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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
: : i b!B~ ~'.`
i. i; ..
;i"~ ~2'r ~EX~. i~~
Wt. ~A. 6ARTER, Governor-P~resident
JoaN D. McELBENY, Lieutenant Governor
N. D. CHRISTPENSEN, Press Officer
JOSEPH CONNOR, Publications Editor
WILL AREY 011cial Panama Canal Company Publication Editorial Assistant
Canal Informnation Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. EUNICE RICHARD and Tol
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount ~Hope, Canal Zone WILLIAM BURNs, Official I
On sale at all Panama Canal Servkie Centrcr. Retail Scorer and Thle Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscrlprions. Sl a years mail and balck copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canil Cornpin! jhuldl be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Editorial offices are located in thie .1dmlnistr..t...n BudiJng. Balboa Heights, C, Z.
InYE This Issue
THE ENGINEERS and technicians who are leading
the way into the new age of electronics are not above
engaging in high-jinks for laughs, despite their pre-
Occupation with transistors, algebraic formulae, and
related matters, as this view of the Siri, a Canal tug,
shows. The tag of "Afruclim Queen" was hung: on the
tug by a wag among the experts who recently com-
pleted a series of tests on the Canal to help. solve
problems connected with the design of the waterway's
new marine traffic control system.
Mlelvin Bierman, who is supervising the program.
as project engineer, looks at the sign with a sun-
induced squint, while Jack Shepard jof Gibbs & Hill,
designers, smiles at him from the control house. The
more serious efforts of the experts are discussed in the
article on page 3.
To Speed Shipping Through Water ray 3
Active Family Leaving Isthmus__, ___ 5
They Serve Retirees_ __ ___L____ 6
Seven Floors for Medical Care__i ___ 8
Toward Better Farming in Repul lic hf Pa ama 9
Bridge Work Moves Ahead 10
Century-Old Tie Revived 11
Campsite Readied for Girl Scouts 12
Executi e Ca gsein SS ols Anno ~needII 1
Of Pets, Babies, and a Boa_ 6
Accidental Poisonings Can Be Prevented_ 17
Isthmian Legacy __18
Canal History _____ ~r____ 19
Retirements_ ___ ___L____ 19
Anniversaries__; ___-_i_,ii .20
Promotions and Transfers_____ 21
Shipping and Statistics__.-- __- ,., 22
2 : MAY 5, 1961
WVITH SHIPS' GETTING bigger and bigger and the Panama Canal
locks remaining the same size they have been for almost half a
century, more and more problems face Canal pilots anrld other
personnel responsible for getting
a,~11 ships safely through the
To the casual observer it might
seem that any -ship under 1,000
E~-~g~r~-. ~i+.%feet long and less than the 110-
foot width of the locks would be
able to transit the Canal. Such
:an observation disregards a num-
ber of factors which make the
usable size of the locks some-
what less than their actual size.
Most obvious of these factors
is that a ship has to be guided
into and through the lock cham-
bers without smashing into the
concrete walls of the structures.
On the basis of available experi-
I~ence, Canal officials say, the
~ I~ present maximum size of a mer-
chant-type ship which can be
safely transited is 102 feet wide,
850 feet long, and 36Y2-f~ot draft.
For some ships, there may be
other limiting criteria which
would reduce the maximum size
even further, they say.
The Ore Meteor, pictured on the cover of this month's REVIEW
as she was put through Miraflores Locks,' is typical of the super-
ships. Lt. Gov. John D. -Mc~E~heny recently pointed out to Colon
Rotarians that the number of ships unable to use the Canal when
fully laden increased from 231 in January 1959 to 393 in January
of this year, thus indicating the trend toward such ships.
The mammoth Ore Meteor is 102 feet wide and 751 feet long.
At the present time she is on a run from the U.S.- east coast to iron
ore mines in- Peru. As the adjoining uiview fromt her deck and the
cover picture by Marine Bureau Safety Representative Lawrence
W. Chambers show, her width leaves her very little clearance.
In fact, she is so wide that a turn of less than 1 degree in angle
will cause her to strike the lock walls.
Test crew member adjusts antenna on Shearwater.
making field would, almost without
Engineers, for example, recognize
that it is a relatively simple matter to
say, "We will build a four-lane highway
from El Paso to Denver." They also
know, however, that thousands of small
but nonetheless essential decisions will
have to be made before such a- highway
becomes a reality. What kind of material
to use; the thickness of the surfacing;
width of each lane; maximum degree
in curves; exactly where, right down
to the inch, shall the paying be placed?)
Similarly, the big decision to estab-
lish an electronic, computer-equipped
marine traffic control system for the
Panama Canal was made because the
Board of Directors was convinced that
such a system would speed world
shipping through the waterway. But
hundreds of decisions about details are
necessary before the big decision can
become an accomplished fact.
Many of these little but essential deci-
sions are being made by men who have
come to the Canal Zone from the States
to study conditions and limitations of
the waterway, climatic conditions,
special problems which may be encoun-
tered in operation of this unique enter-
prise, and to actually make field tests
of equipment which is being considered
for use in the new system.
Some months ago, for example, a
IT HAS BEEN SAmD that the big deci-
sioils are easy, but it's the small
ones-which are difficult and tedious.
Engineers, lawyers, doctors, and
others with experience in the decision-
Three members of test crew with the electronics gear installed aboard Siri for tests.
Tar PANdllIa CANAL REVIEW
Marine traffic control system
now being designed will improve
scheduling of transits, aid
pilots, and assist traffic controllers.
uling computer, which automatically
will determine if everything is working
out according to. the original schedule
and, if it isn't, issue the necessary advice
to pilots and marine traffic controllers.
All the computers, radio signals, pilot
units, and related equipment are not
a substitute for human brains, however.
The system will not replace the import-
ance of a pilot's judgment and control
over a ship. His actions always will
be the final link in the system used
to transit ships.
Communication from ship-to-ship and
ship-to-shore must be accurate and
continuously available if the system's
various parts are to function properly.
This final major requirement is to be
met by replacing the 30-megacycle
radio equipment now in use with equip-
ment which will operate on the more
reliable and trouble-free 160-megacycle
frequency range. This new equipment
will be used both for voice communica-
tion and for the automatic assembling of
information by the monitoring computer.
The central office of the new system
will house a display panel showing
the complete plan of the Canal and
equipped with a series of small tubes
which will light up on instructions from
the scheduling computer to show- the
location of each ship mn the waterway
at any time.
The marine traffic controller, who
always will have over-riding control of
the entire system, normally will sit at
a control console directly in front of
the display board. By. pressing the
proper buttons on the console the con-
troller will be able to obtain detailed
information about any ship or group
of ships in the Canal. He then can use
such information to exercise human
judgment in arranging or rearranging
scheduled ship movements.
The computer's preparation of the
three alternate transit schedules at the
beginning of each day will require a
total of about 2 hours. Once the initial
work is done, however, the scheduling
computer can take new information and
provide a new schedule in less than
Not only will the new system provide
the Canal with more efficient operation,
but it also will be beneficial to the
marine traffic controllers and the pilots.
It will relieve the controllers of the
task of making repetitious calculations
day after day and provide them with
up-to-the-minute information necessary
to altering original scheduling, if neces-
sary. At the same time, it will provide
the pilots with accurate information
about ships near them in the Canal,
even though they are not yet within
view, and in some cases will enable
pilots to reduce the time for transiting
a slow ship by several hours.
4 MAY 5, 1961
50 years of operation with a minimum
of electrical and mechanical devices?
The answer is simple: increasing traffic
through the Canal requires that ships
be put through with an absolute mini-
mum of delay if costly tie-ups of world
shipping are to be avoided in the
Although the present system for
scheduling transits through the Canal
includes consideration of many related
factors, it is limited, for the most part,
:to putting ships through the waterway
ohn a first-come, fist-served basis, even
though this is not necessarily the fastest
nor the most economical scheduling
The first and foremost problem to be
dealt with, therefore, is the question
of how a given number of ships wanting
to transit during any single day can be
accommodated the most quickly, at the
least cost, with the greatest amount of
safety, and the most efficient use of
the waterway, its personnel, and the
This need is to be filled in the
new system by a high-speed electronic
"scheduling" computer capable of
analyzing all pertinent information
about the ships desiring to transit, the
condition of the Canal, the economics
of operation, and related data in order
to provide three alternate transit sched-
ules, one of which will be selected for
the day's transits by the marine traffic
But simply getting all the ships started
through the waterway in the proper
order does not solve the entire problem.
What, for example, happens to a ship
which shows up for transit after the
day's original schedule has been started?
Or what if something goes awry with
one of the ships already in the waterway,
forcing it to stop or slow. down? -Or
what: if something happens to the
waterway itself, changing the condi-
tions under.which the original schedule
All these potential problems and many
Others can be solved quickly and easily
by the computer, if it is kept supplied
with the necessary information as the
day progresses and is not sidelined
after doing its first chore of the day-
preparation of the three alternate
To help keep the scheduling com-
puter informed, a "monitoring": com-
puter is to be used which will be in
virtually continuous contact with the
various ships through automatic elec-
tronic equipment located at strategic
points along the waterway and in a
small unit taken aboard each ship by
the Canal pilot in charge.
The information which the monitoring
computer continues to acquire through-
out the day will be fed to the sched-
i estan deg and euipmnt for syt d
group of men spent several days in the
Zone studying the operation of the
waterway and asking hundreds of
questions of Canal officials to determine
just what information will have to be
furnished to the electronic computers
if they are to be of maximum value
in operation of the Canal.
And during the past 6 weeks, seven
stateside experts conducted ~field tests
in Gaillard Cut to get the answers to
such questions as the most efficient way
to wire some of the equipment, whether
to use transistors or vacuum tubes in
certain parts of the system, how the
various sections of it should be
arranged for best results or minimum
maintenance, and similar problems.
To run their tests, the men put a lot
of electronic gear aboard the Siri, a
seldom used tug belonging to the Canal
organization, equipped a pair of Canal
launches with related gear, then went
out and conducted an exhaustive series
of tests to see just what approaches
seemed to offer the best possibilities.
Most of the things they found out
still are being analyzed from the cryptic
mathematical and other data recorded
about each test. When the evaluation
is colmplete, many of the so-called "little
decisions" about design of the system
will be made.
Why, you may ask, is it necessary
for the Canal to join in the trend toward
electronic equipment after almost
Lieutenlaut Colernlor MctEnlen!s and his-family at their Canal Zone home.
UP THE CHAGRES, camping on a sand-
bar; water skiing at Gamboa and
Madden Lake and skindiving off the
Perlas Islands; sightseeing with snorkles
at Fort San Lorenzo; catching a dolphin
off the drift line; visiting a tourist-
untouched island in the San Blas
Archipelago; picnicking at Goofy Lake
or along Shimmy Beach; relaxing at
El Valle with both Canal Zone and
A tourist folder, extolling the attrac-
tions of the Republic of Panama? No,
just a glimpse of a North American
family enjoying life on the Isthmus.
A family headed by the man who
holds the second highest Canal position
-~Lt. Gov. John D. McElheny.
Lieutenant Governor and Mrs.
McElheny and their two children,
Phyllis Ann and Bruce Daniel, arrived
on the SS Cristobal in July 1958 for
their first experience in tropical living.
Prior to coming to the Canal Zone,
Colonel McElheny was on duty with
Military Supply in the Offce of the
Chief of Engineers. Now, at the end
of his tour of duty here, they will be
returning to the Washington area,
where Colonel McElheny is to join the
Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Logistics, Department of the Army,
If there's anything to the legend
about drinking tewate of the Chagres,
Mrs. McElheny is certain they'll: all
come back to ~the Isthmus. For in the
course pf water-skiing expeditions alone
they've gulped enough water in sudden
spills to comply with any legendary
They will carry back with them many
memories, a number of articles made
in Panama, and "recuerdos" that have
no price-seashells picked up along some
sxinny Panamanian beach, a fragment
of pottery found while viewing marine
life while using snorkles, and native
recipes to be tried out in the Washington
locale-if the ingredients are available,
What impressed them most? The
The whole family feels completely
a part of the community, both Lieu-
tenant Governor and Mrs. McElheny
say, with friends and neighbors who
greet one another on a first-name basis.
They have been an integral part of
the Canal Zone -community, taking an
active interest in all community affairs.
Colonel McElheny served on the Board
of the Boy Scout Council, the Executive
Board of the Y.M.C.A., and held offices
in the Society of American Military
Engineers. Mrs. McElheny served .on
the Board of the Girl Scout Council
and the Board of the Inter-American
Women's Club. Both have been active
supporters of the Minor League, in
which son Bruce played, and both have
enjoyed their affiliation with the Balboa
Lieutenant Governor and Mrs.
McElheny and their children have
visited the Republic of Panama from
Puerto Armuelles to Chepo, making
lasting friendships as they traveled.
They also visited H-aiti, including Cap
Haitien and the Citadel, and some of
the Central American countries, as well
as Medellin, Colombia.
Panama wasn't Lieutenant Governor
McElheny's first overseas assignment.
He was on duty with the 826th Engineer
Aviation Battalion at the outbreak of
World War II and served with that unit
when it transferred to England. Sub-
sequently he served in France with the
Ninth Air Force and then was assigned
as executive to the engineer of the
Seventh Army, in Heidelberg.
Froml1947 tol1951, Colonel hclElheny
commanded the combat engineerdetach-
ment at W~est Point. He attended the
Army War College after the West Point
assignment and was assigned to duty
with the Far Eastern Command, which
brought to the' family the experience
of living in Japan for 3 years, starting
when Phyllis Ann was but 4 years old
and Bruce was 2.
They returned to Washington on
completion of that assignment, and the
Canal Zone tour of duty came next.
The Lieutenant Governor and his
family will sail from Cr-istabal on the
Company-operated Ancon May 29 for
New Orleans. They will leave New
-Orleans on June 2, the day they arrive
there, for New York and then West
Point, where Colonel McElheny will
attend the 25th reunion of his class
before proceeding to Washington and
his new assignment.
THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Lieutenant Governor and family
ending tour of duty with, fond
memories of community and
family life in the tropics.
Miss Florence Lao checks list of retirees she will visit during
day's work. Miss Lao is leaving position to get married this month.
She explained that the man was
admitted to the old folks' home, where
his needs ar'e taken care of by trained
personnel, but others only slightly better
off cannot be accommodated in such
Mrs. Felisa S. de PBrez, who is the
nurse stationed on the Atlantic side of
the Isthmus, and Miss Nellie V. Black-
man, who works with Miss Lao on the
Pacific side, cite cases very similar to
those mentioned by Miss Lao.
"They are very poor," Mrs. P~rez
says, "and many of them are unable
to take care of themselves or their rooms,
so their living conditions are pretty bad
a lot of times. We just have to do
the -best we can, and give them what
help we can."
Most of the 3,400 disability relief
retirees' of the Canal organization, for
whose benefit the nurses were hired,
are past 70 years of age. Many of them
have something wrong with their eyes,
a sizable number of them have suffered
strokes, and others suffer from various
heart conditions, arthritis, cancer, skin
infections, ulcers, and a variety of other
The nurses carefully steer away from
anything which could be construed
as practicing medicine, leaving this to
doctors, whom they frequently call for
retirees in need of medical attention.
If medication is prescribed, the nurses
mnake: periodic visits to see that the
doctor's instructions are being followed.
"A9 lot of these people live alone,"
the nurses sayr, "and at their advariced
age they frequently forget to follow
instructions, don't understand them to
start with, or just get confused, so
we usually try to get some friend or
neighbor who can help them keep things
straight. If they live with someone,
it isn t so -much of a problem."
The financial problem involved in
providing medical care for those dis-
ability relief retirees in need of it has
been largely solved by the Group H-ealth
Insurance Programn which was started
for the retirees during February under
Of the 3,400 disability relief retiitees
living in the Republic of Panama, 2,638
of them are enrolled in the insurance
program, which originally was instituted
for those on the disability relief rolls
but since has been extended to all non-
U.S.-citizen retirees of local Federal
The Group Health Insurance Plan
provides a maximum of $7 per day up
to a' total of $217 for hospital room
and board for a single illness, up to
$10 for ambulance service to and from
the hospital, up to $70 per illness for
drugs, medicines, anesthesia, ;bandages,
arid similar items, up to $150 for speci-
fled surgical operations, and a $150
death benefit, with a doublee indemnity
provision of $300 for accidental death,
The health insurance plan and the
visiting nurse program both1 w~ee
developed with the approval and active
cooperation of the Board of Directors
THE SINGLE ROOM in which the
84-year-old man lived was small and
the furnishings shabby, although it was
apparent that an effort had been made
to keep it orderly. The nurse talking
to the aged man was sympathetic, how-
ever, and not critical. She had seen worse
living conditions during recent weeks.
This man, however, represented a
special problem. Not only was he some-
what feeble with age, but he also was
totally blind. A kindly neighbor cooked
his food and carried it to him, while
neighborhood youngsters ran many of
the little errands which he was unable
to do for himself.
Miss Florence Lao, the nurse, checked
the man's blood pressure, asked if he
would like to have her leave a small
package of aspirin for the aches and
pains which frequently afflict the
elderly, and then told him she thought
one of the Panama social welfare
agencies might be able to get him
admitted to an old folks' home.
Leaving the aspirins and a small box
of salve for a skin infection with the
lonely old man, Miss Lao told him she
would return in a few days to see how
he was getting along and take care
of further minor medical needs which
he might have.
"We were lucky in his case," Miss Lao
discussing the work which she
ndtwo other nurses employed by the
Company-Government have been doing
among disability relief retirees of the
Canal organization since last September.
I MAr 5; 198,1
Nurses employed by Canal are
helping provide medical care
for disability relief retirees.
and Gov. W. A. Carter. The insurance
plan is financed entirely by the disability
relief recipients, but the visiting nurse
program, is free of any cost to them.
Although the insurance program
is designed to cover mostmedical
expenses incurred by retirees who are
in need of treatment, there are many
other problems faced by the aged
retirees which are not easily- solved, pri-
marily because of their lack of money.
"Somie of these fellows don't have
beds, or clothes, or even enough
food," according to Robert Van Wagner,
Employee Services Officer of the Per-
sonnel Bureau, who administers both the
nursing and insurance programs. "Conse-
quently, these three nurses have become
expert innovators and scroungers."
Mr. Van Wagner hastens to explain
that the nurses have found where and
how to get "extras" for the retirees-
which otherwise would not be available.
One ailing retiree, for example, had no
bed on which to sleep and Miss Black-
man arranged to get him one through
the Red Cross. Others have been
supplied with other items through such
efforts on the part of the nurses, while
still others have been supplied canes
and crutches by the Canal organization.
On the Atlantic side of the Isthmus,
most of the retirees live in or near
Colon, with only a few in isolated areas,
Mlrs. Pbrez reportj. Those- on- the Pacific
side are slightly more scattered, but
most of them are concentrated in
Marafibn, Rio Abajo, Radio City, Chorri-
110, San Miguel, Arraijin, and Chorrera,
Miss Nellie V. Blackman checks blood pressure of anl aged retiree during a visit in her office.
A normal day for the three nurses
starts at 7:15 a.m., when they report
to their offces-Miss Lao and Miss Black-
man in the Central Employment Office
building in Ancon and Mrs. P~rez in
the former commissary building in
Cristobal. Their first task after arriving
is to complete the reports of the visits
made during the previous day. They
then pack the bags in which they
carry vitamins, aspirin, dressings, salve,
thermometers, and blood pressure kits
and start the home visits on which they
spend an average of 6 hours a day.
The nurses' visits to the homes of
retirees sometimes are interspersed with
brief calls at hospitals and social service
agencies to make arrangements to get
extra help for some retiree, or find out
what has to be done to get such help.
To save time, such calls usually are
niadie when the nurses are passing near
the office or hospital they wish to visit.
AIt least once the nurses have played
the role of cupid, using their spare time
to arrange for a marriage license, civil
ceremony, and religious ceremony for
a retiree, who expressed his thanks after
the final ceremony by saying, "Now my
heart is at ease."
Another retiree's viewpoint of the
nursing program was expressed one
evening at a meeting during which
Mr. Van Wagner had explained the
nursing service being provided by the
Canal organization. A retiree barely able
to stand because of the feebleness of
old age, got slowly to his feet to say,
"Mr.:Van Wagner, all of us old people
jvant you to ktnov that this is one of the
best things you could do for us arid we
thank Cod that the Carfal, for which we
worked so many years, hasn't forgotten
us." 'Ih~e shouts and clapping of the
other retirees in attendance was suffi-
Liefit ponfiirmation of their ;agreement.
Mrs~. Felisa S. de P~rez checks pulse of ailing retiree in Amiador 'Guetiretio :Hospdtal,.Cooit.
THE E'ANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The new Gorgas Hospital is to be built on the two parking lots now located below the present hospital, as indicated by the overprint above.
Seven Floors for 1Medical Care
A STYLE OF architecture new to the
Canal Zone will be introduced locally
with construction of what will be
the tallest building in the Zone when
completed-the new seven-story Gorgas
The neoclassical design which char-
acterizes the present hospital and a
number of other major Canal Zone
buildings, including the Balboa Heights
Administration Building, gives way to
the modern trend toward more glass,
aluminum, and open exterior spaces in
the contemporary design of the new
Instead of the vertical lines and pre-
dominantly masonry exterior of the
present structure, the modern building
which soon will start rising on two
parking lots at the corner of Gorgas and
Herrick Roads will feature horizontal
lines and vast expanses of glass.
Plans and specifications for the new
hospital now are being circulated
among construction firms, both locally
and in the United States. Plans for the
project will be discussed at a prebid
conference May 12 and bids will be
opened at Balboa Heights on June 5.
In addition to construction of the
new building, the plans also call for
extensive changes in the existing hos-
pital plant, three sections of which
will remain in service and be connected
to the new structure by tunnels and
When the project is completed, vir-
tually all medical services at Gorgas
will be consolidated under one roof and
all clinics will be concentrated on one
floor, with the exception of Obstetrics-
Gynecology, which will remain in its
Only adult wards to be located out-
side the new building will be a medical
ward on the second floor of Section "A"
of the existing hospital and an isolation
ward on the second floor of Section "B."
Section "A" also will house the medical
library, brace shop, luncheonette, and
facilities for the Red Cross and other
organizations. Section "B" will house
locker room facilities for hospital
employees and a special kitchen and
recreational facilities for the isolation
As a result of the changes, most
persons entering the new Gorgas Hos-
pital will receive all treatment and care
in one building, including recuperation
in a room on one of the three top floors.
Plans for the Gorgas project, which
will bring the physical plant of the
79-year-old hospital up to modern s~truc-
tural standards of similar stateside
institutions, have been under prepara-
tion for the past 2 years. The plans
were drafted by the New York firm.
of Kelly & Gruzen, in cooperation
with Helge Westermann, a well known
The new hospital, which is to
be completely air conditioned, will
include 135,000 square feet of hos-
pital floor space and a parking area
for approximately 100 automobiles at
the first floor ground level under the
With the exception of the Obstetrics
and Gynecology Clinic, all Gorgas
clinics will be located on the main floor
MAY 5, 1961
of the new- building. -A general infor-
mation center will be provided at the
main entrance to direct patients and
visitors to the various clinics and
waiting rooms. The main floor also will
include the admitting office, adminis-
trative office, medical records, the
emergency room, .and the pharmacy.
A surgical suite consisting of six
operating .rooms and a recovery room
is to be located directly above the mamn
flooi- of the new :bui ding. This third
floor area also will include laboratories,
X-ray department, central sterile supply,
and a new section to be called the inten-
sivie care suite, where patients who
are seriously ill can be kept under
constant attention~by nurses and other
The hospital's main.kitchen and food
supply, rooms will be concentrated on
the fourth floor,' which is the bottom
sections of ,the four-story "tower" part
of the building.. This fl8oor also will
include a cafeteria-type dining roomn
with a seating capacity for 96 persons.
Location of the kitchens midway
between the top and bottom floors
of the ;building is expected to simplify
the handling arid distribution of food
The three top floors will be patient
hospitalization sections, with 1 four-bed
ward, 15 semiprivate rooms, and
12, private rooms on each floor. Each
room will have a lavatory and each
floor will have 9 bath facilities.
According to present plans, the com-
munication system in the new hospital
will be greatly improved, with instal-
lation of a modern paging system and
a riety type of communication system
between the patients and nurses.
Work now is in progress to bring the
building in which the Obstetrics and
Gynecology Clinic is located into the
~general plan of the hospital reorgani-
zation. The central section of the
ground floor is being remodeled to
provide room for a children's play-
room, examination rooms, and interns'
.quarters. It also will contain an offcice
for the Chief of the Pediatric Service.
The west wing: of the Obstetrics and
Gynecology buildiing is being converted
into 15 private and semiprivate rooms
for children and the east wing into
:wards for the convalescent care of
19 young patients. The central section
and the west wing will be air con-
ditioned, along with the new building.
When this part of the hospital improve-
ment program is completed at the end
'of May, the Pediatrics Section will be
moved from its present location in
Section "D" of the present hospital to
the Obstetrics and Gynecology building.
Section "D" presently is being converted
into quarters for hospital employees.
1 .assisted by Mindi
s \ Romaldo Ramos,
1 Toward Better Farmmng
In Repubhic of Panama
A YOUNG Panamanian agricultural
student last month completed a 2-month
period of on-the-job training at Mindi
Farm on the Atlantic side of. the
Isthmus as part of his education in
animal husbandry and farming.
Alfredo Orange, son of a small land-
owner near La Pefia, came to the Canal
Zone farm as a participant in a regular
program sponsored by the National
Institute of Agriculture in Divisa, where
he is a student. Under the program,
scholastic training is interspersed with
work on large ranches and farms on
Each school vacation, students from
the Divisa school spread out across the
Isthmnus to augment their formal training
with actual employment in their chosen
field. For their work on farms and
ranches, the students are supplied room
and board and receive at least token
wages for their services.
Young Orange, who is 17 years of
age, has been studying animal hus-
bandry at the Divisa school, and after
working at Mindi he voiced a desire
to become a veterinarian.
The youth's 8 weeks at Mindi were
spent in virtually every phase of the
farm's operation, including everything
from fencing and dry season field clear-
ing to vaccination of animals, record-
keeping, and operation of heavy
equipment, including a bulldozer.
Dr. Paul H. Dowell, manager of the
farm, and Dr. D. E. Beckley were pri-
marily responsible for the program
followed by the young student during
his stay. "Alfredo wias a very good
student," Dr. Dowvell reports. "He is an
intelligent boy and we were pleased
with his willingness to learn by doing."
Arrangements for the youth's stay at
Mindi were made in an exchange of
correspondence between- Ruben Barrio
Arosemena, director of the Divisa school,
and Canal officials.
THIE PANAMVA CANAL REVIEW
Bridge Work i
Moves Ahead 4
First steel sp~ans~t to ::'~
be sent to Zone this .
month, as superstructure-
contcractor opens office.
As Governor Carter watched, wrorkmlen cleaned the inside of the Governor Carter and Walter M;. Cathey engineer for bridge
installation, preparatory to pouring the base of the deepest pier.`4 contractors, examine cofferdam from catw ~k around upper edge.
WORK COMPLETED TO DATE on the substructure of the Balboa
bridge over the Canal was inspected by top officials of the
Comp~any-Govern~ment and the bridge contractors last month
and given tentative approval. The bridge is expected to be
~F~ completed on schedule late in 1962.
Governor Carter and Carial engineers spent a good part
of the inspection trip giving a once-ovrer to the cofferdam
=`of pier 5, the deepest of the bridge piers, which had just been
completed and wvas being unwatered. The cofferdam then was
cleared 'preparatory to pouring the base.
Pouring.0f the footing or base was a 24-hour operation and
required 1,400 cubic yards of concrete. Four more pours will
be necessary to bring the base of the pier to a point 10 feet
a:boveB water at avd'rage high tide.
Following the completion of piers 3 ajnd 5, the cofferdam
steel now_-being used at those two locations will be moved
to piers 4 and 6j.All of the bridge piers are scheduled for
completion by November 16, 1961.
~ J~eis ~~C~~BR L~FI~BIr. Meanwhile, work on the superstructure already is in progress
in four plants in Germlany and the first 4 of 14 steel spans
are scheduled for shipment to the Canal Zone May 22, with
the remaining spans following at i-egular intervals. The bulk
'of the steel superstructure spans are to arrive on the Isthmus
?, *between July and October.
X:. B Ufore being prepared for shipment, the spans to be sent
during May were completely bolted together in the German
factory and given exhaustive tests for tolerances and fit.
Field offices of the John F. Beasley Construction Co., which
~F has the contract for the superstructure work, were opened
f,,~p~/~_~E~t May 1 in the former elementary school building in La Boca.
10 'MAY 5, 1961
First stearner service
UI united Sta~tes under
included call, at New
The SS Cristobal is to become the Company's only ship, after an overhaul.
ARRIVAL OFthekncon inNew Orleans
on Monday, May, 1, as she inaugurated
service on the new and shorter run
between the Canal Zone and the United
States, marked' the renewal of a tie
between the' Isthmius and the southern
coastal city which first was established
under Government auspices before the
California gold rush.
Coritrary to a widely held belief,
steamship service between the' United
States and Panama was not started in
response to the demands of those seeking
quick riches in the gold fields of the
WI~est. Congress had acted in March
1847, almost a year before the discovery
of gold, to impprore communications
between the east and west coasts of
the United States, via the Isthmus.
Acting on 'congressional authority,
the Navy contracted for the' transporta-
tion of mail between New York, New
Orleans, and Panama, with stops at
Savannah, Charleston, and Havana. The
United State~s Mail Steam Line was
organized' to provide the service, for
which it received a mail subsidy of
$290,000 per pear.
It was largely as a result of U.S.
inter-est in the Isthinian crossing that
the Panama Railroad came into existence
a short time later to speed travel over-
land between the two oceans, and for
many years there was a close i-elation-
ship between the railroad arid ships
calling at the termirial cities,
Although the Anco~ opened the Com-
pany s steamship service 'between the
Isthmus and New Orleans, she soon will
be succeeded on the run by the
Cristobal, which now is undergoing a
major overhaul ii> New York preparatory
to becoming the only ship operated
by the Canal organization.
The Company will use facilities made
available to it in New Orleans by the
U.S. Army Transportation Terminal at
P~oland and Dauphine Streets, where
space has been provided for offices,
cargo storage, docking, and a waiting
room. Those taking cars with them to
the United States normally will be
able to get them from dockside shortly
The Army facilities are only 10 to 15
minutes by taxicab from the central
hotel district and railroad station and
about 30 to 45 minutes from the New
Orleans airport. Direct rail and air
serve i avalabl ew n w
Oren gda a numlbeerbofw nar U.
cities and good highways lead to the
north, east, and west.
For those who will be staying in New
Orleans for a few hours or a few days
during trips to and from the Isthmus,
the city offers the numerous attractions
for-which it is famous, mecluding fine
restaurants, excellent hotels, gala night-
clubs, and many other features in keep-
with its position as the 19th city
xofthe Nation, on the basis of population.
The first Company vessels to arrive
there are scheduled to dock shortly after
breakfast time, but later ships are slated
to arrive at dockside at 1 p~m
For those interested in seeing the
sights of New Orleans, numerous tours
are offered, including one which pro-
vides a 4-hour introduction to New
Orleans nightlife in the French Quarter
and another through the nearby bayous.
New to Neto
6 and May 13_ May 9
25____-_. _May' 19
31_----_- _May 29
29 June-____Jn 28
15_______ -J y 18
22 _______July 28
2 and Aug. 9 Aug._Aug 7
19_______ _Aug. 17
26_______ _Aug. 27
6______. _Sept. 6
13, Sept.___Spt 16
from New from N~
May 17_______ _May
May 23________ Mhay
June 2_______ _June
June 9_-_____ _June
June 21 and June 27- June
July 7___-_-_ _July
July 14___ _July
July 25__--- ~ __July
Aug. 1_______ _Aug.
Aug. 11___L-. i- Aug.
Aug. 18__---~ --Aug.
Aug. 29--____ _Sept.
Sept. '6__--~ --- Sept.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
1961 VACATION SEASON SCHEDULE
'~Li~~R1F;. ,~fi~(L~UliJl~r(~Eii;jE I
L L''-:rr` *.
r; ;F' *~~rl*~is~g-;l(~.~*~lt:-
rr;~r:;t5.~ ~~~P~ji.C~; : ;
.s~-..,i ...II .~L:'` .~-.4;1 .ci
~~3~zc ~;;j~~~.~; J*
i-~.I. I-- L~~i~.l .. J~ Zr; :U' ""
This new camp near Gatun Locks will be
lastr vcaton sednew ookng heler. Appetites were sharpened by the outdoor liife.
Capt. E. S. Shipley, Commander of
the Cristobal Police District, who is
chairman of the committee in charge
of developing the camp, says all the
work will be completed by the time
the first camping session opens in June.
Mrs. Shipley, who will be mn charge
of the camping sessions as Girl Scout
Council Camp Director, has announced
that the June 12-17 camp will be for
girls who are completing the fifth, sixth,
and seventh grades this year and are
11 through 13 years of age. The second
session, from June 19 through June 24,
will be for girls completing the eighth
grade or who are in high school and
are 14 through 17 years of age.
Camp activities being planned by
Mrs. Shipley, who has been a Girl Scout
leader and has had trammig mn outdoor
life and camping at the National Girl
Scout Adult Training Center in the
United States, and Mrs. Marjorie Hall,
program director, are designed to help
the campers develop resourcefulness,
initiative, and self-reliance.
The scheduled programs will include
hiking, cooking, folk dancing, nature
study, arts and crafts, dramatics, and.
of course, outdoor living and campfire
songfests. All of the activities will be
supervised by adults.
Officials of the Canal Zone Girl Scout
Council note that Camp Caribbean will
be the second campsite operated by and
for Girl Scouts in the Zone since the
Council was organized in 1936. The first
camp, which was located on the Pacific
side of the Isthmus, was disposed of
GmL Scove camping activities in the
Canal Zone are getting back into full
swing in their own campsite for the first
time since early in World War II and
plans are far advanced for the first
Zonewide Girl Scout camping sessions
since the war.
Capt. and Mrs. E. S. Shipley
With approximately 800 Girl Scouts
enrolled in the program throughout the
Zone, the opening of a permanent camp-
site last fall marked the beginning of
anew era of activities for them
and the adult leaders who supervise
Work on the campsite, which is
located on a 28-acre tract of land near
Catun Locks, still is not complete, but
enough work has been done that some
of the Zone's Girl Scouts already have
camped there. A week-long camping
session by a group of senior Girl Scouts
during Easter school vacation was the
most concentrated use of the permanent
facilities which have been installed.
The girls who participated in the
Easter camping session joined in the
continuing efforts of volunteers and
Others to change the once overgrown
area from a long-abandoned town-
site into a permanent and efficiently
Almost daily, as the calendar advances
toward the first Zonewide, Girl Scout
Council-sponsored camping session since
World War II days, the work which has
been done on the campsite for the past
When work is completed on the
permanent installations, the campsite,
which was officially dedicated as Camp
Caribbean last fall, will include two
permanent cooking shelters, a combi-
nation dining shelter and meeting hall
20 feet wide and 70 feet long, numerous
fireplaces, and a number of other minor
during World Wiar II. Funds received
from sale of the camp's permanent ins-
tallations are being used to help finance
development of the new camp.
Mrs. Nellie Farrell, executive director
of the Zone Girl Scout Council, who
assumed that post last September, says
the first Girl Scout troop in the Canal
Zone was organized in 1925, but it was
several years later before the Council
"With Camp Caribbean at our dis-
posal," Mrs. Farrell says, "we will be
able to conduct a much more complete
and enjoyable Girl Scout program. It is
going to be a big asset and all those
active in Girl Scout activities in the
Zone sincerely appreciate the volunteer
help and United Fund support which
have helped makee it possible."
The camping sessions during June
will be limited to a maximum of 75 girls
for each session, Mrs. Farrell said,
because that is the largest number which
can be effectively handled at the camp.
Registration for the campmng sessions
started April 15 and will end May 26.
Mrs. Frances Sharp, Balboa, is in charge
of registration on the Pacific side, while
Mrs: Alena Mc~an, Margarita, is han-
dling registrations on the Atlantic side.
In addition to Mrs. Shipley and
I Mrs. Hall, the camp staff will include
i Mrs. June Swaine, co-director of the
camrp, and Mrs. Mebs Ausnehmner, a
registered nurse, who will serve as camp
Nurse and will be on hand at the camp
throughout the sessions.
Hammocks equipped with covers to shield against rain have been obtained for the camp.
Tents acquired for use in the camp also were "checked out" by participating girls.
12 MAY 5, 1961 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13
scee o frstCouci-spnsredcamin sesin fr ZneGir Sout ina umbr o yars Snio Gil cous ho ampd urig
Campsite Readied for ~irl Scouts
In Zone Schooki
Charles A. Dubbs
Francis A. Castles
Theo F. Hotz
PnomoTrloNs and reassignments in the
Canal Zone Division of Schools brought
about a series of personnel moves, as
some school officials moved into new
positions on May 1 and others prepared
to assume new duties on July 1.
Francis A. Castles, former principal
of Diablo Heights Junior High School,
was promoted to assistant super-
intendent, U.S. Schools, succeeding
Roger W. Collinge, who retired from
Cmany-Government service last
nmoth andl will leave the Isthmus May 8
for an extended trip in Europe.
Charles A. Dubbs, formerly assistant
to the superintendent, was made assist-
ant superintendent, Latin American
schools, in March.
John C. Fawcett, formerly principal
of Cocoli and Fort Kobbe schools, was
promoted to principal of Diablo Heights
Junior High School and took over his
new duties on May 1.
Theo F. Hotz, present principal of
Balboa High School, will become super-
visor of instruction for U.S. secondary
schools on July 1.
David A. Speir, Jr., presently assistant
principal at Balboa High School, will
be promoted to principal of the school
on July 1, succeeding Mr. Hotz.
Balboa High's new.principal-to-be
was born in Bryan, Ga., and is a graduate
of William & Mary College in Virginia.
He received his master's degree in edu-
cation at the University of Florida
and did additional graduate work at
the University of Havana and the
University of F'lorida.
A veteran of the U.S. Air Force,
Mr. Speir received an honorable dis-
charge and taught for years at Jackson-
ville Beach, Fla. In 1951 he came to the
Canal Zone and taught social studies
at Balboa High School. He was pro-
moted to the position of assistant prin-
cipal in 1959, upon the retirement of
Harold J. Zierton.
Mr. Hotz, present principal of Balboa
Senior High School, will supervise the
classroom instruction program and
teaching methods in the U.S. junior and
senior high schools after he moves into
his new job July 1. A corresponding
position already exists in the U.S. ele-
mentary and Latin American schools.
The supervisor's position in the U.S.
secondary schools is an outcome of the
tremendous increase in enrollments in
grades 7 through 12, with a resultant
'increase in the number of teachers at
that scholastic level.
Mr. Hotz was born in New Haven, Mo.'
Heis graduate of Heidelberg College,
Tiffin, Ohio, received his master of edu-
cation degree at Ohio State University,
and has done additional graduate work
at the University of Cincinnati. Prior
to coming to the Canal Zone, he was
a high school teacher for 9 years. In the
1937-38 school year, he was teacher of
mathematics at Cristobal High School.
Inl1943 he became principal of Cristobal
High School and in September 1947
moved to the Pacific side to become
principal of Balboa High School.
Mr. Fawcett, who succeeds Mr. Castles
as principal of the Diablo Heights Junior
High School, was born in Colorado
Springs, Colo. He is a graduate of the
University of Redlands in California,
received his master's degree in educa-
tion at San Diego State College, and
did additional graduate work at San
Diego State College.
He served with the U.S. Air Force
and is now a major in the Air Force
Reserve. He came to the Canal Zone
in 1946 and taught physical educa-,
tion for 2 years at Cristobal High
School. In 1948 he was transferred
to Balboa High School as physical
In the school year 1950-51 he served
as acting assistant director of physical
education and athletics, and the fol-
lowing year was physical education
instructor and athletic coach at Balboa
High School. Mr. Fawcett was pro-
moted in 1958 to the position of prin-
cipal of the Cocoli and Fort Kobbe
Mr. Castles, the new assistant super-
intendent, U.S. schools, was born in
Revere, Mass. He received his bachelor's
degree at Villanova University, Villa-
nova, Pa., and his master of educa-
tion degree at Boston University. He
taught school and was an elementary
school principal in Massachusetts for
4 years prior to coming to the Canal
Zone in 1946.
He first taught Junior High School
mathematics, then, in February 1947,
David A. Speir, Jr. John C. Fawcett
Lawrence E. Horine
MAY 5, 1961~
Page in Canal History Closed
was appointed acting ~principal of
Balboa Junior High School. The follow-
ing school year he became principal.
During the school years 1952-53 and
.1953-54, he was principal of the La Boca
Junior-Senior High School. In 1955
he was appointed Balboa Junior High
School principal, a position he has held
until his present promotion.
He was awarded a Fulbright scholar-
ship for study in Norway and Italy in
196r0, the first Fulbright grant to be
received by a member of the Canal
Zone's Division of Schools. He was
selected by the Board of Foreign Scholar-
ships of the Department of State for
the grant, which is more formally
known as the International Educational
Exchange Program of the U.S. Govern-
ment, and was one of a group of
20 U.S. educators who took the 2-month
seminar on comparative education.
In~ his new position, Mr. Castles will
be responsible for U.S. elementary and
Mr. Dubbs, the new assistant super-
intendent, Latin American schools, was
born in Elkhart, Ind. He received his
bachelor's degree and his master of
education degree from Bell State
Teachers College, Muncie, Ind., and
did additional graduate work at the
University of Indiana.
He taught school in Indiana for years
and was an elementary-secondary school
principal there before coming to the
Canal Zone in 1946. He was principal
of the Silver City (now Rainbow
City) High School until the school year
1950-51, when he was appointed
director of vocational education in the
,rCanal Zone schools. .
From 1951 to 1953 he was with the
Canal Zone~ Personhnel Bureau as a
training officer and then returned to
the Division of Schools as director of
secondary education. In 1958 he was
appointed assistant to the superintendent
in the Division of Schools.
In addition to these executive changes
in the Division of Schools, a new super-
visor of physical education and athletics
in the Canal Zone Division of Schools
recently was appointed to succeed .
C. C. Lockridge, who retired from
Company-Government service April 30.
The new physical -education official
is Lawrence E. Horine, who had been
a physical education teacher and coach
at Balboa High School. He was born
in Colon and attended the Canal Zone
schools, being graduated from Cristobal
High School in 1949. He has a bachelor's
degree with a major in phiysical! edu-
cation and a master's degree with a
major in education from the University
nishes for all Government installations
in the Zone, including the Canal locks.
Since the construction of Madden
Dam in 1935 and the installation of the
hydroelectric power station there, the
power supply of the IZone has not been
increased except for installation of auxi-
liary diesel power stations, which are
used principally for conservation of
water and emergencies.
During the past few years and espe-
cially since the conversion to 60O-cycle
current, power demands in the Zone
have increased through the use of
modern electrical appliances and air
conditioning in- both private homes and
The gradual increase in traffic through
the waterway has indirectly affected the
generation capability of the power
system. During the dry season months,
hydroelectric power from the Gatun
station has had to be increasingly
curtailed in order to conserve water.
AS PART OF a long-range plan which
eventually will result in modernization
of the Canal organization's electrical
generating equipment and an increase
of electrical power potential in the
Zone, a survey of electrical power
requirements is being conducted.
The survey will be made by officials
of the Canal Electrical Division and
top men in the Engineering and Con-
struction Bureau, with R. Ai. Kamp-
meier, assistant manager of power for
the~ Tennessee Valley Authority, serving
as a special consultant.
Mr. Kampmeier, who is visiting the
Isthmus at the request of the Canal
organization, arrived here~at the end
of April and is scheduled to stay until
Studies are to be made of the power
needs of the Canal organization in the
future and problems connected with
th roduction- of electrical energy,
wihthe Panama Canal Company fur-
demolition crew which will tear it
down to end a career started with its
construction in 1907.
The house is the last one in Ancon
which was built prior to the opening
of the waterway.
-- Originally, four-
houses and a number
of wooden cottages
were built in the
Ancon area, but all
those of construc-
.; have given way to
I .. masonry homes in
.. Three wooden cot-
tages, which were
located just beyond
.. Sacred Heart Chapel
3Cb in Ancon and which
also were built in
1907, recently were demolished, leaving.
the four-family house as the last one
of that age mn the area. Soon, it too
will be gone.
Insurance Bids 1Received
PROPOSALS from ,life insurance COm-
panies interested in providing group life
insurance protection for non-U.S.-citizen
employees of the Comppany-Government
were being received at Balboa Heights
this week and will be through May 15.'
ANOTHER PAGE in Canal history was
closed near the end of April as the
last family to occupy house No. 364
in Ancon moved out, leaving the
sprawling, four-family building to the
O ening Date Changed
For Zone's UJ. S. Schools
U.S. SCHIOOLS IN the Zone will, reopen
on Friday, September 8, this year
instead of the traditional first Wednes-
day after Laborl Day. The change was
made because of the change in Company
steamship sailing schedules. The Birst
.September sailing from New Orleans is
to arrive in Cristobal on September 6,
just 2 days before the first day of school.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEWl
POwer Needs Under Study
Jan Gale feeds young ocelot, while 34i-year-old Jere casts a wary eye totvard family owl.
- A BIRD PERCHED on a little boy's
shoulder is no uncommon sight on the
Isthmus, and there's nothing too unusual
about seeing a little girl feeding a kitten
with a doll bottle. But when the boy
is Jon or Jere Gale, and the little girl
is their sister, Jan, the bird probab-ly
is a baby owl and the kitten a youthful
member of the ocelot family. Jon, Jan,
and Jere are the children of Dr. and
Mrs.' Nathan B. Gale, Jr., of Gamboa.
Dr. Gale is a veterinarian with the
Canal Zone Division of Vleterinary
Medicine and, as far' lackc as h~"ean
remember, has always haid some yonfig
bird or animal in his care. Hisl children,
quite apparently, are following in their:
father's -footsteps.: Mrs. Gale, who is a
'school teacher, never studied animal
care and feeding; but she's become an
expert at it.
The envy of all the neighborhood
small fry, the Gale children also have
a little deer in the ba~ckard. Aii'd-they
have guinea pigs who live in a rustic .
sort of guinea pig housing project,
enclosed in a big swimming-pool type
of plastic ring, on the side lawn.
~The Gale family, moreover, has the
most interesting conversation piece on
the Isthmus in the form of a "mobile
mobile" in the porch area of their home,
where a beautiful rare emerald green
boa dozes, ~coiled on a forked perch
suspended from the ceiling. This par-
ticular specie of the boa family, Dr. Gale
explains, is a native~ of South America,
is born in trees, and spends all its life
in trees. The newborn baby boa is brick
red, but as the snake matures, the red
changes to green and the' green becomes
e\el dteper with every boa birthday.
The one that Dr. Gale has was~ acquired
in Jquitos, Peru, in 1956 and, is rarely
raised in captivity. Right now it is about
5%/4 feet long, and will grow to.:7 feet
at maturity. The boa, perhaps because
of its unobtrusiveness, still has no name.
The baby ocelot's name is JosB. At
a quick glance, Jos6 100ks like a house
kitten, except for the markings of his
fur, which is tawny yellow, with a
distinctive design in black.
When he first came to live at the
Gale home, Jos6 was fed every 2 hours,
day and night. "Like having a baby in
the house again," Mrs.' Gaei observed.
Now 1%~ moziths old, JosB consumes a
Jon Gale Teeds Timmy, the familjr's deer.
This rrreen boa
pro\ ides something
different in the wray
of mobiles for the-
.iSaies' iving rooml.
MAY 5, 19631
A~nd a Boa
This Gamboa family
has a menagerie all
its own, including a
"mobile mobile" in
-the porch area.
FOUR EASY STEPS TO REMEMBER
Dilute the poison by making the child drink water,
Make him vomit unless he has burns around the mouth, or has swallowed
petroleum products or is unconscious or in convulsions.
Call a physician,
Keep the child warm.; keep his air passage-open; give artificial respiration,
--From the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning,
Academyl of Pediatrics.
Panama Canal Poison Information Center 2-26i00.
enough to put:medicines on high shelves,
for children in the climbing stage will
go to amazing heights in search of
Don't keep household chemicals under
the kitchen sink. The one-year-old who
crawls under the sink to ingest bleaches
and lyes, accounts for 37 percent of
poisoning cases, according to one study.
Hazardous household products belong
on high. shelves, preferably in a locked
compartment, inaccessible to the crawler.
Never transfer a poisonous sub-
stance, such as turpentine, into a
common container such as a cola or
milk bottle, drinking glass, or pitcher.
A child could easily mistake the poison
for food or drink.
Never put poisons in cupboards used
for food storage.
Make a regular check around the
house to be sure poisonous items are
not within a child's reach. Danger areas
are kitchen, bedroom, and bathroom.
doll-size bottle of milk every 4 hours.
He's still a lightweight kitten and, like
a kitten, will curl upon a handy lap
er su detrWe nh all grown nhd:.?
for relatives-they roam from Texas
The owl, Juti (Hooty) who is living
at the Gale home is a mere baby by
bird standards and is hand-fed every
5 or 6 hours. He spends most of his
time looking wise, owl fashion; or
napping, head in wing.
T~he letter "J" is the predominating
imitial in names at the Gale home until
one is introduced to the baby deer,
whose comfortable abode is back of
the house. The deer is called Timmy
and was named by 3V2-year-old Jere
Gale, who could think of no greater
tribute to his bosom chum, Timmy
Carber, youngest son of Gamnboa school
principal and Mlrs. W. C. Garber, who
live next door.
Timmy consumes three or four baby
bottles of milk at. a feeding, and some-
times will stand up on two legs mn his
eagerness to get his dinner. The same
basic milk formula is used for all the
feedings of the baby animals.
Injured animals and birds seem to
gravitate to the Gale home, and the
whole family cooperates in their care
and feeding. The animal boarders in the
past included such interesting speci-
mens as a crab-eating raccoon, and a
Dr. Gale, a native of Ashland, Oreg.,
arrived on the Isthmus from California
in January 1960. He was graduated
from Washington State University in
1953 with the degree of doctor of
veterinary medicine and received his
master's degree in public health at
Tulane University in 1959.
He came to the Canal Zone from
Compton, Calif., where he specialized
in mycology on the staff of the Los
Angeles County Livestock Association.
He also has worked with animals in the
Walt Disney studios and did veterinary
work there. In Los Angeles, he com-
mented, it is not unusual for people
to have pet bears, pet lions, and even
pet tigers, all of whch contribute to
making a veterinarian's life something
quite different than humdrum.
'His interest in animals also led him
to a post as curator at the Portland,
O~reg zoo and then to the Los Angeles
zoo as a veterinary consultant. His work
ineant ~there always was some animal
that needed a friend, since many baby
animals born in a zoo are rejected by
their parents. The Gales would lend a
hand until the wee animal was able tO
eat alone and to take his place in zoo
08ie~ty. TIhen, as now, another would
always come along.
Wrra 250,000 poisonous household
products on the market every mother
must be alert to the poisoning hazard.
Be sus icious if the child exhibits any
of the flowing symptoms: sudden pain,
unusual flushing or pallor, agitation,
restlessness, drowsiness, nausea, vomit-
ing, muscle twitchings, convulsions,
signs of fear or panic and burns around
the mouth or skin. Four easy to
remember first aid steps are given in
case of accidental poisoning and it is
recommended that they be cut out and
pasted up in a handy place.
Nearly all accidental poisonings
could be prevented if toxic materials
were stored and handled properly,
according to the National Clearing
House for Poison Control Centers. Here
are precautions to take:
Lock your medicine cabinet. Drugs,
including aspirin, the largest offender,
account for one-third of all fatal poison-
ings in children under five. It is not
YEAR TO DATE
'61 '60 61 '80 '61
314(75) 268 11 -'8 317(32)
849!397) 750 37(4) 32 978(58)
( ) Locks Overhaul injuries included in total.
THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Can Be Prevented
INJ U R4ES I
James Doran, right, and Rupert Foster inspect salvaged pieces of old railroad equipment.
by the Fretich were discovered on the
Cut-widening project. A few days later
--and several miles away--pieces of a
similar dump car were found in the
path of the new waterline being built
~from. Miraflores Filtration Plant to the
Los Rios Pump Station,
All metal scrap found in the Zone
during the course of other operations is
salvaged by the Warehouse, ~Scrap, and
Salvage Section of' the' Storehouse
Branch, which also -disposes of present-
day equixipent of the Canal organiza-
tion as it becomes outmoded or obsolete
and heads for the steel mills once more.
Each year, the Scrap and Salvage
Section disposes of approximately 4,000
tons of scrap metal and for the past
2 years about one-fourth of the total
has been recovered during the process
of the Cut-widening effort. Joseph L. H.
Demers, who heads up the section, says
he expects that about 1,000 tons of
scrap will continue to turn up on the
Cut-widening project for the next year
dr two, and possibly longer.
Scrap left behind
still is being
IT H-AS BEEN more than 70 years since
the French effart to build the Panama
Canal collapsed in a financial morass
and almost a half-century since the
waterway was opndto the world's
ship traffic, but the task of cleaning up
debris left scattered in the massive con-
struction efforts still is not completed.
Almost daily, as the widening of
Caillard Cut moves forward, scraps of
abandoned construction equipment are
unearthed. Most of the rusting pieces
thus recovered date from the days of
the French effort, although an occa-
sional piece of American construction
equipment also is found.
Recently, -at least a dozen of the
European-style railroad dump cars used
Inspector Ralph E. Furlong looks on as
Jose Felix Hine uses torch to remove old
dump car from trench for new waterline.
This shovel helped salvage parts of old railroad cars uncovered during Cut-widening.
? MAY 5, 1961
the day after the fleet's arrival and it
was estimated that they spentt approxi-
mately a million dollars in Panama
during their stay.
Canal Zone Demnocrats held meetings
in the Canal Zone..to select delegates
to attend the D~emocratic convention
in Philadelphia, although~ Executive
secretary C. A.. M~cnlvaine announced
that Civil Service regulations regarding
political activity of Federal employees
would be enforced to the letter-.
A boom in Canal Zone construction
act vitth was woeast wth an anmnone
more than $2,300,000 to improve local
Army posts and that bids were being
sought by the Canal organization for
construction of the C~amboa: t-ownsite.
10O Years Ago
IT wAs announced in Washington that
the Canal Zone was to be madie a proving
ground in U.S. Armyr plans to integrate
volunteer civilians into its antiaircraft
program. The program was to seta
pattern for the ultimate coordination
of Army and civilian auxiliary -efforts
in defense against air a~ttiak on the
United States and its possessions.
pRk t 0 appea Sd i ssign .1~rop e
in the Canal Zone, despite the beginning
of income tax co sections frrom t n-mll at
the beginning of the year. -A bill to
remove a retroactive feature of the
new law extending income taxes to
U.S. citizens em 1 yed in' the Zone was
reported favorably by the House Ways
and Means Committee and the U.S.
Civil Service Commission proposed pay
raises of nearly 7 percent for' classified
employees of the Federal Government.
Onle Year: Ag-o
THE PANAMA CANAL Company
announced last May that' the contract
to furnish newv towih~g locomotives for
the locks had been awarded to Mitsu-
bishi Shoji Kaisha, Ltd., of Tokyo,
Japan. The Japanese firm had entered
a base bid of $3,829,900 fo~r 'the~ pur-
chase of 6 test locomotives, 33 addi-
tional locomotl;es,' and 3 Idcomnotive
The population of the Canal- Zone,
as of April 1, 1960, wias.41,6i8 3, it was
announced. '1'his was a, reduction of
11,139 in theZorie. population since l950.
plentiful and cheap. The list announced
that porterhouse steak was selling for
20 cents a pound, pork loin chops
at 14 cents a. pound,' lamb legs at
17 cents a pound, and such delicacies as
pheasant, partridge, and grouse at
50 cents each.
25 1Years A go
IT WAS U.S. Navy month in the Canal
Zone and Panama 25 yeaisi ago this
May, with the main body, of the U.S.
Fleet arriVing in Balboa about mid-
month after maneuvers off the west
coast of South America.
With the fleet including 11 battle-
ships, 4 aircraft carriers, 12 heavy
cruisers, 7 light cruiisers, 72 destroyers,
12 submarines, and 28 auxiliary vessels,
some 25,000 sailors went on: shore leave
50 Years Ago
THE ACTUAL WOTIC Of COnStructing the
Gatun.Locks gates began 50 years ago
this month, shortly after the arrival of
the first shipment of material. The first
gates were those situated in the upper
or lake level locks.
Plans were approved for the con-
struction of terminal docking facilities
at the ~Atlantic entrance of t~he Canal.
The project called for a series of five
reinforced concrete docks which THE
CANAL RECORD Said could accommodate
10 vessels 1,000 feet long, or 20 vessels
of the type used m ~the Isthmian trade.
Construction life for the early Canal
employees might have been rugged at
times, but according to a commissary
bulletin issued in May 1911, food was
Segundo Jimknez, Colombia; Winchman,
Terminals Division; 11 years, 1 month,
24 days; Panama.
G. C. Lockridge, lowa;hSlupervisor, Physical
Edhtitio~n anedsA 6 etics Di227siedna o
Victoriano Luzcando, Panama; Helper,
General, Dred ing Division; 26 years,
'10 months, 13 days; Panama.
Lucius McLoud, Jamaica; Grounds Keeper,
Division of Schools; 35 years, 4 months,
20 days; Panama.
Gabriel Ortega, Colon; Lockman, Atlantic
Locks; 34 -years, 10 months, 29 days;
Clarence A. Priestley, Panama, Chauf~
feur, an~thn n ce Dvis on; 23, years'
Herbert E. Rothwell, England; Water
System Control Man, Maintenance Divi-
sion; 15 years, 10 months, 25 days;
Alphonse J. Roy, Massachusetts; Guard,
Terminals Division; 17 years, 3 months;
Louis E.Sne~deker Cuba liquidd Feye Ds
1 month, 7 days; Florida.
Bulmn A. Truck, Jdamnaca; Oiler, Floating
$Equip et,17Dr dging Diavisicm; 38 years,
Aston L. Wilson, Jamaica; Warehouseman,
Wholesale Section, Supply Division;
34 years, 11 months, 19 days; Colon.
Jose D. Winter, Panama; Boatman, Hydro-
graphic Section, Engineering Division;
15 years, 11 months, 29 days; Panama.
Sydney R. Worrell, Barb,ados; Stock
Control Clerkd Supply Division; 46 years'
1 month, 18 days; Panama.
RETIREMENT Certi Omtess were pre-
sented at the end. of April to the
employees listed belowv, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service,
and future residence.
Williaiin H. Basham, Jr., Ancon, C.Z.; Postal
Division; 15 years and 27 days; Canal
James S. Bennett, Jamaica; Seaman,
Navigation Division; 38 years, 6 months,
11 days; Panama.
Mrs. Alice O. Benthall, Indiana; Telephone
Operator, Electrical Division; 15 years
and 29 days; Florida. -
Dillion Brock, Colombia; Aids to Navi-
gation Foreman, Dredging Division;
30' years, 7 ninths, 24 days, San Andrtbs,
Hubert Brown, Antigua;. Liquid Fuel
Wharfman, Marine Bunkering Section;
29 yeais, 3 months, 4 days; Panama.
Roger W. Collinge, Wisconsin; Assistant
Su ern nde tb U.FlSiedhools; 30 years,
Samuel J. Garriel, New Tersey; Lead Fore
man, Maintenance Division; 21 years,
5 months, 7 days; undecided.
Jos6 B. Goti, Panama; Truck Driver,
Motor Transportation Division; 21 years,
4 months, 3 days; Panama.
William F. Grady, North Carolina; Super-
visory Phanriacist, Coco Solo Hosnital;
29 years, 1 moth, 28 days; Florida.
Herbert C. 11awvichorst, California; Elec-
trician,~ El ctritl IDivision; 16 years,
4 months, 9 days; California.
fiIdi PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19
1 1 171 NTO
CIVEL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Richard A. Edmondson
Fred S. Southerland
Police Station Clerk
Aston M. Parchment
JuniormHig eSce olSPhrin ipal,
Mack F. Bailey
Clifford V. Russell
Ho ~taol Administrative
Thomas E. Semper
Laurence D. Duncan
Helper Lock Operator
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Burton J. Hackett, Jr.
*L dd Grounds Foreman
S. F. ean Baptiste
Donald C. Miller
Head, Composing Section
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Ma 'orie V. Jones
Elementary and Secondary
James F. McGloin
EmP ett A.8 tllins
Lester O. Clarke
Macon W. Foscue
Gale A. O'Connell
Orlando L. Flye, Jr.
Juan D. Calame
Floating Plant Oiler
Charles W. Jarvis
Hel er Carpenter
Miguel Al andona
Floating Plant Oiler
Andrds Diaz .
Helper Refrigeration and .
Air Conditioning Mechame
Alfred G. Wilhiams
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
G. L. Campbell
Nursing Assistant, Psychiatry
Heavy Pest Control Laborer
Robert G. Grocott
Fred A. Howell
Santiago S. Morrice
Martina S. Greenland
Willam T. Clute
Joseph A. Blackburn
JosB D. Villarreal
DHe vy L borer
Helper Lock Operator
Daniel J. Ianoale .
OFFICE OF THIE
Donald M. Luke
Frank A. Baldwin
Eldermae A. Duff
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Robert G. Rowe
Retail Store Supervisor
John Henry Francis
Sidney O. Ford
Berenice L. Jordan
Evelyn A. Lowe
Enid E. Perryman
Dry Cleaning Presser
Enrique de J. Aburto
Eni dL. Sm ons
Hyman G. Forth
Stck Control Clerk
C. D. Cumberbatch
Cyril E. Jones
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Alfred A. Allen
Etheline A. Rowe
Edna L. Walton
Roy M. Steele
General Foreman, Ship
Leopold E. Welch
Supervisory Cargo Clerk
Randolph F. Simmons
Oscar R. Pinto
High Lift Truck Operator
Alberto H. Dogue
Clarence B. Glasgow
Helper Liquid Fuels
MAY 5, 1961
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Fitz N. rn
EMVIPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between March 10 and
April 10 are listed below. Within-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Ke ehl L.i Morrs oom utdo C r,
Fred E. Perra, Charles S. Smith, to Police
Ralph E. Masters, to Police Sergeant.
Division of Schools
Dorothy T. Abplanalp, Glenn E. Darnell,
to Elementary and Secondary School
Wilfred G. Earle, to Leader Heavy Laborer.
EXECUTIVE PLANNING STAFF
Lillian M. Vogel, Clerk-Stenographer, from
Ethelridge Daniels, to Messenger.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Alberto Arispe C., Mike N. Bent, Elvin S.
Binns, Domingo De Gracia, Vincent Gon-
zalez, Eulalio Lemos, Hubert H. Leslie,
Miximo L6pez, Marcos Reinaz, George
G. Rowe, Ivan A. Wallace, to Surveying
Gerold E. Cooper, to Dipper Dredge
Wltaer Jr. Grymala, Donald W. Marlow, to
Geo ge t.R ic 1 CCie nEngin ,eb ipper
Charles G. Morency, to Dipper Dredge
Leavell F. Kelly, from Lock Operator En-
gineman, Locks Division, to Engineman.
Larchan H. Robinson, to Launch Operator.
Clive O. Garbutt, to Leader Seaman,
Irvin R. King, to Floating Plant Oiler.
Lloyd N. Church, to Toolroom Attendant.
Fernando Carri6n, Luis A. P~rez, to Debris
Allen A. Welsh, to Clerk.
Norman C. Anderson, from Lock Operator
Machinist, Locks Division, to Operator-
Evans Davis, to Helper Cable Splicer.
W 1 ermJ. Carson, to Lead Foreman
Laurel L. Highley, to Leader Welder.
Winfield F. Fearn, to Leader Machinist.
Henry J. Walker, to Helper Refrigeration
adAir Conditioning Mechanic.
Ashton M. Russell, to Roofer.
Zedikiah Henry, Asunci6n Pkrez, Alejandro
Navarro, to Heavy Laborer.
Ram6n E. Arosemena, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Contract and Inspection Division
Frank H. Robinson, to Construction
Ramona JH Irland Bro AStaff Nurse,
Gor is Hospital, to Head Nurse
Rig~ley ate esly r za Hospitlist, from
Supply Division to Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine.
Albert J. Mitchell, to Patient Food Service
Attendant, Gorgas Hospital
Ethel W. Brown, from Clerk-Stenographer,
Contract and Inspection Division, to
Statistical Clerk, Office of the Director*
Louis H. Hixon, Samuel Londynsky, Thomas
B. McAndrews, Charles H. Taylor, to
Robert S. Peake, to Pilot-in-Triaining.
Clarence J. Bascumbe, to Floating Plant
Edgar McDonald, from Clerk, Railroad
Division, to Deckhand.
Flix Guillermo Julienne, from Laborer,
Gorgas Hospital, to Heavy Laborer.
Dennis A. Gilbert, to Purchasing Agent.
Arturo Smith, from Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Ernest V. Baptiste, from Package Boy,
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Joepchai t Burns, to Lock Operator
Norb F. Keller, to Lock Operator
George W. Rowe, to Helper Lock Operator.
Ferdinand R. Rose, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Sebasti6n Sfinchez, to Boatman.
Jose R. King, Heavy Laborer, from Main-
Larry J. Miller, Bruno L. Emanuele,
Osmond N. Austin, from Firefighter,
Fire Division, to Towing Locomotive
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Patricia A. Humphrey, Clerk-Typist,: from
Central Employment Offce, to Account-
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Dwirh ctM. Van Eera, JO.l to Sup riso y
Harry C. Seaman, to Food Processing
John H. Simson, Elsie B. Garcia, to Retail
Carlos Brown, to Clerk.
Wilford B. McQueen, to Prepackaged Meat
Clifford Blythe, Lionel Brathwaite, Felix
Ce Ilo Ro. oJones t Utility Worker.
Levi Best, from Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Warehouseman.
Lloyd G. Wilson, from Messenger, Locks
sate Wooc t kitchen Attendant.
George C. Bennett, Reginald A. Carter, Jr.,
Amonael r K nel to Ticket Seller.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Daniel S. Hogan, from Painter, Locks
Division, to Dock Worker.
Ulric G. Easey, from Heavy Laborer, Locks
Division, to Dock Worker.
Juan Justiniani, Epifanio Hernhndez, from
Laborer, Maintenance Division, to Dock
Miguel Couloote, from Counter Attendant,
Supply Division, to Dock Worker.
Calixto Martinez, to Helper Liquid Fuel
Crescenciano Vdsquez, Eliwood E. Beatty,
to Ship Worker.
Alvin L. Cameron, from Sales Clerk, Supply
Division, to T~imekeeper.
Steven E. Garnett, from Admitting Service
Aid, Coco Solo Hospital, to Cler .
Motor Transportation Division
Kermnit B. Williams, from Towing Loco-
motive Operator, Locks Division, to
Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic.
Malcolm N. Francis, from Stock Control
Clerk, Locks Division, to General Supply
Wilfred Daily, to Chauffeur.
Frederick J. Brathwaite, to Clerk.
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
John E. Deming, Magistrate, Magistrate
Charles A. Garcia, Magistrate, Magistrate
Henry B. De Voll, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
John F. Paterson, General Engineer, Office
of the Chief, Locks Division.
Wilfred E. Barrow, Accounting Clerk, Ter-
Leonel V~squez, Nursing Assistant, Gorgas
Burton F. Mead, Time, Leave, and Payroll
Alyd S umth nA cu g Clerk, Ter-
Herbert Douglas, Clerk-Typist, Contract
and Inspection Division.
Ricardo R. Varela, Cartogrphic Compila-
tion Aid, Engineering Division.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
-----PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS ----
March 70 .through April 70
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT~ OVER. MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Third Qu~arter, Fiscal Year
1961 1960 Transits
United States inter coastal. .. . ... ... ... .. .. .. 102 138 146
]East coast of United States and South America,....... 570 770 445
.East coast of United. States and Central America. .... 111 138 129
East ~.l..>..s If Unritedl States and Far East.............. 537 469 261
Unlted brrate- C.llnacij east coast and Australasia.... 65 51 48
Elurope and west coast of United~ States/Canada.:: .. '230 1 3I212 193
Europe and South Arrierica. .. ... .. ... .. ... ... 295 256 123
Europe and Airs'trjlasia: .. ... ..... .. .. .... 104 105 95
All other routes.. ., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... 659 567 333
Total traffic. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . .. 2,673 2,806- 1,773
MONTHLY CONIIMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND T'OLLS
V~ssels of 300 tons net or over
Month--(Ishousnds f dolars)
1961 960 n 1981 1960 9T s
July............ 94 88 557. $4680 $4,29 $2432
Augut- 92 88 55 4,85 4111 2,43 1
Septmbe.. 87 83 57 4,72 3828 2,5431
Apri. .. *6082,588
May.... ...... 6292,672
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Third Quiarter, Fiscal Year
Num- I Tons
ber of of
67 271,735 |
31 L1%5 5 i
135 721 968
.354 ?, 3 1:3 3,; 90
ber of of
15 209 6
S52 1. 350,157
104 1 604,637
'British. ... .. ..
Chilean. .. .. ...
Chinese. ... ..
Danish. .. .. ..
E un orean... .
French. .. .
Greek. ... ..
H~onduran.. .. ..
Israeli. .. ... .
Italian.. .. ..
Netherlands.. .. .
Norwegian. .. .
`Panra an an. .. .
Swedish. .. .. .. .
UVnited Stites. .
All others. .. ..
M :~/AY 5, 1~961
WHAT MIGHT be a Canal transit record
for commercial ships was set during
April by ~the Swedish American cruise
liner K~imgsholm, when shie made the
trip from Miraflores Locks thou h
Gatun Locks in 5 hours and 12 minutes.
The 600-foot luxury ship entered Mira-
flores Locks at 5:58 p.m., Apr~il 8, and
left the last chamber of Gatun Locks
at 11:10 p.m. the same evening.
Although no official statistics are kept
on transit times, it is~ believed that this
may be the speediest trip through the
Canal in a number of years and probably
is a record for a..1arge commercial ship.
U.S. Navy ships have been sent through
the waterway at a fast clip at various
times, and the record for this kind of
vessel is. believed to -be 4 hours and
38 minutes, which was set by the
Madle a destroy in 1936.
The Kucngsholm arrived at Balboa
on April 8 after making a South Seas
cruise, and began the northbound transit
shortly afterward. She docked briefly
in Cristobal before continuing her trip
to New York with 400 passengers.
C. B. Fenton & Co. represent the line
at the Canal.
New Cruise Liner
THE ZIM LINE S CruiSe Ship, ferusalem,
will include Cristobal on her 1961-62
cruise itinerary, according to an advance
bulletin issued by the Zim Israel Navi-
gation Co., Ltd. The Jerusalem will
make nine cruises next fall and winter,
with all of them starting from New York.
The Zimn Line, which has several
cargo ships passing through the Canal
on regular schedules, entered the luxury
cruise trade between New York and
the Caribbean in 1958 with the new
Jerusa em. If the advance schedule for
next season is kept, it will be the first
visit to a Canal port by the ship. The
liner accommodates 350 cruise passen-
gers and is completely air conditioned.
Lumber Sh prment
ONE OF THE largest cargoes of pack-
a'ged um er ever shipped from the port
of Nanaimo in British Colombia passed
through the Canal in February aboard
the Greek freighter, Maria Hadfipateras.
The cargo consisted of more than
3 million board feet of Vancouver Island
lumber weighing approximately 11,000
tons. It was stowed in the holds of the
vessel and was bound for the United
States east coast.
CANAL TRANSITS -- COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
1961 1960 Transits
Pafi Atti Total Total Total
1,415 1,258 2,673 2,806 1,773
66 56 122 203 284
1,481 1,314 2,795 3,009 2,057
Ocean-going. .. ... ... .. ... .
Total commercial. .. .. .. ... .
U.S. Government vessels: as
Ocean-going .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ..
Small*. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ..
Total commercial and U.S.
Government... .. .. ... .. ..
OVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Goverm~ent-operated ships
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
| hird. Quarter, Fiscal Year
Ores, various. ... .. .. .. .. . .
Lumber... .......... ....
Sugar.....- ......... ....
Wheat. .......... .......
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)....
Metals, various.......... .................
Bananas. ..............,............... ,
Canned food products. .. . .. .. .
Ntrlate of soda. .. .. . .. .. .. ... ..
Food ~products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)..... :................... .........
Fertilizers, miscenlaneous. .......
Pulpwood and products. .
Oleds. ....,,... ......
All- others. ;...:- ..........
T otal .. ... ..................
Atlantic to Pacific
53 54 151
521 48 71
1,539 1,361 2,900 1 3,111
Third Quarter, Fisc;
i 1961 1960
Pt 01eudm an products I( clude asphalt)... ,0,3 ,1,2
Metal, scrap. 56,594 458,237
Phosph~ates.. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. 431,181 361,459
Iron a~id steel manufactures. .... . .... 356,924 502,141
Soybesins....;... .. ...................... 33,3 3 352
Cotrnon; raw. ....;.......... 217,535 179,984
Ores, various. ..... .... .. `190,770 217,147
Chemicals unclassified. ... .. ... .. .. 15,0 111,058
S gr.... ... .......... ...... 193 1 661
Sulfur. ................. 87,465 89,898
Paper and paper products. ......... 77,214 82,321
Automobiles and parts .......... ... 76,920 92,995
All others ......... ....... 1,320,081 1,155,102
Total. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. .. 8,380,879 7,019,940
THIE PANAM~A CANAL REVIEW
The Maria Hadjipateras was under
charter to~the Canadian Transport Co.
on this trip and was represented here
by C. Fermie & Co.
'Ship ing Men Retire
TWO WELL; KNOWN Atlantic side shi -P
ping executives who have represented
,their companies in Cristobal since the
1920's are retiring in June and will
make their homes in the United States.
They are Anthony F. Raymond, manager
of the United Fruit Co. in Cristobal,- and
Arthur F. Howarcd, manager of the
Pacific Steam. Navigation Co. office in
Mr. Raymond, a member of a well
known Isthmian family, came. to the
Canal Zone with his parents in 19036.
He attended school in New York and
was with the U.S. Army during World
War I before joining the Cristobal staff
.of United Fruit in 1922. He served in
a variety of jobs with the company
before being named assistant manager
at Cristobal in 1954. He has been
manager there for the past 18 months.
Mr. Howard is a native of Liverpoozl,
England, and was sent to Cristobal by
the Pacific Steam Na nation Co. .in
1929. He was employed in various sec-
tions of the company's Cristobal head-
quarters before being made manager
of the operation in 1951, following the
retirement of Allen N. Dodd.
NCShew Cargo hpS
ONE OF A SERIES of new cargo vessels
being built on the west coast of the
United States for the American Export
Lines transited the Canal April 21 on
her maiden voyage. The newv Export
Aid was carrying a load of west coast
grain to Egypt.
The transit of the 1Export Aid Icame
just 3 months after the maiden transit
of the American Export Line's freighter,
Export Agent, which passed through
the Canal in January, also with a load
of grain for Egypt. Both ships sailed
directly from Cristobal to Alexandria
and will be used in the Atlantic service
in the future.
A third new American Export
freighter, the Export Bay, was,1auriched
April 8 at San Diego, where she was
built by the National Steel & Ship-
building Co. This newest ship in the
series is named for the late Charles
Ulrick Bay, a former U.S. Ambassador
to Norway and former director of the
American Export Line. Boyd Bros.
represent the vessels at the Canal.
of big tarikers some months ago,
"Petroleum Week" magazine said:
AS~ INDUSTRIALIZED nations exhaust
nearby raw materials and go, farther
afield for new supplies, the world's
shipping firms are turning to larger and
larger ships to maintain economically
sound transportation costs despite the
greater distances: and volumes involved.
The ever increasing number of super-
ships in the wo Id's maritime fleet has
raised considerable speculation about
the future of tlie Panama Canal, the
locks of which are too small to permit
the largest of such ships to transits.
Many of the medium-sized supjerships
-those in the 45,000-ton class-can go
through the Isthmian waterway, but are
causing problems such as-described
on page 2.
On routes where ships are not limited
in size by either the Panama or S~uez
Canals, some truly mammoth vessels are
being built and used. At least two
100,000-ton tankers,- the Universe
Apola lo and' Universe Daphne, are in
service at present and it has beeh
announced that two 130,000-ton tankers
are to be built in Japan. None of these
ships can transit the Canal.
The main reason behind construc-
tion of such mammoth tankers is the
economy which can be achieved with
them. The Idemitsu Kosan Kaisha Co.
of Japan, which announced plans for
the 130,000-ton ships, said they will
cut transport costs by 30 percent, com-
pared with tankers of 45,000 tons.
The two Japanese ships are to carry
crude oil from the Persian Gulf tO
Japan to feed that country's booming
Construction of ships in the 45,000-ton
class, which are barely able to squeeze
through the Canal, has skyrocketed
during recent years and an increasing
number transit the Canal each year.
Just 5 years ago, during fiscal year 1956,
ships with beams of 80: feet or more
were transiting the waterway at an
average rate of less than 1 every 2 days.
During the first 9 months of this fiscal
year, transits by such ships have aver-
aged just under IV2 per~day, or triple
th~e rate of 5 years ago.
Major use of the superships is to
transport oil and metallic ores, with ah~
occasional cargo of gain. The ore
ships and tankers may soon be joined
by 40,000-ton ships hauling coal to
Japan through the Canal, according
to shipping tr-ade reports.
The increasing flow of petroleum and
petroleum products through the Canal
"A comparison of the operating costs,
i 'L"~'"'i profits, and losses of a war-built,
978 937 16i,600-ton T2 and a 45,000 tanner
15 18 underscores the edge held by the bigger
993 955 ship over the smaller. ..
"The reason: as tanker size increases,
costs increase at a rate proportionately
$4,728,432 less than the increase in size and earning
103,170 power of the ship.
$4,831,602 "Operating at the U.S. Maritime
Commission rate of $17.05 a ton, the
supertanker would show a profit (for
5,676,560 a round trip between the Persian Gulf
104,023 and Los Angeles) of $457,970, while
5,780,583 the T2 would make barely a quarter
of that." (The magazine points out that
ng and small. the more common rate of 60 percent
of the U.S. Maritime Commission rate
would leave the supertanker with a
profit of 94 cents per ton, while the T2
a. record would lose $2.14 per ton.)
go moved The trend toward ships far larger
ng March, than the T2's, which were the backbone
cord. Ore of oil movement by the United States
wn at the during World' War II, is expected
go to new to continue- in the years ahead, thus
. recession bringing ever nearer the day when a
larger Isthmian waterway will be neces-
conomics sary to enable the world's superships to
Operation move cargo steadily and economically.
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-
1'ESSELS IN MAR
U.S. Government ____
U.S. Government 55,041
CARGO (long tons)
U.S. Government 26,151
*fnefudes tolls on all vessels, ocean-goi:
is shown by the fact that
1,203,000 tons of such car
through the waterway duri~
setting a new 1-month re
movements are slightly do
moment, but are expected to
heights as the current U.S.
In an article on the e
involved in construction and
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL
j MAY 5, 1961