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ARTER, Governor-President --ND.CRTNSNPr
ELHEN, Liutenat Goerno JOSE~PH CONNOR, Pulplicati
WILL AREY 0 6iial Panama Canal ConspaJk PublicalisD. Eioia sitn
Canal Information Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z,.: EUxiCE RIC~ER 110 aid To:
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone WILLIAM BURNS, Official i
On sale at all Panama Canal Senrice Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Editorial offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
W. A. C!
JoHN D. McI
In This Issue
THE COVER PHOTO on this month s issue may very
iT":::ner is::: rl tivl siml: ;n ds buasins ed
of the suction dredge Mindi, which soon will be back
at work on the familiar task of dredging the harbors
and channel of the Canal.
Welder Robert Haines, who has been among those
working to get the Mindi back into operation after
a 30-month layup, is welding the cutter head of the
dredge to the shaft which turns it. This cutter head
weighs a total of 22 tons and is just one of several
different types which are used on the dredge for
different purposes. This one is for solid af~aterial, such
as coral. A different type is used for mtid.
NEw ORLEANS, considered by maxi to be one
of America's most cosmopolitan cities, will be familiar
to hundred to Canal Zne res den s byeend ofithis
who never have been to the Crescent City and know
little of its charms.
A few of those charms and some of the history
behind the modern city are discussed and presented
pictorially in an article beginning on page 1.1, which-
features an aerial photograph of the city.
Presenting Board of Directors.__, __ 3
New Second Famnily _____ ___ 5-
Doing Battle Against Bacteria______ 6
Preparing for Cleanup- - ___ 8
Lifeblood of Canal-Water-___ -__ 10
New Orleans-City of Charm__ ---- 11
Simulated Attack Tests Civil Defense._ __ 14
Toward Faster Data Processing____ 16
Scuba Diving and Safety_______ __ 17
Four Busy Years Ending-_ ____ __ 18
After 120 Years of Teaching______ 19
Anniversaries___ __ ______ 20
Promotions and Transfers______ -21
Canal History- - - 22
Change of Command for Police__) __ 23
Worth Knowing___________ 23
Shipping--_- __ _____L_ 24
From the Governor
PANAMA CANAL COMPANY
BALBOA HEIGHTS, C. Z'
OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
May 10, 1961
MEMORANDUM TO MARINE: DIRECTOR:
SUBJECT: Expeditious ITIandling ~of Record Traffic in
ON MONDAY file 8til Of May a niew\ record was set in which
46 ships were transited through thle Canal. This exceeds the
2 previous all time high record' for commercial traffic, 43 ships
in one day set on March 27, 1960. I am particularly pleased
that, in addition to setting an all time record for commercial
traffic, there were no ships held over and that the safety record
wias kept unblemished for the dlay.
In the five day period from Thursday the 4th of May through
Monday the 8th of May, 198 ocean-going ships were transited
through the Canal in addition to numerous small vessels under
300 tons. The above rate of handling ships could be accomplished
only by a great many men of the Na< igatlon and Locks Divisions
working many long hours of overtime, including extra shift work
and elimination of their normal "day off." These men have worked
cheerfully and efficiently, and their efforts have contributed
materially towards maintainig the world-wide reputation of
the ability of the Panama Canal organization to transit ships
expeditiously and safely from one ocean to the other.
Please inform the men of the Navigation and Locks Divisions
of my complete satisfaction in their outstanding performance and
extend to them my hearty congratulations.
1 1 President.
JUNE 2, 1961
Chairman of the Board
Elvis J. Stahr, Jr.
Secretary of the Army
A 10-MEMBER BOard of Directors which includes a new
Chairman and three former Board members has beeh
named to direct the affairs of the Panama Canal Com-
pany. The fist meeting of the new Board is to be held
this month in the Canal Zone.
Secretary of the Army Elvis J. Stahr, Jr., who became
a member of the Board at the time he assumed his
Duties in the top Army post, announced appointment of
the 10-member Board last month. The previous Board
had 13 members.
The new Chairman of the Board is Stephen Ailes,
Under Secretary of the Army, while the other new Board
members are J. Kenneth Mansfield of Farmington, Conn.;
Clarence D. Martin, Jr., of Spokane, Wash.; C. Robert
Mitchell of Kansas City, Mo.; State Senator Walter J.
Pearson of Portland, Oreg.; and Dr. Charles J. Zinn of
The three former Directors retained on the new
Board are Gov. W. A. Carter, Howard C. ]tetersen of
SPhiladelphia, and John W. Martyn of Washington, D.C.
J. Kenneth Mansield
John W. Martyn
State Senator W. J. Pearson
Dr. Charles J. Zinn
Howard C. Petersen
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Gov. W., A. Carter
Clarence D. Martin,Jr.
C. Robert Mitchell
Board Due on Isthmus June 4
STATESIDE members of the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal
Com any are scheduled to arrive on the Isthmus June 4 for a 2-da
meeting starting- the following day. Most of them will return to the
United States on June 7.
The 2-day meeting will include discussion of the Company's current
activities and poects, as well as plans for the years immediately ahead.
The Board members also will be taken on a tour of the Canal and its
The agenda for the Isthmian meeting, first to be held by the new
Board, will include a study and review of the Company's budgets for
both, the 1962 and 196i3 fiscal years. There also will be detailed explana-
tions of the: continuing programs now being carried out by the Company.
Under Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes, who is Chairman of the
Board of Directors, is slated to spend some time with Caribbean
Command and Headquarters, U.S. Armny Caribbean, as well as taking
part in the meeting of the Board.
The new chairman of the- Board is
a native of Romney, W. Va., where! he
was born March 25, 1912, but spent
most of his boyhood in Scarborough,
N.Y. ]He was graduated from Princeton
University in 1933 and 3 years later
received his bachelor of laws degree
from West Virginia University.
His civilian pursuits have been chiefly
concerned with law, having served as
an assistant professor of law at West
Virginia University from 1937 through
1940. He first entered Federal service
on the legal staff of the Office of Price
Administration during W~orld War II
and was Assistant General Counsel of
the Consumer Price Division.
After the war he returned to private
law practice in Washington for a year,
then was called back to Federal service
as Counsel to the American Economic
Mission to Greece, which developed the
aid program for Greece and Turkey.
In 1948, Mr. Ailes returned to private
law practice and, except for a brief
period in the Office of Price Stabiliza-
tion during the Korean conflict, con-
tinued as a private attorney until early
He was nominated for the post of
Under Secretary of the Army by
President Kennedy on February 9.
Mr. M~ansfield, a Phi Beta Kappa
graduate of Northwestern University in
1943, is a native of Chicago and at the
present time is Staff Director of the
Jackson Subcommittee, which is study-
ing the formulation and execution of
national security policy.
After Armny service during World
War II, Mr. Mansfield did graduate
work at Yale University and was
appointed to the Yale faculty as a
member of the International Relations
Department. He joined the staff of the
the Boy Scouts of America, of whiich
he is an Executive Board mem~ber.
Mr. Mitchell, President of the Federal
Savings and Loan Association of Kansas
City, is a native of Springfield, Mo., and
a graduate of Drury College there.
A Navy veteran of World War II,
Mr. Mitchell has been active in savings
and loan and real estate business organi-
zations, having served as president of
the United States Savings and Loan
League in 1959 and as a director and
officer of the Kansas City Real Estate
Board. A member of the Kansas City
Chamber of Commerce, the University
Club, and the Carriage Club, he also
is serving on the Board of Trustees of
Mr. Pearson, who was born in Blue-
field, W. Va., in 1903, was~educated in
the public schools of Portland, Oreg.,
and was graduated from the University
of Oregon with a bachelor s degree in
economics mn 1926. He is president of
the Pearson Insurance Co. of Portland
and has been active in politics since 1942.
A State Senator for the past 10 years,
Mr. Pearson also has served 4 years as
a State Representative, 4 years as State
Treasurer of Oregon, and was President
of the Oregon State Senate and Acting
Governor in 1959-60. He has 2 more
years to serve of his present term in the
Dr. Zinn, who has visited the Canal
Zone previouslyats~ a member of the
Governor's Committee on Revision of
the Canal Zone Code, was educated in
New York public schools and received
his bachelor of laws degree from
Fordham University in 1930.
Admitted to the New York Bar in
June 1931, Dr. Zinn was in private law
practice in New York for a number of
years and was named Law Revision
Counsel in the House of Representatives
in 1939, a position he still holds.
The author of publications on How
Our Laws Are Made, American Con-
gressional Procedure, The Veto Power
of the President, and numerous articles
in law journals and periodicals, Dr. Zinn
also has served as a professorial lecturer
in law at George Washington University
Gov. Carter became a member of the
Board of Directors and President of the
Panama Canal Company at the time he
assumed his duties as Governor in July
Fdlity- hI laelpnia T set Co fitrt
was appointed to the Board in 1953,
while Mr. Martyn, former Administra-
tive Assistant to the Secretary of the
Army, has been associated with the
Canal enterprise for many years and
was a member of the original Board of
Directors of the Pjanama Canal Comnpany.
Joint Congressional Committee on
Atomic Energy in 1950, serving as
Chief of Staff of the Subcommittee on
Military Applications of Atomic Energy.
He now is a member of the Advisory
Panel to the same subcommittee and
in 1958 served as a consultant on scien-
tific manpower problems at the Fourth
Parliamentarians' Conference of the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Mr. Martin, who was nominated as
Under Secretary of Commerce for
Transportation by President Kennedy
on February 9 and confirmed by the
Senate on the same day, is a native
of Spokane, Wash., and is a 1938
graduate of Harvard College.
Prior to world War II, he was asso-
ciated with the family flour business
in Cheney, Wash., but was called to
active service as a U.S. Navy Reserve
officer in May 1941, and served 5 years,
advancing: from ensign to lieutenant
commander, and including service as
Commanding Officer of the U.S. Naval
Air Facility at Middle River, Md.
After being released from active duty,
Mr. Martin entered the wholesale hard-
ware and rawr materials business in
Seattle, Wash., and since 1950 has been
engaged in business in Los Angeles
County, Calif., with a retail automobile
dealership in Santa Monica, and real
estate developments there and in Ingle-
wood, Calif., and Phoenix, Ariz. Fol-
lowing the 1955 death of his father,
who was Governor of Washington from
1933 to 1941, Mr. Martin also assumed
the management of the family's farming,
real estate, and investment business in
the State of Washington.
He is active in the Navy League of
the United States, having served as
president of both the Santa Monica and
California units of the organization, and
JUNE 2, 1961
New Lieutenant Governor and family in Washington home.
A NATIVE of St. Louis, Mo., who is
completing 3 years as Executive Of~eer
to the Chief of Engineers in Washing-
ton, D.C., will arrive on the Isthmus
June 28 to begin his service as Lieu-
tenant Governor of the Canal Zone and
Vice President of the Panama Canal
Col. Watlter P. Leber, who is succeed-
ing Col. John D. McElheny as the Canal
organization's second in command, will
be accompanied by his wife and three
children. The family will occupy the
official Lieutenant Governor's quarters
in Balboa Heights.
Lieutenant Governor McElheny and
his family left the Isthmus May 29 and,
through prior arrangement with his
successor, soon will beoccupying the
W~ashington house being vacated by
Colon-el Leber and his family.
Governor Carter and the new Lieu-
tenant Governor are acquainted with
each other, having served together pre-
viously, most recently while both were
assigned to. duties in the Pentagon.
A boating and fishing enthusiast,
Colonel Leber is expected to feel very
much at home in the water-abundant
area of the Isthmus. The new Lieu-
tenant Governor reportedly is an excel-
lent golfer, another favorite sparetime
pursuit on the Isthmus and one which
Governor Carter also pursues when
Mrs. Leber, a dress styliist in her own
right, takes a lively interest in commu-
nity affairs and h~as been active in a
number of organizations during past
years. She served as president of the
Officers' Wives Club of the Corps of
Engineers during 1960, a climax to
several years of service in other posts
within the club.
Now 42 years of age, Colonel Leber
was born on September 12, 1918, just
2 months before the end of World
War I. He was commissioned in the
Army Reserve in May 1940 upon
graduation from the Missouri School of
Mines at Rolla, Mo., slightly more than
18 months before the United States was
swept into World War II by the Japa-
nese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Called to active Army duty as a
reserve officer in March 1941, the new
Lieutenant Governor was commissioned
in the Regular Army in June 1942, at
approximately the same time as he was
sent to the European Theater of Opera-
tions, where he remained throughout
During his European tour of duty,
Colonel Leber first served as a staff
of~eer in the Office of the Chief of
Engineers, European Theater, and
later was Executive Officer of the
Engineer Division, Advance Section
For several years after the war, Colo-
nel Leber was assigned to duties in
connection with the atomic energy
program of the United States. Soon after
returning from Europe in 1946 he was
assigned to the Manhattan District at
Oak Ridge, Tenn., in charge of one of
the projects then underway there. After
completion of that assignment he served
from, 1947 to 1949 as Chief of the Tech-
nical Branch of the Military Liaison
Committee to the Atomic Energy
His assignment in the atomic energy
field was followed by service, during
1949 and 1950, in the North Pacific
Division of the Corps of Engineers. He
first was assigned as Assistant: to the
District Engineer in Seattle, Wash.,
and later as Executive Ofl~eer at Wialla
Following a tour of duty at Fort Sill,
Okla., during which he served as both
a battalion and later a group com-
mander, Colonel Leber wvas assigned
to the Department of the Army General
Staff in Washington from 1952 to 1955,
after which he attended the Command
and General Staff College at Fort
Leavenworth, Kans., from which he
was graduated in 1956, having been
promoted to colonel in 1955.
A tour of duty with the Eighth
U.S. Army in Korea followed the Fort
Leavenworth assignment, first as Deputy
Engineer and later as Commanding
Offieer of the Second Engineer Group
(Cons.). Another period of training fol-
10wed his return to the United States,
this time at the Industrial College of
the Armed Forces, from which he was
graduated in 1958.
Colonel Leber was assigned as Exec-
utive Officer to the Chief of Engineers,
the post he is leaving to assume h~is new
duties in the Canal Zone, after his
graduation from the Industrial College
THE PANAMAA CANAL REVIEW
Lt. Gov. W. P. Leber
and family to
arrive on Isthmus
1Train~in~ of food hrandlers is
one Iof many wea~ponls used in -
continuous effort to reduce
risks of food contamination. \
Henry Gaskin puts finishing touches on face of figure in cartoon as
T. G. Relihan, J. P. Smith, Jr., and Mack F. Bailey examine his handiwork.
Doing Battle Against Bacteria
TRAINING for Canal Zone workers is
a constant process to keep the labor
force abreast of changes in methods,
new developments in their field, or to
better equip then to do their jobs
easier, faster, and with more safety to
both themselves and others as well as
The programs of training are, for
the most part, developed by specialists
assigned to that task and trained in
finding ways to simplify and dramatize
the presentation and thus make it more
easily and readily understood.
A program carried out for food han-
dlers last month through the coopera-
tion of the Sanitation Division of the
Health Bureau, the Supply and Com-
munity Service Bureau, and the
Employee Development Unit of the Per-
sonnel Bureau employed cartoons and
oral presentation, combined with films.
In 16 separate presentations on both
sides of the Isthmus, Richard A.
Williams, sanitation inspector, and Fred
A. Dahl, training officer of the Bureau,
Outlined ways and means of minimizing
the danger of spreading harmful bac-
teria through food, with more than 400
food handlers attending the programs.
In addition to the cartoons used by
Mr. Williams to emphasize the nature
Richard A. Williams
I ( holds bacteria
culture in one hand
as he talks
.Tt~. ito food handlers.
of harmful bacteria and related micro-
organisms, bacteria cultures developed
from such common sources as finger-
prints, coughs, and residue from a
supposedly clean comb were used to
provide a visual means of pointing out
the rapid growth of bacteria.
Mr. Williams also used several props
to demonstrate the shapes of the various
kinds of micro-organisms, explained how
they develop, and what makes them
harmful or helpful, as the case may be.
Following the presentation by
Mr. Williams, which required approxi-
mately an hour, Mr. Dahl showed twvo
films with further information about
safe and unsafe ways of handling food
in the constant battle against bacteria
and other micro-orgamisms.
The various cartoons used by Mr. Wil-
liams, part of which are shown on the
opposite page with dialogue similar to
that which he used in explaining them,
were prepared by Henry Gaskin and
Pallu Jarvis in the sign shop of the
Retail Store Branch.
The interest aroused among food
Handlers attending the various programs
was indicated by the number of ques-
tions they asked following each program.
Mr. Dahl said the cartoons will be
used separately for future presentations
limited to a single aspect of the problem
and also will be available for any future
presentation of an overall program on
JUNE 2, 1961
"That ugly little fellow
is a germ. Of course, a
germ doesn't look like that,
but they can be a lot
nastier than this fellow
looks. You'll note that
there's just one on. board,
but a germ can solve that
problem by splitting every
20 minutes. In just 24
hours one germ can pro-
duce a family of more than
25 billion germs.
"This thing has
nothing to do with
the man who went
up at Cape Cana-
veral. It has a lot
to do with us and
our jobs, though,
as it is carrying
is all around us,
all the time. Our
job is to fight
what it carries.
Ty hoid fever
Un uant fever
"There are 65
can be .passed
from one person
to another. Of
these, 25 can be
through food or
Its ~~~our job to
keep that from
happening. A few
"These germs cis everywh-ere: All they need to live is a bit of moisture
and a moderate temperature. O~ur body temperature is just right for them
and the normal amouirit ojf moistul~'re onbur bodies is:`enough to keep them
going in great style. One reason it's so important that we wash frequently
is that washing takes some of them off our bodies. Germs particularly
like moist areas like our mouths and nostrils, but won't stay put there
if woe sneeze and cough, knocking them loose and spewing them all
around us in the air.
"It takes constant egfort to reduce the number of these germs, who
are around us all the time. We have quite a few ways of doing this, but
the best friend in our fight against themt is heat, portrayed by the blast
of this cannon. Heat kills germs, just like it will kill us or any other living
thing. Pasteurizing cooking, smoking, baking, and dehydrating all kill.
"In addition to fighting germs with heat, we also have other
weapons. One of them, oddly enough, is the opposite of heat,
as indicated by the iceberg-carrying missile. Buildings, too, are
importanzt-the way they are built and the way they are maintained,
Chemicals which kill insects and disease-carrying animals such as
rats help, as well as those we use in cleaning ourselves and the
equipment we use in connection with food.
"Its important that we use enough chemicals, including soap,
when washing things, so that we can kilas many germs as possible.
And, after washing things, it's important that we rinse them in water
which is at least 1700 and then let them dry in the air. A spot may
show up on some things as a result, but that spot Gisnt a health11 hrazacrd
like the germs which would be spread with a drying towel.
"This cemetery scene serves
two purposes. It depicts what
happens to germs if we do
things right, but also shows
what may happen to us or
someone eating contaminated
food if woe don't do our jobs
right. I'm sure all of us will
try to be just a little more
careful about things that
may spread germs after seeing
grow. Don'tou yo think~ ~rsop'ed
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
'"Germs Are Tough, But They Can Be Bested"'
brightens the brass
on Mindi's controls.
Suction dred ge Mi'ndi soon will
be back at familiar task of
cleaning channels and harbors.
machine to form more lengths of pipe.
Still useful pipe previously.used by
the dredge and stored in Gamboa is
being reconditioned, along. with the
pontoons on which it is floated behind
the vessel while in use.
The first task of the Mindi .after it
is moved from its dock next month will
be to remove some high spots which
have developed in the channel through
Gatun Lake. After about a month in
the lake it will be moved to Cristobal,
where it will resume its familiar task
of maintaining the depth of the harbor
and the approach channel to the Canal.
Machines have been at work for
several weeks at Telfer's Island, repair-
ing the dikes inside which the material
dredged up by the Mindi will be dis-
charged. Like previous dry-land dis-
charge from the dredge, this material
will- be used to raise the Jevel of an
area which now is part of a tidal
swamp and thus achieve the objective
of improving sanitation conditions on
the Atlantic side by eliminating at least
a small tract of land where sandflies now
breed and develop in IArge:numbers.
Present estimates are that the Mindi
will be able to complete its Atlantic
side assignment by about the first of
the year and then will be brought to
the Pacific side, where it will duplicate
its Atlantic work by dredging the
approach channels and harbor at Balboa.
The 28-inch dredge, which is capable
of reaching some 70 feet below the
surf ace of th~e water, is a tremendously
powerful, underwater vacuum cleaner
capable of moving not only. mud and
water but sizable chunks of coral, stone,
and other solid materials, which in the
chipped, cleaned, anid repainted to
protect them. against the sea water
which soon will be splattering against
the dredge as it works in the approach
channel and harbor at Cristobal.
Operating machiliery aboard the
vessel has been completely overhauled,
with most of the smaller work done in
the dredge's own machine shop. The
internal piping also has been overhauled
and repaired, while new discharge pipe
is being readied,
A huge pile of new discharge pipe
for the dredge is taking shape in the
boiler shop of the Industrial Division,
while close by, big sheets of extra tough
V2L-inch steel are being rolled into cir.
cular form, then the two edges welded
together with an automatic welding
AFTER BEING idle? for approximately
2V2 yearS, the Canal's huge suction
dredge Mindi will be put back into
service on harbor an'i channel main-
tenance next month, while the dipper
dredge Paraiso will join the Cascadas
on the Cut-wiidening project.
Reactivation of the Mindi and the
simultaneous use of the two dipper
dredges on the Cut-widening job will
mark the first time in a number of years
i that all of the Canal's big dredges have
bee in, ue at, the same time. c
The routine maintenance work on the
Mindi since it was put in the reserve
fleet in December 1958 now is being
augmented by a virtually complete
overhaul of the auxiliary equipment.
Metal parts on the dredge have been
T~his mass of pipe in the Industrial Division soon will be carrying discharge from the Mindi.
.JUNE 2, 19 1
past have included such oddments as
an outboard motor, a pressurized tank
of oxygen, and even pieces of old
rail abandoned in the Canal during
During the year ahead, the Mindi
will have very little rest, with opera-
tions scheduled to keep it hauling up
material from the bottom at the rate
of 20,000 cubic yards or more per
day, up to a theoretical maximum of
about 60,000 cubic yards under ideal
David J. Burkett will serve as master
of the reactivated Mindi, transferring to
it from other floating equipment which
he has been operating for the Canal.
C. T. Askew, who left the Zone when
the Mindi was put in the reserve fleet,
has returned after being engaged in
dredging work in both Venezuela and
Florida and will serve as first mate of
the vessel, while R. M. Christensen, who
has been with the Mindi throughout the
layup period, except for brief relief
assignments to other floating equipment,
will serve as chief engineer.
The chief engineer and fi1ve men have
constituted the full crew of the vessel
during the layup period, but although
the Mindi has been idle throughout that
time, the men have not. They have
overhauled valves, pumps, small tur-
bines and other equipment aboard the
vessel and once each week have fired
up and operated the 5,000 horse-
power steam engine which supplies the
Auxiliary floating equipment for the
Mindi also has been receiving an over-
haul in preparation for the reactivation,
with the anchor barge having its bottom
repaired in drydock at Cristobal, as
well as having its engines over-
being used to shape
sheets of steel
hauled, and its electrical wiring system
The massiveness of the Mindi, which
is one of the world's largest suction
dredges, is one of its most striking
features. From the forward edge of the
22-ton cutter head which chops up
underwater material like a meatchopper
grinds hamburger, to the 100-foot long,
66-ton spuds at the rear, the vessel is
some 300 feet long.
The 100-foot ladder which protrudes
in front of the main body of the Mindi
and at the forward end of which the
Welder Ben Favorite
-- and Helper
Tombs E. Obeso
cutter head is mounted, can be easily
raised or lowered by the massive power
of the vessel's engine, while the tre-
mendous suction of the machine gobbles
up tons of earth and other loosened
material through the 36-inch maw in
the center of the cutting head.
The dipper dredge Paraiso, which
soon will join its sister vessel, the
Cascadas, on the Cut-widening project,
now is tied up in Gamboa awaiting the
start of its new duties. Plans to put both
of them into operation on the widening3an~
work are designed to push theCal
organization s part of the project and
bring the underwater excavation
abreast of the dry land excavation being
performed by Foster-W~illiams Bros.
The Paraiso was returned to the
Canal earlier this year after having been
on loan for use in the St. Lawrence
Seaway project since 1957. Shortly after
its return here, it was put to work on
the Cut-widening, relieving the Cas-
cadas for a short while so repairs could
be made to the latter. More recently,
it has joined the Cascadas for several
weeks of channel maintenance work in
Gaillard Cut, remoymng a number of
hig sptswhich had developed and
werehreatening to reduce the usable
draft of the Canal.
Some men have been hired to man
the Mindi and the Paraiso and more
will be added in the weeks ahead to
achieve full operating status for the
two dredging vessels.
TH PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Fresh and salt water make foamy mixture at Gatun Locks a's chambers in both lanes spill 55 million gallons of fresh water into the sea.
EACH TIME R tranSit frOm ocean-to-ocean is completed
through the Panama Canal, 55 million gallons of fresh water
runs through the locks to mingle with the salt water of the
ocean. In the course of a year, approximately 600 billion
gallons of water thus are released through the Canal.
Because of the near-tropical rainfall on the Isthmus, this
vast amount of water isn't difficult to obtain-except during
the dry season, when lack of rain forces the Canal to rely
on water stored in Gatun and Madden Lakes. During the dry
season which now is ending, approximately 210 billion gallons
of water--or about two-thirds of the available water in the
two lakes--was used to transit ships.
Gatun Lake, which stood at 87 feet above sea level as the
year opened, was near the 83%/-foot mark in the last half
of May, and Madden Lake, which stood at 250 feet above sea
level as the year opened, had been lowered to about 210 feet.
According to the Report on a Long-Range Program for
Isthmian Canal Transits submitted to Congress by the Mer-
chant Marine and Fisheries Committee of the House of
Representatives last year, the water available from the two
lakes during a dry season 5 months long would be able to
handle an average of 42 complete lockages per day. In the
4%z-montli period from January 1 through May 15 of this year,
lockages averaged just short of 29 per day.
Each dry season, as Gatun Lake falls from its normal rainy
season level of 85 feet or more, the placid appearance of the
lake's surface, particularly in the shallow areas, is broken
b~y the appearance of literally thousands upon thousands of
still sturdy tree stumps, left there by trees abandoned to a
watery grave when the lake was filled in the years before
'th; Canal opened. Most of the trees since have rotted at the
normal water line and tumbled into the lake, but their stumps
still Jurk below the surface, reminders of the days when the
lake area was covered by trees instead of water.
as dry season
JUNE 2, 1961
]Lifeblood of Canal
Most of the downtown area is visible in this view of New Orleans, in which the Army Transportation Terminal is at upper right.
New Orleans -- City of Charm
MARDI GRAS, pralines, bayous, fine
food, pirates, the French Quarter,
Bourbon Street jazz, the Sugar Bowl,
voodoo, cotton, the last battle of the
War of 1812, and Evangeline. These
are some of the things which merge
to form the mental image that many
U.S. citizens have of New Orleans, now
the stateside port of arrival and depar-
ture for most Company-Government
employees traveling on home leave.
Rich in O~ld-World charm, New 7
Orleans often has been called "America's
most interesting city," and small wonder.
Founded by the Spanish, later acquired
by the French, and then transferred
to the United States in history's biggest
real estate deal, the city's architecture
and cuisine still reflect Spanish and
This metropolis of 878,000 persons,
with a rich ante-bellum heritage and
a bustling, active present, serves as a
natural and logical gateway to the mid-
continent area of the United States and
is a major link between the United
States and the countries of Central and
The Port of New Orleans, which
ranks as the second U.S. port in value
of foreign commerce passing through
it, offers facilities which are among the
finest available anywhere. The facilities
include~ the harbor frontage of Orleans
Parish and parts of three neighboring
parishes, the Inner Hlarbor Navigational
Canal, which connects the Mississippi
with famous Lake Pontchartrain, and
frontage along a 76-mile tidewater ship
channel now under construction be-
tween the river and the Gulf of Mexico.
Canal Zone residents arriving in New
Orleans aboard the Company-operated
steamship will find a cosmopolitan city
with myriad inducements to linger a
while but also served by excellent trans-
portation facilities for travelers who
wish to go elsewhere.
For those who are staying overnight
or longer, the downtown district is well
supplied with numerous hotels and
eating places, while motels and related
facilities are abundant at the city's
fringes. From the Army Transportation
Terminal where the Company steam-
ship docks it is a 15-minute ride to
the downtown district and about a
45-minute ride to the airport.
The attractions of cuisine and enter-
tainment available in the ciYty are
perhaps its most well-known faue
As Booton Herndon observed in a recent
article about New Orleans which
appeared in Better Hiomes ir Gardens,
"Jazz began on Bourbon Street, and
Bourbon Street begins about midnight."
But he also said, "New Orleans hums
the year round, but most major events
occur during the winter an~d spring.
A midwinter sports carnival begins the
big season on the twelfth night after
Christmas, and there is no stopping until
Mardi Gras, 41 days before Easter."
There are other lures, however. Five
museums located in the city offer dis-
plays which include the world's finest
collection of Mayan artifacts, an exhlibit
tracing the history of medicine in New
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
IF YOU ARE taking an automobile to the United States from the Canal
Zone, there are several things worth knowing to save yourself time, troubled.
1. The car must be free of any foreign soil-before it leaves the Isthmu~s.
2. If it is foreign-built and U.S. duty has not been paid, it is dutiable aIt the
rate of 8V/2 percent of appraised value, which normally is far less than the
sale price. (On one make of popular foreign car, the Customs S.-rtice
appraised value when the car is new is slightly more than half the sale prie.,
Regular Customs exemptions may be applied against the appraised \alue
to reduce or possibly even eliminate the payment of duty.
3. If the car is American-made and originally was sold in the United States.
there is no charge for taking it back into the country-if proof of its U.S. saile
can be provided. If it was built in the United States but sold abroad o~r f~r
delivery abroad, a slight duty charge will be made for foreign-made ma~tcrinls
used in its manufacture on which the manufacturer recovered the originl ~i
import duties at the time the finished car was exported. Depending on n-r~lke
of car, this usually is $1 to $5, but for a very few cars may be up to $28.50 l
One gallon of alcoholic beverages may be taken in free of duty by returning
residents, but because of State laws in Louisiana which limit the amount
of such beverages which any person may have in their possession, youwll \ 1
not be permitted to take more than one gallon ashore even if you are n lIlIng $
to pay import duties on the excess.
With ships leaving Cristobal at 9 p~m., a meal for passengers will be serv\ cd
aboard ship from 7 to 8 p~m. Breakfast will be served prior to the 6 a.n.
arrival in New Orleans, and also prior to debarkation in Cristobal. A nuous II
meal will be served aboard ship on southbound sailings, which licave
New Orleans at 1 p~m.
On the return trip from New Orleans, all cars and hold baggage ma\ be
left at the New Orleans dock 3 working days prior to sailing and mlist
be there no later than 10 a.m. on the last working day before sailing. cab-in
baggage must go aboard at the same time as the passenger and will noct
be accepted ahead of the passenger.
downlown ar during famnou, hlardi Gras cele
Canal Street is the main thoroughfare through downtown New Orleans.
The fancy ironwork which frames this view of St. Louis Cathedral and the
Cabildo, where the Louisiana Purchase was finalized, is typical of ornamen-
tation on many of the homes and buildings in the older part of the city.
Thi, ir the iame
631 degrees, while the normal clal\
average from April through 5~. ptc mber
is 78.6 degrees. Freezing \\rather
seldom is experienced and the! tc=-m-
perature goes above 95 degrcc-s o.n an
average of only 6 days per !icar.
Southern Louisiana, readily\ asr c essiblc
Ilrrr So. rletifu r hsh?-inhab~ited
vwatcrs tha~t ; it Ir, possblr to, hjh motri!
dai ~ ~ b~l cin thel \,\ lhnasdius o
I~IoiI mie .1nc the city\ h3n-j itht r iin
The se b ad\ ':'t'tof water toices \hc
In\l. adeli t\ !clicin to seasona~.l atra tions
Il. l~'.. b I the hil trcld(.j c -ith n ali cl
Tcpioil. ts of a ttll kinds 14nd a a wecoe at
"r al (1 i JilC'ito \ l IC Il 31 11.151
deles: the Icit inchede 11 tbscheul crla air
l~, :ines a~l-ein b2 (ll~dr flght l arrita S an
d.. qhrn res dlri trom AloriiSan INter-
nationald AirpIrtinludn jeS'.SCt sevce
al~tc 516 l-li \..n series l~l~ passepnge
Orleans, art treasures, several State
historical exhibits, and, of course, a
collection of Civil War relics.
Considered both a summer and
winter resort, the normal daily average
temperature in New Orleans from
October through March is a comfortable
Pirates' Alley, in French Quarter, is in heart of the old city.
officials report that the Army Transpor-
tation Terminal has been very helpful
in arranging things for the convenience
of those arriving on Company steam-
ships and has done everything possible
to make your visit a pleasant one.
So, bon voyage!
St. Louis Cathedral, built
in 1794, and the famous
statue of Andrew Jackson
are two of the city's
best-known tourist meccas.
Jach' 2. 1961
Main Control Center for Zone participation in Civil Defense alert was a busy spot for many hours, handling messages about "attack."
Simulated Attack Tests Civil Defense
John D. Hollen, Chief Monitor for exercise, and _J. B. Clemmons, Jr.,
Assistant to Civil Affairs Director, were two of busiest participants.
T~wo theoretical nuclear
blasts rip Zone in test exercise,
causing heavy casualties.
A SIMULATED Huclear blast above
Limon Bay near the entrance to the
Cristobal breakwater and a second deto-
nation 6,600 feet high and a mile west
of Fort Kobbe theoretically brought
heavy damage to both sides of the
Canal Zone, killing virtually all inhabi-
tants on the Atlantic side, a majority
of those in Gamboa, and a number on
the Pacific side.
These simulated blasts did not
actually occur, of course, but were the
key elements in OPERATION ALERT
1961, the Civil Defense exercise in
which the Canal Zone joined the United
States at the end of April.
The general objective of the alert,
which was limited to a command post
operation, wvas a test exercise in manning
JUNE 2, 1961
1:;:.ism de la Mater and James Brigman plot data
on map to determine probable effect of "bombs."
Roger Howe mans radiotelephone in main
c;..trol room during busy part of alert.
relocation sites, preparing normal offices
for emergency operations, use of emer-
gency communication facilities, making
decisions and directing action under
attack conditions, and managing avail-
able resources both before and after
In the theoretical situation built up
prior to the attack, the Offce of Civil
Defense Mobilization issued warnings
that an international situation was
developing which might culminate in an
attack on the United States. The situa-
tion wcorsened during the day of April 28
and the actual warning of imminent
attack was issued at 4 p.m. that day.
As part of the plan for the exercise,
leading officials of the Canal organize_
tion and the Civil Defense Unit pre-
pared last minute plans for their
operations in event of attack, prior to
the time of the first nuclear blast over
As a result of the pre-attack warnings,
those participating in the exercise pre-
pared orders which would have cleared
the Canal of all ships before the Einal
warning was received. Masters of all
ships requesting transit during the
afternoon were--theoretically, but not
actually-ordere~d to leave copies of their
manifests with Canal authorities, then
pull offshore a safe distance and standbjr
for orders. Thus a large reserve of
evacuation transportation and possibly
useful cargo was held at the Canal in
event it were needed,
Orders were prepared to have all
Canal tugs, launches, and floating
equipment removed from the Canal and
harbors and taken a safe distance into
the ocean to protect them and add to
the reserve fleet.
During the "increased readiness
buildup" period prior to the attack, the
Main Control Center of the Civil
William Wigg and Mr. de la 1Mater dis-
cuss messages received about attack.
that fallout in the area was minimal.
By plotting blast and fallout data
from the fragmentary pre-positioned
messages, the staff in the Main Control
Center arrived at the conclusion that
the Limon Bay blast had completely
destroyed everything within a radius of
4 miles, including Cristobal, Margarita,
Coco Solo, Fort Sherman, and inter-
mediate points. It also was assumed
that Fort Gulick and Gatun were
heavily damaged and that fallout would
kill all who survived the initial blast,
with the possible exception of a few
in underground areas.
The Mlain Control Center personnel
also arrived at the conclusion that resi-
dents of Gamboa probably would not
have been aware of the danger in time
to avoid deadly radiation fallout from
the first blast, the effects of which would
have reached the mid-Isthmus com-
munity an hour after the explosion.
The second nuclear blast, which
occurred at 6S:40 p.m. near Fort Kobbe,
was assumed to have completely des-
(See p. 19)
Defense operation was opened at
Balboa Heights, while an Alternate
Control Center was activated in Cris-
tobal, and a Reserve Control Center
was put into operation at Gamboa.
Pre-positioned messages giving frag-
ments of information about the simu-
lated attack were sent from the various
outlying areas to the Main Control
Center, with first indications of the blast
over Limon Bay arriving at 5:54 p.m.
After that, the arrival and dispatch of
messages through the Main Control
Center increased rapidly and from the
fragments of information it was esti-
mated that the Limon Bay blast was
of 5 megaton value.
After the attack, orders were pre-
pared for the Ancon to deviate from
her course to New Orleans and put in
at Kingston, Jamaica, discharge her
passengers there, and return to the Zone
with any medical supplies and person-
nel which could be obtained. On the
Pacific side of the Isthmus, armed
guards were detailed to safeguard all
food supplies after it was determined
Mrs. Barbara Hutchings
and Mrs. Fannie Sosa
help with calls
in Control Center.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Feasibility of using
electronic computers to
be studied by special group.
Members of the electronic computer study group discuss plans with Comp-
troller. Left to right are A. J. O'Leary, M. B. Huff, William Goldfein, Howard
Turner, and Mr. Steers. John Montanye, upper left, is on leave in the States.
Toward Faster Data Processing
ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS, which now
are playing a major role in both Govern-
ment organizations and business firms,
may be called into use by the Canal
organization to help with 'the account-
ing, statistical, and other data needs
of the Company-Government.
A special staff group of employees
has been named to conduct a study of
the organization's recordkeeping and
recordmaking procedures and opera-
tions to determine if, how, and in what
ways electronic data processing could
serve the enterprise.
One possible use of such a system,
for example, would be for inventory
control purposes. In such a usage, and
depending uon the extent of the appli-
cation of th electronic process, with-
drawals and additions of specific items
from inventory would be included in
the data fed to the computer and the
total amount on hand of any item could
be determined immediately simply by
asking the machine for the information.
Other potential uses would be in
figuring and preparing pay checks,
including accounting for payroll deduc-
tions, and recording all personnel infor-
mation about the various employees.
Comptroller Philip L. Steers, Jr.,
named the special staff group which
will make the feasibility study and
announced that the group is expected
to complete the study and make a final
i-eport by the end of this year.
Members of the group are Deputy
Comptroller Arthur J. O'Leary, who will
serve as chairman; Hloward E. Turner,
now Chief of the Payroll and Machine
Accounting Branch, who will be
deputy chairman, and William Gold-
fein, Maenner B. Huff, and John
Montanye, all systems accountants.
Members of the staff group and a
number of other employees in the Office
of the Comptroller, including Mr. Steers
and key members of his staff, have
taken special study courses and attended
seminars and conferences on automatic
data processing (ADP) preparatory to
Mr. Turner has taken computer
programing and systems courses in the
United States and has extensive experi-
ence mn data processing. During the past
year and a half, Mr. Turner has con-
centrated his efforts on reprogrammng
the workload in the present data pro-
cessing unit to improve operations and
as an auxiliary step toward evaluating
the feasibility of ADP. Good programing
in the present operation is advantageous
in any transition to more rapid means
of accumulating accounting data.
Messrs. Goldfein and Montanye
recently completed a 7-month Middle
Management Intern Program on ADP
in Washington to enable them to
recognize and exploit the potentialities
of ADP and thus be able to play a more
effective role in the feasibility study.
During the training program, Mr.
Montanye worked with the Inter-
national Cooperation Administration
and the Army Ordinance Corps, assisting
them with their ADP programing.
Mr. Goldfein worked with t~he Post
Office Headquarters and the Federal
Communications Commiission, assisting
with ADP feasibility and applications
In addition to the members of the
study group named by Mr. Steers, rep-
resentatives of the operating bureaus
affected will be added to the group
as it becomes necessary Outside con-
sultants also will be engaged to assist,
guide, and monitor the study by the
The study will be primarily directed
to the feasibility of using ADP in the
areas of payroll, inventory, plant
accounting, and other activities now
served by the machine accounting
method. In addition to these major
areas, however, the study also will
include a general analysis of the fea-
sibility of using ADP) in other volume
areas, such as hospital and school
Major objective of the study will be
to determine if new equipment and
an appropriate system will be more
efficient and less expensive than the
present data-processing methods used
JUTNE 2, 1961
DIVER'S DAILY DOZEN
by the Company-Government. The
recommendations of the study must be
fully documented and will be reviewed
by and coordinated with the General
Accounting Office before any action
Mr. Steers says that definite and
valuable benefits are expected from the
study, whether it results in a recom-
mendation for or against ADP. He
points out that the intensive study of
various Company-Government opera-
tions which will be necessary todee-
mine if ADP is feasible is expected to
result in improved methods in a number
of areas, even though ADP may not
be adopted for a specific area.
An ADP system for performing data-
handling operations would utilize an
electronic digital computer in which
operating instructions can be stored
along with the data being processed.
Instructions thus stored can be manipu-
lated exactly the same way as the
data they relate to, thus producing
desired data at any time.
Accuracy, speed, and flexibility are
the major benefits derived from the use
of automatic equipment, but other
benefits may also be derived from it.
'These include the handling of more
complete and informative data at little,
if any, additional cost.
The decision to make a full-scale
study of ADP potentialities as they
relate to the needs of the Company-
Government was made following a pre-
lm inr evie mhic i cate t
'three areas of operation having maxi_
mum volume and considered most
readily susceptible to use of ADP
Asked how adoption of ADP would
affect personnel in the areas involved,
Mr. Steers said experience has shown
that any reductions which might occur
in stafing needs normally can be accom-
plished through attrition. Present
employees would be given extensive
training on ADP operations at the time
of implementation, so that they could
be retained in the new system, he said.
Mr. Steers said the primary purpose
of an ADP system is to improve the effi-
ciency of operations at minimum, cost
arid it is essential that the accounting
and related processes of the Canal
organization be kept abreast of progress
in the profession.
He also noted that if the feasibility
study indicates that ADP equipment
should be used here, completion of the
study-and subsequent programing could
not be accomplished before 1963 or
1964, with actual implementation in the
various areas being achieved gradually
until an emergency occurs. When this
happens, the well-trained diver knows
what to do to survive. The untrained
diver could drown or get badly hurt
because of his frantic and misguided
To cite one example, many dead
amateur divers would be alive today
if they had understood the principles
of air embolisn~i and how to prevent
it. Air embolism is an accident whch
occurs when a person inhales, holds his
breath and rises rapidly in the water.
Pressure in the lungs mecreases (one lungB
full of air at 33 feet under water wl
expand to two lungs full in the ascent
to the surface). If not exhaled, the air
bursts from the lungs into the blood
stream and is fatal.
Understanding the physiological and
psychological principles of diving is
vital for a diver s safety. Proper inten-
sive training in the use of diving
equipment is also necessary.
FOUR STUDENTS at a southern univer-
sity died while Scuba diving last year.
These students might have been alive
today had they known diving safety.
The term Scuba is an abbreviation
of self-contained underwater breathing
apparatus. T~he Scuba diver carries a
breathing tank on his back and can
maneuver freely under water without
having to come up for air or drag along
a tangle of tubes and cables.
Of the two basic breathing devices
-open circuit and closed circuit-the
open circuit is less dangerous, using
compressed air and not involving the
rebreathing of any exhaled air.
An increasing number of people have
taken up this fascinating underwater
sport. Many literally dive into danger
because of poor swimming ability, no
knowledge of underwater environment,
and no training or experience in using
underwater breathing equipment.
Scuba diving is deceptively easy
1. Use a buddy system-ever,
never dive alone.
2. Be an excellent swimmer.
3. Have a complete medical
chep -huyicaivaend n ntal cndtio
Never dive with a cold, sinus con-
dton,caor er nfbrioa. eDor nt
gas-producing foods before diving.
4. Learn Scuba skills from a quali-
fled instructor and practice to profi-
ciency. Study the physiological
dangers of diving and know how to
prevent and neutralize them.
5. Use only approved equipment
and check it before each dive. Obtain
your compressed air at recognized
6. Study the U.S. Navy's decomn-
pression tables so you will know the
length of time you must stay at
different levels before surfacing,
based on the de th and duration of
a dive. Remem er that successive
dives within a day or even a week
require longer periods to surface.
exh AleAi~ris ac rid slowly and
8. Fly a diver's flag whenever
anyone is down.
9. Be able to free tanks and
weight belts instantly.
10. Wear depth gauge and water-
proof watch for deeper dives.
11. Know your diving limitations
and respect them.
12. Practice pushing the panic
button-plan and test your emergency
YEAR TO DATE
FIRS-T AID DISABLING DAYS
CASES INJURIES LOST
'61 '60 '61 '60 '61: '80
216 246 10 17 220 6287
1065(397) 997 51(4) 49 1198(58) 6710
( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries included in total.
THE: PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Scuba Divmng and Safety
Lt. Col. R. D. Brown, Jr., and family gathered at stairway of their home.
LT. COL. R. DUNCAN BROWN, Jr.,
who leaves the Canal Zone at the end
of June, has served the Canal as
Engineering and Construction Director
during one of the largest and most diver-
sified Company-Government construc-
tion programs since the Canal was
opened to traffic in 1914.
When he arrived here in July 1957
to succeed Col. Hugh M. Arnold, Canal
contracts valued at $5,000 or more
totaled only $7,631,091. During the
4 years that he has directed the affairs
of the Engineering and Construction
Bureau, the total value of the contracts
which are not completed but have been
started has increased to $36,472,636.
The latter amount does not include
projects started earlier and completed
during his tour of duty, such as conver-
sion of Canal electrical equipment to
60-cycle current and the $7 million
Paraiso-Cucaracha Reach widening
project, which was one of the first steps
in the long-range plan for increasing
the capacity arid moder~nizing the
Pnanama Canal. "
,It does include the high-levtel bridge
across the Canal at Baliboa, :the con-
'struction of new towing Toodmotive to
replace the venerable Canal "mules,"
the initial studies and designs for the
marine traffic control system, plans for
the construction of the new seven-story
Gorgas Hospital, the Empire Reach
,and Bas Obispo widening project, and
several other items~included in the.long-
range study of Canal improvements.
As Director of the Engineering and
Construction Bureau, fast-nrioving,
energetic Colonel Brown is also the
Canal's Contract Officer. He has had
direct supervision over six divisions:
Engineering, Dredging, Electrical,
Maintenance, Contract and Inspection,
Cut-widening, and the Balboa Bridge
Project. In addition to dividing his time
between the office and the fields, he was
one of the ~first E. & C. directors to travel
to Europe and the Far East in connec-
tion with his work. These were inspec-
tion trips on matters pertaining to the
Balboa bridge and the towig locomo-
tive contracts-one involving the use of
foreign materials and the other foreign
Although Colonel Brown wvas sched-
uled to complete his tour of duty here
last year, he was granted a 1-year exten-
sion by the Secretary of the Army mn an
authorization which took note of the
diversified construction under way or
about to be started in connection viith
the Canal's modernization.
As an officer of the US. Army Corps
of Engineers, co~nstru~ctionl programs are
not new to Colonel Brown, who has had
a hand in building military camps and
airfields in Germany and France, super-
vising work in Alaska, and serving as
Executive Officer .in the Omaha
Engineer District for 2 years before
coming to the Canal Zone in 1957.
Between assignments in the field,
he has returned to school, taking his
master of science degree in civil
engineering at Texas A. & M. in 1947,
and completing the engineer Officers'
advanced class at Fort Belvoir, Va., in
1950. He also is a graduate of the
Army's Command and General Staff
College at Fort Leavenwor-th, Kans.
He graduated from the U.S. Military
Academy at West Point with the class
of 1941 and served with the Artiller
in the Aleutian Islands during W~oel
War II. After a tour of duty in Wash-
ington and another in Alaska as poject
engineer and assistant chief ofthe
Construction Division of the Alaska
Engineer District, he was sent to Ger-
many to command the 406th Engineer
Construction Battalion. He later was
Executive Officer at the U.S. Army
Engineer School in Murnau, Germany.
During his 4 years on the Isthmus,
Colonel Brown and his attractive wife,
Molly, have become popular members
of the Canal Zone community.
Their four children, two boys and
two girls, have attended the Canal Zone
schools and the eldest, Robert D.
Brown, III, will graduate from Balboa
High School this June and is expecting
to follow in his father's footsteps by
entering West Point this fall.
When Colonel Brown hasn't been
busy with the affairs of the Engineering
and Construction Bureau, he has played
golf, gone deep-sea fishing, and spent
his spare time studying foreign lan-
guages. He and his wife also have
been active in the affairs of St. Luke's
When he leaves the Isthmus, he will
go back to school again. He has been
assigned to attend the Industrial College
of the Armed Forces at Fort Lesley J.
McNair, in Washington, D.C.
JUNE 2, 1961
Director of Engineering
and Constructio~n Bureau
leaving post later this month.
TwO WOMEN and two men with a
total of more than 120 years of teaching
service in the Canal Zone school system
will close the door on their teaching
careers when the current school year
ends June 6.
They are Miss Mercedes Castro,
Spanish teacher for 30 years; Miss
Monica Farley, elementary school
teacher for 35 years; Edward W. Hat-
chett, Sr., mathematics teacher for
30 years; and Noel E. Gibson, manual
training teacher for 25 years.
Miss Castro was born in Panama
City and is the daughter of a one-time
employee of the Panama Railroad. She
attended public schools in Panama and
on Staten Island, where she was
graduated in 1915. For 2 years after
graduation she taught private classes in
English, then from 1917 to 1929 taught
Spanish and English in Panama schools.
In 1930, Miss Castro became a
Spanish teacher in the Canal Zone
grade schools and since 1942 has been
a junior high school teacher. In recogni-
tion of her long service, she this year
had the honor of cutting the ribbon for
the official opening of the junior high
school in Diablo Heights. She will
Miss Farley Mr. Hatchett
school vacation periods. Mr. H~atchett
also was awarded the citation of the
Eloy Alfaro -International Foundation.
He was secretary of the Canal Zone
Central Labor Union and Metal Trades
Council for many years- and served as
president of the organization from 1955
until January 1961, when he voluntarily
left the position. He alsb has served
as president of the Teachers Union
in the Zone.
Mr. and Mrs. Hatchett will leave the
Isthmus June 8 aboard the SS Ancon
and plan to travel in the United States
and Canada prior to going to Orlando,
F'la., to spend next winter,
Mr. Gibson, a native of Louisville, Ill.,
and a graduate of. Bradley College in
that State, has been a member of the
Cristobal High Schook -faculty during
most of his Canal Zone service. Before
coming to the Zane 25 years ago, he
taught manual arts and was a coach
at th7e W~oodhull, Ill., high school.
Although he is retiring from Com-
pany-Government service, Mr. Gibson
will remain on the Isthmus, as Mrs.
Gibson is a teacher in the second grade
at Coco Solo Elementary School. They
plan to retire to Florida later.
make her home in Panama City after
Miss Farley, who has taught in the
elementary schools in Balboa, Ancon,
and Diablo, where she served this year,
received her retirement certificate last
November, but was reemployed for the
remainder of the school year for the
good of the service,
After leaving the Isthmus, Miss Farley
plans to travel in the United States
before selecting a permanent residence.
Mr. Hatchett, who has taught both
high school and junior college mathe-
matics in the Zone school system, is a
native of Yanceyville, N.C. He attended
the U.S. Naval Academy from 1919 to
1923, received his bachelor of arts
degree at Duke University and his
master's degree at Columbia, and taught
high school classes in Durham, N.C.,
before coming to the Isthmus.
The retiring mathematics teacher,
who was decorated by the Government
of the Republic of Panama with the
Order of Vasco Nifiez de Balboa in
recognition of his many years of work
with Panamanian children attending
Zone schools, also has taught at the Uni-
versity of Panama during several U.S.
analysis was made in the Main Control
Center shortly before midnight. This
analysis included plans for action in the
wake of the attack.
It was decided that women and chil-
dren who had survived the attack would
be evacuated the following day on the
vessels which had been he~cld offshore.
It also was decided that on-the-spot
inspection of damages and other recon-
naisance would be started on the Pacific
side at 6 a.m. An appraisal of the situa-
tion on the Atlantic side indicated that
survey teams could not safely be sent
into that area for at least 3 days.
When the near-midmight evaluation
was completed, the staff in the Mam
Control Center was reduced to the
minimum required. to receive radia-
tion fallout messages which had been
pre-positioned before the exercise
started and which continued to arrive
throughout the night.
The minimum staff left on duty
plotted the data as it was received and
sent regular reports to the Office of
Civil Defense Mobilization for Region
III in T~homasville, Ga., thus keeping
that office abreast of developments in
The Main Control Center finally was
closed and this phase of the exercise
terminated a fewi minutes before noon
the following day,' after having been
in operation for almost 24 hours during
the period prior to, during, and after
the simulated attack.
Col. John D. McElheny, who was
Acting Governor at the time, said the
exercise was by far the most realistic
of any Canal Zone Civil Defense opera-
tion to date and that many of the
simulated actions taken should be estab-
lished as "standard operating proce-
dure" under actual disaster conditions.
Civil Defense Exercise
(Continued fr~om p. 15)
troyed everything within a 5-mile radius
of ground zero, with the Administration
Building at Balboa Heights barely sur-
vivmng complete destruction. It was
assumed that the Main Control Center
in the basement of the building was
damaged, but usable.
Corgas Hospital also was severely
damaged in the second blast, although
some areas of the basement were con-
sidered to be sufficiently protected to
have permitted a few occupants to
After 9 p.m., the tempo of activity
in the Main Control Center slowed
somewhat, with principal activity
devoted to estimating damage and
evaluating the availability of remaining
To climax the exercise, a situation
'TmIEPAN~AMA CANAL REVIEWP
Walter N. Babb
Navigational Aid Work Z
Joseph J. Lukacs
" Heavy Laborer
Ch 11erCL~ook Operator -
John F. Runck~hre C .R g
Dayton S. Wilshire
Helper Lock Operator
Wilbert L. Ney
William H. Brown
Stock Control Clerk
Genaro N. Tufi6n
Vincent A. Hodgson
Helper Loc~k Operator
Samuel E. Johnson
Helper Marine Machinist
Helper Lock Operator
McDonald A. Thomas
Helper Marine Machinist
Raymond A. Davidson
Lock Operator Machinist
onAarti N aic* n
Heavy Labo e
.. H.d M ad 's
LuPPs A.D e los Rios
Pua fte e anter
Alfonso Mrinez A a
T.ar S. dreMericado
ALurae I. Dvis
Gwenoin BaA. D av
Catherine F. Blades
Lillian V. Brooms
Darrell A. Palmes
Miguel J. Babacaris
Violet L. Carrington
Dairy Field Leader
Sidney C. Thompson
Mildred Z. Johnson
Stock Control Clerk
Ruby C. Lindo
Linnett M. Turner
Winifred ~J. Curtle
Enriqueta C. De Polo
Ruby A. Mahon
Charles E. Staples
Lead Foreman Tire
William J. McKeown
Leader Liquid Fuels
Mesias L. Lewis
George Akin on
Lionel B. Cyrus
Daniel T. Foster
Georg G. Rowe
Floating Plant Firemnan
Helper Cable Splicer
James A. Wood
Leader Sheetmetal Worker
Calvin R. Burgess
Floating Plant Oiler
Helper Cable Splicer
John W. Acker
CI!vde C. Hurley
Beecham F. Dunn
Louis E. Martin
William J. Anderson
Daisy C. Drakes
INTERNAL SECUrRITY ,
Ruth R. Campbell
OFFICE. OF THE
Ralph R. Grassau
Clarence E. Notyce
Elsa L. Bailey
Supervisory Personnel Clerk
JUNvE 2, 1961
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
ip O. Beckford
Anthon H Hopiak, to Leader Shipwright.
GavleHuntet, to Maintenanceman
(Bas. Locks Division
Charles E. Leves, to Towing Locomotive
Leonardo A. Illueca, Floyd S. Smith, to
Helpe Lck prt.
Thomas N Pagep a Lok Operator.
Eliott F. Brathwaite, to Stock Control
Melvin O. Husband, to Toolroom Attend-
Richard E. Kresge, to Cuard Supervisor.
Robert A. Christie, Rudolph Coppin, Wilton
B. Jones, Adriano Navalo, Claudio E.
Wedderburn, Antonio Ramirez, Leopold
H. Small, Di6genes Torres G., Juan D.
TIroncoso L., to Helper Lock Operator.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Ana S. Cans, to Clerk Stenographer.
Albert D. Farrell, to Clerk-Typist.
Conrad L. Jarvis, to Clerk.
Ruthwin Samuels, Ivan V. Butler, Garnel
W. Campbell, to Reail Store Supervisor.
Cecil A. Archbold, Francis A. Cadogan,
NicolasiCameron, Reginald A. CarterJr.,
Blanford Clarke, Camilo Cordero, Rito
Tufi6n, to Utility Worker,
Irene Smith, George C. Bennett, to Sales
George F. Earle, to Leader Heavy Laborer,
Edgar N. Lawrence, Wilbert A. Bailey, to
Henry G. Fergus, Ashton A. Brown, Jr.,
to Laborer Cleaner.
Harold T. Kildare, to Laborer.
Marvin K. Davis, to Packager.
Bertene E. Smith, to Grocery Worker.
Alberto L. Brown, to Messenger.
RbertdP rter, o nJ hsmeakn.Drvr
Ophelia M. Burrowes, Bernice B. Whyles,
to Sales Checker.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
William, Geer, to Liquid Fuels Gauger.
Carlos Alexandler, Mario J. Ceballos, Joseph
O. Nicholson, Florentino Rivera, San-
tia o Sanguill~n, to Clerk Checker.
Char es G. Brown, to Carpenter.
Agustmn Nuniez, to Leader Dock Cargo
Carlos J. Barroso, Victor M. Rodriguez, to
-Hellper Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Al orac o Im Dum e, Fra liscouOo ez,
Charles C. Morris, to H~igh Lift Trulck
Sylvpemtor racey, from Heavy Laborer,
Maintenance Division, to Do k Wrorker.
Augusto R. Samaniego, from Laborer
Cleaner, Community Service Division,
Dos A Epinorker.Aurelio Guillknd Eusta-
quio Herrer1e NIro PM ldnauo, a
mamkeego, Randolph A. Smith, to Ship
Norm A abelf, Ht~ctor M. Contreras, to
.Motor Transportation Division
Philip A. Gill, from Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division, to Truck Driver.
kiasN. EMo~rrsin Ge Acodnting Clerk.
(Se~e p. 22)
]EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between April 10 and
May 10 are listed below. Within-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
CIVEL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Robert A. Wainio, to Senior Inspector,
Earl M. Stone, to Customs Inspector.
L~arry J. Miller, Bruno L. Emanuele, from
Towing Locomotive Operator, Locks
Division, to Firefighter.
Albert I. Hermanny, to Detective Sergeant.
William H. Staats, to Police Sergeant.
John F. Borromeo, from Guard, Locks Divi-
sion, to Police Private.
Division of Schools
Auvie H. Byrd, to Supervisory Administra-
tive Services Officer.
Lawrence E. Horine, to Supervisor, Phy-
sical. Education and Athletics.
E. Katherine Murphy, to Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher.
Maria M. Dzevaltauskas, to Elementary
and Secondary School Teacher, Latin
Felipe A. Len R., to Swimming Pool
Lucy C. Rosemond, to Dressing-Room
Eleuterio Delgado, to Grounds Keeper.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Vivian E. Hall, to Card Punch Operator,
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Jos6 Landecho, to Surveying Aid.
Epifanio P~rez, to Boatman.
David J. Burkett, to Master, Pipeline
Arnold J.eLandreth, to Electrician, Pipeline
Richard M. Vosburgh, to Construction and
Julius Cheney, to Leader Electrician.
Sarah D. Cheney, to Accounting Clerk.
Katherine G. HeadLrick, Clerk-Stenographer,
from Division of Schools:
Harris A. Hinds, to Clerk.
Silvestr Faro,etoaLeader Navigational Aids
Porfirio Willington, to Automotive Equip~
JoS en Se 1 n, from H~eavy Laborer,
Locks Division, to Sandblaster.
Eugenio Arbuz, Juan Batista, Pedro R.
Martinez, Arthur Morgan, William A.
Cr st alnCdeo 12dblasDrock Worker, Ter-
Huil OD vision, to, IevL Z.,
to Floating Plant Oiler.
Hos talt 021tin Pnt .k e
Navigation Division, to Floating Plant
Miguel A. Reyes, from Oiler, Locks Divi-
sion, to Floating Plant Oiler.
Alberto A. Belizaire, from Deckhand, Navi-
ainDivision, to Launch Seaman.
EudoGonzflez, Justiniano- Herrera,
Felipe Mendieta, Alejandro Montenegro,
Luism laiceD vio D o eka Morker, Ter-
Antonio Cedefio, from Heavy Laborer*
Supply Division, to Seaman.
Fglix Ortega, from Deckhand, Navigation
Division, to Seaman.
N~stor Rachel, Jules F. Urie,.from Boat-
man, Locks Division, to Seaman.
Philip A.. Downs, to Lead Foreman Elec-
Marguerite Runck, to Supervisory Clerk.
Cirilio P. Rosemond, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Helper Main-
James F. Hickman, to Supervisory Admin_
H israt T.Cretr, to Chief Foreman,
Buildings and Maintenance Shops.
Juli~n Julio, to Crane Hookman.
Natiel S. Douglas, Emilio Mayorga, to
Eustorgio Otero C., to Oiler.
Harold M. Cummings, Aurelio Pozo, Urvin
N. Cornwall, to Paver.
Felipe M. DBvila, Maintenance Painter,
from Locks Division.
Demetrio Castillo, Jest's Martinez, Ambro.
sio Rivas, to Asphalt or Cement Worker.
Robert C. Ferguson, Helper Machinist,
from Navigation Division.
Vicente Acosta, Antonio Palma V., Ellis B.
Alleyne, Orlando James, to Wharf-
Ruth R. Beck, to Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital.
Cecil G. Wilmot, to Nursing Assistaant,
Division of Preventive Medicine ad
Ab aham n aetroverde S., to Exterminator,
Division of Sanitation,
Lorenzo Ribas, to Heavy-Pest Control
Laborer, Division of Sanitaion.
Dean K. Bruch, Robert F. Rowe, Jr., John
E. Wallace, Jr., to Pilot
William H. Nehring Johr H. Stone, Jr.,
to Probationary P~iot
Harry E. Bentsen, to Pilot-in-Training.
Joseph A. Gardner, to Deckhand Boat-
Herbr C spades, from DHeav laborer,
Edwr Buchaivisi fom High inft Truck
10pe ator, Terminals Division, to Deck-
Hkc or Gardner, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Deckhand.
Clifford N. Francis, Juan Sheffer, from
D boer dCleaner, Supply Division, to
Santiago Gonzilez, from. Laborer, Supply
Eaodu u ustine, f om Laborer Cleaner,
Ev pl Ciiin I o Hea~vy Laborer.
Dave J. Madison, to Leader Marine
Allan P. Noel, to Paint and Varnish Maker.
Candelario Pineda, to Leader Maintenance
Anthony Williams, to Painter.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
-----PROMOTIONS- AND TRANSFERS -
April 70 thorough May 1O
10 Years Ago
AN INCREASE in Canal Zone rents
loomed in June 1951, as the Appro-
priations Committee of the House of
Representatives urged the Secretary
of the Army to take immediate steps
to increase rentals on Government
housing for Panama Canal and Panama
In a report approving an appropria-
tion of $11,595,000 for the Canal organi-
zation for fiscal year 1952, the committee
asked that housing for employees be
put on a self-sustaining or profit-making
basis. Gov. F. K. Newcomer told Canal
employees he would do everything in
his power to avert ah increase in rentals.
A bill was introduced in the House
by Representative Garner R. W~ithrow
of: Wisconsin which would permit
certain employees, primarily mn fie-
fighting and ~fire prevention, -to retire
at the age of 50 if they had 20 years
One Year Ago
CANAL ZONE residents rallied to the
aid of Chilean earthquake victims with
donations of food and clothing a year
ago this month. In response to an urgent
call from President Eisenhower to heads
of executive departments and agencies
to give Federal personnel in all~ parts
of the world an opportunity to make
voluntary contributions, funds were
collected in the Canal Zone through
Promotions and Transfers
(Continued fro p. 21)
PROMOTIONs which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Ralph E. Masters, Police Sergeant, Police
Mary L. Clark, Nurse Supervisor, Gorgas
Lawrence J. Keegan, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
Roger J. Rios, Guard Supervisor, Locks
Virginia E. Favorite, Hope H. Hirons, Ro-
lando A. Linares, Jr., Harold Brown,
Swimming Pool Manager.
Florence E. Derrer, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Coralia R. Avilks, Clerk, Gorgas Hospital.
Ann M. Batiste, Beryl E. Carson, Ida E.
Lynch, Stock Control Clerk, Supply
Icilda C. Johnson, Sales Section Head,
22. JUNE 2, 1961
I'$El"I "w* T
5O Years A~go
WORK ON reclaiming tidal swiamnp-
land in the Balboa area was begun
50 years ago, using spoil from Gaillard
Cut. The land on which the town of
Balboa now stands was flooded at high
tide and, although drained, never was
entirely dry. It was estimated, when
the work started in 1911, that about
600,000 cubic yards of spoil would be
needed to reclaim 66 acres by filling
it to an average depth of 6 feet'
The first commencement of the Canal
Zone High School in Gatun was held
in the Isthmian Canal Commission
Clubhouse in Gatun on June 30, 1911,
with two students, Miss Blanche Stevens
of Gorgona and Miss Maria Elise
Johnson of Catun, graduating from the
4-year high school course. At the end
of the school term, that June, there
were 50 students in the high school.
Total enrollment of all Canal Zoie
schools was 2,600-
Automobile license regulations, as
issued by the Isthmian Canal Commis-
sion 50 years ago, required applicants
to have experience in the operation of
automobiles and knowledge of gasoline
and electrical motors and machinery.
The applicant had to have the backing
of two reputable citizens of the Canal
Zone or Panama who could ouch for
his sobriety and trustworthiness, and
was required to prove that he had the
skill, knowledge, and judgment neces-
sayfor the safe and skillful driving
handling of automobiles.
25 Years A~go
PLANS FOR construction of two pas-
senger-cargo ships for the Canal
organization were announced by the
Panama Railroad 25 years ago this
month. The new ships were to replace
vessels which had been in service since
Politics held Zonians' interest in June
1936, as two Democratic delegations
were sent to the Democratic National
Convention in Philadelphia from the
Zone and both were seated, after
agreeing to split their six votes equally.
Mrs. L. O. Keen, National Democratic
Committeewoman for one of the Zone
delegations, seconded the nomination
of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the. end of May to the
employees listed below, with their bit-
places, positions, years of Canal service,
and future residence.*
Narciso B~rcena, Panamna; Laborer, Com-
munity Services Division; 26 years,
9 months, 2 days; Panama.
George A. Bowen, St. Vincent; Laborer,
Dredging Division; 33 years, 2 months,
16 days; Panama.
Victor E. Carter, Colon; H-eler Liquid
Fuels Wharfm~an, Terminals Division;
21 years, 6 months, 21 days; Colon.
Benjamin A. Darden, Florida; Chief, Police
Division; 26 years, 9 months, 1 day;
Irene E. D. DeJacks, Jamaica; Presser,
Supply Division; 33 years, 10 months,
12 days; Panama.
Oney Evans, Texas; Armature Winder,
Electrical D~ivision; 15 years, 11 days;
Robert C. Ferguson, Bahamas; Helper Ma-
chinist, Maintenance Division; 45 years,
6 months, 6 days; Colon.
Henry R. George, St. Lucia; Helper Elec-
trician, Electrical Division; 33 years,
5 months, 2 days; Colon.
Sydney Grimes, Barbados; Dockworker,
Terminals Division; 21 years, 1 month,
18 days; Colon.
Carleton F. Hallett, Massachusetts; Fire
Sergeant, Fire Division; 29 years,
4 months, 11 days; probably in Florida.
Adam H. untD Paama; Launall Oertor
Joshua A. James, Jamaica; Oiler, Floating
Plant, Dredging Division; 45 years,
10 months, 16 days; Panama.
Isabel P. Reeves, T~exas; Supervisory Cargo
Assistant, Terminals Division; 19 years,
9 months, 27 days; Texas.
Cecil- C. Robinson, Jamaica; Oiler, Elec-
trical Division; 44 years, 4 months;
Francisco Rugama, Nicaragua; Dock-
worker, Terminals Division; 10 years,
10 months, Iday Colon.
Harwel Singh, Indi~a; Dockworker, Ter-
minals Division; 14 years, 9 months,
15 days; Colon
Phagat Singh, India; Dockworker, Ter-
minals Division; 30 years, 6 months,
2 days; Colon.
Vincent N. Stultz, Jamaica; Surveying
Aid, Engineering Division; 32 years,
3 months, 14 days; Panama.
Leo A. Walsh, Newr York; Master, Towboat
or Ferry, Navigation Division; 20 years,
5 months~, 26 days; New York.
William L. Willumsen, Maryland; Customs
Inspectors, Customs Division; 28 years,
3 months, 29 days; somewhere in Florida.
EUGENE SAUNDERS SHIPLEY, Com-
mander of the Cristobal Police District
since January 1956, was appointed chief
of the Canal Zone Police Division last
month, suceeding B. A. Darden, whose
retirement from. Company-Government
service became effective June 1.
A veteran of 21 years with the Canal
Zone Police Division, Chief Shipley was
born in Kingston, Tenn., and arrived
on the Isthmus as a member of the
Armed Forces. After receiving an honor-
able discharge, he joined the Canal
organization in May 1940.
Starting as a probationary policeman
on the Atlantic side, the new chief of
police was promoted through the ranks
to captain and district commander of
the Cristobal District.
Former Chief Darden left the
Company-Government after 26 years,
9 months, and 1 day of service. His
career in the Canal Zone Police Divi-
sion, like that of his successor in the
top police job, started in Cristobal.
In December 1945, he was trans-
ferred to the Balboa Central Police
Station as assistant district commander.
He was promoted to captain and
assigned as district commander in July
1950 and the following October was
named chief of the Police Division, the
post he held until retirement.
The former police chief left the
Isthmus aboard the Ancon on May 9.
Retiring Chief B. A. Darden
New Chief E. S. Shipley
A TELEVISION presentation of the story of the Republic of'
'Panama and the Canal Zone was filmed on the Isthmus last
month by the American Broadcaisting Co. and tentative plans
call for it to be shown~l in the United States later this month,
Don Goddard of ABC was in charge of the filming, which
wias done by John Heyman, Panama City photographer.
Governor Carter was one of the top officials of the Canal
Zone and Panama interviewed by Mr. Coddard. He answered
questions relative to operation of the Canal and relations with
Panama, during this meeting at Miraflores Locks.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Change of Command for Police
WOrt k HOWing,. ..
ToURmsTs, visiting officials, and anyone else interested in
making a partial transit of the Panama Canal, soon will be
able to do so aboard a new sightseeing vessel which is
scheduled to arrive in the Canal Zone later this month from
the United States.
To be named Las Cruces, the new 6S3-foot vessel is designed
to accommodate 200 sightseers at a time. It was built by the
Blount Marine Corp. of Warren, R.I., for the Panama Canal
Company. It is being brought to the Canal by Blount personnel,
who fitted the craft with extra fuel tanks so it can make a
nonstop voyage across the Caribbean from Miami.
The diesel-powered vessel has a 23-foot beam and a normal
speed of 11 knots. It is fitted with all essential navigational
aids, two-wiay radio, a public address system, and is of all-steel
welded construction. Constructed with double decks, th~e lower
deck is encircled by windows and the top deck is partially
covered by a convertible awning.
The new vessel will fill the role formerly filled by the
President Porras, relief ferryboat, which frequently was
used to carry groups of tourists through Gaillard Cut on
ThIe name Las Cruces was selected by Canal officials as the
most appropriate for the newi craft, since it conforms with
a policy of 35 years' standing under which motorboats more
than 50 feet in length are named after rivers or towns associated
with the history of the Canal. Las Cruces was a former con-
struction town on the Chagres River. It also was the name
of a town above Gamboa and the famous trail across the
Isthmus over which thousands of travelers passed during the
pre-railroad and pre-Canal days.
funds in the till are English, Australian,
New Zealand, and Fiji pounds; Cana-
dian, American, and Hong Kong dollars;
Japanese yen; Philippine pesos; and
The 24,000-ton Chusan was sched-
uled for a periodic round-the-world run
2 years ago and visited, the Canal for
the first time in June 1959. She will
arrive here from the U.S. west coast
in June and will dock in Cristobal for
a few hours. The ship will sail the same
day for London via Trinidad, Barbados,
Las Palmas, and Le Havre, according
to a schedule announced by her agents,
Norton, Lilly & Co.
Last Luckenbach Trip
THE LAST OF the fleet of Luckenbach
freighters to make a regularly sched-
uled trip through the Canal on an
iatercoastal run under Luckenbach
Steamship Co. Operation, the Horace
Luckenbach, made the northbound
transit on her way to New York in April.
The termination of the intercoastal
service by the 110-year-old line was
announce~drecently by Edgar F. Lucken-
bach, Jr., president of the line, who said
that the company's seven freighters and
a tanker would be "redeployed' into
Luckenbach ships have been regular
customers of the Panama Canal smnee
it opened to traffic in 1914. In fact,
it was the Edward Luckenbach which,
in December 1956, carried the billionth
ton of cargo to pass through the Canal.
Wilford & McKay act as agents for the
Luckenbach line here.
New Canal Customers
ONE HUNDRED and ninety ships made
their first visit to the Panama Canal
during the first 4 months of 1961,
according to figures compiled by the
Panama Canal Admeasurers' Office. Of
these, 39 arrived at Balboa and 151
at Cristobal for transit.
The number of new customers, most
of them ships making their maiden
voyages, was slightly higher than the
number of new ships reported at Cris-
tobal and Balboa during a similar period
in 1960, when there was a total of 177
Newi Japanese flag vessels, which
have been predominant among the new
ships arriving at Balboa in recent years,
have been giving ground to new Philip-
pine vessels built in Japan and operated
on newv services between the Far East
and the east coast of the United States.
New sh ps arriving at Cristobal carried
flags of the United States, Norway,
Germany, Liberia, and Great Britain.
A FORMEaLiberty ship built in 1943,
the National Trader, arrived ant Cris-
tobal from. Mobile early ,in .May as a.
dead tow. The ship, which was rebuilt
and lengtthened in 1956 and later
dama~ged ~by fire, was en iroutes to Japan
to be br~okenl up for scrap. In addition,
she was loaded with scrap destined for
Japanese steel mills.
When the National Trader arrived
at the Canal, she was under tow of the
Ocean-going tug Ocean Master. She was
brought through the Canal by Panama
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN .1PImL"
S 12 1.4
---- 915 918
)47111 i 5,415,548
Commercial_ __ __ _
US.S. Covernment... ..
Totil -- -
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
Canal tugs anid tied up in Balboa until
the arrival at Balboa of the Ocean
Master. The two vessels continued their
journey to' the Far East a few days
atler. C. Fernie & Co. acted as agents
aDt the Canal.
'Floating Branch Bank
THE P.4cific & OmUEN'r liner Chusan,
which is due in Balboa June 29 on the
last lap of a round-the-world voyage,
w\ill have visited approximately 16
different countries before she returns
to her home port of London in Jl.
In order to meet currencynedin
the different ports of call, the Chusan,
like other Pacific & Orient liners on
Pacific and worldwide service, carries
a branch bank on board. Among the
The Canal had a bunch of midget customers a few weeks back when the annual
ocean-to-ocean cayuco race was staged by local Boy Scout troops. The race was won
by members of Troop 20 of St. Mary's Mission, Balboa, who were sponsored in the
race by American Legion Post No. 2. The crew of the winning cayuco set a new
record of 7 hours, 11 minutes, and 13 seconds for the transit. Crew members were
George O'Masta, Jr., Arwin J. Jansen, Jr., Bernard Starkenberg, and Curtis D. Seary.
S HL 1