation and physical security programs; managed Executive Order
12411 and related regulations as the agency space manager; released space
formerly occupied by the Technical Resources Center at Building 0610,
Ancon, to the Government of Panama.
The Technical Resources Center supported all Commission units and
programs with technical information, research and publications. It also
assisted other U.S. agencies and entities in Panama; provided professional
development to the pilot understudies, apprentice and clerical trainee
programs through workshops; maintained the specialized Panama Canal
Collection of library and three-dimensional materials; and installed
computer hardware and specialized software to enhance its research
capability.
The Employee Fitness Branch managed and developed year-round and
summer fitness programs and related recreational activities for all
Commission employees and their dependents; operated recreational areas
and facilities; trained other Commission units in rescue, water safety;
advanced lifesaving, drown-proofing, survival floating and water safety
subjects; and certified swimming proficiency of job applicants and
employees.
SANITATION AND GROUNDS
The Sanitation Branch continued to carry out vector control and
environmental sanitation measures essential to maintain the high standard
of public health enjoyed by Panama Canal Commission employees and their
families. Surveillance and control of insect vectors and vermin were
continued, with emphasis on nonchemical methods; i.e., mosquito control
through the maintenance of drainage ditches and other source reduction
measures. A network of over 220 miles of drainage ditches was maintained to






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


eliminate mosquito breeding within a one mile perimeter around employee
worksites and housing areas. Specialized mosquito control measures
continue to be necessary for the prevention of such major insect-borne
tropical diseases as malaria, dengue and yellow fever. Because Aedes
aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever, has now spread throughout
Panama City, control measures directed against this species are of even
greater importance than in past years. In addition, day-to-day control efforts
continue to be directed against cockroaches, ticks and fleas, house flies, bats,
rodents, venomous snakes and other public health pests.
The Grounds Branch maintained approximately 2900 acres of improved
grounds and turf within residential areas, and around Commission
buildings, the locks and other industrial facilities. Field crews also
maintained vegetation control along utility line rights-of-way, earthen
saddle dams, Gatun Dam, Canal bank stability drainage systems, and
around the perimeters of aids-to-navigation towers and targets. Monitoring
of garbage and refuse collection became another significant activity in the
latter part of FY 1988, when the Government of Panama reduced
garbage/refuse collection service from every other day to once a week. As
the fiscal year ended, contingency plans were being developed to handle
garbage and refuse collection should such measures become necessary.
Following a major landslide on the south side of Gold Hill which occurred
on October 10, 1986, experimental plantings of tree seedlings of Gmelina
arborea and Acacia magnium trees were made in advance of letting a
contract to revegetate areas cleared during the massive earth-moving activity
directed at lessening the overburden above the slide areas. The pilot project
proved to be a success, and a contract was awarded for the planting of 59,000
tree seedlings of the above species on several cleared areas on both the east
and west banks of the Canal. The planting phase of the contract was
completed on September 30, 1988, and the establishment phase
(maintenance of planted trees in the field) will continue until
December 31, 1988.
The Entomology Unit continued to provide daily expert technical advice
and insect vector surveillance within the Commission. The Unit's laboratory
staff alerted authorities of the recent invasion by the Aedes aegypti mosquito
in Balboa on July 29, 1988, leading to a timely response and the successful
elimination of the breeding focus at that time. The unit also has closely
monitored Africanized bee swarms and nests since the arrival of the bees at
the Panama Canal in March 1982. For the past three years, Africanized bee
populations have been at levels about half that seen in the peak years of 1983-
1984.
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION SERVICES
The Motor Transportation Division operated and maintained a
consolidated motor pool of 892 vehicles designed to meet the vehicular
transportation requirements of the Commission. The vehicle fleet in fiscal
year 1988 included 642 trucks of various types, 208 passenger-carrying
vehicles, and 42 special-purpose vehicles. Vehicle mileage increased slightly
from 7,112,193 miles in FY 1987 to 7,317,387 miles in FY 1988. Fully






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


equipped shops, including a tire retreading facility and heavy duty repair
shops, provided facilities for overhauls, maintenance and repairs to the
Motor Transportation Division fleet and equipment of other Commission
units. In addition, some services were contracted out where they were
available in required quantity and quality in Panama. The vehicle inspection
facilities located within the Motor Transportation Division also were used in
late calendar year 1987 and early 1988 by U.S. Army personnel, under
agreement with the Government of Panama, to conduct inspections of
privately-owned vehicles, and by the Motor Transportation Division to
perform Commission vehicle inspections.
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY
Panama Canal Commission facilities include electric power generation
and distribution systems, communication systems, water purification and
distribution systems, and a central chilled water air conditioning system for
certain public buildings.
Total Canal area energy demand during FY 88 was 525 gigawatt hours, a
5.6 percent increase from the 497 gigawatts used last year. The peak hourly
demand of 84 megawatts reached on December 18, 1987, equalled that of
the previous year. Agency-directed energy consumption in fiscal year 1988
for electrical power and fuel, calculated together in Btu's, was reduced 0.9
percent in comparison to 1987; electrical power consumption by the
Commission, 79.9 gigawatt hours, was 4.7 percent above usage levels for
comparable operations during the previous year; while total fuel
consumption (excluding fuel for power generation), 4.6 million gallons, was
8.3 percent lower.
The water treatment and distribution systems operated by the
Commission provide potable water for the Canal area and areas of the
Republic of Panama. The Pacific side system serves the Canal area, portions
of Panama City, and suburban areas; and the separate Atlantic side system
serves the Canal area, portions of Colon, and suburban areas. During fiscal
year 1988, the two systems supplied 3.36 billion cubic feet of potable water to
consumers, an increase of about 8.04 percent from the previous year. Water
supplied by the Panama Canal Commission to Panama City and Colon
metropolitan areas amounted to approximately 56.8 million gallons per day.
FIRE PROTECTION
The Panama Canal Commission Fire Division and the Bomberos,
Republic of Panama, in accordance with the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977,
are responsible for providing fire protection, firefighting and rescue
operations in Canal operating areas, defense sites, civilian and military areas
of coordination and shipboard firefighting on all vessels in Canal area
waters. This includes joint responses to structural fires, ship fires and other
emergencies in areas of joint responsibility.
Total responses for fiscal year 1988 were 6497 compared to 5748 for fiscal
year 1987. At least 35 percent of the responses for this year were attributable
to the marine standby program, a transit safety measure. This service is
provided by Fire Division personnel with foam apparatus on standby at the






SUPPORTING OPERATIONS


locks for certain vessels indicated by the Marine Bureau as containing
dangerous cargoes. The critical period is considered to be when a vessel is
entering the locks.
Requests for ambulance service totaled 1745, representing an 18 percent
increase over the previous year. Bomb threats also increased from 31 last
year to 42 this year. Excluding ship fires, there were 649 fires this year, 26
percent more than FY 1987. As in the past, the majority of these incidents
were grass and brush fires, most frequently occurring during the vulnerable
dry season period. Additional Fire Division statistics appear in Table 16 of
this report.
CANAL PROTECTION
The Canal Protection Division provides operational security for the
Panama Canal Commission and plant protection of installations and
facilities devoted to the management, operation, and maintenance of the
waterway.
Security improvements to vital installations and support facilities
continued throughout the year with site surveys, inspections and installation
of essential security hardware and systems. Political disturbances required
reassignment of guard personnel to many Commission support activity
areas along with expanded coverage at vital installations which resulted in a
significant increase in work load and area of responsibility. At year end, 285
uniformed guards and extensive physical security systems provided security
to most installations of the Canal, many on a 24-hour per day basis.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
The Occupational Health Division and the Safety Division are
components of the Office of Personnel Administration. The Personnel
Director is the Designated Agency Safety and Health Official. The Panama
Canal Commission is committed to ensuring a safe and healthful workplace
for its employees, an objective which enjoys support from top management
down.
During fiscal year 1988, the Commission experienced 497 performance-
of-duty accidents/illnesses for which employees required medical attention
beyond first aid, as compared to 628 such accidents/illnesses in fiscal year
1987. The incident rate fell significantly from 7.9 per 100 employees in fiscal
year 1987 to 5.8 in fiscal year 1988. There were no fatalities recorded in either
fiscal year 1988 or fiscal year 1987.
To further enhance safety and health in the Commission workplace during
fiscal year 1988, on and off-Isthmus training was provided, workplace
inspections and evaluations were continued, ongoing publicity was
accomplished, and the newly revised safety service awards program was
implemented to recognize accident-free service and foster positive safety
attitudes. A Dive Safety Board developed measures to improve safety and
technical standards and procedures in dive operations. Executive Order
12564 was implemented with the addition of certain measures to an existing
program of controlled alcohol and drug testing. A Smoking Policy was also
implemented, various industrial hygiene policies and procedures were






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 23

finalized, coordination of a hazard communication policy continued, and a
revised Safety Shoe Policy was effected. As a preparatory measure, a
training program was developed for health and emergency response
personnel relating to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Additionally, the certified Safety and Health Committee continued its active
role in the safety and health program.













Chapter IV


ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


PERSONNEL
FORCE EMPLOYED AND PAYROLL
At the end of fiscal year 1988, the total Isthmian force of the Commission
was 8,522 compared to 8,562 employees in fiscal year 1987. Of the total
Isthmian force, 7,538 were permanent and 984 temporary. Of the permanent
work force, 6,347 (84.2%) were Panamanians, 1,075 (14.3%) were U.S.
citizens and 116 (1.5%) were third-country nationals. Nineteen persons, all
U.S. citizens, were employed by the Commission in New Orleans and
Washington, D.C.
The total Commission payroll was $202 million in fiscal year 1988
compared to $196.2 million in fiscal year 1987. Of the total Commission
fiscal year 1988 payroll, $141.9 million was paid to non-U.S. citizen
employees and $60.1 million to U.S. citizen employees.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM
The Office of Equal Opportunity administers an equal opportunity
program pursuant to public law and administrative directive for
Commission employees and applicants for employment.
Employment of the severely disabled increased for the sixth consecutive
year and the agency was commended by the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission for being a model employer of the disabled.
There was an increase in the number of formal EO complaints over the
previous fiscal year. Ongoing educational programs included workshops on
the prevention of sexual harassment, national origin harassment, and the
EEO complaints process. Special emphasis program commemorations
included Women's Week activities and National Hispanic Heritage Week.
Ongoing monitoring of the Panamanian Preference Program revealed
continuing progress in the increased participation of Panamanian nationals
at all occupational levels.
The agency's accomplishment of affirmative employment action for fiscal
year 1988 is reflected in the composition of the work force by sex and
minority group designation.






ADMINISTRATION AND STAFF


Composition of the Work Force
By Sex:
M ale ................................................................... 88.0%
Fem ale ................................................................. 12.0%
By Minority Group Designation:
Hispanics Blalks Whites Orientals Amer Ind.
62.8% 23.3% 12.2% 1.4% 0.3%

PUBLIC AFFAIRS
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for handling all public affairs,
guide services and informational activities of the Panama Canal
Commission, both locally and internationally. In this connection, through
the Commission publication The Panama Canal Spillway, local press
releases, video tapes, films and exhibits, matters of related interest were
disseminated to the work force and the public at large. The Graphic Branch
assisted in the accomplishment of this task by providing a broad range of
photographic and audio-visual support services.
The workload of the Office of Public Affairs, in general, increased
measurably as the political events in Panama became more extreme in the
second quarter of this fiscal year. These events generated frequent visits to
the Canal by international media representatives who were interested in
developing their assessment of the impact of such events on the Panama
Canal and future operations.
The guide service handled a total of 308,930 visitors at the Canal and
conducted 569 VIP tours. Visitors included representatives of major news
services, accompanied by photographers and film crews; officials from
various sectors of the shipping industry and shipping related publications;
and government and business officials from around the world.
OMBUDSMAN
The Office of the Ombudsman was established pursuant to implementing
legislation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The office responds to
employees and dependents' complaints, grievances, and requests for
information; and channels many issues to the proper authorities for
processing under existing statutes or administrative regulations. Generally,
the Office of the Ombudsman investigates administrative problems,
inefficiencies, omissions and policy conflicts existing within the Panama
Canal Commission and other U.S. Government agencies on the Isthmus of
Panama resulting from the Treaty. The office provides the widest latitude
possible for handling problems affecting employee morale and the quality of
life.
A total of 181 cases were processed by the Ombudsman as compared to
275 in fiscal year 1987, representing a 34 percent reduction in the number of
cases handled. While these statistics reflect a decline in the caseload, heavy
demands were placed on the Office of the Ombudsman as a result of
intensified political unrest in Panama. A "hotline," which was activated in
late FY 1987, was expanded and staffed on an extended daily schedule. It is
estimated that, at peak periods during the political crisis, this office handled






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


some 50 calls per hour. The vast majority of the calls originated from
Commission employees, dependents, area residents and annuitants
previously employed with U.S. Federal agencies on the Isthmus, expressing
deep concerns over hardships precipitated or magnified by the ongoing
political problems and other problems which have established a pattern of
routine since entry into force of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
The collective bargaining agreement between the Commission and the
Marine Engineers Beneficial Association expired in October 1987. Although
at year's end, renegotiation of the new agreement had not been finalized, the
terms and conditions of the expired contract will continue in effect until a
new agreement is negotiated.
Relations with the pilots union took on a more constructive note. The
current branch agent has demonstrated a willingness to resolve differences
informally instead of immediately resorting to third party machinery.
Effective July 31, the collective bargaining agreement with the pilots union
was amended and renewed for 5 years. The new agreement will expire on
July 30, 1993.
The collective bargaining agreement with the firefighters union was again
extended for an additional year, until April of 1989.
In FY 1987, it was reported that the Commission was one of several U.S.
Federal agencies affected by decisions of the Federal Labor Relations
Authority (FLRA) that certain pay and money-related issues are negotiable
where, as in the case of the Commission, these matters are not specifically
prescribed by law. During FY 1988, based on circuit court decisions
reversing the FLRA in similar decisions affecting other agencies, the
Commission asserted during negotiations that these issues are non-
negotiable. Although two different circuits have subsequently found
negotiable such matters, the Commission will continue to assert they are not
within the scope of bargaining until the issue is finally resolved by the courts.
Because of the continuing local political problems, there was a marked
increase in union involvement over issues which, under normal
circumstances, would not fall within a labor organization's purview.
GENERAL COUNSEL
On December 23, 1985, the President signed into law the Panama Canal
Amendments Act, Public Law 99-209, which authorized the Commission to
settle all vessel-accident claims, regardless of the amount and irrespective of
the situs of the accident. Prior to the enactment of this Act, the Commission
was precluded from considering claims of more than $120,000 for out-of-
locks accidents. At the time of the passage of The Panama Canal
Amendments Act, 30 out-of-locks vessel-accident claims had been filed and
were pending with either the United States Congress or the Commission.
Since the enactment of the Amendments Act, the Commission has steadily
reduced this backlog of vessel-accident claims. By the end of fiscal year 1988,
27 of these claims had been settled, and $16,155,672 (out of a total of
$23,112,157 claimed) had been paid to the aggrieved shipowners.






FINANCIAL REPORT


The Amendments Act also permitted dissatisfied claimants to sue the
Commission for out-of-locks vessel-accident damage. Two such lawsuits
were filed before the passage of the Amendments Act and an additional eight
have been filed since its enactment. By September 30, 1988, one case had
been dismissed by the court, and six suits had been settled for payments
totaling $2,084,899. The remaining three lawsuits are pending resolution.
The principal area of settlement in the Office of General Counsel was in
the area of marine accidents where 26 claims for vessel damage, totaling
$3,889,164, were settled in the amount of $1,382,378.
Legislation has been passed by the Congress and sent to the President for
signature which will authorize the establishment of a fund to provide for the
accumulation of monies to meet the Panama Canal Commission's
obligations under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act, and for other
purposes.
Historically, the Panama Canal enterprise had been one of only two
federal agencies charged with the responsibility of administering the Federal
Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) 5 U.S.C. 8101, et seq. for its own
employees. That function was first delegated by President Wilson in 1916,
carried forward to the Canal Zone Government in 1951, and to the
Commission upon its establishment on October 1, 1979, pursuant to the
implementation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, TIAS 10031. Under 5
U.S.C. 8146 (as amended by section 3302 of the 1979 Panama Canal Act)
and section 1-307 of Executive Order 12215 of May 27, 1980, the
Commission has administered the FECA program for present and former
employees who have sustained injuries during the performance of their
duties with this agency and those which preceded it.
In light of the treaty-mandated December 31, 1999, disestablishment of
the Commission, and the fact that it is currently the only agency (with the
exception of the Office of Worker's Compensation Programs) which
administers the FECA program for its employees, the agency's Board of
Directors has approved the transfer of the FECA program to the OWCP.
President Reagan signed Executive Order 12652 on September 19, 1988,
which authorizes the transfer effective January 1, 1989. In accordance with
that transfer, the new law will enable the Commission to deposit sufficient
funds into the Panama Canal Commission Compensation Fund to meet the
actuarially determined costs of the program. Covered employees who have
sustained performance of duty injuries will thus be assured of benefits as
provided by the FECA law, despite the disestablishment of this agency at the
expiration of the treaty period.

The salaries of employees of agencies and instrumentalities of the United
States are generally not subject to garnishment; however, specific legislation
was enacted on January 1, 1975, which authorized garnishment for the
limited purpose of complying with alimony and child support orders issued
by U.S. Courts of competent jurisdiction. The law also recognized foreign
court orders upon execution of an agreement between the United States and
the country in which the order was issued. Following entry into force of the






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 29

Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, and disestablishment of the Canal Zone
courts, no local judicial forum remained available to persons seeking redress
in accordance with the foregoing statute.
After a lengthy period of discussion and negotiation between the two
governments, Diplomatic Note No. 012 and DGPE/EUC/19.1.13, were
exchanged on February 22, 1988. In accordance therewith, the Commission
is now authorized to honor judicial orders for the garnishment of alimony
and child support issued by certain Panamanian courts in the same manner
as those issued by U.S. Courts of competent jurisdiction.
In implementation of the foregoing agreement, the Office of General
Counsel has undertaken the review of incoming garnishment process to
insure legal sufficiency and compliance with the statute. Coordination
(including informal seminars and individual briefings) with appropriate
judicial personnel (both in the immediate area and the interior) has also
served to facilitate the implementation of the agreement. To date, 80 orders
have been processed and one more is currently in the pipeline. Most of the 30
which did not meet the statutory criteria for garnishment were resubmitted,
and 14 have resulted in voluntary alimony or child support allotments.














Chapter V


FINANCIAL REPORT


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1988
Effective January 1, 1988, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of
1987, Public Law 100-203, converted the Panama Canal Commission from
an appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency. In accordance with
this legislation, the Panama Canal Commission fund was terminated and its
unappropriated balance plus all unexpended balances of appropriations still
available to the Commission were transferred to a newly established fund
entitled the Panama Canal Revolving Fund. In addition, tolls and all other
receipts of the Commission are deposited into the new revolving fund.
The financial statements of the Panama Canal Commission, appearing as
Tables I through 6, with accompanying notes, present the financial position
of the Commission at September 30, 1988, and the results of its operations
for the fiscal year then ended. Incorporated as Table 4 of the statements is the
Statement of Cash Flows. This table, as required by the Financial
Accounting Standards Board in Statement of Financial Accounting
Standards No. 95, replaces the Statement of Changes in Financial Position.
Also, due to the conversion of the Panama Canal Commission from an
appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency, comparison of fiscal
years 1987 and 1988 financial data was not practical. Therefore, only fiscal
year 1988 financial data is presented in these statements.
The accounts and statements of the Panama Canal Commission have been
examined by the Office of General Auditor of the Commission and are
subject to examination by the United States General Accounting Office.
Detailed audit reports of the United States General Accounting Office are
directed to the Congress and are presented as Congressional documents.
Summary information concerning the operating results and capital
expenditures follows:
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Fiscal year 1988 operations resulted in a net loss of $1.8 million. This
amount plus the $0.6 million loss from fiscal year 1987 operations will be






32 STATISTICAL TABLES

recovered from subsequent revenues as required by section 1341(b)(2) of the
Panama Canal Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-70).
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
Accrued capital expenditures for fiscal year 1988 amounted to $27.1
million. The principal expenditures were $3.0 million for replacement of
motor vehicles, $2.7 million for purchase of a tugboat, $1.9 million for
improvements to the electrical power/communication system, $1.5 million
for purchase of a locomotive crane, $1.4 million for replacement of a storage
barge, $1.4 million for replacement of the Commission's telephone system,
$1.1 million for replacement of locomotive turntables and $0.9 million for
improvements to Commission buildings.







FINANCIAL REPORT

Table 1.-Statement of Financial Position


Assets


PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT:
At cost (Note 2c) ...............................................
Less accumulated depreciation and valuation allowances
(N otes 2e and 3) .................................. ...........




CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash: (note 4)
U.S. Treasury account .............. .................... .
Cash in commercial banks and on hand .......................
Postal, other trust funds and cash in transit ......................


Accounts receivable .......................................

Inventories, less allowance for obsolete and excess inventory of
$400,000 (Note 2g)......................................

Other current assets.......................................


OTHER ASSETS:
Deferred charges:
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note 2h).....................
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits
(Notes 2m and 6) ........................... .........
Retirement benefits to certain former employees of predecessor
agencies (Note 2h) ........................................
Other .....................................................


Unrecovered costs due from subsequent revenues
(Notes 2b and 5) ................. ...... .... ...........



TOTAL ASSETS ... .....................................


$936,111,054

464,872,854
471,238,200


138,872,443
5,800,906
2,442,789
147,116,138


199,321,261




166,584,000

79,126,504

6,746,000

252,456,504


2,408,665

254,865,169


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 35

September 30, 1988



Capital and Liabilities
CAPITAL:
Investment of the United States Government:
Interest-bearing (10.379%) (Note 7) ........................... $102,773,553
Non-interest-bearing ........................................ 371,024,286
473,797,839
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable:
U.S. Government agencies ................................. 4,245,938
Government of Panama ..................................... 8,475,439
O their ..................................................... 34,802,392
47,523,769
Accrued liabilities:
Employees' leave ........................................... 44,033,669
Salaries and wages ......................................... 7,139,405
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note 2h)..................... 15,144,000
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits (Notes 2m and 6).... 7,033,467
Retirement benefits to certain former employees of predecessor
agencies (Note 2h) ........................................ 844,000
Employees' repatriation ..................................... 687,000
Marine accident claims ..................................... 13,822,471
O their ..................................................... 1,923,10 1
90,627,113
Other current liabilities:
Advances for capital-unexpended (Notes 2d and 11)............. 14,332,082
Other ..... ................................................ 1,889,140
16,221,222
154,372,104
DEFERRED CREDIT:
Advances for capital being amortized (Notes 2d and I I) ............. 40,941,046
LONG-TERM LIABILITIES AND RESERVES:
Cost of early retirement benefits (Note 2h)......................... 151,440,000
Cost of work injuries compensation benefits (Notes 2m and 6)........ 72,093,037
Retirement benefits to certain former employees of predecessor
agencies (Note 2h) ............................................ 5,902,000
Employees' repatriation ......................................... 6,053,000
Lock overhauls (Note 2i) ........................................ 211,633
M arine accidents (Note 2j) ....................................... 17,683,380
Casualty losses (Note 2j) ........................................ 941,882
Floating equipment overhaul (Note 2k)...... ................... 1988,709
256,313,641
TOTAL CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES ............................. $925,424,630

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this slalement.







36 FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 2.-Statement of Operations and Non-Interest-Bearing Investment
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1988


OPERATING REVENUES:
Tolls revenue .................................................. $339,319,326
Other revenues ............................................... 110,089,660

Total operating revenues............................. .... 449,408,986

OPERATING EXPENSES:
Payments to the Government of Panama:
Public services ........................................... 10,000,000
Fixed annuity ............................................ 10,000,000
Tonnage .................................................. 59,635,398

79,635,398

Maintenance of channels and harbors ............................ 42,258,524
Navigation service and control .................................. 77,384,665
Locks operation ............................................... 47,709,751
General repair, engineering and maintenance services ............... 25,071,192
Supply and logistics .......................................... 21,030,820
U utilities ...................................................... 31,895,242
Housing operations ............................................ 5,553,796
General and administrative ..................................... 73,107,100
Interest on interest-bearing investment (Note 7) .................... 11,250.757
O their .................. ........... .. ...................... 36,329,982

Total operating expenses .................... ............... 451,227,227

NET OPERATING REVENUE (LOSS) (Notes 2b and 5).............. (1,818,241)







Table 3.-Statement of Changes in the Investment of the United States Government
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1988 Z
Invested Capital
I Interest- Non-Interest- 1 Emergency Operating Capital >
Bearing Bearing Fund Funds Funds Total
INVESTMENT AT OCTOBER I, 1987 ...........................$64,711,276 $287,336,291 $10,000,000 $55,658,038 $26,086.026 $443,791,631 >
Appropriation by the Congress for fiscal year 1988 ............... .......... ........... ......... 420,588,000 33,715,000 454.303,000
64,711.276 287.336,291 10,000,000 476,246,038 59,801,026 898,094,631 >
Funds transferred by Public Law 100-203, effective January I, 1988: r"
Transferred from emergency fund .......................... ........... 10,000,000 (10,000,000) ..... ....... .. ... ..
Transferred from operating funds .......................... ........... 202,316,621 ......... (202,211,390) ........... 105.231 O
Transferred from capital funds............................ ........... 54,060.961 ......... ........... (54,060.961) ............
Adjustment for interest accrued 10/1/79-12/31/85 ........... 61,653,129 (61,653,129) ........ .. ........ .......... ............
61,653,129 204,724,453 (10,000,000) (202,211,390) (54,060,961) 105,231
126,364,405 492,060,744 ........ 274,034,648 5,740,065 898,199.862 L
INCREASES IN INVESTMENT: O
Plant reactivations ........................................... ......... ......... ......... ........... ........... ............
Prior year receipts deposited into the U.S. Treasury .............. ........... 1,088,117 ......... ........ .. ........... 1,088,117 Z
Expenditures from capital appropriations ....................... 5,740,065 ........... .. . ... .. ......... (5,740,065) ............
Expenditures from operating appropriations ..................... 109,394,688 ........... ......... .. (109,394,668) .......... ............
Expenditures from Panama Canal Revolving Fund ............... 317,977,051 (317,977.051) ......... ........... ......... ............
Repayment to the General Fund of the U.S. Treasury
for fiscal year 1980 appropriation ............................ 85,582.579 (85.582,579) ......... ........... ...........
Payment of interest accrued 10/1/79-12/31/85 ................... ........... (61,653,129) ........ .. ........... ........... (61,653.,129)
Funds covered into the U.S. Treasury .......................... (85,582,579) ........... ......... ........... ........... (85,582,579)
Property transferred from other U.S. Government agencies ........ ........... ........... ......... ....... .. ....... ...... .....
Uncovered costs due from subsequent revenues (Notes 2b and 5) ... ........... 1,818.241 ......... ........... ........... 1,818.241
433,111,784 (462,306,401) (109,394,668) (5,740,065) (144,329.350)
DECREASES IN INVESTMENT:
Tolls and other receipts deposited into PCC Fund ............... 112,765,084 ........... ........ ... ......... .. ......... 112.765,084
Tolls and other receipts deposited into Revolving Fund ........... 343,508,525 (343,508,525) ......... ........... ........... .....
Due U.S. Treasury for undeposited receipts ..................... ........... 420,341 ......... ........... ........... 420,.341
Property transferred to the Government of Panama .............. 51.992 ........... ......... ........... ........... 51.992
Property transferred to other U.S. Government agencies .......... 377,035 ........... ......... ........... ........... 377,035
Unwarranted appropriated funds .......................... ..... .. ...... ........... ......... 164,639,980 ........... 164,639,980
Net loss (Notes 2b and 5)..................................... .... 1,818,241 ......... ........... ........... 1.818,241
456,702,636 (341,269,943) ........ 164,639,980 ............ 280,072,673
INVESTMENT AT SEPTEMBER 30, 1988 ....................... $102,773,553 $371,024,286 $ ........ S ......... $ .......... $473,797.839
(Note 7)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 4.-Statement of Cash Flows

INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH


Cash Flows from Operating Activities:
Cash received:
T olls ........................
Other collections ..............
Increase in receivables .........
Total cash received ..........

Cash disbursed:
Operating expenditures ........
Increase in inventory ..........
Increase in liabilities ...........
Total cash disbursed.........
Net cash from operations ..


$339,319,326
120,011,727
(3.057,444)



(463,389,231)
(1,789,780)
59,367,762


Other adjustments:
Cash from Panama Canal Commission Fund ...
Restoration of funds previously withdrawn .....
Operating revenues deposited into Panama Canal
Commission Fund .........................
Net operating cash received from Treasury..

Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities.......

Cash Flows from Extraordinary Activities:
Payment of interest on net direct investment (Note 9)
Repayment of 1980 appropriation (Note 9) .........

Net cash provided by/(used in) extraordinary activities ...

Cash Flows from Capital Activities:
Capital expenditures .........................
Decrease in liabilities ........................

Net cash provided by/(used in) capital activities .........

Cash Flows from Postal and Trust funds:
Postal funds ....... .............................
Trust funds .....................................

Net cash provided by/(used in) postal and trust fund
activities ....................................

Net increase/(decrease) in cash ........................

Cash, beginning of year ..............................

Cash, end of year ...................................



The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.


$456,273,609


(405,811,249)
$50,462,360


289,663,021
105.231

(112,765,084)


177,003,168

227,465,528


(61,653,129)
(85,582,579)

(147,235,708)


(27,069,345)
(231,190)

(27,300,535)


(6,630)
12,048


5,418

52,934,703

94,181,435

$147,116.138

(Note 8)







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1988

RECONCILIATION OF NET REVENUE (LOSS) TO NET CASH PROVIDED BY
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net Revenue (loss) ............... ................ $ (1,818,241)

Adjustments to reconcile net revenue (loss) to net cash
provided by operating activities:

Adjustments not requiring outlay of cash:

Depreciation ................................ 21,352,682
Provision for lock overhauls .................. 4,387,000
Provision for casualty losses .................. 2,901,952
Provision for floating equipment repairs........ 4,019,000
Advances for capital ......................... 10,458,055
Other ...................................... (1,640,029) 41,478,660

Adjustments requiring outlay of cash:

Lock overhauls expenditures .................. (5,699,523)
Casualty losses expenditures .................. (5,671,166)
Floating equipment repair expenditures ........ (3,678,624) (15,049,313)

Other adjustments:

Cash from Panama Canal Commission Fund ... 289,663,021
Restoration of funds previously withdrawn ..... 105,231
Operating revenues deposited into Panama Canal
Commission Fund ......................... (112,765,084) 177,003,168

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

Increase in receipt receivables ................. (3,057,444)
Increase in funded receivables................. (2,091,761)
Increase in inventories ....................... (1,789,780)
Decrease in other assets ...................... 1,505,355
Increase in liabilities ......................... 31,284,884 25,851,254

Total adjustments ....................... 229,283,769

Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities....... 5227,465,528

(Note 8)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







40 FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 5.-Statement of
Fiscal Year Ended


SOURCE OF APPROPRIATIONS:

Operating funds:

Current year operating appropriation ........................ $407,088,000
Appropriation Public Law 99-195
(indefinite-funded interest) ................................ 13,500,000
420,588,000

Restoration of funds previously withdrawn .................... 105,231


Obligated operating funds brought forward:

Fiscal year 1980 ....................................... 311,229
Fiscal years- M erged .................................. 4,006,116
Fiscal year 1986 ....................................... 5,695,374
Fiscal year 1987 ....... ................................ 45,645,319
55,658,038

476,351,269

Capital funds:

Current year capital appropriation (no year) .................. 33,715,000


Obligated capital funds brought forward:

Fiscal year 1980 ............ .......................... 12,070
Fiscal years 1981 through 1987 .......................... 23,766,934
23,779,004


Unobligated capital funds brought forward (no year):

Fiscal year 1980 ................................. ..... 8,257
Fiscal years 1981 through 1987 2,298,765
2,307,022

59,801,026


Emergency fund (no year) ......................... ............ 10,0001000


TOTAL SOURCE OF APPROPRIATIONS ......................... $546,152,295

(Note 10)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 41


Status of Appropriations
September 30, 1988


APPLICATION OF APPROPRIATIONS:

Appropriations available....................... .............. $546,152,295

Less appropriate expenditures- 1st Quarter:

Expenditures from operating appropriations:

Fiscal year 1980 ...........................................
Fiscal years- M erged .............................. (496,584)
Fiscal year 1986 ................................... 447,217
Fiscal year 1987 ................................... 32,653,300
Fiscal year 1988 ................................... 76,790,735
109,394,668

Expenditures from capital appropriations:

Fiscal year 1980 ................................... 12,506
Fiscal years 1981 through 1988 ...................... 5,727,559
5,740,065

115,134,733

Less funds transferred to the revolving fund:

From Operations:

Fiscal year 1980 ................................... 311,229
Fiscal year 1980 restored ........................... 105,231
Fiscal years- M erged .............................. 4,502,700
Fiscal year 1986 ................................... 5,248,157
Fiscal year 1987 ................................... 12,992,019
Fiscal year 1988 ..... : ............................. 179,157,285
Emergency fund ................................... 10,000,000
212,316,621

From Capital:

Fiscal year 1980 .......................... ....... 7,821
Fiscal years 1981 and 1988 .......................... 54,053,140
54,060,96 I

266,377,582

Less funds returned to the U.S. Treasury ................... 164,639,980

BALANCE OF APPROPRIATIONS, SEPTEMBER 30. 1988 .......... S .........

(Note 10)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.







FINANCIAL REPORT


Table 6.-Statement of Property, Plant and Equipment
September 30, 1988


Titles and treaty rights .................
Interest during construction ............
Canal excavation, fills and embankments.
Canal structures and equipment.........
Supporting and general facilities ........
Facilities held for future use ............
Plant additions in progress .............
Suspended construction projects ........

TOTAL .......................


Estimated
service
life
40 years
15-100 years
4-100 years
5-100 years
10-100 years
10-100 years


Depreciation
and valuation
Cost allowances
$14,728,889 $5,615,390
50,892,311 50,892,311
347,555,199 131,595,146
317,897,397 151,022,970
131,459,891 83,223,723
2,824,202 2,377,516
30,607,367 ............
40,145,798 40,145,798

$936,111,054 $464,872,854


The accompanying notes are an integral part of this statement.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


1. Conversion to a Revolving Fund Agency.
Public Law 100-203, converted the Panama Canal Commission from an
appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency effective January 1,
1988. This conversion to a revolving fund financial structure did not result in
any major change in the accounting policies and principles of the
Commission.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
The Comptroller General of the United States approved the Accounting
Principles and Standards Statement of the Panama Canal Commission in
his letter dated September 14, 1982. A summary of significant accounting
policies follows:
a. Accounting and reporting. As required by section 1311(a) of the
Panama Canal Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-70), hereinafter referred to as the
Act, the accounts of the Commission are maintained pursuant to the
Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950. This requires that the principles,
standards and related requirements be met, as prescribed by the Comptroller
General of the United States, after consulting with the Secretary of the
Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget
concerning their accounting, financial reporting and budgetary needs. The
Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950 also requires that the accounts be
maintained on an accrual basis.
b. Cost recovery. As required by section 1341(e)(1) of the Act, the
application of generally accepted accounting principles to the Panama
Canal Commission, a United States Government agency comparable to a
rate-regulated public utility, determines the manner in which costs are
recognized. The basis for tolls rates is prescribed in section 1602(b) of the
Act. This section of the Act, known as the "statutory tolls formula," provides
that:

"Tolls shall be prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues
to cover as nearly as practicable all costs of maintaining and
operating the Panama Canal, together with the facilities and
appurtenances related thereto, including unrecovered costs
incurred on or after the effective date of this Act, interest,
depreciation, working capital, payments to the Republic of Panama
pursuant to paragraph 5 of Article III and paragraph 4(a) and (b) of
Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, and capital for
plant replacement, expansion, and improvements. Tolls shall not be
prescribed at rates calculated to produce revenues sufficient to
cover payments to the Republic of Panama pursuant to paragraph
4(c) of Article XIII of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977."

Under this statutory tolls formula, any unrecovered costs are to be
recovered from subsequent revenues. The amount for recovery from






FINANCIAL REPORT


subsequent revenues is transferred from Invested Capital to an account
within the Other Assets classification. Unrecovered costs are charged back
to Invested Capital to the extent subsequent annual revenues exceed annual
costs.
c. Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are
recorded at cost, or if acquired from another United States Government
agency, at the value determined by the Director of the Office of Management
and Budget. Administrative and other related general expenses are
recovered currently and therefore not capitalized. The cost of minor items of
property, plant and equipment is charged to expense as incurred.
d. Advances for capital. A portion of tolls in excess of depreciation
recoveries may be programmed annually by the Board of Directors for plant
replacement, expansion, or improvements. In fiscal year 1988 no amounts
were programmed for such purpose. Such funds are considered capital
advances from Canal users. Upon utilization, these advances are amortized
through an offset to depreciation expense in an amount calculated to
approximate the depreciation on assets acquired with such advances.
e. Depreciation. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated over
their estimated service lives at rates computed using a straight-line method
with additional annual depreciation, identified as composite, to provide for
premature plant retirements.
The recurring costs of dredging the waterway are charged to expense.
Non-recurring dredging costs for substantial improvements and betterments
to the waterway are considered additions to plant and are capitalized and
depreciated over their estimated service lives.
f. Accounts receivable. Uncollectible accounts receivable of the Panama
Canal Commission are recognized as a reduction in revenue when written
off. Any subsequent collections of Commission accounts receivable
previously written off are recorded as revenue.
g. Inventories. Operating materials and supplies are stated at average
cost, plus cost of transportation to the ultimate destination on the Isthmus of
Panama. An allowance has been established to reflect the estimated cost of
obsolete and excess stock.
h. Retirement benefits. Employer payments to the contributory United
States Civil Service Retirement System, to the Federal Employee
Retirement System, and to the Republic of Panama Social Security System
are charged to expense. The Commission has no liability for future payments
to employees under these systems.
Non-United States citizen employees, who retired from predecessor
agencies prior to October 5, 1958, are not covered by the United States Civil
Service Retirement System but do receive benefits under a separate annuity
plan. Payments made under this annuity plan are recorded as a current year
expense. Annual amount expended in fiscal year 1988 was $1.3 million. The
Commission's liability for future annuity payments to these former
employees or their eligible widows is reflected in the balance sheet as
retirement benefits to certain former employees of predecessor agencies and
an equal amount is recorded as a deferred charge.






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


As required by the Act, the Panama Canal Commission is liable for the
increase in the unfunded liability of the United States Civil Service
Retirement Fund which is attributable to benefits payable.from that fund to,
or on behalf of, employees and their survivors under the early retirement
provisions of the Act. The annual installment to liquidate the increased
liability is determined by the Office of Personnel Management.
i. Reserve for lock overhauls. A reserve is provided through an annual
charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of periodic lock overhauls.
j. Reserve for casualty losses. A reserve is provided through an annual
charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of marine accidents and other
casualty losses.
k. Reserve for floating equipment overhaul. A reserve is provided
through an annual charge to expense to cover the estimated cost of overhauls
to the Commission tugboat fleet.
1. Housing use rights. No monetary value is assigned to the rights
granted to the United States Government by the Republic of Panama to use
Canal Area housing transferred to the Government of Panama under the
terms of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The cost to manage, maintain
and provide livability improvements to these quarters is charged to expense.
Rental income is included in other revenues.
m. Work injuries compensation benefits. Under provisions of the Act,
the Panama Canal Commission is liable for payment of all benefits due
under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) which provided
compensation for workplace injuries for eligible employees. The
Commission accounts for these costs on an accrual basis.
3. Plant Valuation Allowances.
At July 1, 1951, certain valuation allowances for property, plant and
equipment transferred from the Panama Canal (agency) to the Panama
Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government were established, to
reduce to usable value the costs of the assets transferred. At October 1, 1979,
such valuation allowances as were applicable to the assets transferred from
the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government to the
Panama Canal Commission were carried forward and are comprised of: (a)
$4.5 million at September 30, 1988, to reduce to usable value the cost of
property, plant and equipment transferred; (b) $50.9 million at
September 30, 1988, to offset interest costs imputed for the original Canal
construction period; and (c) $42.3 million at September 30, 1988 to offset
the cost of defense facilities and suspended construction projects, the latter
being principally the partial construction of a third set of locks abandoned in
the early part of World War II.
4. Cash and Fund Balances.
The cash balances are maintained to satisfy the solvency requirements as
defined in Section 86.6 Office of Management and Budget Circular A-34,
Instructions on Budget Execution, under which the incurring of obligations
in excess of budgetary resources is a violation of the Antideficiency Act. All
cash exceeding current operating requirements is kept on deposit with the
U.S. Treasury.






FINANCIAL REPORT


5. Unrecovered Costs Due From Subsequent Revenues.
Pursuant to the provisions of section 1602 (b) of the Panama Canal Act of
1979 (Public Law 96-70), the net loss of $0.6 million from fiscal year 1987
and S1.8 from fiscal year 1988 operations, totalling $2.4 million, were
deferred as an unearned cost to be recovered from subsequent revenues.
Also, in accordance with section 1341(b)(2) of the Act such unearned costs
must be recovered from any future net operating revenue due to the
Government of Panama.
6. Cost of Work Injuries Compensation.
The Commission administers a program to compensate certain employees
for death and disability resulting from workplace injuries or illnesses as set
forth in the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA). All United
States citizen employees are eligible for coverage, as are non-United States
citizen employees hired prior to October 1, 1979, who elected coverage on
that date. As provided by FECA, employees and certain dependents are
beneficiaries for various periods that can extend to life.
The liability and deferred charge recorded in these statements reflect the
payments due to a Department of Labor fund established pursuant to Public
Law 100-705. The Department of Labor will be reimbursed from this fund
for all expected future payments for accidents occurring prior to October 1,
1988, adjusted for inflation and interest earned. This is a change from the
fiscal year 1987 presentation where there was no fund established and the
amounts in both accounts were stated at net present value.
7. Interest-Bearing Investment of the United States Government.
The interest-bearing investment of the United States Government in the
Panama Canal is determined based on section 1603(a) of the Act. The
interest-bearing investment of the United States Government at
September 30, 1988, was determined as follows:

Millions of Dollars
Investment at September 30, 1987 ............................. $64.7
Fiscal year 1988 transactions:
Adjustment for interest accrued 10/1/79-12/31/85 ...... $61.7
D isbursem ents ...................................... 433.1
Receipts ......... ................................. (456.3)
Net property transfers ............................... (0.4
N et change ......................................... 38.1
Investment at September 30, 1988 ............................. $102.8


8. Statement of Cash Flows.
Reflected on this statement is the conversion of the Panama Canal
Commission from an appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency
three months into fiscal year 1988. As such, the statement identifies
appropriated funds received during the first quarter of the fiscal year.
9. Extraordinary Activities.
In addition to converting the Panama Canal Commission to a revolving
fund agency, Public Law 100-203, The Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987,






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION


provided: (a) for restoring $61.7 million to the interest-bearing investment of
the United States Government in the Panama Canal by transferring interest
collections prior to January 1, 1986 to the General Fund of the U.S.
Treasury, and (b) for reimbursement to the General Fund of the U.S.
Treasury of the $85.6 million balance of the 1980 appropriation to the
Commission.
10. Statement of Status of Appropriations.
This statement reflects the conversion of the Panama Canal Commission
from an appropriated fund agency to a revolving fund agency. As such, the
statement identifies: (a) expenditures made by the Commission during the
first quarter operations as an appropriated fund agency, (b) funds
transferred to the revolving fund January 1, 1988 and (c) funds returned to
the U.S. Treasury, also as of January 1, 1988.
11. Advances for Capital-Transit Booking System Fees.
With the approval of the Board of Directors, a system was activated in
fiscal year 1983 whereby shippers, for a fee, can make an advance reservation
for vessel transit. This system generated funds of $8.5 million in fiscal year
1988. Such funds are considered capital advances from Canal users. By
direction of the Board of Directors, these fees are set aside for capital
improvements. Upon utilization, these advances are amortized through an
offset to depreciation expense in an amount calculated to approximate the
depreciation on assets acquired with such advances.
12. Contingent Liabilities and Commitments.
In addition to recorded liabilities, the estimated maximum contingent
liability which could result from pending claims and lawsuits was $18.6
million at September 30, 1988. In the opinion of management and
Commission counsel, these pending claims and lawsuits will be resolved with
no material adverse effect on the financial condition of the agency.
Commitments under uncompleted construction contracts and unfilled
purchase orders amounted to $42.2 million at September 30, 1988. Of this
amount, $0.1 million in unfilled purchase orders were prepaid as of
September 30, 1988.
Cash and negotiable securities of a kind acceptable by the United States
Government in the amount of $11.6 million were held by the United States
depositories designated by the Panama Canal Commission at September 30,
1988 to guarantee payment by third parties of their obligations.
The Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, Article XIII, paragraph4(c), provides
that an annual amount of up to $10 million per year be paid to the
Government of Panama out of operating revenues to the extent that such
revenues exceed expenditures. Payment to the Government of Panama is
subject to the limitations set forth in section 1341(e) of the Act. In the event
operating revenues in any year do not produce a surplus sufficient to cover
this payment, the unpaid balance shall be paid from operating surpluses in
future years up to the amount available from these surpluses. As of
September 30, 1988, the balance contingently payable to the Government of
Panama amounts to $81.1 million.







48 FINANCIAL REPORT

13. Borrowing Authority.
The Panama Canal Commission has authority to borrow funds from the
U.S. Treasury not to exceed $100 million outstanding at any time for any of
the purposes of the Commission. At September 30, 1988 none of this
amount had been borrowed.
14. Treaty Impact.
On September 7, 1977, the United States of America and the Republic of
Panama signed the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. The Treaty provided for
the establishment of the Panama Canal Commission on October 1, 1979, to
assume certain operational responsibilities for the Canal until December 31,
1999. When the Treaty terminates on December 31, 1999, the Republic of
Panama shall assume total responsibility for the management, operation,
and maintenance of the Panama Canal, which shall be turned over in
operating condition and free of liens and debts, except as the two parties may
otherwise agree. The effects of these long-range requirements are not
considered in the financial statements.








Chapter VI

STATISTICAL TABLES

Shipping Statistics







STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 1.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1979 Through 1988

Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
I Number Long tons I Number Panama I INumber Displace-
Fiscal of of of Canal net of ment
year transits Tolls cargo transit tonnage transit tonnage
OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC '
1979 ................ 12,935 208,376,741 154,110,866 12,902 167,470,601 33 136,600
1980................ 13,507 291,838,590 167,214,935 13,476 182,063,175 31 137,593
1981 ................ 13,884 301,762,600 171,221,762 13,847 188,656,491 37 111,418
1982................ 14,009 323,958,366 185,452,332 13,976 202,884,207 33 129,684
1983 ................ 11,707 285,983,805 145,590,759 11,668 169,503,918 39 132,431
1984 ................ 11,230 286,677,844 140,470,818 11,199 162,335,342 31 116,335
1985 ................ 11,515 298,497,802 138,643,243 11,498 168,941,997 17 86,623
1986 ................ 11,925 321,073,748 139,945,181 11,901 182,750,830 24 73,631
1987 ................ 12,230 328,372,714 148,690,380 12,206 186,414,955 24 130,129
1988 ................ 12,234 337,866,211 156,482,641 12,209 191,505,883 25 106,599
OCEANGOING U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC '


1979 ................
1980 ................
1981 ................
1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................


1979 ................
1980 ................
1981 ................
1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ...............
1988 ...............


111 1,054,169 357,482 80 726,755
101 1,515,326 396,481 73 844,748
89 1,241,442 301,776 68 705,936
110 1,546,746 285,451 67 794,282
125 1,721,925 354,873 77 812,840
137 2,388,272 329,607 88 1,131,865
129 2,223,938 259,524 85 1,148,311
85 1,553,037 176,853 53 708,616
78 1,384,125 205,701 46 662,286
69 1,361,393 296,140 46 714,055
FREE OCEANGOING TRAFFIC I 2
10 .......... 1 8 4,527
6 .......... .......... 3 1,686
11 .......... .......... 4 2,248
23 .......... .......... 9 5,010
14 .......... 2,504 9 9,119
17 .......... .......... 4 2,224
10 .......... 20 4 2,731
13 .......... .......... 1 556
5 .......... 5 4 2,224
15 .......... .......... 6 3,312
TOTAL OCEANGOING TRAFFIC '


1979 ................ 13,056 209,430,910 154,468,349 12,990 168,201,883
1980 ................ 13,614 293,353,916 167,611,416 13,552 182,909,609
1981 ................ 13,984 303,004,042 171,523,538 13,919 189,364,675
1982 ................ 14,142 325,505,112 185,737,783 14,052 203,683,499
1983 ................ 11,846 287,705,730 145,948,136 11,754 170,325,877
1984 ................ 11,384 289,066,116 140,800,425 11,291 163,469,431
1985 ................ 11,654 300,721,740 138,902,787 11,587 170,093,039
1986 ................ 12,023 322,626,785 140,122,034 11,955 183,460,002
1987 ................ 12,313 329,756,840 148,896,086 12,256 187,079,465
1988 ................ 12,318 339,227,604 156,778,781 12,261 192,223,250


207,640
217,055
143,121
309,206
350,699
410,682
248,967
309,161
239,023
129,545


2,194
4,810
8,544
21,903
5,986
21,025
8,771
20,759
1,300
16,765


346,434
359,458
263,083
460,793
489,116
548,042
344,361
403,551
370,452
252,909







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 51


Table I.-Panama Canal Traffic-Fiscal Years 1979 Through 1988
(Continued)
Traffic assessed tolls
Traffic assessed tolls on displacement
Total traffic on net tonnage basis tonnage basis
I Number Long tons I INumber Panama I I[umber Displace-
Fiscal of of of Canal net of ment
year transits Tolls cargo transits tonnage transit tonnage
SMALL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC 3


1979 ...............
1980 ...............
1981 ...............
1982 ...............
1983 ...............
1984 ...............
1985 ...............
1986 ...............
1987 ...............
1988 ...............


1979 ................
1980 ................
1981 ................
1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ................
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................


1979 ................
1980 ................
198 1 ................
1982 ................
1983 ................
1984 ................
1985 ............... .
1986 ................
1987 ................
1988 ................


936 76,591 7,718 934
788 74,898 787 787
791 65,604 1,355 788
830 73,228 928 826
810 73,887 669 810
802 76,921 652 800
793 73,710 468 792
912 89,577 3,704 904
852 90,829 3,282 852
844 79,805 1,422 842
SMALL U.S. GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC 3


315 14,375 9 48
276 15,129 .......... 29
225 10,712 2 16
241 10,757 .......... 12
242 11,406 5 12
241 11,998 .......... 8
273 12,464 .......... 15
316 17,840 .......... 20
236 11,106 .......... 25
246 11,917 .......... 21
SMALL FREE TRAFFIC 2 3
55 .......... 3 47
47 .......... .......... 4 1
50 .......... .......... 41
58 .......... 70 40
56 .......... 8 39
96 .......... 59 86
46 .......... 3 32
27 .......... 80 20
43 .......... 57 26
33 .......... ........... 15
TOTAL PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC


69,229
52,052
44,962
50,399
48,033
48,008
45,694
55,249
55,827
49,245


2,865
1,357
751
415
332
336
773
627
987
901


94
57
279
315

[145
110
470

64


15,519
14,313
10,431
10,973
11,177
11,282
11,113
16,407
9,572
10,375


632
560
1,012
1,172
2,010
1,360
1,103
674
1,012
1,189


362,679
374,388
274,805
473,253
502,303
560,829
356,687
421,102
381,036
264,537


1979 ............... 14,362 209,521,876 154,476,079 14,019 168,276,137
1980 ................ 14,725 293,443,943 167,612,203 14,409 182,965,335
1981 ................ 15,050 303,080,358 171,524,895 14,764 189,413,001
1982 ................ 15,271 325,589,097 185,738,781 14,930 203,737,116
1983 ................ 12,954 287,791,023 145,948,818 12,615 170,376,563
1984 ................ 12,523 289,155,035 140,801,136 12,185 163,522,412
1985 ................ 12,766 300,807,914 138,903,258 12,426 170,141,227
1986 ................ 13,278 322,734,202 140,125,818 12,899 183,517,249
1987 ................ 13,444 329,858,775 148,899,425 13,159 187,137,730
1988 ................ 13,441 339,319,326 156,780,203 13,139 192,274,477


Oceangoing traffic includes ships of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and
over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Free traffic includes ships of the Colombian and Panamanian Governments and ships transiting for repair by the
Commission.
Includes vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement tons for vessels assessed on
displacement tonnage)






Table 2.-Oceangoing Commercial Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1988 and 1987


October ... ..........................
November .. ........................
December ...... ............................
January ....................................
February ...................................
M arch .....................................
A pril ......................................
May .. .............................
June .................................
July .......................................
A ugust .....................................
Septem ber ..................................
Total ............................


Number of Transits Panama Canal Net Tonnage Long Tons of Cargo Tolls
1987-88 1986-87 I 1987-88 1986-87 I 1987-88 1986-87 I I 1987-88 1986-87
1,025 974 16,725,619 15,271.569 13,934,687 12,024,411 $ 29,596,522 $ 27,018,718
981 1,063 16,196,649 16,766,740 12,614,114 12,836,251 28,558,801 29,443,943
964 1,026 16,002,534 16,371,635 12,580,056 12,435,273 28,250,171 28,668,718
1,043 1,024 16,210,013 15,455,363 12,889,541 11,951,475 28,552,643 27,180,307
1,061 962 15,905,398 14,626,744 12,936,870 11,558,412 28,093,490 25,653,899
1,139 1,072 17,169,470 15,277,765 14,257,185 11,989,051 30,203,768 26,894,455
1,069 1,041 16,202,710 15,452,727 12,935,668 12,632,112 28,669,030 27,349,267
1,051 1,034 16,466,814 15,761,883 13,037,311 12,380,904 28,966,312 27,778,988
991 1,000 14,716,035 15,208,298 12,847,264 12,257,040 25,974,828 26,742,301
975 1,020 15,486,718 14,930,602 13,141,603 11,606,948 27,349,496 26,411,019
999 1,040 15,950,682 16,207,063 13,628,898 13,582,446 28,144,693 28,511,509
936 974 14,473,241 15,084,566 11,679,444 13,436,057 25,506,456 26,719,590
12,234 12,230 191,505,883 186,414,955 156,482,641 148,690,380 $337,866,211 $328,372,714


Average per month .......................... 1,020 1,019 15,958,824 15,534,580 13,040,220 12,390,865 $28,155,518 $27,364,393

NOTE: The above includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement tons and over on vessels paying tolls on a
displacement tonnage basis. Statistics on these vessels, except as relates to displacement tonnage, have been included in the table above.








PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 53



Table 3.-Canal Traffic by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1988

Measured tonnage

Num- Panama Long
ber of Canal Registered tons of
Flag trar~its net gross 2 Tolls cargo
Antigua-Barbuda ............................... 10 27,071 34,376 S45,874 8,714
Argentina ..................................... 6 42,192 51,073 78,624 48.415
Austria ....................................... 1 28,421 31.701 52,010 52,750
Bahamas ...................................... 295 3,759,914 4,445,618 6,697,848 2,458,139
Barbados ......................... ............ 6 15,232 21,426 27,875 16.112
Belgium ....................................... 50 976,343 1,126.210 1,757,953 1,152,339
Bermuda ...................................... 5 61,761 77,195 113,023 71,702
Brazil ......................................... 43 600,987 722,616 1,098,479 596,294
Bulgaria ........................... ......... 9 85.290 105,750 145,562 29,590
Burma ....................................... 24 387,378 468,238 701,403 605,707
Canada ....................................... 4 11,284 6,872 19,182 40
Cayman Islands ................................ II 93,574 71,852 170.409 75.542
Chile ......................................... 74 724.880 795.107 1,302,680 680,638
Colombia .................................. .. 160 1,422,602 1,330.437 2.569,652 410,169
Costa Rica .................................... 2 5,880 3.911 8.585
Cuba ............................... ........ 148 837,349 972.990 1,492,985 663,948
Cyprus....................................... 641 7,223,928 8,341,176 12,942,778 8,337,484
Czechoslovakia ................................ 1 11,716 13,569 21.440 20,074
Denmark...................................... 201 4,567.877 5,674,786 8,286,472 2,931,571
Dominican Republic............................ 2 16,908 19,260 27,814 10,291
East Germany ................................. 52 341,664 397,329 598.446 128,967
Ecuador ...................................... 389 3,683.708 4,231,334 6,363,809 2,772,448
El Salvador .................................... 2 2.286 2,292 3,338
Faroes ........................................ 2 2,132 2,262 3,902 1,481
Finland ....................................... 3 29,951 37.159 50,535 24,033
France ........................................ 59 1,095,546 899,321 2,018,505 680,256
Gibraltar ...................................... 1I 361 542 527
Greece ........................................ 685 10,766,945 12,325,445 19,031,526 13.442.588
Guatemala .................................... 9 31,536 37,161 55,118 34,938
Honduras ....................................... 29 124.726 151.567 217,080 36,593
Hong Kong .................................... 14 264,226 312,121 474.283 390,862
India ......................................... 43 827,119 1,006.490 1,445,690 1,067,651
Israel ......................................... 69 1,399.264 1.839,393 2,560,653 968,339
Italy .......................................... 84 1,060,733 1,326.436 1,929,116 768,351
Jamaica ..... ................ ................ 4 6,876 7,720 11.311 5,683
Japan........................................ 862 18,103,218 12.188.314 30,537,010 4,765,735
Kuwait ....................................... 27 325,950 419,986 596.488 295.166
Lebanon ...................................... 2 9,000 10,140 16,470 15,400
Liberia........................................ 1,280 25,658,730 26,038,112 45,206,260 24.798,476
Malaysia .................................. .. 22 429,174 496,673 776,081 679,983
M aldive Island ................................. I 9.711 11,720 17,771 14,271
M alta......................................... 54 1,099,668 1,452,968 1,827,456 1,071,535
M auritius ..................................... I 17,324 20,159 31.703
Mexico ....................................... 102 1,978.062 2,380,363 3,284,686 1,367,884
M orocco ...................................... 12 54,876 58,872 90,271 15,884
Netherlands-Antilles ............................ 2 5,590 7,012 10,230 9,150
Netherlands ................................... 241 2,548,320 2,693,972 4,561,469 1,625,864
New Zealand .................................. 3 3,527 2,907 5,149
Nicaragua ..................................... 3 5,282 6.713 9,666 3,424
Nigeria ....................................... 4 19,496 22,284 35,678 15,101
Norway ....................................... 155 2,803,628 2,832,575 5,019,010 2.817,134
Panama ...................................... 2.500 42,517,138 43.070,417 74,795,878 32,134,394
People's Republic of China ...................... 163 3.222,820 3,906,749 5,810,647 3,776,578
Peru ................... ...................... 134 1,461,157 1,613,401 2,601,181 1,588.248
Philippines .................................... 359 6,681.766 7,428,223 11,988,809 8,995,571
Poland........................................ 87 761,956 885,668 1,389,507 647,038
Portugal ...................................... 6 99,446 129,066 184.587 174,970
Qatar ......................................... 5 60.935 75,463 111,511 56,668
Samoa .............................. ........... 3 27,597 31,650 50,503 21.383
Saudi Arabia .................................. 4 26.050 24.322 42,852 2,778
Seychelles ..................................... 2 2,820 3,628 5,161 1.100
Sierra Leone ...................................... I 532 284 974 50
Singapore ..................................... 266 5,667,014 5,648,124 9,989,802 4.669.150
Somali Republic ............................... 3 27.945 31,629 51.139 20,667
South Korea................................... 191 4,400,523 4,783.952 7,802,819 3,555,462
Spain ......................................... 51 280,459 275,960 506,399 232,862
Sn Lanka ..................................... 41 522,780 645,647 928.243 361,843
St. Vincent & Grenadines ........................ 16 204,791 239,536 373.186 283,679
Sweden ....................................... 53 1,999,912 1,425,139 3,640.228 416.556
Switzerland .................................... 9 230,667 280,774 410,585 364,166
Syria ......................................... 2 7,000 8,450 11,515 5,172
Taiwan ....................................... 173 4.611,429 5,511,318 8,418,427 3,936,842
Thailand ...................................... 1 11,761 14,479 21.523 6,746
Toga ......................................... 7 49.361 36,717 87.562 22,434
Turkey................................... ...... 21 286.505 349,127 497,934 355.684
Tuvaluan ...................................... I 703 1,043 1.026
United Arab Emirates ........................... I 12.263 15.122 22.441 2,979
United Kingdom ............................... 460 8.240.243 9,937,634 14.847,602 7,949,504
United States .................................. 636 6,664,145 6,216.562 11,383.438 3.880,966








STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 3.-Canal Traffic' by Flag of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1988-Continued

Measured tonnage
Num- I Panama Long
ber of Canal Registered tons of
Flag transit net gross 2 Tolls cargo
U.S.S R ...................................... 618 4,741,737 5,572,050 8,317,829 2,742,703
Vanuatu ................................... .... 61 321,928 306,891 587,410 310,750
Venezuela ..................................... III 485,895 534,219 868,373 355,665
West Germany................................ 231 2,821,004 3,302,995 5,149,067 1,866,519
Yugoslavia .................................... 108 1,446,385 1,777,623 2,618,168 1,756,798
Total .................................. 12,234 191,478,087 199,619,367 $337,866,211 156,482,641

1 Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement, or of 500 displacement ions
and over on vessels paying tolls on displacement basis (dredges, warships, etc.).
2 Includes 14 transits where no registered tonnage was reported
NOTE.-In Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as transports, supply ships, tankers, etc.,
with a measurement of 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) and over, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons and over, are classified as oceangoing commercial vessels. Statistics on
these vessels, except as related to displace-ment tonnage, have been included in the table above. As
displacement tonnage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table shows statistics covering
25 vessels which transited the Canal during fiscal year 1988 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.


Flag
A rgentina ...........................................
Brazil ..............................................
Chile ..............................................
Ecuador ............................................
France .............................................
France .............................................
M exico .............................................
Panam a ............................................
Peru ...............................................
Portugal ............................................
Spain ..............................................
Sweden .............................................
United Kingdom ......................................
Total ................................ - .........


Type
Navy
Navy
Navy
Navy
Navy
Dredge
Navy
Dredge
Navy
Navy
Navy
Navy
Navy


Num-
ber of
trans'[
I


4
4
1
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
25


Displace-
ment
tonnage Tolls
3,700 $3,774
3,450 3,519
4,750 4,845
10,359 10,566
15,854 16,171
8,070 8,231
3,306 3,372
3,850 3,927
33,799 34,475
2,550 2,601
3,700 3,774
6,877 7,015
6,334 6,461
106,599 $108,731


Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning.






Table 4.-Classification of Canal Traffic' by Type of Vessel-Fiscal Year 1988
Laden Ballast
| Atlantic Pacific Atlantic Pacific
to to to to Grand
Type of Iessel Pacific Atlantic Total Pacific Atlantic Total Total
CARGO AND CARGO/PASSENGER SHIPS:
Bulk Carriers:
Number of transits .................................. 1,802 1,652 3,454 464 208 672 4,126
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 38,486 37,556 76,042 16,996 3,357 20,353 96,395
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $70,428 $68,729 $139,157 $24,815 $4,902 $32,717 $171,874
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 55,738 32,747 88,485 ........ ........ ........ 88,485
Container Cargo Ships:
Number of transits .... .............. ................ 869 901 1.770 13 30 43 1.813
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 17,091 19,081 36,173 206 235 441 36,614
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $31,276 $34,919 $66,195 $301 $343 $644 $66,840
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 12,250 12,100 24,350 ........ . .... . ....... 24,350
General Cargo Ships:
Number of transits .... ...... ......................... 814 780 1,594 80 90 170 1,764
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 6,425 6,531 12,956 632 387 1,018 13,975
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... $11,758 $11,952 $23,710 $922 $564 $1,487 $25,197
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 5,327 4,796 10,122 ........ ........ ........ 10,122
Passenger Ships: 2
Number of transits ................. ... ............. 134 84 218 2 3 5 223
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 2,500 1,415 3,915 2 49 51 3,966
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $4,376 $2,589 $7,165 $3 $72 $75 $7,240
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ .......
Refrigerated Cargo Ships:
Number of transits ................. ................ 602 1,102 1,704 526 38 564 2,268 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 3,084 6,117 9,201 2,943 154 3,096 12,297 t
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $5,643 $11,194 $16,837 $4,297 $224 $4,521 $21,338
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 687 3,097 3,784 ........ .... .... ........ 3,784
Tank Ships:
Number of transits .......... ........... ........... 707 420 1,127 185 326 511 1,638 >
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 10,378 7,483 17,861 4,041 4,637 8,678 26,539
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $18,991 $13,695 $32,686 $5,900 $6,770 $12,670 $48,356 >
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 10,409 12,491 28,960 ........ ........ ........ 28,960






OTHER TYPE SHIPS: "V
Naval Vessels: >
Num ber of transit .................................. ........ ........ ........ 10 13 23 23 Z
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ........ ........ ........ 44 51 95 95 >
Tolls (thousands of dollars)........................... ........ ........ ........ $44 $52 $97 $97
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ >
Barges, Dredges, Drydocks, Tugs, etc.: n
Number of transits .... ...... .. ....... .... .......... 132 100 232 87 60 147 379
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 660 503 1,163 298 359 557 1,719 >
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ........ ........ ........ 8 4 12 12 r
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $1,205 $897 $2,102 $423 $382 $805 $2,907 0
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 507 274 781 ........ . ........ ........ 781 0
SUMMARY:
Total Cargo and Cargo/Passenger Ships:
Number of transits .............................. ... 4,928 4,939 9,867 1,270 695 1,965 11,832
Panama Cannal net tnnne (tho sands) ................ 77,964 76,183 156,148 24,820 8,819 33,639 189,786
Tolls (thousands of dollars).......................... $142,671 $143,077 $285,750 $36,238 $12,875 $49,113 $334,863
Cargo (thousands of long tons)................. ....... 90,471 65,231 155,702 ......... .... ........ 155,702 z
Total Other Type Ships:
Number of transits ........ .......................... 132 100 232 97 73 170 402
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 660 503 1,163 298 259 557 1,719
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ........ ........ ......... 52 55 107 107
Tolls (thousands of dollars) ........................... $1,205 $897 $2,102 $467 $434 $901 $3,003
Cargo (thousands of long tons) ........................ 507 274 781 ........ . ...... ........ 781
Grand Total Ships:
Number of transits ................. ............... 5,060 5,039 10,099 1,367 768 2,135 12,234
Panama Canal net tonnage (thousands) ................ 78,624 78,686 157,310 25,118 9,077 34,196 191,506
Displacement tonnage (thousands)..................... ..... ........ .. ........ 52 55 107 107
Tolls (thousands of dollars) .......................... $143,877 $143,974 $287,852 $36,705 $13,309 $50,015 $337,866
Cargo (thousands of long tons)........................ 90,974 65,504 156,483 ........ ........ ........ 156,483

1 Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels paying tolls on net tonnage basis, or of 500 displacement tons and over
for vessels paying on displacement tonnage.
2 Vessels certificated for more than 12 passengers.

Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning.









58 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel

Fiscal Year 1988
Laden Ballast
I Nm. I I Nu- I
ber Panama ber Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transits tonnage Tolls transits tonnage Tolls
Antigua-Barbuda................... 6 17,163 $31,408 4 9,908 $14,466
Argentina ......................... 4 35,809 65,530 1 6,383 9,319
Austria ........................... 1I 28,421 52,010 ....... ......... ...........
Bahamas .......................... 240 3,265,875 5,976,551 55 494,039 721,297
Barbados.......................... 6 15,232 27,875 ....... ......... ...........
Belgium ........................... 43 898,627 1,644,487 7 77,716 113,465
Berm uda .......................... 5 61,761 113,023 ....... ......... ...........
Brazil ............................. 41 587,890 1,075,839 I 13,097 19,122
Bulgaria .......................... 6 56,860 104,054 3 28,430 41,508
Burma ............................ 22 367,110 671,811 2 20,268 29,591
Canada ........................... 2 7,316 13,388 2 3,968 5,793
Cayman Islands.................... 9 91,328 167,130 2 2,246 3,279
Chile ............................. 59 647,327 1,184,608 14 77,553 113,227
Colombia ......................... 143 1,331,496 2,436,638 17 91,106 133,015
Costa Rica ........................ ..... ........... .............. 2 5,880 8,585
Cuba ............................. 115 730,961 1,337,659 33 106,388 155,326
Cyprus ............................ 556 6,475,252 11,849,711 85 748,676 1,093,067
Czechoslovakia .................... 1 11,716 21,440 ....... ......... ...........
Denmark .......................... 182 4,371,277 7,999,436 19 196,600 287,036
Dominican Republic................ I 8,454 15,471 I 8,454 12,343
East Germany ..................... 40 269,234 492,698 12 72,430 105,748
Ecuador .......................... 296 2,635,214 4,822,442 89 1,048,494 1,530,801
El Salvador........................ ..... ........ .............. 2 2,286 3,338
Faroes ............................ 2 2,132 3,902 ....... ......... ...........
Finland ........................... 2 18,395 33,663 1 11,556 16,872
France ............................ 52 1,066,500 1,951,695 2 29,046 42,407
Gibraltar .......................... ..... ......... .. ........... 1 361 527
Greece ............................ 572 8,950,773 16,379,915 113 1,816,172 2,651,611
Guatemala ........................ 7 24,528 44,886 2 7,008 10,232
Honduras ......................... 20 94,541 173,010 9 30,185 44,070
Hong Kong........................ 12 239,224 437,780 2 25,002 36,503
India ............................. 32 643,504 1,177,612 11 183,615 268,078
Israel ............................. 69 1,399,264 2,560,653 ....... .......... ......
Italy.............................. 79 1,028,231 1,881,663 5 32,502 47,453
Jamaica ..................... ...... 2 3,438 6,292 2 3,438 5,019
Japan............................. 628 11,098,139 20,309,594 234 7,005,079 10,227,415
Kuwait ........................... 27 325,950 596,488 ....... .......... ............
Lebanon .......................... 2 9,000 16,470 ....... .......... .... ....
Liberia............................ 1,077 21,055,294 38,504,924 203 4,603,436 6,701,336
Malaysia ..................... ..... 21 404,020 739,357 1 25,154 36,725
M aldive Island ..................... 1 9,711 17,771 .....
Malta............................. 32 599,841 1,097,709 22 499,827 729,747
Naunritius.......................... 1 17,324 31,703 ....... .........
Mexico ........................... 55 1,063,089 1,945,453 45 914,973 1,335,861
Morocco.......................... 6 27,438 50,212 6 27,438 40,059
Netherland-Antilles................. 2 5,590 10,230 ....... ......... ...........
Netherlands ....................... 200 2,272,760 4,159,151 41 275,560 402,318
New Zealand ...................... ..... ........ .............. 3 3,527 5,149
Nicaragua ......................... 3 5,282 9,666 ....... ........ ...........
Nigeria ........................... 4 19,496 35,678 ....... ......... ...........
Norway........................... 133 2,501,928 4,578,528 22 301,700 440,482
Panama........................... 2,049 34,370,079 62,897,244 450 8,147,059 11,894,706
People's Republic of China .......... 153 2,987,379 5,466,904 10 235,441 343,744
Peru.............................. 112 1,171,396 2,143,655 19 289,761 423,051
Philippines ........................ 322 6,036,299 11,046,427 37 645,467 942,382
Poland............................ 83 748,788 1,370,282 4 13,168 19,225
Portugal .......................... 4 99,446 181,986 ...... ......... ...........
Q atar ............................. 5 60,935 111,511 ....... ......... ...........
Samoa............................ 3 27,597 50,503 ......
Saudi Arabia ...................... 2 13,025 23,836 2 13,025 19,016
Seychelles ......................... 2 2,820 5,161 ....... ......... ...........
Sierra Leone....................... I 532 974 ....... ......... ...........
Singapore ......................... 220 4,637,735 8,487,055 46 1,029,279 1,502,747
Somali Republic ................... 3 27,945 51,139 ....... ......... ...........
South Korea ....................... 171 3,724,474 6,815,788 20 676,049 987,032
Spain............................. 44 251,769 460,737 6 28,690 41,887
Sr Lanka ......................... 33 445,904 816,004 8 76,876 112,239
St Vincent & Granadines............ 15 200,517 366,946 1 4,274 6,240
Sweden ........................ ... 49 1,927,952 3,528,152 2 71,960 105,062
Switzerland ........................ 8 199,490 365,067 I 31,177 45,518
Syria .............. ................ I 3,500 6,405 1 3,500 5,110
Taiwan ............................ 168 4,556,058 8,337,586 5 55,371 80,842
Thailand .......................... I 11,761 21,523 ....... .....
Toga ............................. 6 41,878 76,637 I 7,483 10,925
Turkey............................ 15 215,233 393,876 6 71,272 104,057
Tuvaluan.......................... ..... ......... ... ........... I 703 1,026
United Arab Emirates............... I 12,263 22,441 ....... .......... ............







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 59


Table 5.-Laden and Ballast Traffic by Flag of Vessel
Fiscal Year 1988-Continued
Laden Ballast
I Num- uI I nm- I
her Panama her Panama
of Canal net of Canal net
Flag transit tonnage Tolls transit tonnage Tolls

United Kingdom ................... 402 7.595,639 13,900,019 56 644.604 941,122
United States ...................... 448 4.469,693 8,179,538 188 2,194,452 3.203,900
U.S.S.R .......................... 488 3,769.982 6,899,067 130 971,755 1,418,762
Vanuatu .......................... 56 317,284 580.630 5 4,644 6.780
Venezuela ......................... 88 429,638 786,238 23 56,257 82,135
West Germany ..................... 224 2,784,868 5,096,308 7 36,136 52.759
Yugoslavia ........................ 103 1,368,773 2,504.855 5 77,612 113,314
Total . . . . . . .... ... 10,099 157,310,367 $287,851,708 2,110 34,195,516 $49,905,773

Above table involves only commercial vessels of 300 net tons or over, Panama Canal measurement.
Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning.








Table 6.-Segregation of Transits' by Registered Gross Tonnage-Fiscal Year 1988


Antigua-Barbuda ....................
Argentina .......... ................
Austria ............................
Baham as...........................
Barbados ..........................
Belgium ...........................
Bermuda...........................
Brazil .............................
Bulgaria ...........................
Burm a.............................
Canada ............................
Cayman Islands .....................
Chile ..............................
Colombia ..........................
Costa Rica .........................
Cuba ..............................
Cyprus ............................
Czechoslovakia......................
Denmark ..........................
Dominican Republic .................
East Germany .......................
Ecuador ...........................
El Salvador.........................
Faroes.............................
Finland ............................
France ............................
G ibraltar...........................
G reece.............................
Guatemala .........................
Honduras ..........................
Hong Kong.........................
India ..............................
Israel ..............................
Italy ..............................
Jam aica ...........................
Japan .............................
Kuwait ............................
Lebanon ...........................
Liberia ............................
M alaysia...........................
Maldive Island ......................
M alta .............................


2,000 4.000 6.000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20.000 30.000 40,000
Under to to to to to to to to to
2.000 3,999 5,999 7.999' 9,999 14.999 19,999 29.999 39.999 over
3 3 2 2 ....... . .... ....... ....... ....... .......
..... . ...... ....... ....... 4 I ....... ....... ....... .......
.. .. ..... ... ...... .... 4 ..... ...... ....... .......
15 26 7 11 44 48 40 99 5 .......
....... 5 1 ...... 15 ....... ....... ....... 23 12 .......
....... ...... ...... 15 ......... .. .... ... .......23 12 .......
2 ................ 6 2 23 2...... 1
6 2 23 I 2 I 7
.... .. .. ....... ....... ....... 9 ..... ....... .... . .......
....... ...... ....... ....... 3 8 7 ....... 6 .......
S 3 ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
5 ...... 4 ...... ...... ....... ..... 2 ....... .......
8 2 ....... ....... 18 43 .... I I .......
33 21 14 ....... I 87 4 ....... ....... .......
I I ....... ....... ....... ....... ......
2 74 ....... 4 38 26 4 .
63 12 18 105 86 123 132 55 45 2
.... ... ... .. ........ ..... .. ..... ....... ... ... ... ..... .... ..
30 6 ....... ....... ....... 21 9 34 ....... 101
....... ...... ....... ....... 2 ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
....... ...... 17 14 20 ....... 2 ....... ....... .......
6 15 26 151 53 21 64 49 ....... .......
2 ...... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
2 ...... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
....... .... ......... .... I 2 ....... ....... ....... .......
3 4 ....... 1 ....... 16 15 14 I .......
1 ... .. ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
38 1 15 6 76 217 104 84 143 1
....... .. .. 9 ....... .... . ...... ....... ....... ...... .......
9 2 ....... 5 13 ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
....... .. .... ....... ....... ....... 3 2 6 3 .......
....... ...... 5 ....... 2 2 13 9 5 7
....... ...... ....... ....... ....... .. ..... .. .... 69 ....... .......
....... ...... 9 ....... 16 16 17 24 2 .......
4 ...... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... . .
165 25 67 134 46 34 126 160 67 38
....... ...... ....... ....... ....... ....... 27 ....... ....... .......
....... ...... 2 ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
6 13 3 69 105 242 311 252 218 61
....... ... ....... ....... 2 1 7 4 8 .......
....... ...... ....... ....... ....... I ....... ....... ...... ......
....... 3 3 3 2 3 8 ....... 32 .......


Registered
gross
tonnage
34,376
51,073
31,701
4,445,618
21,426
1,126,210
77,195
720,576
105,750
468,238
6,872
71,852
795,107
1,330,437
3,911
972,990
8,341,176
13,569
5,674,786
19,260
397,329
4,231,334
2,292
2,262
37,159
892,441
542
12,325,445
37,161
151,567
312,121
1,006,490
1,839,393
1,326,436
7,720
12,188,314
419,986
10,140
26,038,112
496,673
11,720
1,452,968


A average
gross
tonnage
per
vessel
3,438
10,215
31,701
15,070
3,571
22,524
15,439
17,157
11,750
19,510
1,718
6,532
10,988
8,315
1,956
6,574
13,013
13,569
28,233
9,630
7,641
10,990
1,146
1,131
12,386
16,527
542
17,993
4,129
5,226
22,294
23,407
26,658
15,791
1,930
14,140
15,555
5,070
20,342
22,576
11,720
26,907






M auritius ..........................
M exico ............................
M orocco ...........................
Nctherland-Antilles ..................
Netherlands ........................
New Zealand ............... .........
N icaragua ..........................
N igeria ............................
Norway............................
Panam a ...........................
People's Republic of China ............
Peru ..............................
Philippines .........................
Poland ............................
Portugal ...........................
Q atar .............................
Sam oa ............................
Saudi Arabia .......................
Seychelles ..........................
Sierra Leone ........................
Singapore ..........................
Somali Republic.....................
South Korea ........................
Spain .............................
Sri Lanka ..........................
St. Vincent & Granadines .............
Sweden ............................
Switzerland.........................
Syria ..............................
Taiwan ............................
Thailand ...........................
Toga ..............................
Turkey ............................
Tuvaluan ..........................
United Arab Emirates ................
United Kingdom .....................
United States .......................
U .S.S.R ............................
Vanuatu ...........................
Venezuela ..........................
West Germany ......................
Yugoslavia .........................
Total ......................... .
Percent of Total.................


4


10
3
2

1
126

8





2
I


12
12





13




16
266
15
40
63


999
8.2


...... ....... ....... ....... ...... ....... 1 ....... .......
4 9 1 ....... 8 10 8 54 .......
6 ....... 6 ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

41 31 15 32 62 5 36 9 .......
. . ... ....... .. ..... ....... ....... .... ... ....... ....... .......
...... ........ ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
.... 4 ....... ....... ....... ...... ....... ....... .......
8 13 24 10 44 34 21 .......
218 207 146 199 455 265 398 287 198
...... ....... ....... 1 10 32 91 29 .......
33 1I ....... 8 31 35 ....... 11 .......
12 17 8 20 47 75 86 86 .......
7 7 10 31 19 1 ....... 7 .......
...... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... 2 1 1
...... ....... ....... ....... ....... 5 ....... ....... .......
. ... ....... ....... ....... 3 ....... ....... ....... .......
...... ....... 4 ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

...... 2 ....... 33 79 14 75 50 12

. .. .. ... .. ... .... .... ... 3 ....... ..... ... .......
3 ....... ....... ....... 16 33 68 40 19
10 17 2 5 ....... ....... 4 ....... .......
...... ....... ....... 19 8 ....... 14 .. ... .......
...... 3 1 ....... ....... 6 5 ....... .......
...... ....... ....... ....... 1 22 7 II 10
...... ....... ....... ....... ....... 1 2 6 .......
.... 2 ....... ....... ....... ....... .... .. .......
2 1 2 ....... 1 ....... 60 60 35
...... ....... ....... ....... I ....... ....... ....... .......
6 ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

...... 2 6 .. 4 4 I 3 I
...... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

6 20 38 12 58 69 124 80 35
12 7 21 12 161 63 45 22 17
42 84 136 108 154 62 13 4 .......
...... 2 4 2 7 ....... 6 ....... .......
7 ....... 8 7 19 7 ....... ....... .......
37 7 1 35 25 88 23 13 .......
..... I 1 23 39 31 3 9 1
658 651 952 1,105 2,171 1,766 1,993 1,354 546
5.4 5.3 7.8 9.1 17.8 14.5 16.3 11.1 4.5


I Includes only commercial vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measurement.
2 Excludes 25 vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage basis and 14 transit where no registered tonnage was reported.

Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning.


1 20,159
98 2,377,263
12 58,872
2 7,012
261 2,693,972
3 2,907
3 6,713
4 22,284
155 2,832,575
2,499 43,067,441
163 3,906,749
129 1,613,401
359 7,428,223
87 885,668
4 129,066
5 75,463
3 31,650
4 24,322
2 3,628
1 284
266 5,648,124
3 31,629
191 4,783,952
50 275,960
41 645,647
16 239,536
51 1,425,139
9 280,774
2 8,450
173 5,511,318
1 14,479
7 36,717
21 349,127
1 1,043
1 15,122
458 9,937,011
626 6,216,562
618 5,572,050
61 308,.891
III 534,219
231 3,302,995
108 1,777,623
12,195 199,603,748
100.0


20,159
24,258
4,906
3,506
11,178
969
2,238
5,571
18,275
17,234
23,968
12,507
20,691
10,180
32,266
15,093
10,550
6,080
1,410
284
21,234
10,543
25,047
5,519
15,747
14,971
27,944
31,197
4,225
31,857
14,479
5.245
16,625
1,043
15,122
21,697
9,915
9,016
5,064
4.813
14,299
16,459
16,368






Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years
South North
Atlantic to Pacific [Thousands of long tons) Pacific to Atlantic
1986 1987 1988 Commodity 1988 1987 1986 I
589 697 846 Canned and Refrigerated Foods ............... .......................... 4,021 3,513 3,241
112 87 88 Canned Foods ........................................................ ........... 122 89 126
3 2 2 Fish .......................................................................... 22 20 28
24 5 4 F ruit ......................................................................... 18 18 3 1
72 72 72 M ilk ......................................................................... 64 43 50
13 7 11 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 18 8 18
477 610 757 Refrig rated Foods ................................................................. 3,899 3,424 3,114
9 17 16 Bananas ...................................................................... 1,163 965 1,001
S1 8 8 D airy Products ................................................................ 28 30 38
141 131 179 Fish .......................................................................... 774 795 691
69 123 158 Fruit, excluding bananas ........................................................ 1,015 827 667
S1 13 23 M eat ......................................................................... 112 62 35
236 317 372 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 807 745 682
3,723 4,862 5,522 Chemicals and Petroleum Chemicals ........................... ........................ 1,292 980 922
786 893 976 Caustic Soda ..................................................................... 5 4 ......
2,236 3,115 2,941 Chem icals, unclassified .............................................................. 1,167 897 855
700 854 1,606 Petroleum Chemicals, miscellaneous ................................................. 120 78 68
7,534 5,902 5,390 Coal and Coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............................................. 3,186 2,020 2,672
20,417 29,936 32,756 Grains ............................... ................................................ 3 109 2,432 2,521
115 127 124 Barley ............................................................................ 203 592 579
8,622 15,883 16,165 Corn ..............................................................................2 ...... 23
32 8 6 O ats .............................................................................. 1 38 1 n
28 76 98 R ice .............................................................................. 365 344 345 "I
2,253 2,624 2,163 Sorghum ......................................................................... .... ....... 25 >
6,830 7,758 6,871 Soybeans ......................................................................... 42 31 8 t
2,378 3,166 6,997 W heat ............................................................................ 2,445 1,356 1,464 .
160 294 332 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 52 71 75
763 928 1,671 Lumber and Products .................... ........................................ ..... 7,863 7,78 6156 >
9 24 61 Boards and planks ................................................................. 4,703 4,128 3,406
28 30 27 Plywood, veneers, composition board ................................................ 847 1,023 787
715 853 1,129 Pulpwood ......................................................................... 1,850 1,795 1,649 >
11 20 453 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 463 835 314
555 540 531 Machinery and Equipment .............................................................. 2,125 2,387 2,352






43 47 46 Agricultural machinery and implements .......................................... .... 28 18 17 -0
342 342 322 Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ....................... ..... ............... 1,899 2,120 2,083 >
99 66 73 Construction machinery and equipment .............................................. 139 156 147 Z
28 24 47 Electrical machinery and apparatus ................................................... 17 24 23 >
3 2 1 M motorcycles, bicycles and parts ...................................................... 7 6 8
40 59 42 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 35 63 74 >
2,538 3346 2,736 Manufactures of Iron and Steel .......................................................... 4,107 3,626 4,162
240 203 137 Angles, shapes, and sections ......................................................... 296 301 226 z
12 3 8 Nails, tacks, and spikes ............................................................. 99 50 60 >
1,162 2,005 1,379 Plates, sheets, and coils ............................................................. 1,406 1,495 1,706 t"
148 91 144 Tubes, pipes, and fittings ... ...................................................... 461 248 713 0
570 643 677 W ire, bars, and rods ................................................................ 245 291 368 0
406 401 392 Other and unclassified .............................................................. 1,600 1,241 1,089
235 261 144 M minerals, miscellaneous ................................................................. 4,977 4,851 4,590
22 16 17 A asbestos .......................................................................... 4 3 5 CA
1 3 1 Borax ............................................................................ 431 379 400 (
3 ...... I Infusorial earth .................................................................... I 22 1 0
101 118 41 Salt .............................................................................. 800 1,110 748 2
84 115 75 Soda and sodium compounds ........................................................ 158 112 70
24 8 9 Sulfur ............................................................................ 3,583 3,226 3,365
7,572 9,888 10,289 Nitrates, Phosphates, and Potash ......... .................. ....... ....................... 1,848 2,114 2,376
695 781 521 Ammonium compounds.. ........................................................ 23 16 11
I 2 11 Fishm eal .......................................................................... 1,080 1,296 1,408
22 27 52 Nitrate of soda... ............................................................. 328 265 245
4,925 6,269 6,725 Phosphates ........................................................................ 233 242 338
213 347 280 Potash ........................... .................................. .............. 20 81 140
1,716 2,462 2,700 Fertilizers, unclassified .............................................................. 163 213 234
4,367 3,569 3,462 Ores and M etals ...................................................................... 6,872 5,412 5,420
600 717 736 Ores ...................................................................... 5,735 4195 4065
101 114 178 Alumina/bauxite.......... ............................................... 1,382 732 884
7 7 7 Chrom e ..... ............................................ ...................... 25 22 31
40 35 39 Copper ........................ ........ ... ........................... ...... 857 725 661
56 61 133 Iron ......................... ......................................... ....... 764 526 184
5 ...... 2 Lead ......................................................................... 209 189 148
46 35 71 Manganese ................................ ................................ 195 190 192
..... ... .. ..... .Tin ... ....................................................................... 9 15 30
68 104 42 Zinc .............................. ....................................... 659 1,657 566
278 361 264 Other and unclassified . .................................................... 1,634 1,139 1,369







Table 7.-Principal Commodities Shipped Through Canal by Fiscal Years-Continued
South North
Atlantc to Pacific [Thousands of long tons] Pacific to Atlantic
S1985 1986 1987 Commodity 1987 1986 1985 1
3,768 2,852 2,726 Metals ............. ... ................................................ 1,137 1,216 1,357
212 365 415 Aluminum .................................... .............. ............. 38 51 91
10 15 14 C opper ....................................................................... 773 827 911
217 30 105 Iron .......................................................................... 4 25 42
5 3 7 Lead ......................................................................... 61 50 81
3,225 2,390 2,121 Scrap ......................................................................... 10 23 1
21 14 13 Tin, including tinplate .......................................................... 10 I I 19
46 14 15 Zinc .......................................................................... 168 150 173
31 19 36 Other and unclassified .......................................................... 72 79 40
1,395 1,514 2,422 Other Agricultural Commodities .......................................................... 2,998 3,346 3,346
4 30 45 Beans, edible ...................................................................... 84 49 90
2 2 32 Cocoa and cacao beans ............................................................. 46 42 56
10 13 19 Coffee, raw and processed ........................................................... 292 355 381
2 ...... Copra and coconuts ................................................................ 6 8 9
18 9 25 Cotton, raw ....................................................................... 87 77 121
4 7 11 M classes .......................................................................... 578 656 582
51 49 72 O ilseeds .......................................................................... I 1 238 61
2 ...... I Peas, dry .......................................................................... 89 44 24
3 3 4 Rubber, raw ....................................................................... 116 48 70
2 1 ...... Skins and hides .................................................................... 1 ...... 1
1,299 1,399 2,213 Sugar ............................................................................ 1,581 1,825 1,941
1 1 1 W ool, raw ........................................................................ 9 3 10 E/
11931 13,093 11,851 Petroleum and Products ................................................................ 12,740 12,840 18,918
46 139 52 A asphalt ........................................................................... ...... 2 8 -
2,933 3,393 2,820 Crude oil ......................................................................... 5,967 5,566 10,003
1,119 1,171 1,416 D iesel oil ......................................................................... 467 199 995 H
2,088 1,784 1,557 Fuel oil, residual ................................................................... 3,371 4,118 4,332 F
2,206 2,428 2,009 Gasoline .......................................................................... 252 257 574 >
565 1,001 1,007 Jet fuel ........................................................................... 39 32 51 t
86 98 59 K erosene .......................................................................... ...... 6 14
1,072 1,123 1,092 Liquified gas ...................................................................... 14 151 71
468 597 656 Lubricating oil..................................................................... 221 253 275 P0
1,203 1,147 1,098 Petroleum coke .................................................................... 2,338 2,103 2,445 M
Cn







145 213 85 Other and unclassified ............................ ................. ............... 71 153 150
11,056 12,470 358 Miscellaneous ........... .. .................................................... 10,367 10,381 10,591
29 15 17 Bricks and tile ..................................................................... 4 7 7 >
22 6 39 Carbon black ..... ................................................................. 1 84 1
193 249 150 Cement ........................................................................... I 3 23
357 440 472 Clay, fire and china... ........................................................... 25 27 15 n
4 II 8 Fibers, plant ....................................................................... 5 7 25 >
149 191 185 Flour, w heat ..... ................................................................. 36 I I
28 18 17 Glass and glassware ................................................................ 6 5 6
23 37 30 Groceries, miscellaneous ............................................................ 53 46 44
25 12 9 Liquors and wines .. ............................................................. 9 27 25
27 21 63 M arble and stone ..... ............................................................. 10 2 I
4 5 4 Oil, coconut ... ................................................................ 50 38 52 z
2 Oil, fish ........................................................................... 140 125 208
197 167 155 Oil, vegetable .. ................................................................ 125 114 164 C
765 984 911 Paper and paper products ........................................................... 458 409 421
3 2 2 Porcelainw are .... ................................................................. 8 3 I
203 166 105 Resin ............................................................................. 3 2 9
20 16 16 Rubber, manufactured ... .......................................................... 13 14 15
1 ...... 1 Seeds, excluding oilseeds ... ........................................................ 21 33 62
31 15 11 Slag, clinkers, and dross..................................................... 11 ...... 7
93 77 80 Tallow ............................................................................ 21 23 42
28 24 15 Textiles ........................................................................... 22 38 33
1 3 1 Tobacco and manufactures .......................................................... 1 2 2
5 7 7 W ax, paraffin .... ................................................................. 75 7 5
8,849 10,004 11,058 All other and unclassified ........................................................... 9,267 9,364 9,421
72,675 87006 90,978 Total ................................................................... 65,504 61,684 270

Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning.








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1988

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]


To W C.
To West Coast United States Canada
_ F --1 F


To West Coast Central America


Main-
Alaska Hawaii land


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports..................... 44 .....
South Atlantic ports..................... ...... .....
Great Lakes ports ...................... ...... .....
Gulf ports ............................ ...... 6,012
United States (other ) ................... ...... ..I. .
Total United States.................... 44 6,012


EAST COAST CANADA:

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Mexico .................................
Panama .................................
Central America (other)' ................. ..
Cristobal, R.P.2 ...........................
Total Central America .....................

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ...................................
Colombia ................................
Venezuela ................................
South America (other)' ......................
Total South America ......................


..... 19,139

..... 19,139


61,227
607

942,957
6,461
1,011,252


Costa El Sal- Guate-
Total Canada Rica vador mala Mexico


61,271
607

948,969
6,461
1,017,308


. . . . .. 17,378 17,378


53,145


382
53,527


776,794
138
371,136
77,105
1,225,173


WEST INDIES:
Cuba ................................... ..... ...... .....
Jam aica ................................. ..... ..... 2,535
Netherlands West Indies ....................... ..... ..... 27,517
Trinidad/Tobago .......................... ..... ..... 1,010
W est Indies (other)' ........................ ..... ..... 110,784
Total West Indies .... .. ..... ..... ... ... .... 141,846


53,145


382
53,527


776,794
138
390,275
77,105
1,244,312



2,535
27.517
1,010
110,784
141,846


24 11,466
...... 1,976

199,931 361,348

199,955 374,790


92,637 20,667
2,756 .....
1,847 .....
356,857 117,002
15,692 .....
469,789 137,669


42,622
423
27,069
941,480
1,929
1,013,523


Central I
Nica- Pan- America Balboa.
ragua ama (other)] R. P. Total


...... ..... 5,514 6,814 179,720
...... 23,787 ..... 10,163 39,105
...... .. ... .... ... 28,916
...... 23,951 6,030 256,352 2,063,020
995 ..... .... 40,045 58,661
995 47,738 11,544 313,374 2,369,422


12 807 101 ..... . .... 6,300 2,731 7,175 . .. 17,114


...... 343


...... 25
...... 368


49,476 616

13,296 53,464
24,461 .....
87,233 54,080


...... 12,659
89,532 .... .

28,133 33,041
13 .....
117,678 45,700


353,591 217,473
5,746 .....

77 .....
359,414 217,473


2,036 .....
430 51,614
346,554 382,787
1,831 .....
350,851 434,401



4,542 .....
3,252 902

10,668 .. .
18,462 902


1,771,351



1,771,351


53,120
146,520


199,640






2,825
2,825


2,250 .....
2,107 .....
...... 2,761
539 .. .
4,896 2,761


.... 477
..... 176,339
. .... . .
6,754 .....
6,754 176,816


...... ..... 207 1,968
663 809 165 1,604
36,560 2,455 113,386 8,423
9,842 962 114 .....
47,065 4,226 113,872 11,995


91,153 ..... 19,229 18
...... 2,837 ..... 3,519
3,231 ..... 17,654 24,437
27,096 12,711 ..... .....
31,237 481 ..... 1,717
152,717 16,029 36,883 29,691


2,345,485
184,192
2,761
7,395
2,539,833


57,947
201,805
943,629
12,749
1,216,130


123,059
10,898
49,476
72,848
46,928
303,209







EUROPE:
Belgium .................................
France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Italy ....... ................... ........
Netherlands ..............................
Norway .................................
Spain-Portugal ............................
Sweden..................................
United Kingdom ...........................
U.S.S R ..................................
W est Germany ............................
Europe (other)' ...........................
Total Europe ............................

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST):

AFRICA:


22

15,895
15.917


1.316
233

1,549


326,024
436,657
298,439
634,526
142,362
195,575
134,847
90,216
24,971
392,037
771,537
3,447,191


326.024
436,657
298,439
634,526
142,362
195,575
134,847
90,216
26,309
392,270
787,432
3,464,657


32,309
33,346
22,083
54,778
3,040
169,955
3,294
37,270
16
53,257
173,623
582,971


11,792
9

7.677



2

1,938
4,703
26,121


48,137 24,538
2,960 . . .
1,903 5
16,781 21,652
14,812 9.994
2,300 20
413 . . .
1,936 . . .
2.669 . . .
7,131 101
20,878 88,135
119,920 144,445


1.578
10,416
830
3,310

45
757
52,438
9
20,679
36
90,098


22,613 . . 24,122 ..... 132,780
4,361 . . 20 7,907 25.673
30,922 ..... 650 1,289 35,599
3,258 . . 2,810 7,494 62,982
24,316 ..... ..... .... . 49,122
3,127 ..... 1,693 ..... 7,185
5,705 ..... ..... ..... 6,875
1,594 ..... 344 ..... 56,314
763,335 ..... 10,195 ..... 776.208
4,802 2,498 6,590 ..... 43.739
132,900 12,023 48,558 ..... 307,233
996,933 14,521 94,982 16,690 1,503,710


..... ..... 168,627 168,627 ...... 34 ...... 923 47,500 11,196 ..... ..... ..... 59,653


..... . ... 50,823 50,823 788,719 .....


689 .... 191,110 18,203 . . 2,356 . .. 212,358


GRAND TOTAL ........................ 54,961 26,700 6,115.817 6.158,478 1,776,568 501,900 1,319.226 935,813 3,316,047 1,238,305 88,006 273,566 548,566 8.221,429


Percent of Pacific-bound cargo .................... 0.0 00


6.7 6.8 2.0 0.6 1.5 1.0 3.6 1.4 0.1 0.3 0.6








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1988 a

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports .........................................
South Atlantic ports .........................................
Great Lakes ports ...........................................
G ulf ports .................................................
United States (other )' ........................................
Total United States ........................................

EAST COAST CANADA:

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ......................................................
Panama ......................................................
Central America (other)'..........................................
Cristobal, R.P.2...............................................
Total Central America ..........................................

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil ........................................................
Colom bia .....................................................
Venezuela ....................................................
South America (other)' ...........................................
Total South America............................ ..............

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ........................................................
Jam aica ......................................................
Netherlands W est Indies ..........................................
Trinidad/Tobago ...............................................
W est Indies (other)' .............................................
Total W est Indies .............................................


Chile Colombia Ecuador


133,824
33,365
5,366
1,018,978
85,902
1,277,435


20,060
54,930

620,887
22,788
718,665


29,251
127,620
950
852,600
55,245
1,065,666


South
America
Peru (other) I Total


50,799 6,900
128,486 16,384
19,159 .....
1,658,245 82,483
35,203 19,648
1,891,892 125,415


240,834
360,785
25,475
4,233,193
218,786
5,079,073


127,553 677 38,205 60,561
81,875 584 88,612 45,237

1,345,312 . .. 161,885 116,893
52,077 174 65,331 46,073
1,606,817 1,435 354,033 268,764


3,949 37,237 13,197 31,289 5,825 91,497 82,541 36 35,807 46,115 164,499


12,812
8,383
419
6,816
28,430


413
34,682
1,089,449
3.862
1,128,406



4,022
178,185
28,696
342
211,245


44,224
38
1,204

45,466


33,899
299,44 I
55,130

388,470




32,690
52,577
17,402
102,669


120,049
7,425
3,834
3,578
134,886


93,582
2,397
72,448
3,746
172,173




3,996
4,664

8,660


33,260 3,651
1,838 3,409

289 .....
35,387 7,060


51,430 .....
163,335 9,212
131,564 50,141
10,751 1,634
357,080 60,987


...... 10,183

3,503 116,627

14,091 99
17,594 126,909


213,996
21,093
5,457
10,683
251,229


179,324
509,067
1,398,732
19,993
2,107,116


10,183
4,022
335,001
85,937
31,934
467,077


2,938 .....



2,938 .....


9,926 . . .



9,926 . . .


16 ..... ..... .....

5 ..... ..... ......
2,770 6 ... ......
2,791 6 ..... .....


102 .....

87 .....
127 .. ...
316 .....


123
60
1,444
903
2,530


To West Coast South America


To Oceania


Aus- French New Oceania
tralia Oceania Zealand (other)' Total


226,996
216,308

1,624,090
163,655
2,231,049


12,864



12,864


16

5
2,776
2,797



235
32,284
3,715
1,077
37,311








EUROPE: "
Belgium .... .................................................. 155,320 12,064 47,916 241,085 22,020 478,405 6,819 30,359 46,080 22,995 106,253
France....................................................... 6,763 732 6,727 58,640 1,460 74.322 8,797 169,709 12,723 32,239 223,468 Z
Italy ......................................................... 17,004 32,631 17,558 10.379 7,568 85,140 538 8,770 3,096 939 13,343 >
Netherlands ..................................... ............. 20,195 32,777 7,725 40,721 3,072 104,490 54,748 22,733 23,638 45.132 146,251
Norway ...................................................... 540 ...... .... ... ..... 540 7,431 ..... ..... ..... 7,431 >
Spain-Portugal................................................. 38,140 5,643 51,864 19,890 21,329 136,866 4 1,778 1,165 232 3,179 ()
Sweden ........................................................ 27,274 8,772 2,582 21,881 1,298 61,807 20,670 .... 2,301 36.029 59,000 >
United Kingdom ............................................... 38,704 11,161 14,026 18,077 858 82,826 43,208 4,234 39.291 45,081 131,814 z
U.S.S.R. ...................................................... ....... 36,152 10,375 396 105,126 152,049 ...... ..... .... .... ......
West Germany ................................................. 104,403 7,574 36,938 49,919 7,266 206,100 26,687 15,924 14,968 57,055 114,634 (-
Europe (other)' ............................................... 110,948 7,277 181,865 98,949 48,310 447,349 45,321 39,376 16,694 120,629 222,020 C)
Total Europe .......... .. ................... .............. 519,291 154,783 377,576 559,937 218,307 1,829,894 214,223 292,883 159,956 360,331 1,027,393 O

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST): 2,718 80,376 25,149 1.,946 ..... 110.189 ...... .... . . ... ......

AFRICA: 3.573 15,389 29,072 10,260 1,241 59,535 9,528 . .. 91,724 .... 101,252

GRAND TOTAL .............. ............................ 3,175,047 1.543,055 1,826,379 2,905,385 545,744 9,995,610 1,919,154 294,360 685,911 677.740 3.577,165

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo ........................................ 3.5 1 7 2.0 3.2 0.6 11.0 2.1 0.3 08 0.7 3.9








Table 8.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Atlantic to Pacific During Fiscal Year 1988

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
North Atlantic ports ...................
South Atlantic ports ...................
Great Lakes ports .....................
Gulf ports ..........................
United States (other)'..................
Total United States ..................

EAST COAST CANADA:

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
M exico ................................
Panam a ...............................
Central America (other)' ...................
Cristobal, R.P2..........................
Total Central America ...................

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Brazil .................................
Colom bia ..............................
Venezuela ..............................
South America (other)l ....................
Total South America ....................

WEST INDIES:
Cuba ..................................
Jam aica ...............................
Netherlands West Indies ...................
Trinidad/Tobago ........................
West Indies (other)' .......................
Total West Indies .......................


Hong Indo-
China Taiwan Kong nesia


117,614
426,427
2,754
7,291,575
289,075
8.127,445


To Asia

Philip-
pine Singa- South
Japan Islands pore Korea


1,022,111 229,400 768 2,476,171 33,582 145,301
538,018 280,332 22,372 1,292,203 18,566 95,662
3,793 . .. .... 22,596 . . .... .
5,697,178 126,091 143,201 22,876,789 343,716 207,088
438,438 173,592 ..... 738,969 25,402 68,259
7,699,538 809,415 166,341 27,406,728 421,266 516,310


Thai- Asia
land U.S.S.R. (other)'


1,734,497 ..... .....
308,837 53 . . .
77,881 32,987 . . .
4,618,875 58,289 87,994
296.092 2,784 .....
7,036,182 94,113 87,994


Percent
S of total
Pacific-
Grand bound
Total total cargo


455,554 6,214,998 6,923,843 7.6
348,477 3,330,947 3,947,752 4.3
. . ... 140,011 194,402 0.2
1,352,144 42,802,940 51,872,143 57.0
306,223 2,338,834 2,786,397 3.1
2,462,398 54,827,730 65,724,537 72.2


382,476 61,957 27,168 .. ... 439,899 7,428 4,344 291,904 51,919 .. ... 196,229 1,463,324 1,753,824 1.9


103,497



103,497


27,072
7.146
37,925
71
72,214


1,307,693


64,541
563
1,372,797


47,580 11,332 81

111 3,771 . . .
1,459 9 .....
49,150 15,112 81


4,404 11,428 .....

18,840 3,755 .
3,386 2,147 .
26,630 17,330 .....



30,471 23,167 .....
3,740 5,021 .....
74,270 6 . . .
12,392 1,153 5,122
120,873 29,347 5,122


111,442 22 16,273

4,644 . . ..... .
2,956 ..... 5
119,042 22 16,278


403,582 ..... 1,868
279,603 ..... .....
292,758 ..... .....
48,918 ..... 347
1,024,861 ..... 2,215


328,861
33,543
15,994
113,387
77,582
569,367


46 3,491
..... 1,957
. . . . . .
51,263 20
51,309 5,468


11,246 35,625 38,906
14,668 ..... .....
201 7 .....
26,115 35,632 38,906


5,403

5,038
3,347
13,788


.... 11,417

15,456 .....
15,456 . 11,4. 17
15,456 11,417


... ... .. ... 123,798
21,001 ..... .....
5,508 ..... .....
3,154 . . .... .
16,097 ..... 126
45,760 . .. 123,924


38,566

3,912
493
42,971


22,054
833
53,731
9,080
85,698


95,490
54,584
8,778
17,482
12,660
188,994


414,570 3,040,060 3.3
...... 205,285 0.2
27,106 35,324 0.0
5,130 23,590 0.0
446,806 3,304,259 3.6


487,228
287,582
427,503
67,296
1,269,609


1,855,842 1,989,084 2.2
166,303 273,525 0.3
40,998 485,276 0.5
272,840 464,483 0.5
176,978 367,714 0.4
2,512,961 3,580,082 3.9


1,550,785 1.7
998,592 1.1
3,173,440 3.5
204,380 0.2
5,927,197 6.5







EUROPE: "
Belgium ............................... 940 4,676 . .. ... 5,557 270 717 62 . .. .. .. . 3.013 15,235 1,091.006 1.2 2
France ................................ 670 135 29 52 3,917 . .. .. .. ... 177 . .. ..... 3,105 8.085 801,551 0.9 Z
Italy .................................. 1,309 1,764 774 . . 2,456 . .. ....... 100 . . ...... 2,680 9,083 463.687 0.5 >
Netherlands ......... 2,752 70,292 2,012 3,864 64,994 646 1,431 24,773 2,432 .. .. 48,266 221,462 1.224.489 1. 3
Norway .................... ........... .. ..... ........ 12,674 ... .. ... ... ... . .. . . . 9,179 21,853 224,348 0.2
Spain-Portugal .......................... 6.652 1,469 863 . .. 25,866 . ... .... ... 11.143 . .. .. ...... 24,560 70,553 583.313 0.6 (-)
Sweden ................................ 4 ..... .. .. .. 16,154 ..... 24 ...... ..... ..... 10,108 26,290 292,113 0.3 >
United Kingdom ......................... ...... 2,749 1,.447 5,400 47,908 1,481 495 2.091 . . . . . 10,345 71,916 470,356 0.5 z
U.S.S R ................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . 557 . . . 577 955,159 0 >
West Germany .......................... ...... 328 23 ..... 44,424 . . 522 5,947 . .. . ... 1.705 52,949 862,949 0 9
Europe (other)' .......................... 12,742 7.664 3,141 55 58,618 ... .. 6.689 11,979 ..... ..... 49.205 150,093 2,087,750 2.3
Total Europe .......................... 25,069 89,077 8,289 9,371 282,568 2,397 9,898 56,272 2.432 557 162,166 648,096 9,056,721 180 0

ASIA (MIDDLE EAST): ...... 2,321 1,774 ..... 1,021 ..... 17 6,560 ..... ..... 1,720 13,413 351.882 04

AFRICA: . . . 4.519 8,216 . . 40.045 . . 3.665 2,483 . . . . . 8.218 67,146 1,279,833 1 4

GRAND TOTAL ...................... 10.083,498 8,054,065 916,651 180.915 29.883,531 482,422 558,195 7,479,064 199,552 262,798 3,148,394 61,249.085 90,978,335 . . .

Percent of Pacific-bound cargo .................. ... I 8.9 1.0 0.2 32.8 0.5 06 8 2 02 0.3 3.5 67.3 1000


a Includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.

Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning







Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1988 -J
Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes

[Long tons]
To W. C.
To East Coast United States Canada To East Coast Central America
I North South Great United I I I Central
Atlantic Atlantic Lakes Gulf States America Cristobal
ports ports ports ports (other) Total Canada Mexito Panama (other) I R.P.2 Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska ............................................ 46,363 ......... ....... 286,732 ......... 333,095 ....................... ..............
Hawaii ............................................ 121,236 18 ....... 135,208 ......... 256,462 171 ....... ....... ....... ....... ........
Mainland .......................................... 196,990 12,826 ....... 267,440 61,356 538,612 191,142 88,106 3,384 938 23,362 115,790
Total United States ................... .............. 364.589 12,844 ....... 689,380 61,356 1,128,169 191,313 88,106 3,384 938 23,362 115,790

W EST COAST CANADA ................................. 766,862 508,713 ....... 618,045 415,364 2,308,984 ......... 27,843 ....... 14,271 3,000 45,114

WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ............................................. 13,982 9,004 ....... 23,007 19,482 65,475 2,908 1,502 ....... 3,793 709 6,004
El Salvador ........................... ................. 2,473 5,071 ....... 16,339 22,527 46,410 ......... 47 ....... ......... 296 343
Guatemala ............................................. 46,893 16,552 ....... 122,496 27,531 213.472 1,062 ....... ....... ....... 110 110
Honduras.............................................. ......... 15,464 ....... 8,281 ......... 23,745 ......... ....... .............. 182 182
Mexico ............................................... 317,048 51,690 ....... 123,549 65,633 557,920 67,991 391,630 ....... 6 963 392,599
Nicaragua ....................................................... I ............. ...................... 7,455 104 ....... 12,464 372 12,940
Panama ............................................... 53,086 22,871 ....... 18,246 9,040 103,243 ......... ....... ..............................
Central America (other)' ................................... 3,394 ......... ....... .......... 3,841 7,235 ......... 301 ....... 273 1,116 1,690
Balboa, R.P. .............................................. ..... .... ........ 1,580 116 1,696 ......... 9,300 ....... 600 752 10,652
Total Central America....................... ........ ... 436,876 120,652 ....... 313,498 148,170 1,019,196 79,416 402,884 ......, 17,136 4,500 424,520

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA: >
Chile ................................................. 771,574 135,350 ........ 595,495 125,376 1,627,795 49,553 7,216 ....... ....... 15,712 22,928 .
Colombia .............................................. 58,311 40,779 ....... 63,442 19,700 182,232 350 322 ....... 497 110 929
Ecuador............................................... 1,609,905 143,048 970 973,557 197,282 2,924,762 ......... 1,983 254,862 68,556 194 325,595 H
Peru .................................................. 1,519,909 175,536 ....... 348,214 109,052 2,152,711 21,850 32,350 ....... ....... 59 32,409
South America (other)' .................................... 43,607 17,486 9,496 26,613 45,898 143,100 ......... 12,324 ....... 3,005 207 15,536
Total South America.................................... 4,003,306 512,199 10,466 2,007,321 497,308 7,030,600 71,753 54,195 254,862 72,058 16,282 397,397 (-

>







OCEANIA.
Australia .............................................. 986,144 99,875 43,266 1,539,961 117,584 2,786,830 366,831 110,567 133 ....... 21 110,721 >
British O ceania.......................................... 5,512 ......... ....... ........ ......... 5,512 ......... ....... ....... ....... ....... ......... z
French Oceania ......................................... 8,284 41 ....... 3,837 3,881 16,043 3,838 ........ .................... .........
New Zealand ................ ... ........... ..... ............ 148.274 43,515 ....... 225,263 12,394 429,446 35,413 27,987 182 5.490 295 33.954 K
Oceania (other)' .......................................... 74,930 18,410 ....... 9,076 56,037 158,453 38,307 ....... ............. ...... ..........
Total Oceania ........................ ............. .. 1,223,144 161,841 43,266 1,778,137 189,896 3,396,284 444,389 138,554 315 5,490 316 144,675 f

ASIA: Z
China ................................................. 94,838 66,294 4,904 1,094,218 19,184 1,279,438 123,837 ....... ....... ....... ..... .........
Taiwan................................................ 730,604 324,123 ....... 92,346 222,304 1,369,377 83,388 4,999 39 3,895 15,634 24,567 C-
Hong Kong ............................................ 323,732 140,994 ....... 43,877 71,470 580,073 66,762 102 ....... 762 22,579 23,443 (f
Indonesia ............................... ................. 124,617 36,569 ....... 94,827 220,620 476,633 21,656 ....... ....... ....... ...... .........
Japan................................................. 3.097,711 1,059,307 174,331 2,436,905 766,828 7,535,082 93,364 4,214 377 1,433 18,834 24.858
Philippine Islands....................................... 168,336 11,419 109 56,540 61,002 297.406 2,337 ....... ....... ....... 16 16
Singapore.............................................. 284,036 131,618 ....... 135,707 61,169 612,530 52,101 ....... ....... 129 3,951 4,080
South Korea ............................................ 441,644 151,745 ....... 342,144 184,154 1,119,687 43,527 10 201 503 12,959 13,673 C/A
Thailand .............................................. 21,166 5,786 ....... 24,790 33,947 85,689 ......... ....... ....... ....... ....... .........
U .S.S R ............................................ .. .. . .... .. ..... ....... ... .. . ....... .. ....... .. .... .. ..... .. ..... .. ..... .........
Asia (other) ............................................ 654,835 313,634 ....... 184,113 243,440 1,396,022 63,596 1.150 ....... 6,090 96,628 103.868 2
Total ...... . ... ................................ 5,941,519 2,241,489 179,344 4,505,467 1,884,118 14,751,937 550,568 10,475 617 12,812 170,601 194,505

GRAND TOTAL ...................................... 12,736,296 3,557,738 233,076 9,911,848 3,196,212 29,635,170 1,337,439 722,057 259,178 122,705 218.061 1,322,001


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo ............................... 19.4 5.4 0.4 15.1 4.9 45.2 2.0 1.1 0.4 0 2 0.3 2.0


See footnotes at end of table.







Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1988

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued
[Long tons]


To East Coast South America


South
Colom- Vene- America
Brazil bia zuela (other) I Total
WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska...................................... .......... ............................
H aw aii ..................................... ...... ....... ......... ....... .........
M mainland ................................... 119,533 1,072 109,721 1,285 231,611
Total United States............................ 119,533 1,072 109,721 1,285 231,611


To West Indies


S aiti/ Nether-
Domint- lands
can West
Cuba Republic Jamaica Indies




....... 21,362 4,899 280,858
....... 21,362 4,899 280,858


Trim- West
Puerto dadi Indies
Rico Tobago (other) i Total




36,703 ....... 145,939 489,761
36,703 ....... 145,939 489,761


WEST COAST CANADA ......................... 269,925 25,236 164,328 23,072 482,561 93.115 ....... 33,203 ......... 75,870 ....... ....... 202,188


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ......................................
El Salvador .....................................
Guatemala ......................................
Honduras .......................................
M exico.........................................
Nicaragua.......................................
Panama ........................................
Central America (other)' ............................
Balboa, R.P. ....................................
Total Central America............................


954 2 ......... ....... 956
1,122 23 295 ....... 1,440
683 ....... 17,655 ....... 18,338
....... 17 ......... ....... 17
12,155 33,546 ......... ....... 45,701
1,727 80 ......... ....... 1,807
....... 1,363 ......... ....... 1,363
168 9,924 16,500 57 26,649

16,809 44,955 34,450 57 96,271


WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile .......................................... 2,131 15,273
Colom bia ....................................... ....... 105,668
Ecuador ........................................ 3,335 1,516
Peru........................................... 10,303 7,113
South America (other)I ......... ..................... 408 28,853
Total South America ............................. 16,177 158,423


152,871 .......
695 .......
19,994 4,647
80,324 10,528
5,352 .......
259,236 15,175


170,275
106,363
29,492
108,268
34,613
449,011


....... .... .. .... 3,197 314 ....... .......
....... ....... ....... 11,894 ......... ....... .......
....... 17 ....... 4 5,904 29,526 .......
....... ....... ....... ......... ......... 1,134 26,236
4,921 123 1,818 ......... 7,203 62 III
13,404 3 ....... ......... ....... ....... ........
1,083 ....... ....... ......... 25,352 ....... .......
20,952 ....... ....... ......... 75,146 ....... .......
50 ....... ....... ......... ........ ...... ......
40,410 143 1,818 15,095 113,919 30,722 26,347


....... 67,651 .......
....... 43 .......
....... 28,102 .......
!0,559 ....... .......
55,616 ....... ......
66,175 95,796 .......


1,686,806
53,727
5,853
1,746,386


27,347 ....... 2,252
46,120 ........ .....
1,656,816 ....... 27,348
259,298 ....... .......
1,936 ....... ......
1,991,517 ....... 29,600


3,511
11,894
35,451
27,370
14,238
13,407
26,435
96,098
50
228,454


97,250
46,163
3,399,072
323,584
63,405
3,929,474







OCEANIA:
Australia ....................................... ....... ....... 182,489 ....... 182,489
British Oceania ................................... ....... ....... ......... ....... .........
French Oceania .................................. ....... ....... ......... ....... .........
New Zealand .................................... ....... 508 36,052 ....... 36,560
Oceania (other)' .................................. ....... ...... ........ ....... .........
Total Oceania ................................ ........ 508 218,541 ....... 219,049


ASIA:
C hina ..........................................
Taiwan.........................................
Hong Kong ..................................... .
Indonesia .......................................
Japan ..........................................
Philippine Islands ........................ ........
Singapore .......................................
South Korea.....................................
Thailand .......................................
U.S.S.R. ........................................
Asia (other)' .....................................
Total ........................................


.. .. ...... 49,903 ....... 49,903
1,169 412 3,998 40 5,619
1,197 301 3,213 ....... 4,711
...... ....... ......... ....... .........
20,626 26,420 152,167 5.,651 204,864
...... ....... ......... ....... ..........
545 143 8,080 2 8,770
415 1,107 23,519 213 25,254
....... 16,978 ......... ....... 16,978

10,559 17,160 39,471 21,095 88,285
34,511 62,521 280,351 27,001 404,384


4,017 ....... 1,315 346 22,306 4,991 2,566
....... ....... ....... ......... 910 ....... .......
....... ....... ....... ......... 851 ....... 675
....... 10.374 2,551 176 ......... 4,049 9,553
....... ....... ....... ......... 17,975 ....... 130
4,017 10,374 3,866 522 42,042 9,040 12,924


215,914 39 .............. ... ......
....... 4,640 51,688 928 6,124
....... 1,849 34,780 883 2,354
....... ... .. ..... .. ...... 61,960
14,789 18,860 38,700 9,021 86,092
..... . ...... 768 ......... .........
450 76 3,623 152 1,215
10,316 4,926 24,274 805 7,788
49,351 ....... ....... ......... .........
327,127 ....... ....... ......... .........
43,381 24.065 29,923 7,237 27,251
661,328 54,455 183,756 19,026 192,784


2,030 6,094
1,354 2,711

8,748 48,930

57 .......
1,995 5.539


8,634 74,125
22,818 137,399


GRAND TOTAL ............................... 456,955 292,715 1,066,627 66,590 1,882,887 865,045 182,130 227,542 2,061,887 2,452,835 62,580 352,209 6,204,228


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo.......................... 0.7 0.4


1.6 0.1 2.9 1.3 0.3 0.3


3.1 3.7 0.1 0.5


See footnotes at end of table.


35,541
910
1,526
26,703
18,105
82,785


215,953
71,504
43,931
61,960
225,140
768
5,573
55,643
49,351
327.127
214,616
1.271,566









Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1988

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]

To Europe


WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
Umted States:
Alaska ....... ......................
H awaii .............................
M mainland ...........................
Total United States ..................


I Den- Nether- Spain/ Unmted Yugo- West Europe
Belgium mark Finland France Italy lands Portugal Sweden Kingdom U.S.SR. slavia Germany (other)I


155,413 ....... .......
...... ....... .......
450,669 66,448 .......
606,082 66,448 .......


24,162 61,383

159,329 163,251
183,491 224,634


462 1,103 ....... 550 ....... ....... 20,281 138,177
51,633 ......... ....... ...... ....... ....... ........ ........
2,000,516 444,189 178,530 186,803 14,607 1,257 189,126 1,274,812
2,052,611 445,292 178,530 187,353 14,607 1,257 209,407 1,412,989


WEST COAST CANADA ................. 761,593 12,214 ....... 316,113 279,214 857,605 304,305 100,622 1,734,747 8,523 5,202 281,533 1,277,090 5,938,761


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa Rica ........................... ..
El Salvador .............................
Guatemala .............................
Honduras ..............................
M exico ................................
Nicaragua ..............................
Panama .............................. .
Central America (other)' ...................
Balboa, R.P.2 ...........................
Total Central America ...................

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Chile ..................................
Colombia ..............................
Ecuador ...............................
Peru ..................................
South America (other)' ....................
Total South America ................. . .


13 ....... ...... ......... 413
1,142 ....... 491 372 22
23,325 ....... ....... ....... 7,804

8,144 ....... ....... 5,577 18,445
80,903 ....... ....... 322 64
23,447 ....... ....... 5,145 47,137
330 ....... ....... 440 3,982

137,304 ....... 491 11,856 77,867


352,412 ....... 66,059 124,404
9,761 ....... ....... 680
120,636 ....... 341 2,600
273,587 ....... ....... 25,540
10,653 ....... ....... 38,667
767,049 ....... 66,400 191,891


256,748
255
83,091
113,295
36,125
489,514


2,949 900 ....... ......... 25,255 .......
2 425 ....... ......... 40,602 .......
19,682 292 ....... 11,909 140,276 .......
......... 12,083 ....... ......... ....... .......
39,675 111,253 2,353 4,629 ...... .......
120 10,713 ....... I 17,631 .......
7,515 9,907 4,843 ......... ....... .......
2,033 609 ....... 318 70 .......

71,976 146,182 7,196 16,857 223,834 .......


442,316
18,464
29,138
73,806
48,173
611,897


196,848 81,512
12,788 760
18,087 473
55,938 34,430
18,825 .......
302,486 117,175


256,421 ....... 53,312
6,484 11,810 .......
9,112 24,295 20,008
96,002 17,993 215,985
12,880 338,194 16,400
380,899 392,292 305,705


1,117 5,989 36,636
29,711 20,701 93,468
5,807 38,460 247,555
97 706 12,886
72,033 70,527 332,636
14,323 17,548 141,625
53,382 14,924 166,300
16,942 7,904 32,628

193,412 176,759 1,063,734


558,582
117,836
147,678
149,335
21,726
995,157


254,965
40,621
107,807
113,864
94,435
611,692


2,643,579
219,459
563,266
1,169,775
636,078
5,232,157


Total


401,531
51,633
5,129,537
5,582,701







OCEANIA:
Australia ...............................
British Oceania .........................
French Oceania ..........................
New Zealand ............................
Oceania (other)' .........................
Total Oceania .........................

ASIA.
China .................................
Taiwan ................................
Hong Kong .......,............ ........
Indonesia ..............................
Japan ................................
Philippine Islands .......................
Singapore ..............................
South Korea .................. .........
Thailand ...............................
U.S.S R ...............................
Asia (other)' ............................
Total ................... ............


17,095 ....... ....... 1,689 8,693 1,992 ......... 930 37,016 ....... .......
..... .. ... .. .. ..... .. .. ... ... .. .. .. ... .. ....... .. .... 207,137 ....... .......
23,754 ....... ....... 51,307 1,966 4,826 5,730 ....... 326 ....... .......
187,839 ....... 1,988 2,033 4,227 10,862 ......... 14,719 57,590 ...... .......
5,681 ....... ....... 1,025 374 6,830 427 ....... 20,355 ........ .......
234.369 ....... 1,988 56,054 15,260 24,510 6,157 15,649 322,424 ....... .......


60
26
14

9,076


437 .......


....... ..... 1. ....2 . .........
....... ....... 2,948 .........
... .... ...... 138 .........

....... ....... 5,916 870


....... ....... .........
....... ....... 460
....... ....... .........


1,892 ......... .......
1,071 30 38
624 497 .......

122,381 505 1,356
22,286 ......... .......
...... .. ...... 675
4,215 1,992 7

......... ......... .......


139 .......
689 .......

14,984 .......
482 .......

682 .......


24,393

576
53,584
6,658
85,211


....... 2,000
....... 91
....... 2,280

....... 13,610

....... 51109
....... 1,109


9,420

12.309
38.358
22,570
82,657


101,228
207,137
100,794
371,200
63,920
844,279


......... 3,952
297 4,640
257 4,499

16,209 184,907
471 23,239
1,020 2,160
239 8,681


2,773 ....... ....... 1,721 ......... 1,567 167 790 7,434 ....... ....... 2.330 27,797 44.579
12,386 ....... ....... 10,723 1,330 154,036 3,191 2,866 24,410 ....... ....... 21,425 46,290 276,657


GRAND TOTAL ...................... 2,518,783 78,662 68,879 770.128 1.087,819 3,772.635 1,207,613 422,038 2,666,690 639,256 312,164 1,786.145 3,607,477 18,938,289


Percent of Atlantic-bound cargo .................


3.8 0.1 0.1 1.2


1.7 5.8 1.8 0.6 4.1 1.0 0.5


2.7 5.5 28.9


See footnotes at end of tablc.








Table 9.-Origin and Destination of Commercial Cargo Through the Panama Canal From Pacific to Atlantic During Fiscal Year 1988

Segregated by Countries in Principal Trade Routes-Continued

[Long tons]


WEST COAST NORTH AMERICA:
United States:
Alaska .............................................................. .
Hawaii ...............................................................
M mainland ........................ .....................................
Total United States ............... ...................................


To Asia
(Middle
East) To Africa

Asia I I I
(Middle South Africa
East) Algeria Egypt Morocco Africa Tunisia (other) I Total


Percent
of total
Atlantic-
Grand bound
Total cargo


...... ....... ......... 5,360 ....... ....... ....... 5,360 739,986 1.1
..... .. ... .. .. ....... .. ....... 148 ....... ....... 148 308,414 0.5
76,123 25,837 2,056,800 90,996 77,217 99,244 151,818 2,501,912 9,274,488 14.2
76,123 25,837 2,056,800 96,356 77,365 99,244 151,818 2,507,420 10,322,888 15.8


WEST COAST CANADA .................. ............................. 242,032 158,258 208,268 1,924,442 78,161 679,978 31,002 3,080,109 12,299,749 18.8


WEST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA:
Costa R ica ................................................................
El Salvador ...............................................................
G uatem ala ................................................................
Honduras ....................................... .........................
Mexico ...................................................................
Nicaragua .............................................. ..................
Panam a .................................................... ....... ....
Central America (other)' ......................................................
Balboa, R .P.2 ..............................................................
Total Central America...................................................

WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
C while ....................................................................
Colom bia .................................................................
Ecuador ..................................................................
Peru.....................................................................
South America (other)'........................................................
Total South America...................................... .................


215 ....... ......... ......... ....... ........ 447 447 116,152 0.2
28 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 153,583 0.2
... .. ..... .. ....... .. ....... .. ..... .. ..... .. ..... .. .. ..... 515,988 0.8
.... .. ....... ......... ......... ....... ...... 4,825 4,825 69,025 0.1
363 16,603 ......... ......... ....... 68,741 22,279 107,623 1,519,071 2.3
....... ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 177,234 0.3
2,498 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 741 741 300,580 0.5
....... ....... ..... . ....... .. ..... .. .. .. ..... .. ........ 164,300 0.3
S .. .... . ..... .. ..... .. ...... ...... 12,398 0.0
3,104 16,603 ......... ......... ....... 68,741 28,292 113,636 3,028,331 4.6


9,670 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 19,592 19,592 4,640,642 7.1
4,815 5.051 ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... 5,051 565,362 0.9
38,294 ....... ......... ................ ...... ....... .......... 7,280,481 11.1
12,179 51,304 ......... ......... ....... ....... 163 51,467 3,872,243 5.9
...... .......... ....... ....... 7,044 7,044 899,776 1.4
64,958 56,355 ......... ......... ....... ....... 26,799 83,154 17,258,504 26.3







OCEANIA:
A ustralia ........................................... ...... .........
British Oceania............................................................
French Oceania ...................................... ......................
Ne. Zealand ..............................................................
Oceania (other)' .. .......................................................
Total Oceania .............................................................

ASIA:
C hina ....................................................................
Taiwvan................................. ...... ............................
Hong Kong ..... ..........................................................
Indonesia ............................. ...................................
Japan ....................................................................
Philippine Islands ...........................................................
Singapore .................................................................
South Korea ...............................................................
Thailand ...................................................................
U.S.S.R.................................................................
A sia (other)' ...............................................................
Total ...................................................................


....... ...... ...... . ... ... . ... ....... ....... .........
....... 2,318 ........ ........ ....... ....... ....... 2,318

....... 2,318 ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... 2.318


3,583,640
213,559
122.201
935.594
278.785
5.133,779


... .. ..... .. ....... .. ....... .. .... .. ..... .. .... .. ...... 1,673,083 2.6
2,276 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... ....... ......... 1,561,371 2.4
992 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 200 200 724.611 1.1
.. .. ..... ........ .. ....... .. ..... ..... ..... .. ...... 560.249 0 9
483 ....... ......... ......... 409 ....... 4,264 4.673 8.273,371 12.6
...... ...... ........ ........ .. .. .. ..... .. ..... ......... 323,766 0.5
....... ....... .. ....... .. ....... .. .... .. ..... .. ..... .. ...... 685,214 1.0
741 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 149 149 1,267,355 1.9
....... ....... ......... ......... ... ... ...... ..... . ....... 152,018 0.2
...... ..... . .. ... .. ...... .. .... ... ....... .... ... ....... 327,127 0.5
1,735 ....... ......... ......... ....... ....... 189 189 1,912.890 2.9
6,227 ....... ......... ......... 409 ....... 4,802 5,211 17,461,055 26.7


GRAND TOTAL .......................................................... 392,444 259,371 2,265,06 2,020,798 155,935 847,963 242,713 5,791.848 65.504.306


Percent of Allantic-hound cargo ................................................... 0.6 0.4



Also includes cargo not routed to permit segregation between definite countries.
2 Includes both local and transshipped cargo.

Statistics compiled by Office of Executive Planning.


3.5 3.1 0.2 1.3 0.4


8.8 100.0%







80 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... ....... ....... 1
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 429 308 238
Caustic soda ................................. 98 80 76
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 176 I11 76
T oluene ..................................... 30 50 .......
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 125 67 86
G rains ............................. ............. ....... 51 .......
C orn ........................................ ....... 51 .......
Lumber and products .............................. 2 .
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ 2 ....... .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. 1 20 2
Manufactures of iron and steel....................... ...... 9 9
Plates, sheets and coils ......................... ....... 6 .......
W ire, bars and rods ........................... ....... 3 9
O res and m etals .................................. ...... ....... 32
Ores ................................................... ...................32
Alumina/bauxite ......................... ....... ....... 32
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 2 ....... .......
C offee ............................ ........... 2 ...... ... .
Petroleum and products ........................... 566 278 947
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 37 28 81
Gasoline ..................................... 254 86 479
Jet fuel ...................................... .... ........ 184
Liquefied gas ................................. 2 .......
Lubricating oil ............................... 271 162 169
Other and unclassified ......................... 3 ....... 34
M miscellaneous .................................... 11 16 311
All other and unclassified ...................... 11 16 311
Total ................... ............... . l I, 682 1,540

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 200 819 603
Phosphates .................................. 200 819 603
M miscellaneous .................................... ....... 13 25
All other and unclassified ...................... ....... 13 25
Total ...................... ............. .. 200 832 628

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 3
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 3 11 8
Caustic soda .................... ........ ..... 2
Chemicals, unclassified 1 10 8
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ....... 1 .......
Coal and coke (excluding petroleum coke) ............ 174 ....... 138
C oal ........................................ 174 ....... 138
G rains........................................... 946 1,177 476
Barley .......................................9 ....... .......
Corn ........................................ 460 443 80
R ice ........................................ 14 9 .







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 81


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA Continued
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash-Continued
Sorghum .................................... ....... 103 .......
Soybeans .................................... 218 288 134
W heat ....................................... 245 331 238
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... 3 24
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 2 10 9
M achinery and equipment.......................... 2 1 .......
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 2 ....... .......
O their and unclassified ......................... ....... 1 .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 4 II1 .........
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ ....... 31 .......
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 605 726 660
Ammonium compounds ....................... 95 146 148
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 83 103 107
Fishm eal .................................... 8 ....... .....
Phosphates .................................. 403 466 382
Potash ...................................... 16 11 23
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 16 22 .......
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 33 42 34
Beans, edible ............... .................. 4 ....... .......
C otton, raw .................................. I ....... .......
Oilseeds ..................................... 28 42 34
Petroleum and products ........................... 197 152 113
A sphalt ............................. ........ ..... 3 .......
D iesel oil .................................... 79 80 42
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 33 ....... 2
G gasoline ..................................... 77 49 29
Jet fuel ......................... ............. 2 6 .......
K erosene .................................... 3 6 .......
Liquefied gas ................................. 2 2 .......
Lubricating oil ............................... ....... 6 1
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 ....... 39
M miscellaneous ................................... 71 51 98
Flour, w heat ................................. ....... ....... 2
Oil, vegetable................................ 21 8 23
Paper and paper products ...................... 23 16 15
T allow ...................................... 12 18 39
All other and unclassified ...................... -. 15 9 19
Total ...................................... 2,056 2,234



EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 28 21 33
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 241 296 302
Caustic soda ................................. 54 113 108
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 169 163 178
Benzene ....................... ............. 3 ....... .......
T oulene ..................................... 5 5 .......
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous .................. 10 15 16
Coal and coke .................................... 59 174 108
C oal ........................................ 59 171 108
C oke .............................. ...... ... ... 3 .......







82 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA--Continued
Grains........................................... 2,245 1,668 1,656
Corn ........................................ 719 473 257
O ats ........................................ 5 4 5
R ice ........................................ 13 29 2
Sorghum .................................... 136 ....... 22
Soybeans ..................................... 324 221 103
Wheat ...................................... 1,043 941 1,262
Other and unclassified ......................... 5 ....... 5
Lumber and products .............................. 34 7 7
Boards and planks ............................ 21 ....... .......
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ 1 1 .......
Pulpwood ................................... 7 5 7
Other and unclassified ......................... 5 1 .......
Machinery and equipment .......................... 62 60 59
Agricultural machinery and implements .......... 18 17 16
Automobiles, trucks, accessories, and parts ....... 17 16 18
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 18 17 13
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. 5 5 8
M otorcycles, bicycles and parts ................. ....... 1 .......
Other and unclassified .......................... 4 4 4
Manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 28 23 33
Angles, shapes, and sections .................... 6 6 6
Nails, tacks and spikes ......................... 2 ....... .......
Plates, sheets, and coils ........................ 2 4 7
Tubes, pipes, and fittings ... .................... 7 9 11
W ire, bars, and rods ........................... 1 2 4
Other and unclassified ..... ........... ......... 10 2 5
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 34 19 17
A sbestos ..................................... 2 ....... .......
Infusorial earth ............................... 1 ....... .......
Soda and sodium compounds ................... 24 14 6
Sulfur ....................................... 7 5 7
Other and unclassified .................... ...... ... ....... 4
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 700 738 482
Ammonium compounds ....................... 9 18 32
Fertilizers, unclassified ............... .......... 365 370 150
Nitrate of soda ............................... 2 ....... .......
Phosphates .................................. 292 275 281
Potash ...................................... 32 75 19
Ores and metals .................................. 134 175 89
O res .................. ............ ........ 14 26 15
Other and unclassified ..................... 14 26 15
M etals ................ ..................... 120 149 74
A lum inum ................... ............... 1 2 .......
Copper ..................... ............... ....... I .......
Iron ......................................... 16 ....... .......
Scrap ....................................... 102 146 68
Tin, including tinplate ......................... ...... ........ 3
Other and unclassified ......................... 1 ....... 3
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 16 79 90
Beans, edible ................................. I ....... .......
Copra and coconuts ........................... ....... 1 .......
C otton, raw .................................. 3 2 .......
O ilseeds ..................................... 1 2 1







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 83


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA--Continued
Other agricultural commodities-Continued
Peas. dry .................................... 1 ....... .......
Rubber, raw ................................. 2 I .......
Sugar ....................................... 8 73 83
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 6
Petroleum and products ........................... 643 108 134
D iesel oil .................................... 327 27 16
Fuel oil, residual .............................. I ....... 14
G gasoline ..................................... 46 4 8
Jet fuel ...................................... 182 ....... 23
Liquefied gas ................................. 11 13 5
Lubricating oil ................... ............ 76 61 57
Petroleum coke ............................ .. ...... 2 .......
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... I 11
M miscellaneous .................................... 855 808 636
Bricks and tile ................................ 2 2 3
Carbon black.............................. ... I I 1
Clay, fire, and china ........................... 7 10 16
Fibers, plant ................................. 3 6 .......
Flour, wheat ................................. 53 56 27
Glass and glassware ........................... 2 2 .......
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 3 3 5
M arble and stone ............................. 7 ....... .......
O il, coconut .................................. 3 4 3
O il, vegetable ................................. 23 23 41
Paper and paper products ...................... 138 143 147
Resin ....................................... 32 39 52
Rubber, manufactured ......................... 3 5 4
Tallow ...................................... 56 42 40
T extiles ...................................... 7 11 I I
All other and unclassified ...................... 515 461 286
Total .............. ................... ..... 5079 4176 3. 646



EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 3 2 6
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 13 14 16
G rains........................................... 132 122 96
Corn ........................................ 24 23 24
R ice ........................................ 2 ....... .......
Soybeans ............. ....................... 28 10 2
W heat ....................................... 78 89 70
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ ....... 2 .......
Nitrates, phosphates and potash, miscellaneous ........ 3 ....... .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 6 4 9
Petroleum and products ........................... 123 109 45
D iesel oil .................................... 69 23 .......
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 7 83 34
G gasoline ...................... ............... 27 2 .......
Other and unclassified ......................... 20 1 I 1
M miscellaneous .................................... 33 63 77
Flour, w heat ................................. 6 ....... .......
O il, coconut .................. ................ I ....... .......







84 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO BALBOA,
R.P.-Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
O il, vegetable .................................. I .......
T allow ...................................... I 2 .......
All other and unclassified ...................... 24 61 76
Total ...................................... 313 316 249



EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 19 13 .......
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 690 576 523
Caustic soda ........................ ......... 536 458 443
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 147 107 79
Benzene .................................... .. ....... .......
T oulene ..................................... 4 5 .......
Petroleum coke, miscellaneous.................. 3 5 1
Coal and coke .................................... 19 ....... 51
G rains........................................... 122 34 41
C orn ........................................ 10 ....... .......
Rice ........................................ ... ...... 1
Soybeans .................................... 112 34 40
Lumber and products .............................. 28 26 7
Pulpwood ................................... 28 26 7
Machinery and equipment .......................... 7 1 3
Agricultural machinery and equipment ........... 2 ....... 1
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts ........ 2 1 .......
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 1 ....... 2
Electrical machinery and apparatus .............. I ....... .......
Other and unclassified ......................... I ....... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... ....... ....... 3
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 11 27 8
S alt .................................... .. ...... 7 .......
Soda and compounds .......................... 10 20 8
Sulfur ..................................... .. 1 ....... ... .
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash ................ 552 579 403
Ammonium compounds ....................... 19 17 12
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 86 172 97
Phosphates .................................. 408 374 263
Potash ...................................... 39 16 31
Ores anmd metals, miscellaneous .................... 5 2 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 207 313 263
D iesel oil .................................... 65 ....... 39
Fuel oil, residual .............................. . .. ........ 3
G gasoline ..................................... 1 121 58
Jet fuel ...................................... ....... I 1 10
Liquefied gas ................................. 59 63 71
Lubricating oil ............................... 32 28 15
Petroleum coke ............................... 48 85 64
Other and unclassified ......................... 2 5 3
M miscellaneous .................................... 571 498 470
C arbon black ................................. 33 ....... .....
Clay, fire and china ........................... 25 31 24
O il, vegetable ................................. 1 2 1
Paper and products ........................... 38 13 22







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 85


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1988 1987 1986 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO OCEANIA-
Continued
Miscellaneous-Continued
K esin ................ ....................... I I I
All other and unclassified ...................... 473 451 422
Total .............. ..... ................. 2231 2 069 1_772

EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 368 262 166
Refrigerated foods ............................ 368 262 166
F ish ................................. ... ....... I .......
Fruit, excluding bananas ................... 150 115 67
Other and unclassified ..................... 218 146 99
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ................. 3,445 2,846 1,973
Caustic soda ................................. 163 151 63
Chemicals, unclassified ........................ 1,979 1,860 1,404
Benzene ..................................... 106 58 7
Toulene ................................. .... 122 133 I
Petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ............. 1,075 644 498
Coal and coke .............................. ..... 4,812 5,669 7,000
Coal ....................................... 4,732 5,610 7,000
C oke ........................................ 80 59 .......
Grains......................................... 28,701 26,277 17,665
Barley ....................................... 91 110 106
Corn ........................................ 14,939 14,881 8,215
O ats ....................................... .. ...... 1 .......
R ice ........................................ 33 15 .......
Sorghum .................................... 2,025 2,521 2,223
Soybeans .................................... 6,143 7,098 6,413
W heat ...................................... 5,188 1,452 623
Other and unclassified ......................... 282 199 85
Lumber and products ............................. 1,117 510 400
Boards, and planks ............................ 20 ....... .......
Plywood, veneers, composition board ............ 12 ....... .......
Pulpwood ................................... 705 510 400
Other and unclassified ......................... 380 ....... .......
Machinery and equipment .......................... 49 29 41
Agricultural machinery and equipment ........... 3 2 3
Automobiles, trucks, accessories and parts........ 7 2 3
Construction machinery and equipment .......... 8 4 19
Electrical machinery and apparatus.............. 22 3 1
Other and unclassified ......................... 9 18 15
Manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 115 199 56
Angles, shapes, and sections .................... I II 8
Plates, sheets, and coils ........................ 86 100 .......
W ires, bars, and rods .......................... 6 22 3
Other and unclassified ......................... 22 66 45
M inerals, miscellaneous............................ 5 7 39
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 5,256 4,521 3,384
Ammonium compounds ....................... 88 60 8
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 842 343 137
Phosphates .................................. 4,282 4,011 3,187
Potash ...................................... 44 107 52
Ores and metals .................................. 1,870 2,028 2,942
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... 49 47 54







86 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long Ions]
Fiscal year
I 1988 1987 1986 I
EAST COAST UNITED STATES TO ASIA-
Continued
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous-Continued
M etals ...................... .............. 1,821 1,981 2,888
A lum inum ............................... 5 ....... .......
C opper .................................. 13 6 .......
Iron ..................................... 35 ....... .......
Scrap ................................... 1,762 1,971 2,877
Tin, including tinplate ..................... ..... .. ...... I
Zinc ............. ................... ... 1 4 ......
Other and unclassified ..................... 5 ....... 10
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 113 181 1_
Beans, edible ................................. 38 28 .......
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ 27 ....... .......
M olasses .................................... 8 ......
O ilseeds ..................................... 40 3
Sugar ....................................... ....... 150 .......
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... ....... 1
Petroleum and products ........................... 2,261 2,062 1,824
D iesel oil .................................... 108 ....... 29
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 55 ....... 82
Gasoline ..................................... 274 414 120
Jet fuel ...................................... 457 225 .......
Kerosene .................................... 30 26 60
Liquefied gas ................................. 179 192 324
Lubricating oil ............................... 97 114 81
Petroleum coke ............................... 1,051 1,061 1,106
Other and unclassified ......................... 10 30 22
M miscellaneous .................................... 6,716 5,895 4,929
Carbon black ................................. ... ........ 17
Clay, fire and china ..................... ...... 371 369 312
Fibers, plant ................................ ........ 1 .......
Flour, wheat ................................. 31 ....... 13
Glass and glassware ........................... 3 ....... .......
Groceries, miscellaneous ....................... 11 22 1
M arble and stone ............................. 4 8 5
Oil, vegetable ................................. 55 71 63
Paper and paper products ...................... 240 355 166
R esin ....................................... 32 40 78
Rubber, manufactured ......................... 1 1 5
Tallow ...................................... 6 6 5
T extiles ...................................... ....... 2 6
Tobacco and manufactures ..................... ....... 3 .......
W ax, paraffin ................................ 1 ....... .......
All other and unclassified ...................... 5,961 5,017 4,258
Total.................. .................... 54828 50486 40420
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST UNITED
STATES:
M manufactures of iron and steel ...................... 1 45 .......
O res and m etals ............................... ....... 35 .......
O res, m miscellaneous ........................... ....... 30 .......
M etals, m miscellaneous ......................... ....... 5 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 6 6 35
Paper and products ........................... ....... ....... 16
All other and unclassified ...................... 6 6 19
Total .............. ........... ........... 17 86 35






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 87

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... I ....... .......
G rains, m miscellaneous .............................. 4 22 30
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. I ....... .......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... I ....... 7
M miscellaneous .................................... 10 II 37
Paper and paper products ...................... 3 7 13
All other and unclassified ...................... 7 4 24
Total........................ 17 33 74

EAST COAST CANADA TO WEST COAST SOUTH
AMERICA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 13 19 II1
G rains............... .. ..... ........ ....... ..... ....... 11 .......
W heat ....................................... ....... 11 .......
Lumber and products.............................. ....... 4 1
Pulpw ood .................................. ........ 4 1
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. ....... 2 2
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... ....... 2 2
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................ 10 9 14
A sbestos ................ .................... 10 9 14
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 37 16 .......
Potash ...................................... 37 16 .......
M miscellaneous .................................... 31 37 38
Paper and paper products ...................... 24 19 17
R esin ......................... ............. ........ 4 ... .
All other and unclassified ...................... 7 14 21
Total ............ ............ ............ 91 100 68

EAST COAST CANADA TO OCEANIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 2 6 2
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. ....... 1 23
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. 2 1 .......
M inerals, m miscellaneous ............................ ....... 21 6
Nitrates, phosphates and potash..................... 18 15 .......
P otash ................ ..................... 18 15 .......
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 3 27 4
M miscellaneous .................................... 139 127 68
Paper and paper products ...................... 20 35 23
All other and unclassified ...................... 119 92 45
Total ...................................... 164 198 103

EAST COAST CANADA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods ...................... 64 40 75
Canned foods, miscellaneous ................... ....... ....... 7
Refrigerated foods ............................ 64 40 68
Fish ..................................... 47 22 32
M eat ............................. ....... 11 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ..................... 6 18 36
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... ....... 5 7
G rains........................................... 292 289 248
Soybeans ............... ....... ........... 40 106 122







88 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST CANADA TO ASIA-Continued
Grains-Continued
W heat ...................................... 252 174 101
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... 9 25
Lumber and products .............................. 274 240 204
Pulpwood ...... ............................. 251 228 204
Other and unclassified ......................... 23 12 .......
Machinery and equipment, miscellaneous............. 10 5 6
Manufactures or iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 133 265 31
Nitrates, phosphates and potash, miscellaneous........ 40 16 .......
Ores and metals .................................. 222 318 451
Ores, miscellaneous ........................... 41 70 54
M etals ........................ ........... 181 248 397
Alum inum ............................... 1 2 14
C opper .................................. ....... 6 2
Iron ..................................... .. .... 16 98
Scrap ................................... 176 222 241
Z inc .................................... 4 2 .......
Other and unclassified ..................... ...... ........ 42
M miscellaneous .................................... 428 493 528
Flour, wheat ................................. 33 83 51
Paper and paper products ...................... 154 127 86
R esin ....................................... 7 34 23
All other and unclassified ...................... 234 249 368
Total ............. ....... .............. 1,463 1,671 1,550

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 16 3 .......
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 297 398 414
Ammonium compounds ....................... 95 142 188
Phosphates .................................. 2 22 .......
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 200 234 226
Petroleum and products ........................... 2,039 2,655 3,042
A sphalt ...................................... 8 8 8
Crude oil .................................... 565 624 561
D iesel oil .................................... 78 118 256
Liquefied gas ................................. 427 509 441
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 946 1,376 1,580
G gasoline ..................................... 5 1 196
Jet fuel ...................................... 10 ....... .......
Other and unclassified ................... ..... ....... 19 .....
M miscellaneous .................... ............... 4 22 10
All other and unclassified .............. ....... 4 22 10
Total ................... .................. 2,356 3,078 3466

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash, miscellaneous ....... 49 6 II
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ............. ....... 9 11 .......
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........ 3 12 .......
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous .............. 78 171 201
M miscellaneous ..................... .............. 102 83 79
All other and unclassified ...................... 102 83 79
Total ...................... ............... 241 283 291






PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 89

Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986 I
EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Petroleum and products ........................... 176 27 63
D iesel oil .................................... 33 11 10
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 143 16 53
M miscellaneous .................................... I I I
All other and unclassified ................. ..... I I I
Total....................... 177 28 64

EAST COAST CENTRAL AMERICA TO ASIA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 51 26 34
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 84 282 .......
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 1 ....... 14
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 1 ....... 14
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 20 46 68
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 142 1 26
Beans, edible ................................. I ....... .......
C offee ....................................... I 1 I
Sugar ....................................... 140 ....... 25
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous .............. 39 ....... .......
M miscellaneous ..................... .............. 105 150 123
All other and unclassified ....................... 105 150 123
Total ....................... .............. 442 505 265
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
UNITED STATES:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous ......... 7 13 23
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... I I 29
Lumber and products, miscellaneous................. 53 42 41
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous......... 555 479 405
Ores and metals .................................. 42 35 89
Ores ..................................... ...12 29 34
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 12 28 34
Other and unclassified ..................... ....... 1 .......
M etals, miscellaneous ......................... 30 6 55
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 9 2 .......
Cocoa and cacao beans ........................ 2 ....... .......
C offee ....................................... 7 2 .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 437 253 109
A sphalt ...................................... 4 1 82 .......
D iesel oil .................................... 13 29 53
G gasoline ..................................... 205 81 55
Jet fuel ...................................... 165 61 .......
Liquefied gas ................................. 13 ....... .......
Petroleum products, miscellaneous .............. ...... ....... 1
M miscellaneous ..................... .............. 121 109 123
Paper and products ........................... 18 21 14
All other and unclassified ...................... 103 88 109
Total ...................................... 1,225 934 819
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CANADA:
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 50 51 50
M miscellaneous .................................... 37 60 28
All other and unclassified ...................... 37 60 28
Total .............. ......... ............. 87 111 78







90 STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986
EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
CENTRAL AMERICA:
Coal ......................................... ....... ....... 54
Grains.......................................... ....... __ 3 1
Soybeans ............................................... 1
Other and unclassified ......................... ....... 3 ......
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 101 75 30
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 12 8 3
Fertilizers, unclassified......................... 12 8 3
Ores and metals, miscellaneous ..................... 54 ....... .......
Petroleum and products ........................... 1,019 757 601
Crude oil .................................... 751 716 558
D iesel oil .................................... 29 32 .......
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 147 5 .......
G gasoline ..................................... 60 3 .......
Other and unclassified ............... ........... 32 1 43
Other agricultural commodities ..................... ....... ....... 31
Sugar ....................................... ....... ....... 3 1
M miscellaneous .................................... 18 21 61
All other and unclassified ...................... 18 21 61
Total ............ ................ .......... 1,204 864 781

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO WEST COAST
SOUTH AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous .... 10 26 16
Coal and coke ......................... ........... 38 ....... .......
Grains, miscellaneous .............................. 10 1 2
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous ......... 90 39 31
M inerals, miscellaneous............................ 8 16 14
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash .................... 158 137 176
Fertilizers, unclassified ......................... 158 137 176
Ores and metals .................................. 59 49 29
Ores ........................................ 3__ 2 8 10
Alumina/bauxite ......................... 9 8 10
Iron ..................................... 23 ....... .....
Metals, miscellaneous ......................... 27 41 19
Other agricultural commodities ..................... 53 40 11
Other and unclassified ......................... 53 40 11
Petroleum and products ..................... ...... 1,550 2,563 1,696
Crude oil .................................... 915 1,602 1,115
D iesel oil .................................... 185 179 174
Fuel oil, residual .............................. 7 29 35
Gasoline ..................................... 239 513 249
Jet fuel ...................................... 28 28 23
Liquefied gas ................................. 134 96 24
Lubricating oil ............................... 37 48 37
Other and unclassified ......................... 5 68 39
M miscellaneous .................................... 131 87 96
All other and unclassified ...................... 131 87 96
Total .............. ....... .............. 2,107 2958 2,070

EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO BALBOA, R.P.:
Petroleum and products ........................... 8 77 61
D iesel oil ............. .................... ... ....... 24 35







PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION 91


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
I 1988 1987 986 I


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO BALBOA,
R.P.-Continued
Petroleum and products-Continued
Fuel oil, residual ..............................
G gasoline .....................................
Lubricating oil ...............................
M miscellaneous ....................................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total .............. ..................


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO HAWAII:
Petroleum and products ......................... ..
Jet fuel ................... ...................
Total ...............................


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO OCEANIA:
Petroleum and products, miscellaneous ..............
M miscellaneous ................................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total ................ .................


EAST COAST SOUTH AMERICA TO ASIA:
Canned and refrigerated foods, miscellaneous .........
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ....
Coal and coke ....................................
G rains, m iscellaneous..............................
Lumber and products, miscellaneous.................
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous.........
Nitrates, phosphates, and potash ....................
Fertilizers, unclassified .........................
O res and m etals ..................................
Ores ...................................
Alum ina/bauxite .........................
Iron .....................................
Manganese ... .....................
Other and unclassified .....................
Metals ......................................
A lum inum ...................................
Other and unclassified .........................
Other agricultural commodities .....................
Cotton, raw ..................................
Other and unclassified .........................
Petroleum and products ...........................
G gasoline .....................................
Jet fuel ......................................
Liquefied gas .. ........................
Other and unclassified .........................
M miscellaneous ....................................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total ...................................


8
4
4
12



19
19
19



3
3
3



60
3
260

64
126

I
474
124
II
54
54
5
350
334
16
22
3
19
118


118

142
142
270Q


39
14

5
5
82



90
90
90



26
4
4
30


26

2
2
63



92
92
92




4
4
4


59 38
10 35
59 177
....... 3
12 23
420 361
1 2
1 2
382 269
79 93
10 12
56 32
4 31
9 18
303 176
293 170
10 6
10 21
....... 4
10 17
382 163
113 .......
87 85
150 78
32 .......
88 37
88 37
1.423 1,129







STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 10.-Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Thousands of long tons]
Fiscal year
1988 1987 1986


WEST INDIES TO WEST COAST UNITED STATES:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ....
Manufactures of iron and steel, miscellaneous.........
M inerals, miscellaneous............................
S alt ................... .......... ..........
Nitrates, phosphates and potash, miscellaneous........
O res and m etals ..................................
Ore, alumina/bauxite..........................
Petroleum and products ...........................
Asphalt ......................................
Crude oil ....................................
Fuel oil, residual ..............................
G gasoline .....................................
Jet fuel ......................................
Lubricating oil ........................... .
Other and unclassified .........................
M miscellaneous ....................................
All other and unclassified .................... ..
Total .................................

WEST INDIES TO WEST COAST CENTRAL
AMERICA:
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals, miscellaneous ....
Nitrates, phosphates and potash, miscellaneous........
Other agricultural commodities .....................
Sugar .......................................
Petroleum and products ...........................
Asphalt ........................ . ...........
Crude oil ....................................
Diesel oil ....................................
Fuel oil, residual ..............................
G gasoline .....................................
Jet fuel ......................................
Kerosene ....................................
Liquefied gas .................................
Lubricating oil ........................... .
Other and unclassified ........................
M miscellaneous ....................................
Cement ......................................
All other and unclassified ......................
Total .................................

WEST INDIES TO WEST COAST SOUTH AMERICA:
Nitrates, phosphates and potash, miscellaneous........
Other agricultural commodities, miscellaneous ........
M inerals, miscellaneous ............................
Sulfur .......................................
O res and m etals ..................................
Ores, m miscellaneous ...........................
M etals, miscellaneous .........................
Petroleum and products ...........................
Crude oil ....................................
Diesel oil ....................................
Fuel oil, residual ..............................


....... 19

.. . . . . . .
....... 35
....... 7

133 254
....... 25
47 .......

55 105
31 29
....... 46
....... 49
9 93
9 93
142 408


11
5
27
27
56
5
5
227


36
139
29
23

6
6
337



5



41


28

7




5
73
2
71
119


12
25
2
2
9
9

462

267
33


46
15
15
169
2
65
42
2
46
3
1
8


44
2
42
274


73



29
15
14
342
26
178
6


37


169
4
35
71
34
22
2


I

53
8
45
259


53
24





822

356
51




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