Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Creation Date:
June 1957
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
UF00097366_00184 ( sobekcm )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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__


Wt. ~A. 6ARTER, Governor-P~resident
JoaN D. McELBENY, Lieutenant Governor


Panama


N. D. CHRISTPENSEN, Press Officer
JOSEPH CONNOR, Publications Editor


s:S
sI BITTEL
Photographer


WILL AREY 011cial Panama Canal Company Publication Editorial Assistant
Canal Informnation Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. EUNICE RICHARD and Tol
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount ~Hope, Canal Zone WILLIAM BURNs, Official I
On sale at all Panama Canal Servkie Centrcr. Retail Scorer and Thle Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscrlprions. Sl a years mail and balck copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canil Cornpin! jhuldl be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Editorial offices are located in thie .1dmlnistr..t...n BudiJng. Balboa Heights, C, Z.


-~f.


Uir


-akcuN' QUEEN




InYE This Issue

THE ENGINEERS and technicians who are leading
the way into the new age of electronics are not above
engaging in high-jinks for laughs, despite their pre-
Occupation with transistors, algebraic formulae, and
related matters, as this view of the Siri, a Canal tug,
shows. The tag of "Afruclim Queen" was hung: on the
tug by a wag among the experts who recently com-
pleted a series of tests on the Canal to help. solve
problems connected with the design of the waterway's
new marine traffic control system.
Mlelvin Bierman, who is supervising the program.
as project engineer, looks at the sign with a sun-
induced squint, while Jack Shepard jof Gibbs & Hill,
designers, smiles at him from the control house. The
more serious efforts of the experts are discussed in the
article on page 3.

Inzdex

To Speed Shipping Through Water ray 3
Active Family Leaving Isthmus__, ___ 5
They Serve Retirees_ __ ___L____ 6
Seven Floors for Medical Care__i ___ 8
Toward Better Farming in Repul lic hf Pa ama 9
Bridge Work Moves Ahead 10
Century-Old Tie Revived 11
Campsite Readied for Girl Scouts 12
Executi e Ca gsein SS ols Anno ~needII 1

Of Pets, Babies, and a Boa_ 6
Accidental Poisonings Can Be Prevented_ 17
Isthmian Legacy __18
Canal History _____ ~r____ 19
Retirements_ ___ ___L____ 19
Anniversaries__; ___-_i_,ii .20
Promotions and Transfers_____ 21
Shipping and Statistics__.-- __- ,., 22

2 : MAY 5, 1961


~LE-~, ~


Supership Problems

WVITH SHIPS' GETTING bigger and bigger and the Panama Canal
locks remaining the same size they have been for almost half a
century, more and more problems face Canal pilots anrld other
personnel responsible for getting
a,~11 ships safely through the
waterway.
To the casual observer it might
seem that any -ship under 1,000
E~-~g~r~-. ~i+.%feet long and less than the 110-
foot width of the locks would be
able to transit the Canal. Such
:an observation disregards a num-
ber of factors which make the
usable size of the locks some-
what less than their actual size.
Most obvious of these factors
is that a ship has to be guided
into and through the lock cham-
bers without smashing into the
concrete walls of the structures.
On the basis of available experi-
I~ence, Canal officials say, the
~ I~ present maximum size of a mer-
chant-type ship which can be
safely transited is 102 feet wide,
850 feet long, and 36Y2-f~ot draft.
For some ships, there may be
other limiting criteria which
would reduce the maximum size
even further, they say.
The Ore Meteor, pictured on the cover of this month's REVIEW
as she was put through Miraflores Locks,' is typical of the super-
ships. Lt. Gov. John D. -Mc~E~heny recently pointed out to Colon
Rotarians that the number of ships unable to use the Canal when
fully laden increased from 231 in January 1959 to 393 in January
of this year, thus indicating the trend toward such ships.
The mammoth Ore Meteor is 102 feet wide and 751 feet long.
At the present time she is on a run from the U.S.- east coast to iron
ore mines in- Peru. As the adjoining uiview fromt her deck and the
cover picture by Marine Bureau Safety Representative Lawrence
W. Chambers show, her width leaves her very little clearance.
In fact, she is so wide that a turn of less than 1 degree in angle
will cause her to strike the lock walls.


































Test crew member adjusts antenna on Shearwater.


making field would, almost without
exception, agree.
Engineers, for example, recognize
that it is a relatively simple matter to
say, "We will build a four-lane highway


from El Paso to Denver." They also
know, however, that thousands of small
but nonetheless essential decisions will
have to be made before such a- highway
becomes a reality. What kind of material
to use; the thickness of the surfacing;
width of each lane; maximum degree
in curves; exactly where, right down
to the inch, shall the paying be placed?)
Similarly, the big decision to estab-
lish an electronic, computer-equipped
marine traffic control system for the
Panama Canal was made because the
Board of Directors was convinced that
such a system would speed world
shipping through the waterway. But
hundreds of decisions about details are
necessary before the big decision can
become an accomplished fact.
Many of these little but essential deci-
sions are being made by men who have
come to the Canal Zone from the States
to study conditions and limitations of
the waterway, climatic conditions,
special problems which may be encoun-
tered in operation of this unique enter-
prise, and to actually make field tests
of equipment which is being considered
for use in the new system.
Some months ago, for example, a


IT HAS BEEN SAmD that the big deci-
sioils are easy, but it's the small
ones-which are difficult and tedious.
Engineers, lawyers, doctors, and
others with experience in the decision-


T ,
* ec
* -


Three members of test crew with the electronics gear installed aboard Siri for tests.


Tar PANdllIa CANAL REVIEW


I I
I I


To Speed



Shipping



Through



Waterway




Marine traffic control system
now being designed will improve
scheduling of transits, aid
pilots, and assist traffic controllers.







uling computer, which automatically
will determine if everything is working
out according to. the original schedule
and, if it isn't, issue the necessary advice
to pilots and marine traffic controllers.
All the computers, radio signals, pilot
units, and related equipment are not
a substitute for human brains, however.
The system will not replace the import-
ance of a pilot's judgment and control
over a ship. His actions always will
be the final link in the system used
to transit ships.
Communication from ship-to-ship and
ship-to-shore must be accurate and
continuously available if the system's
various parts are to function properly.
This final major requirement is to be
met by replacing the 30-megacycle
radio equipment now in use with equip-
ment which will operate on the more
reliable and trouble-free 160-megacycle
frequency range. This new equipment
will be used both for voice communica-
tion and for the automatic assembling of
information by the monitoring computer.
The central office of the new system
will house a display panel showing
the complete plan of the Canal and
equipped with a series of small tubes
which will light up on instructions from
the scheduling computer to show- the
location of each ship mn the waterway
at any time.
The marine traffic controller, who
always will have over-riding control of
the entire system, normally will sit at
a control console directly in front of
the display board. By. pressing the
proper buttons on the console the con-
troller will be able to obtain detailed
information about any ship or group
of ships in the Canal. He then can use
such information to exercise human
judgment in arranging or rearranging
scheduled ship movements.
The computer's preparation of the
three alternate transit schedules at the
beginning of each day will require a
total of about 2 hours. Once the initial
work is done, however, the scheduling
computer can take new information and
provide a new schedule in less than
5 minutes.
Not only will the new system provide
the Canal with more efficient operation,
but it also will be beneficial to the
marine traffic controllers and the pilots.
It will relieve the controllers of the
task of making repetitious calculations
day after day and provide them with
up-to-the-minute information necessary
to altering original scheduling, if neces-
sary. At the same time, it will provide
the pilots with accurate information
about ships near them in the Canal,
even though they are not yet within
view, and in some cases will enable
pilots to reduce the time for transiting
a slow ship by several hours.

4 MAY 5, 1961


50 years of operation with a minimum
of electrical and mechanical devices?
The answer is simple: increasing traffic
through the Canal requires that ships
be put through with an absolute mini-
mum of delay if costly tie-ups of world
shipping are to be avoided in the
years ahead.
Although the present system for
scheduling transits through the Canal
includes consideration of many related
factors, it is limited, for the most part,
:to putting ships through the waterway
ohn a first-come, fist-served basis, even
though this is not necessarily the fastest
nor the most economical scheduling
method.
The first and foremost problem to be
dealt with, therefore, is the question
of how a given number of ships wanting
to transit during any single day can be
accommodated the most quickly, at the
least cost, with the greatest amount of
safety, and the most efficient use of
the waterway, its personnel, and the
associated installations.
This need is to be filled in the
new system by a high-speed electronic
"scheduling" computer capable of
analyzing all pertinent information
about the ships desiring to transit, the
condition of the Canal, the economics
of operation, and related data in order
to provide three alternate transit sched-
ules, one of which will be selected for
the day's transits by the marine traffic
controller,
But simply getting all the ships started
through the waterway in the proper
order does not solve the entire problem.
What, for example, happens to a ship
which shows up for transit after the
day's original schedule has been started?
Or what if something goes awry with
one of the ships already in the waterway,
forcing it to stop or slow. down? -Or
what: if something happens to the
waterway itself, changing the condi-
tions under.which the original schedule
was prepared?
All these potential problems and many
Others can be solved quickly and easily
by the computer, if it is kept supplied
with the necessary information as the
day progresses and is not sidelined
after doing its first chore of the day-
preparation of the three alternate
transit schedules.
To help keep the scheduling com-
puter informed, a "monitoring": com-
puter is to be used which will be in
virtually continuous contact with the
various ships through automatic elec-
tronic equipment located at strategic
points along the waterway and in a
small unit taken aboard each ship by
the Canal pilot in charge.
The information which the monitoring
computer continues to acquire through-
out the day will be fed to the sched-


i estan deg and euipmnt for syt d

group of men spent several days in the
Zone studying the operation of the
waterway and asking hundreds of
questions of Canal officials to determine
just what information will have to be
furnished to the electronic computers
if they are to be of maximum value
in operation of the Canal.
And during the past 6 weeks, seven
stateside experts conducted ~field tests
in Gaillard Cut to get the answers to
such questions as the most efficient way
to wire some of the equipment, whether
to use transistors or vacuum tubes in
certain parts of the system, how the
various sections of it should be
arranged for best results or minimum
maintenance, and similar problems.
To run their tests, the men put a lot
of electronic gear aboard the Siri, a
seldom used tug belonging to the Canal
organization, equipped a pair of Canal
launches with related gear, then went
out and conducted an exhaustive series
of tests to see just what approaches
seemed to offer the best possibilities.
Most of the things they found out
still are being analyzed from the cryptic
mathematical and other data recorded
about each test. When the evaluation
is colmplete, many of the so-called "little
decisions" about design of the system
will be made.
Why, you may ask, is it necessary
for the Canal to join in the trend toward
electronic equipment after almost































Lieutenlaut Colernlor MctEnlen!s and his-family at their Canal Zone home.


UP THE CHAGRES, camping on a sand-
bar; water skiing at Gamboa and
Madden Lake and skindiving off the
Perlas Islands; sightseeing with snorkles
at Fort San Lorenzo; catching a dolphin
off the drift line; visiting a tourist-
untouched island in the San Blas
Archipelago; picnicking at Goofy Lake
or along Shimmy Beach; relaxing at
El Valle with both Canal Zone and
Panamanian friends.
A tourist folder, extolling the attrac-
tions of the Republic of Panama? No,
just a glimpse of a North American
family enjoying life on the Isthmus.
A family headed by the man who
holds the second highest Canal position
-~Lt. Gov. John D. McElheny.
Lieutenant Governor and Mrs.
McElheny and their two children,
Phyllis Ann and Bruce Daniel, arrived
on the SS Cristobal in July 1958 for
their first experience in tropical living.
Prior to coming to the Canal Zone,
Colonel McElheny was on duty with
Military Supply in the Offce of the
Chief of Engineers. Now, at the end
of his tour of duty here, they will be
returning to the Washington area,
where Colonel McElheny is to join the
Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Logistics, Department of the Army,
Washington, D.C.
If there's anything to the legend
about drinking tewate of the Chagres,
Mrs. McElheny is certain they'll: all
come back to ~the Isthmus. For in the
course pf water-skiing expeditions alone


they've gulped enough water in sudden
spills to comply with any legendary
requirements.
They will carry back with them many
memories, a number of articles made
in Panama, and "recuerdos" that have
no price-seashells picked up along some
sxinny Panamanian beach, a fragment
of pottery found while viewing marine
life while using snorkles, and native
recipes to be tried out in the Washington
locale-if the ingredients are available,
What impressed them most? The
hospitality everywhere.
The whole family feels completely
a part of the community, both Lieu-
tenant Governor and Mrs. McElheny
say, with friends and neighbors who
greet one another on a first-name basis.
They have been an integral part of
the Canal Zone -community, taking an
active interest in all community affairs.
Colonel McElheny served on the Board
of the Boy Scout Council, the Executive
Board of the Y.M.C.A., and held offices
in the Society of American Military
Engineers. Mrs. McElheny served .on
the Board of the Girl Scout Council
and the Board of the Inter-American
Women's Club. Both have been active
supporters of the Minor League, in
which son Bruce played, and both have
enjoyed their affiliation with the Balboa
Union Church,
Lieutenant Governor and Mrs.
McElheny and their children have
visited the Republic of Panama from
Puerto Armuelles to Chepo, making


lasting friendships as they traveled.
They also visited H-aiti, including Cap
Haitien and the Citadel, and some of
the Central American countries, as well
as Medellin, Colombia.
Panama wasn't Lieutenant Governor
McElheny's first overseas assignment.
He was on duty with the 826th Engineer
Aviation Battalion at the outbreak of
World War II and served with that unit
when it transferred to England. Sub-
sequently he served in France with the
Ninth Air Force and then was assigned
as executive to the engineer of the
Seventh Army, in Heidelberg.
Froml1947 tol1951, Colonel hclElheny
commanded the combat engineerdetach-
ment at W~est Point. He attended the
Army War College after the West Point
assignment and was assigned to duty
with the Far Eastern Command, which
brought to the' family the experience
of living in Japan for 3 years, starting
when Phyllis Ann was but 4 years old
and Bruce was 2.
They returned to Washington on
completion of that assignment, and the
Canal Zone tour of duty came next.
The Lieutenant Governor and his
family will sail from Cr-istabal on the
Company-operated Ancon May 29 for
New Orleans. They will leave New
-Orleans on June 2, the day they arrive
there, for New York and then West
Point, where Colonel McElheny will
attend the 25th reunion of his class
before proceeding to Washington and
his new assignment.


THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Active Family


Leaving Isthmus



Lieutenant Governor and family
ending tour of duty with, fond
memories of community and
family life in the tropics.

































Miss Florence Lao checks list of retirees she will visit during
day's work. Miss Lao is leaving position to get married this month.


She explained that the man was
admitted to the old folks' home, where
his needs ar'e taken care of by trained
personnel, but others only slightly better
off cannot be accommodated in such
institutions.
Mrs. Felisa S. de PBrez, who is the
nurse stationed on the Atlantic side of
the Isthmus, and Miss Nellie V. Black-
man, who works with Miss Lao on the
Pacific side, cite cases very similar to
those mentioned by Miss Lao.
"They are very poor," Mrs. P~rez
says, "and many of them are unable
to take care of themselves or their rooms,
so their living conditions are pretty bad
a lot of times. We just have to do
the -best we can, and give them what
help we can."
Most of the 3,400 disability relief
retirees' of the Canal organization, for
whose benefit the nurses were hired,
are past 70 years of age. Many of them
have something wrong with their eyes,
a sizable number of them have suffered
strokes, and others suffer from various
heart conditions, arthritis, cancer, skin
infections, ulcers, and a variety of other
health problems.
The nurses carefully steer away from
anything which could be construed
as practicing medicine, leaving this to
doctors, whom they frequently call for
retirees in need of medical attention.
If medication is prescribed, the nurses
mnake: periodic visits to see that the
doctor's instructions are being followed.
"A9 lot of these people live alone,"


the nurses sayr, "and at their advariced
age they frequently forget to follow
instructions, don't understand them to
start with, or just get confused, so
we usually try to get some friend or
neighbor who can help them keep things
straight. If they live with someone,
it isn t so -much of a problem."
The financial problem involved in
providing medical care for those dis-
ability relief retirees in need of it has
been largely solved by the Group H-ealth
Insurance Programn which was started
for the retirees during February under
Canal auspices.
Of the 3,400 disability relief retiitees
living in the Republic of Panama, 2,638
of them are enrolled in the insurance
program, which originally was instituted
for those on the disability relief rolls
but since has been extended to all non-
U.S.-citizen retirees of local Federal
agencies,
The Group Health Insurance Plan
provides a maximum of $7 per day up
to a' total of $217 for hospital room
and board for a single illness, up to
$10 for ambulance service to and from
the hospital, up to $70 per illness for
drugs, medicines, anesthesia, ;bandages,
arid similar items, up to $150 for speci-
fled surgical operations, and a $150
death benefit, with a doublee indemnity
provision of $300 for accidental death,
The health insurance plan and the
visiting nurse program both1 w~ee
developed with the approval and active
cooperation of the Board of Directors


THE SINGLE ROOM in which the
84-year-old man lived was small and
the furnishings shabby, although it was
apparent that an effort had been made
to keep it orderly. The nurse talking
to the aged man was sympathetic, how-
ever, and not critical. She had seen worse
living conditions during recent weeks.
This man, however, represented a
special problem. Not only was he some-
what feeble with age, but he also was
totally blind. A kindly neighbor cooked
his food and carried it to him, while
neighborhood youngsters ran many of
the little errands which he was unable
to do for himself.
Miss Florence Lao, the nurse, checked
the man's blood pressure, asked if he
would like to have her leave a small
package of aspirin for the aches and
pains which frequently afflict the
elderly, and then told him she thought
one of the Panama social welfare
agencies might be able to get him
admitted to an old folks' home.
Leaving the aspirins and a small box
of salve for a skin infection with the
lonely old man, Miss Lao told him she
would return in a few days to see how
he was getting along and take care
of further minor medical needs which
he might have.
"We were lucky in his case," Miss Lao
discussing the work which she
ndtwo other nurses employed by the
Company-Government have been doing
among disability relief retirees of the
Canal organization since last September.


I MAr 5; 198,1


They Serve


Retirees





Nurses employed by Canal are
helping provide medical care
for disability relief retirees.






and Gov. W. A. Carter. The insurance
plan is financed entirely by the disability
relief recipients, but the visiting nurse
program, is free of any cost to them.
Although the insurance program
is designed to cover mostmedical
expenses incurred by retirees who are
in need of treatment, there are many
other problems faced by the aged
retirees which are not easily- solved, pri-
marily because of their lack of money.
"Somie of these fellows don't have
beds, or clothes, or even enough
food," according to Robert Van Wagner,
Employee Services Officer of the Per-
sonnel Bureau, who administers both the
nursing and insurance programs. "Conse-
quently, these three nurses have become
expert innovators and scroungers."
Mr. Van Wagner hastens to explain
that the nurses have found where and
how to get "extras" for the retirees-
which otherwise would not be available.
One ailing retiree, for example, had no
bed on which to sleep and Miss Black-
man arranged to get him one through
the Red Cross. Others have been
supplied with other items through such
efforts on the part of the nurses, while
still others have been supplied canes
and crutches by the Canal organization.
On the Atlantic side of the Isthmus,
most of the retirees live in or near
Colon, with only a few in isolated areas,
Mlrs. Pbrez reportj. Those- on- the Pacific
side are slightly more scattered, but
most of them are concentrated in
Marafibn, Rio Abajo, Radio City, Chorri-
110, San Miguel, Arraijin, and Chorrera,


Miss Nellie V. Blackman checks blood pressure of anl aged retiree during a visit in her office.


A normal day for the three nurses
starts at 7:15 a.m., when they report
to their offces-Miss Lao and Miss Black-
man in the Central Employment Office
building in Ancon and Mrs. P~rez in
the former commissary building in
Cristobal. Their first task after arriving
is to complete the reports of the visits


made during the previous day. They
then pack the bags in which they
carry vitamins, aspirin, dressings, salve,
thermometers, and blood pressure kits
and start the home visits on which they
spend an average of 6 hours a day.
The nurses' visits to the homes of
retirees sometimes are interspersed with
brief calls at hospitals and social service
agencies to make arrangements to get
extra help for some retiree, or find out
what has to be done to get such help.
To save time, such calls usually are
niadie when the nurses are passing near
the office or hospital they wish to visit.
AIt least once the nurses have played
the role of cupid, using their spare time
to arrange for a marriage license, civil
ceremony, and religious ceremony for
a retiree, who expressed his thanks after
the final ceremony by saying, "Now my
heart is at ease."
Another retiree's viewpoint of the
nursing program was expressed one
evening at a meeting during which
Mr. Van Wagner had explained the
nursing service being provided by the
Canal organization. A retiree barely able
to stand because of the feebleness of
old age, got slowly to his feet to say,
"Mr.:Van Wagner, all of us old people
jvant you to ktnov that this is one of the
best things you could do for us arid we
thank Cod that the Carfal, for which we
worked so many years, hasn't forgotten
us." 'Ih~e shouts and clapping of the
other retirees in attendance was suffi-
Liefit ponfiirmation of their ;agreement.


Mrs~. Felisa S. de P~rez checks pulse of ailing retiree in Amiador 'Guetiretio :Hospdtal,.Cooit.


THE E'ANAMA CANAL REVIEW








































The new Gorgas Hospital is to be built on the two parking lots now located below the present hospital, as indicated by the overprint above.



Seven Floors for 1Medical Care


A STYLE OF architecture new to the
Canal Zone will be introduced locally
with construction of what will be
the tallest building in the Zone when
completed-the new seven-story Gorgas
Hospital.
The neoclassical design which char-
acterizes the present hospital and a
number of other major Canal Zone
buildings, including the Balboa Heights
Administration Building, gives way to
the modern trend toward more glass,
aluminum, and open exterior spaces in
the contemporary design of the new
hospital.
Instead of the vertical lines and pre-
dominantly masonry exterior of the
present structure, the modern building
which soon will start rising on two
parking lots at the corner of Gorgas and
Herrick Roads will feature horizontal
lines and vast expanses of glass.
Plans and specifications for the new
hospital now are being circulated
among construction firms, both locally
and in the United States. Plans for the
project will be discussed at a prebid


conference May 12 and bids will be
opened at Balboa Heights on June 5.
In addition to construction of the
new building, the plans also call for
extensive changes in the existing hos-
pital plant, three sections of which
will remain in service and be connected
to the new structure by tunnels and
pedestrian overpasses.
When the project is completed, vir-
tually all medical services at Gorgas
will be consolidated under one roof and
all clinics will be concentrated on one
floor, with the exception of Obstetrics-
Gynecology, which will remain in its
present quarters.
Only adult wards to be located out-
side the new building will be a medical
ward on the second floor of Section "A"
of the existing hospital and an isolation
ward on the second floor of Section "B."
Section "A" also will house the medical
library, brace shop, luncheonette, and
facilities for the Red Cross and other
organizations. Section "B" will house
locker room facilities for hospital
employees and a special kitchen and


recreational facilities for the isolation
ward patients.
As a result of the changes, most
persons entering the new Gorgas Hos-
pital will receive all treatment and care
in one building, including recuperation
in a room on one of the three top floors.
Plans for the Gorgas project, which
will bring the physical plant of the
79-year-old hospital up to modern s~truc-
tural standards of similar stateside
institutions, have been under prepara-
tion for the past 2 years. The plans
were drafted by the New York firm.
of Kelly & Gruzen, in cooperation
with Helge Westermann, a well known
hospital designer.
The new hospital, which is to
be completely air conditioned, will
include 135,000 square feet of hos-
pital floor space and a parking area
for approximately 100 automobiles at
the first floor ground level under the
elevated structure.
With the exception of the Obstetrics
and Gynecology Clinic, all Gorgas
clinics will be located on the main floor


MAY 5, 1961







of the new- building. -A general infor-
mation center will be provided at the
main entrance to direct patients and
visitors to the various clinics and
waiting rooms. The main floor also will
include the admitting office, adminis-
trative office, medical records, the
emergency room, .and the pharmacy.
A surgical suite consisting of six
operating .rooms and a recovery room
is to be located directly above the mamn
flooi- of the new :bui ding. This third
floor area also will include laboratories,
X-ray department, central sterile supply,
and a new section to be called the inten-
sivie care suite, where patients who
are seriously ill can be kept under
constant attention~by nurses and other
medical personnel.
The hospital's main.kitchen and food
supply, rooms will be concentrated on
the fourth floor,' which is the bottom
sections of ,the four-story "tower" part
of the building.. This fl8oor also will
include a cafeteria-type dining roomn
with a seating capacity for 96 persons.
Location of the kitchens midway
between the top and bottom floors
of the ;building is expected to simplify
the handling arid distribution of food
for patients.
The three top floors will be patient
hospitalization sections, with 1 four-bed
ward, 15 semiprivate rooms, and
12, private rooms on each floor. Each
room will have a lavatory and each
floor will have 9 bath facilities.
According to present plans, the com-
munication system in the new hospital
will be greatly improved, with instal-
lation of a modern paging system and
a riety type of communication system
between the patients and nurses.
Work now is in progress to bring the
building in which the Obstetrics and
Gynecology Clinic is located into the
~general plan of the hospital reorgani-
zation. The central section of the
ground floor is being remodeled to
provide room for a children's play-
room, examination rooms, and interns'
.quarters. It also will contain an offcice
for the Chief of the Pediatric Service.
The west wing: of the Obstetrics and
Gynecology buildiing is being converted
into 15 private and semiprivate rooms
for children and the east wing into
:wards for the convalescent care of
19 young patients. The central section
and the west wing will be air con-
ditioned, along with the new building.
When this part of the hospital improve-
ment program is completed at the end
'of May, the Pediatrics Section will be
moved from its present location in
Section "D" of the present hospital to
the Obstetrics and Gynecology building.
Section "D" presently is being converted
into quarters for hospital employees.


*,\ Student
Alfredo Orange,
1 .assisted by Mindi
employee
s \ Romaldo Ramos,
vaccinates calf.




















1 Toward Better Farmmng


In Repubhic of Panama


A YOUNG Panamanian agricultural
student last month completed a 2-month
period of on-the-job training at Mindi
Farm on the Atlantic side of. the
Isthmus as part of his education in
animal husbandry and farming.
Alfredo Orange, son of a small land-
owner near La Pefia, came to the Canal
Zone farm as a participant in a regular
program sponsored by the National
Institute of Agriculture in Divisa, where
he is a student. Under the program,
scholastic training is interspersed with
work on large ranches and farms on
the Isthmus.
Each school vacation, students from
the Divisa school spread out across the
Isthmnus to augment their formal training
with actual employment in their chosen
field. For their work on farms and
ranches, the students are supplied room
and board and receive at least token
wages for their services.
Young Orange, who is 17 years of


age, has been studying animal hus-
bandry at the Divisa school, and after
working at Mindi he voiced a desire
to become a veterinarian.
The youth's 8 weeks at Mindi were
spent in virtually every phase of the
farm's operation, including everything
from fencing and dry season field clear-
ing to vaccination of animals, record-
keeping, and operation of heavy
equipment, including a bulldozer.
Dr. Paul H. Dowell, manager of the
farm, and Dr. D. E. Beckley were pri-
marily responsible for the program
followed by the young student during
his stay. "Alfredo wias a very good
student," Dr. Dowvell reports. "He is an
intelligent boy and we were pleased
with his willingness to learn by doing."
Arrangements for the youth's stay at
Mindi were made in an exchange of
correspondence between- Ruben Barrio
Arosemena, director of the Divisa school,
and Canal officials.


THIE PANAMVA CANAL REVIEW












Bridge Work i



Moves Ahead 4





First steel sp~ans~t to ::'~
be sent to Zone this .
month, as superstructure-
contcractor opens office.



As Governor Carter watched, wrorkmlen cleaned the inside of the Governor Carter and Walter M;. Cathey engineer for bridge
installation, preparatory to pouring the base of the deepest pier.`4 contractors, examine cofferdam from catw ~k around upper edge.

WORK COMPLETED TO DATE on the substructure of the Balboa
bridge over the Canal was inspected by top officials of the
Comp~any-Govern~ment and the bridge contractors last month
and given tentative approval. The bridge is expected to be
~F~ completed on schedule late in 1962.
Governor Carter and Carial engineers spent a good part
of the inspection trip giving a once-ovrer to the cofferdam
=`of pier 5, the deepest of the bridge piers, which had just been
completed and wvas being unwatered. The cofferdam then was
cleared 'preparatory to pouring the base.
Pouring.0f the footing or base was a 24-hour operation and
required 1,400 cubic yards of concrete. Four more pours will
be necessary to bring the base of the pier to a point 10 feet
a:boveB water at avd'rage high tide.
Following the completion of piers 3 ajnd 5, the cofferdam
steel now_-being used at those two locations will be moved
to piers 4 and 6j.All of the bridge piers are scheduled for
completion by November 16, 1961.
~ J~eis ~~C~~BR L~FI~BIr. Meanwhile, work on the superstructure already is in progress
in four plants in Germlany and the first 4 of 14 steel spans
are scheduled for shipment to the Canal Zone May 22, with
the remaining spans following at i-egular intervals. The bulk
'of the steel superstructure spans are to arrive on the Isthmus
?, *between July and October.
X:. B Ufore being prepared for shipment, the spans to be sent
during May were completely bolted together in the German
factory and given exhaustive tests for tolerances and fit.
Field offices of the John F. Beasley Construction Co., which
~F has the contract for the superstructure work, were opened
f,,~p~/~_~E~t May 1 in the former elementary school building in La Boca.


10 'MAY 5, 1961










Century~lld



Tie: Revived



First stearner service
b~etweenIs~thmus arid
UI united Sta~tes under
Government :ausrpic~es
included call, at New
SOrleanls.


The SS Cristobal is to become the Company's only ship, after an overhaul.


ARRIVAL OFthekncon inNew Orleans
on Monday, May, 1, as she inaugurated
service on the new and shorter run
between the Canal Zone and the United
States, marked' the renewal of a tie
between the' Isthmius and the southern
coastal city which first was established
under Government auspices before the
California gold rush.
Coritrary to a widely held belief,
steamship service between the' United
States and Panama was not started in
response to the demands of those seeking
quick riches in the gold fields of the
WI~est. Congress had acted in March
1847, almost a year before the discovery
of gold, to impprore communications
between the east and west coasts of
the United States, via the Isthmus.
Acting on 'congressional authority,
the Navy contracted for the' transporta-


tion of mail between New York, New
Orleans, and Panama, with stops at
Savannah, Charleston, and Havana. The
United State~s Mail Steam Line was
organized' to provide the service, for
which it received a mail subsidy of
$290,000 per pear.
It was largely as a result of U.S.
inter-est in the Isthinian crossing that
the Panama Railroad came into existence
a short time later to speed travel over-
land between the two oceans, and for
many years there was a close i-elation-
ship between the railroad arid ships
calling at the termirial cities,
Although the Anco~ opened the Com-
pany s steamship service 'between the
Isthmus and New Orleans, she soon will
be succeeded on the run by the
Cristobal, which now is undergoing a
major overhaul ii> New York preparatory


to becoming the only ship operated
by the Canal organization.
The Company will use facilities made
available to it in New Orleans by the
U.S. Army Transportation Terminal at
P~oland and Dauphine Streets, where
space has been provided for offices,
cargo storage, docking, and a waiting
room. Those taking cars with them to
the United States normally will be
able to get them from dockside shortly
after arrival.
The Army facilities are only 10 to 15
minutes by taxicab from the central
hotel district and railroad station and
about 30 to 45 minutes from the New
Orleans airport. Direct rail and air
serve i avalabl ew n w
Oren gda a numlbeerbofw nar U.
cities and good highways lead to the
north, east, and west.
For those who will be staying in New
Orleans for a few hours or a few days
during trips to and from the Isthmus,
the city offers the numerous attractions
for-which it is famous, mecluding fine
restaurants, excellent hotels, gala night-
clubs, and many other features in keep-
with its position as the 19th city
xofthe Nation, on the basis of population.
The first Company vessels to arrive
there are scheduled to dock shortly after
breakfast time, but later ships are slated
to arrive at dockside at 1 p~m
For those interested in seeing the
sights of New Orleans, numerous tours
are offered, including one which pro-
vides a 4-hour introduction to New
Orleans nightlife in the French Quarter
and another through the nearby bayous.


O
Reser
to
Ye
May (
May
May
Jne
June
Ju y
July
July
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sept.
Sept.


lId New
ovation Reservation
New to Neto
ork Orleans
6 and May 13_ May 9
25____-_. _May' 19
31_----_- _May 29


29 June-____Jn 28
5_-----,------Jul
15_______ -J y 18
22 _______July 28
2 and Aug. 9 Aug._Aug 7
19_______ _Aug. 17
26_______ _Aug. 27
6______. _Sept. 6
13, Sept.___Spt 16


Old New
Reservation Reservat
from New from N~
York Orlean
May 17_______ _May
May 23________ Mhay
June 2_______ _June
June 9_-_____ _June
June 21 and June 27- June
July 7___-_-_ _July
July 14___ _July
July 25__--- ~ __July
Aug. 1_______ _Aug.
Aug. 11___L-. i- Aug.
Aug. 18__---~ --Aug.
Aug. 29--____ _Sept.
Sept. '6__--~ --- Sept.


ion
ew
:S
15
25
4
14
24
'4
14
24
3
13
23
2
12


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1961 VACATION SEASON SCHEDULE





i-1
'~Li~~R1F;. ,~fi~(L~UliJl~r(~Eii;jE I
L L''-:rr` *.
r; ;F' *~~rl*~is~g-;l(~.~*~lt:-
~5?3f~F~71~C
rr;~r:;t5.~ ~~~P~ji.C~; : ;
.s~-..,i ...II .~L:'` .~-.4;1 .ci
'7:1
L
C~i 5~
~~3~zc ~;;j~~~.~; J*
i-~.I. I-- L~~i~.l .. J~ Zr; :U' ""


This new camp near Gatun Locks will be


lastr vcaton sednew ookng heler. Appetites were sharpened by the outdoor liife.


Capt. E. S. Shipley, Commander of
the Cristobal Police District, who is
chairman of the committee in charge
of developing the camp, says all the
work will be completed by the time
the first camping session opens in June.
Mrs. Shipley, who will be mn charge
of the camping sessions as Girl Scout
Council Camp Director, has announced
that the June 12-17 camp will be for
girls who are completing the fifth, sixth,
and seventh grades this year and are
11 through 13 years of age. The second
session, from June 19 through June 24,
will be for girls completing the eighth
grade or who are in high school and
are 14 through 17 years of age.
Camp activities being planned by
Mrs. Shipley, who has been a Girl Scout
leader and has had trammig mn outdoor
life and camping at the National Girl
Scout Adult Training Center in the
United States, and Mrs. Marjorie Hall,
program director, are designed to help
the campers develop resourcefulness,
initiative, and self-reliance.
The scheduled programs will include
hiking, cooking, folk dancing, nature
study, arts and crafts, dramatics, and.
of course, outdoor living and campfire
songfests. All of the activities will be
supervised by adults.
Officials of the Canal Zone Girl Scout
Council note that Camp Caribbean will
be the second campsite operated by and
for Girl Scouts in the Zone since the
Council was organized in 1936. The first
camp, which was located on the Pacific
side of the Isthmus, was disposed of


GmL Scove camping activities in the
Canal Zone are getting back into full
swing in their own campsite for the first
time since early in World War II and
plans are far advanced for the first
Zonewide Girl Scout camping sessions
since the war.
Capt. and Mrs. E. S. Shipley






'I- /


With approximately 800 Girl Scouts
enrolled in the program throughout the
Zone, the opening of a permanent camp-
site last fall marked the beginning of
anew era of activities for them
and the adult leaders who supervise
their programs.
Work on the campsite, which is
located on a 28-acre tract of land near
Catun Locks, still is not complete, but
enough work has been done that some
of the Zone's Girl Scouts already have
camped there. A week-long camping
session by a group of senior Girl Scouts
during Easter school vacation was the
most concentrated use of the permanent
facilities which have been installed.
The girls who participated in the
Easter camping session joined in the
continuing efforts of volunteers and
Others to change the once overgrown
area from a long-abandoned town-
site into a permanent and efficiently
arranged campsite.
Almost daily, as the calendar advances
toward the first Zonewide, Girl Scout
Council-sponsored camping session since
World War II days, the work which has
been done on the campsite for the past
year continues.
When work is completed on the
permanent installations, the campsite,
which was officially dedicated as Camp
Caribbean last fall, will include two
permanent cooking shelters, a combi-
nation dining shelter and meeting hall
20 feet wide and 70 feet long, numerous
fireplaces, and a number of other minor
facilities.


during World Wiar II. Funds received
from sale of the camp's permanent ins-
tallations are being used to help finance
development of the new camp.
Mrs. Nellie Farrell, executive director
of the Zone Girl Scout Council, who
assumed that post last September, says
the first Girl Scout troop in the Canal
Zone was organized in 1925, but it was
several years later before the Council
was formed.
"With Camp Caribbean at our dis-
posal," Mrs. Farrell says, "we will be
able to conduct a much more complete
and enjoyable Girl Scout program. It is
going to be a big asset and all those
active in Girl Scout activities in the
Zone sincerely appreciate the volunteer
help and United Fund support which
have helped makee it possible."
The camping sessions during June
will be limited to a maximum of 75 girls
for each session, Mrs. Farrell said,
because that is the largest number which
can be effectively handled at the camp.
Registration for the campmng sessions
started April 15 and will end May 26.
Mrs. Frances Sharp, Balboa, is in charge
of registration on the Pacific side, while
Mrs: Alena Mc~an, Margarita, is han-
dling registrations on the Atlantic side.
In addition to Mrs. Shipley and
I Mrs. Hall, the camp staff will include
i Mrs. June Swaine, co-director of the
camrp, and Mrs. Mebs Ausnehmner, a
registered nurse, who will serve as camp
Nurse and will be on hand at the camp
throughout the sessions.


Hammocks equipped with covers to shield against rain have been obtained for the camp.


Tents acquired for use in the camp also were "checked out" by participating girls.


12 MAY 5, 1961 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13


scee o frstCouci-spnsredcamin sesin fr ZneGir Sout ina umbr o yars Snio Gil cous ho ampd urig



Campsite Readied for ~irl Scouts


I






In Zone Schooki


/
(/


Charles A. Dubbs


Francis A. Castles


Theo F. Hotz


PnomoTrloNs and reassignments in the
Canal Zone Division of Schools brought
about a series of personnel moves, as
some school officials moved into new
positions on May 1 and others prepared
to assume new duties on July 1.
Francis A. Castles, former principal
of Diablo Heights Junior High School,
was promoted to assistant super-
intendent, U.S. Schools, succeeding
Roger W. Collinge, who retired from
Cmany-Government service last
nmoth andl will leave the Isthmus May 8
for an extended trip in Europe.
Charles A. Dubbs, formerly assistant
to the superintendent, was made assist-
ant superintendent, Latin American
schools, in March.
John C. Fawcett, formerly principal
of Cocoli and Fort Kobbe schools, was
promoted to principal of Diablo Heights
Junior High School and took over his
new duties on May 1.
Theo F. Hotz, present principal of
Balboa High School, will become super-
visor of instruction for U.S. secondary
schools on July 1.
David A. Speir, Jr., presently assistant
principal at Balboa High School, will
be promoted to principal of the school
on July 1, succeeding Mr. Hotz.
Balboa High's new.principal-to-be


was born in Bryan, Ga., and is a graduate
of William & Mary College in Virginia.
He received his master's degree in edu-
cation at the University of Florida
and did additional graduate work at
the University of Havana and the
University of F'lorida.
A veteran of the U.S. Air Force,
Mr. Speir received an honorable dis-
charge and taught for years at Jackson-
ville Beach, Fla. In 1951 he came to the
Canal Zone and taught social studies
at Balboa High School. He was pro-
moted to the position of assistant prin-
cipal in 1959, upon the retirement of
Harold J. Zierton.
Mr. Hotz, present principal of Balboa
Senior High School, will supervise the
classroom instruction program and
teaching methods in the U.S. junior and
senior high schools after he moves into
his new job July 1. A corresponding
position already exists in the U.S. ele-
mentary and Latin American schools.
The supervisor's position in the U.S.
secondary schools is an outcome of the
tremendous increase in enrollments in
grades 7 through 12, with a resultant
'increase in the number of teachers at
that scholastic level.
Mr. Hotz was born in New Haven, Mo.'
Heis graduate of Heidelberg College,


Tiffin, Ohio, received his master of edu-
cation degree at Ohio State University,
and has done additional graduate work
at the University of Cincinnati. Prior
to coming to the Canal Zone, he was
a high school teacher for 9 years. In the
1937-38 school year, he was teacher of
mathematics at Cristobal High School.
Inl1943 he became principal of Cristobal
High School and in September 1947
moved to the Pacific side to become
principal of Balboa High School.
Mr. Fawcett, who succeeds Mr. Castles
as principal of the Diablo Heights Junior
High School, was born in Colorado
Springs, Colo. He is a graduate of the
University of Redlands in California,
received his master's degree in educa-
tion at San Diego State College, and
did additional graduate work at San
Diego State College.
He served with the U.S. Air Force
and is now a major in the Air Force
Reserve. He came to the Canal Zone
in 1946 and taught physical educa-,
tion for 2 years at Cristobal High
School. In 1948 he was transferred
to Balboa High School as physical
education instructor.
In the school year 1950-51 he served
as acting assistant director of physical
education and athletics, and the fol-
lowing year was physical education
instructor and athletic coach at Balboa
High School. Mr. Fawcett was pro-
moted in 1958 to the position of prin-
cipal of the Cocoli and Fort Kobbe
elementary schools.
Mr. Castles, the new assistant super-
intendent, U.S. schools, was born in
Revere, Mass. He received his bachelor's
degree at Villanova University, Villa-
nova, Pa., and his master of educa-
tion degree at Boston University. He
taught school and was an elementary
school principal in Massachusetts for
4 years prior to coming to the Canal
Zone in 1946.
He first taught Junior High School
mathematics, then, in February 1947,


David A. Speir, Jr. John C. Fawcett


Lawrence E. Horine


MAY 5, 1961~


Executive


Changes


Announced



































Page in Canal History Closed


was appointed acting ~principal of
Balboa Junior High School. The follow-
ing school year he became principal.
During the school years 1952-53 and
.1953-54, he was principal of the La Boca
Junior-Senior High School. In 1955
he was appointed Balboa Junior High
School principal, a position he has held
until his present promotion.
He was awarded a Fulbright scholar-
ship for study in Norway and Italy in
196r0, the first Fulbright grant to be
received by a member of the Canal
Zone's Division of Schools. He was
selected by the Board of Foreign Scholar-
ships of the Department of State for
the grant, which is more formally
known as the International Educational
Exchange Program of the U.S. Govern-
ment, and was one of a group of
20 U.S. educators who took the 2-month
seminar on comparative education.
In~ his new position, Mr. Castles will
be responsible for U.S. elementary and
secondary schools'
Mr. Dubbs, the new assistant super-
intendent, Latin American schools, was
born in Elkhart, Ind. He received his
bachelor's degree and his master of
education degree from Bell State
Teachers College, Muncie, Ind., and
did additional graduate work at the
University of Indiana.
He taught school in Indiana for years
and was an elementary-secondary school
principal there before coming to the
Canal Zone in 1946. He was principal
of the Silver City (now Rainbow
City) High School until the school year
1950-51, when he was appointed
director of vocational education in the
,rCanal Zone schools. .
From 1951 to 1953 he was with the
Canal Zone~ Personhnel Bureau as a
training officer and then returned to
the Division of Schools as director of
secondary education. In 1958 he was
appointed assistant to the superintendent
in the Division of Schools.
In addition to these executive changes
in the Division of Schools, a new super-
visor of physical education and athletics
in the Canal Zone Division of Schools
recently was appointed to succeed .
C. C. Lockridge, who retired from
Company-Government service April 30.
The new physical -education official
is Lawrence E. Horine, who had been
a physical education teacher and coach
at Balboa High School. He was born
in Colon and attended the Canal Zone
schools, being graduated from Cristobal
High School in 1949. He has a bachelor's
degree with a major in phiysical! edu-
cation and a master's degree with a
major in education from the University
of Colorado.


nishes for all Government installations
in the Zone, including the Canal locks.
Since the construction of Madden
Dam in 1935 and the installation of the
hydroelectric power station there, the
power supply of the IZone has not been
increased except for installation of auxi-
liary diesel power stations, which are
used principally for conservation of
water and emergencies.
During the past few years and espe-
cially since the conversion to 60O-cycle
current, power demands in the Zone
have increased through the use of
modern electrical appliances and air
conditioning in- both private homes and
public buildings.
The gradual increase in traffic through
the waterway has indirectly affected the
generation capability of the power
system. During the dry season months,
hydroelectric power from the Gatun
station has had to be increasingly
curtailed in order to conserve water.


AS PART OF a long-range plan which
eventually will result in modernization
of the Canal organization's electrical
generating equipment and an increase
of electrical power potential in the
Zone, a survey of electrical power
requirements is being conducted.
The survey will be made by officials
of the Canal Electrical Division and
top men in the Engineering and Con-
struction Bureau, with R. Ai. Kamp-
meier, assistant manager of power for
the~ Tennessee Valley Authority, serving
as a special consultant.
Mr. Kampmeier, who is visiting the
Isthmus at the request of the Canal
organization, arrived here~at the end
of April and is scheduled to stay until
May 10.
Studies are to be made of the power
needs of the Canal organization in the
future and problems connected with
th roduction- of electrical energy,
wihthe Panama Canal Company fur-


demolition crew which will tear it
down to end a career started with its
construction in 1907.
The house is the last one in Ancon
which was built prior to the opening
of the waterway.
-- Originally, four-
family wooden
houses and a number
of wooden cottages
were built in the
Ancon area, but all
those of construc-
.tion-period vintage
.; have given way to
I .. masonry homes in
recent years--except
No. 364.
.. Three wooden cot-
tages, which were
located just beyond
.. Sacred Heart Chapel
3Cb in Ancon and which
also were built in
1907, recently were demolished, leaving.
the four-family house as the last one
of that age mn the area. Soon, it too
will be gone.


Insurance Bids 1Received
PROPOSALS from ,life insurance COm-
panies interested in providing group life
insurance protection for non-U.S.-citizen
employees of the Comppany-Government
were being received at Balboa Heights
this week and will be through May 15.'


ANOTHER PAGE in Canal history was
closed near the end of April as the
last family to occupy house No. 364
in Ancon moved out, leaving the
sprawling, four-family building to the


O ening Date Changed
For Zone's UJ. S. Schools
U.S. SCHIOOLS IN the Zone will, reopen
on Friday, September 8, this year
instead of the traditional first Wednes-
day after Laborl Day. The change was
made because of the change in Company
steamship sailing schedules. The Birst
.September sailing from New Orleans is
to arrive in Cristobal on September 6,
just 2 days before the first day of school.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEWl


POwer Needs Under Study


























Jan Gale feeds young ocelot, while 34i-year-old Jere casts a wary eye totvard family owl.


- A BIRD PERCHED on a little boy's
shoulder is no uncommon sight on the
Isthmus, and there's nothing too unusual
about seeing a little girl feeding a kitten
with a doll bottle. But when the boy
is Jon or Jere Gale, and the little girl
is their sister, Jan, the bird probab-ly
is a baby owl and the kitten a youthful
member of the ocelot family. Jon, Jan,
and Jere are the children of Dr. and
Mrs.' Nathan B. Gale, Jr., of Gamboa.
Dr. Gale is a veterinarian with the
Canal Zone Division of Vleterinary
Medicine and, as far' lackc as h~"ean
remember, has always haid some yonfig
bird or animal in his care. Hisl children,
quite apparently, are following in their:
father's -footsteps.: Mrs. Gale, who is a
'school teacher, never studied animal
care and feeding; but she's become an
expert at it.
The envy of all the neighborhood
small fry, the Gale children also have
a little deer in the ba~ckard. Aii'd-they
have guinea pigs who live in a rustic .
sort of guinea pig housing project,


enclosed in a big swimming-pool type
of plastic ring, on the side lawn.
~The Gale family, moreover, has the
most interesting conversation piece on
the Isthmus in the form of a "mobile
mobile" in the porch area of their home,
where a beautiful rare emerald green
boa dozes, ~coiled on a forked perch
suspended from the ceiling. This par-
ticular specie of the boa family, Dr. Gale
explains, is a native~ of South America,
is born in trees, and spends all its life
in trees. The newborn baby boa is brick
red, but as the snake matures, the red
changes to green and the' green becomes
e\el dteper with every boa birthday.


The one that Dr. Gale has was~ acquired
in Jquitos, Peru, in 1956 and, is rarely
raised in captivity. Right now it is about
5%/4 feet long, and will grow to.:7 feet
at maturity. The boa, perhaps because
of its unobtrusiveness, still has no name.
The baby ocelot's name is JosB. At
a quick glance, Jos6 100ks like a house
kitten, except for the markings of his
fur, which is tawny yellow, with a
distinctive design in black.
When he first came to live at the
Gale home, Jos6 was fed every 2 hours,
day and night. "Like having a baby in
the house again," Mrs.' Gaei observed.
Now 1%~ moziths old, JosB consumes a


Jon Gale Teeds Timmy, the familjr's deer.


This rrreen boa
pro\ ides something
different in the wray
of mobiles for the-
.iSaies' iving rooml.


MAY 5, 19631


Of Birds,


BbB es,


A~nd a Boa



This Gamboa family
has a menagerie all
its own, including a
"mobile mobile" in
-the porch area.



















FOUR EASY STEPS TO REMEMBER
Dilute the poison by making the child drink water,
Make him vomit unless he has burns around the mouth, or has swallowed
petroleum products or is unconscious or in convulsions.
Call a physician,
Keep the child warm.; keep his air passage-open; give artificial respiration,
if necessary.
--From the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning,
Academyl of Pediatrics.
Panama Canal Poison Information Center 2-26i00.


enough to put:medicines on high shelves,
for children in the climbing stage will
go to amazing heights in search of
forbidden items.
Don't keep household chemicals under
the kitchen sink. The one-year-old who
crawls under the sink to ingest bleaches
and lyes, accounts for 37 percent of
poisoning cases, according to one study.
Hazardous household products belong
on high. shelves, preferably in a locked
compartment, inaccessible to the crawler.
Never transfer a poisonous sub-
stance, such as turpentine, into a
common container such as a cola or
milk bottle, drinking glass, or pitcher.
A child could easily mistake the poison
for food or drink.
Never put poisons in cupboards used
for food storage.
Make a regular check around the
house to be sure poisonous items are
not within a child's reach. Danger areas
are kitchen, bedroom, and bathroom.


doll-size bottle of milk every 4 hours.
He's still a lightweight kitten and, like
a kitten, will curl upon a handy lap
er su detrWe nh all grown nhd:.?
for relatives-they roam from Texas
to Patagonia.
The owl, Juti (Hooty) who is living
at the Gale home is a mere baby by
bird standards and is hand-fed every
5 or 6 hours. He spends most of his
time looking wise, owl fashion; or
napping, head in wing.
T~he letter "J" is the predominating
imitial in names at the Gale home until
one is introduced to the baby deer,
whose comfortable abode is back of
the house. The deer is called Timmy
and was named by 3V2-year-old Jere
Gale, who could think of no greater
tribute to his bosom chum, Timmy
Carber, youngest son of Gamnboa school
principal and Mlrs. W. C. Garber, who
live next door.
Timmy consumes three or four baby
bottles of milk at. a feeding, and some-
times will stand up on two legs mn his
eagerness to get his dinner. The same
basic milk formula is used for all the
feedings of the baby animals.
Injured animals and birds seem to
gravitate to the Gale home, and the
whole family cooperates in their care
and feeding. The animal boarders in the
past included such interesting speci-
mens as a crab-eating raccoon, and a
prehensile-tailed porcupine.
Dr. Gale, a native of Ashland, Oreg.,
arrived on the Isthmus from California
in January 1960. He was graduated
from Washington State University in
1953 with the degree of doctor of
veterinary medicine and received his
master's degree in public health at
Tulane University in 1959.
He came to the Canal Zone from
Compton, Calif., where he specialized
in mycology on the staff of the Los
Angeles County Livestock Association.
He also has worked with animals in the
Walt Disney studios and did veterinary
work there. In Los Angeles, he com-
mented, it is not unusual for people
to have pet bears, pet lions, and even
pet tigers, all of whch contribute to
making a veterinarian's life something
quite different than humdrum.
'His interest in animals also led him
to a post as curator at the Portland,
O~reg zoo and then to the Los Angeles
zoo as a veterinary consultant. His work
ineant ~there always was some animal
that needed a friend, since many baby
animals born in a zoo are rejected by
their parents. The Gales would lend a
hand until the wee animal was able tO
eat alone and to take his place in zoo
08ie~ty. TIhen, as now, another would
always come along.


Wrra 250,000 poisonous household
products on the market every mother
must be alert to the poisoning hazard.
Be sus icious if the child exhibits any
of the flowing symptoms: sudden pain,
unusual flushing or pallor, agitation,
restlessness, drowsiness, nausea, vomit-
ing, muscle twitchings, convulsions,
signs of fear or panic and burns around
the mouth or skin. Four easy to
remember first aid steps are given in
case of accidental poisoning and it is
recommended that they be cut out and
pasted up in a handy place.
Nearly all accidental poisonings
could be prevented if toxic materials
were stored and handled properly,
according to the National Clearing
House for Poison Control Centers. Here
are precautions to take:
Lock your medicine cabinet. Drugs,
including aspirin, the largest offender,
account for one-third of all fatal poison-
ings in children under five. It is not

...ACCIDENT'"'


FIRST All
CASES


DAYS
LO ST


FOR

THIS MONTHS
AND

THIS YEAR


MARCH

ALL UNITs
YEAR TO DATE


'61 '60 61 '80 '61
314(75) 268 11 -'8 317(32)
849!397) 750 37(4) 32 978(58)
( ) Locks Overhaul injuries included in total.


'60
211
423


THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Accidental Poisoning


Can Be Prevented


D)ISABLI NG
INJ U R4ES I






























James Doran, right, and Rupert Foster inspect salvaged pieces of old railroad equipment.


by the Fretich were discovered on the
Cut-widening project. A few days later
--and several miles away--pieces of a
similar dump car were found in the
path of the new waterline being built
~from. Miraflores Filtration Plant to the
Los Rios Pump Station,
All metal scrap found in the Zone
during the course of other operations is
salvaged by the Warehouse, ~Scrap, and
Salvage Section of' the' Storehouse
Branch, which also -disposes of present-
day equixipent of the Canal organiza-


tion as it becomes outmoded or obsolete
and heads for the steel mills once more.
Each year, the Scrap and Salvage
Section disposes of approximately 4,000
tons of scrap metal and for the past
2 years about one-fourth of the total
has been recovered during the process
of the Cut-widening effort. Joseph L. H.
Demers, who heads up the section, says
he expects that about 1,000 tons of
scrap will continue to turn up on the
Cut-widening project for the next year
dr two, and possibly longer.


Is~thmiant


Legacy

Scrap left behind
by Canal-builders
still is being
recovered and
salvaged by
Company unit.



IT H-AS BEEN more than 70 years since
the French effart to build the Panama
Canal collapsed in a financial morass
and almost a half-century since the
waterway was opndto the world's
ship traffic, but the task of cleaning up
debris left scattered in the massive con-
struction efforts still is not completed.
Almost daily, as the widening of
Caillard Cut moves forward, scraps of
abandoned construction equipment are
unearthed. Most of the rusting pieces
thus recovered date from the days of
the French effort, although an occa-
sional piece of American construction
equipment also is found.
Recently, -at least a dozen of the
European-style railroad dump cars used

Inspector Ralph E. Furlong looks on as
Jose Felix Hine uses torch to remove old
dump car from trench for new waterline.


This shovel helped salvage parts of old railroad cars uncovered during Cut-widening.


? MAY 5, 1961





the day after the fleet's arrival and it
was estimated that they spentt approxi-
mately a million dollars in Panama
during their stay.
Canal Zone Demnocrats held meetings
in the Canal Zone..to select delegates
to attend the D~emocratic convention
in Philadelphia, although~ Executive
secretary C. A.. M~cnlvaine announced
that Civil Service regulations regarding
political activity of Federal employees
would be enforced to the letter-.
A boom in Canal Zone construction
act vitth was woeast wth an anmnone

more than $2,300,000 to improve local
Army posts and that bids were being
sought by the Canal organization for
construction of the C~amboa: t-ownsite.

10O Years Ago
IT wAs announced in Washington that
the Canal Zone was to be madie a proving
ground in U.S. Armyr plans to integrate
volunteer civilians into its antiaircraft
program. The program was to seta
pattern for the ultimate coordination
of Army and civilian auxiliary -efforts
in defense against air a~ttiak on the
United States and its possessions.

pRk t 0 appea Sd i ssign .1~rop e
in the Canal Zone, despite the beginning
of income tax co sections frrom t n-mll at
the beginning of the year. -A bill to
remove a retroactive feature of the
new law extending income taxes to
U.S. citizens em 1 yed in' the Zone was
reported favorably by the House Ways
and Means Committee and the U.S.
Civil Service Commission proposed pay
raises of nearly 7 percent for' classified
employees of the Federal Government.

Onle Year: Ag-o
THE PANAMA CANAL Company
announced last May that' the contract
to furnish newv towih~g locomotives for
the locks had been awarded to Mitsu-
bishi Shoji Kaisha, Ltd., of Tokyo,
Japan. The Japanese firm had entered
a base bid of $3,829,900 fo~r 'the~ pur-
chase of 6 test locomotives, 33 addi-
tional locomotl;es,' and 3 Idcomnotive
cranes.
The population of the Canal- Zone,
as of April 1, 1960, wias.41,6i8 3, it was
announced. '1'his was a, reduction of
11,139 in theZorie. population since l950.


plentiful and cheap. The list announced
that porterhouse steak was selling for
20 cents a pound, pork loin chops
at 14 cents a. pound,' lamb legs at
17 cents a pound, and such delicacies as
pheasant, partridge, and grouse at
50 cents each.

25 1Years A go
IT WAS U.S. Navy month in the Canal
Zone and Panama 25 yeaisi ago this
May, with the main body, of the U.S.
Fleet arriVing in Balboa about mid-
month after maneuvers off the west
coast of South America.
With the fleet including 11 battle-
ships, 4 aircraft carriers, 12 heavy
cruisers, 7 light cruiisers, 72 destroyers,
12 submarines, and 28 auxiliary vessels,
some 25,000 sailors went on: shore leave


50 Years Ago

THE ACTUAL WOTIC Of COnStructing the
Gatun.Locks gates began 50 years ago
this month, shortly after the arrival of
the first shipment of material. The first
gates were those situated in the upper
or lake level locks.
Plans were approved for the con-
struction of terminal docking facilities
at the ~Atlantic entrance of t~he Canal.
The project called for a series of five
reinforced concrete docks which THE
CANAL RECORD Said could accommodate
10 vessels 1,000 feet long, or 20 vessels
of the type used m ~the Isthmian trade.
Construction life for the early Canal
employees might have been rugged at
times, but according to a commissary
bulletin issued in May 1911, food was


Segundo Jimknez, Colombia; Winchman,
Terminals Division; 11 years, 1 month,
24 days; Panama.
G. C. Lockridge, lowa;hSlupervisor, Physical
Edhtitio~n anedsA 6 etics Di227siedna o
Florida.
Victoriano Luzcando, Panama; Helper,
General, Dred ing Division; 26 years,
'10 months, 13 days; Panama.
Lucius McLoud, Jamaica; Grounds Keeper,
Division of Schools; 35 years, 4 months,
20 days; Panama.
Gabriel Ortega, Colon; Lockman, Atlantic
Locks; 34 -years, 10 months, 29 days;
Colon.
Clarence A. Priestley, Panama, Chauf~
feur, an~thn n ce Dvis on; 23, years'
Herbert E. Rothwell, England; Water
System Control Man, Maintenance Divi-
sion; 15 years, 10 months, 25 days;
Houston, Tex.
Alphonse J. Roy, Massachusetts; Guard,
Terminals Division; 17 years, 3 months;
Arkansas'
Louis E.Sne~deker Cuba liquidd Feye Ds
1 month, 7 days; Florida.
Bulmn A. Truck, Jdamnaca; Oiler, Floating
$Equip et,17Dr dging Diavisicm; 38 years,
Aston L. Wilson, Jamaica; Warehouseman,
Wholesale Section, Supply Division;
34 years, 11 months, 19 days; Colon.
Jose D. Winter, Panama; Boatman, Hydro-
graphic Section, Engineering Division;
15 years, 11 months, 29 days; Panama.
Sydney R. Worrell, Barb,ados; Stock
Control Clerkd Supply Division; 46 years'
1 month, 18 days; Panama.


RETIREMENT Certi Omtess were pre-
sented at the end. of April to the
employees listed belowv, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service,
and future residence.

Williaiin H. Basham, Jr., Ancon, C.Z.; Postal
Division; 15 years and 27 days; Canal
Zone.
James S. Bennett, Jamaica; Seaman,
Navigation Division; 38 years, 6 months,
11 days; Panama.
Mrs. Alice O. Benthall, Indiana; Telephone
Operator, Electrical Division; 15 years
and 29 days; Florida. -
Dillion Brock, Colombia; Aids to Navi-
gation Foreman, Dredging Division;
30' years, 7 ninths, 24 days, San Andrtbs,
Colombia-
Hubert Brown, Antigua;. Liquid Fuel
Wharfman, Marine Bunkering Section;
29 yeais, 3 months, 4 days; Panama.
Roger W. Collinge, Wisconsin; Assistant
Su ern nde tb U.FlSiedhools; 30 years,

Samuel J. Garriel, New Tersey; Lead Fore
man, Maintenance Division; 21 years,
5 months, 7 days; undecided.
Jos6 B. Goti, Panama; Truck Driver,
Motor Transportation Division; 21 years,
4 months, 3 days; Panama.
William F. Grady, North Carolina; Super-
visory Phanriacist, Coco Solo Hosnital;
29 years, 1 moth, 28 days; Florida.
Herbert C. 11awvichorst, California; Elec-
trician,~ El ctritl IDivision; 16 years,
4 months, 9 days; California.

fiIdi PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19


1 1 171 NTO





CIVEL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Richard A. Edmondson
Police Sergeant
Fred S. Southerland
Police Station Clerk
Aston M. Parchment
JuniormHig eSce olSPhrin ipal,

HEiALTH BUREAU
Mack F. Bailey
Supervisory Sanitation

Clifford V. Russell
Ho ~taol Administrative


MARINE BUREAU
Thomas E. Semper
Leader Seaman
Laurence D. Duncan
Helper Lock Operator
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Burton J. Hackett, Jr.
*L dd Grounds Foreman
Laborer Cleaner
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
S. F. ean Baptiste


ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Donald C. Miller
Head, Composing Section
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Ma 'orie V. Jones
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
James F. McGloin
Fire Lieutenant
EmP ett A.8 tllins
CENTRAL EMPLOYMENT
OFFICE
Lester O. Clarke
Clerk Typist
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Macon W. Foscue
Supervisory Electrical
Engineer
Gale A. O'Connell
Structural Engineer
Orlando L. Flye, Jr.
Electrical Engineer
James Hilberto
Maintenanceman
Joseph Pitters
Maintenanceman
Juan D. Calame
Floating Plant Oiler
Eduardo Castillo
Quarryman
Julio Jimnknez
Chauffeur
Charles W. Jarvis
Hel er Carpenter
Miguel Al andona
Seaman
Rafael Bernal
Floating Plant Oiler
Andrds Diaz .
Helper Refrigeration and .
Air Conditioning Mechame
Alfred G. Wilhiams

Hehrmnegildo Moreno
Boatman
HEALTH BUREAU
Miriam Lindsay
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
G. L. Campbell
Clerk
Mabel Edwards
Nursing Assistant, Psychiatry
Fklix Rodriguez
Heavy Pest Control Laborer


Howard Zeffron
Housekeeping Aid
Robert G. Grocott
Medical Technologist
Fred A. Howell
Clerk
Santiago S. Morrice
Housekeeper
Martina S. Greenland
Medical Aid
MARINE BUREAU
Willam T. Clute
Joseph A. Blackburn
Guard Supervisor
JosB D. Villarreal
DHe vy L borer
Helper Lock Operator
Justo Valencia
Boatman
Daniel J. Ianoale .



Andr erez


r Smith


.Boniche
Launch Seaman
Ricardo Diaz
Seaman
OFFICE OF THIE
COMPTROLLER
Donald M. Luke
Supervisory Accountant
Frank A. Baldwin
Supervisory Accountant
Eldermae A. Duff
Accounting Technician
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Robert G. Rowe
Retail Store Supervisor
John Henry Francis
Stockman
Sidney O. Ford
Stockman
Berenice L. Jordan
Clerk
Evelyn A. Lowe
Kitchen Attendant


Enid E. Perryman
Dry Cleaning Presser
Enrique de J. Aburto
Laborer Cleaner
Julio Aribuz
Heavy Laborer
Valentin Ja~n
Laborer
Ann Pascals
Pantryman
SaMuelt Hammond
Eni dL. Sm ons
Oscar Edmund
Laborer
Hyman G. Forth
Stck Control Clerk
Utility W~orker
C. D. Cumberbatch
Clerk
Rosendo Zerna
Heavy Laborer
Bernardino Moreno
Milker
Cyril E. Jones
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Alfred A. Allen
Baker en
Victoria Pineda
Laundry Checker
Etheline A. Rowe
Laundry Checker
Edna L. Walton
Meat Packager
Arcadio Pdrez
Laborer
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Roy M. Steele
General Foreman, Ship
Cargo Operations
Leopold E. Welch
Supervisory Cargo Clerk
Joseph To~mlinson
Randolph F. Simmons
Clerk
Oscar R. Pinto
High Lift Truck Operator
Hector Magdaleno
Maintenance Carpenter
Alberto H. Dogue
Timekeeper
Clarence B. Glasgow
Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman


MAY 5, 1961


ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)




SUCTIOB U
Wld Percy

Fitz N. rn














EMVIPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between March 10 and
April 10 are listed below. Within-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
not listed.

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU

Ke ehl L.i Morrs oom utdo C r,
Customs Division.
Police Division
Fred E. Perra, Charles S. Smith, to Police
Lieutenant.
Ralph E. Masters, to Police Sergeant.
Division of Schools
Dorothy T. Abplanalp, Glenn E. Darnell,
to Elementary and Secondary School
Teacher.
Wilfred G. Earle, to Leader Heavy Laborer.
EXECUTIVE PLANNING STAFF
Lillian M. Vogel, Clerk-Stenographer, from
Administrative Branch.

ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Ethelridge Daniels, to Messenger.

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Engineering Division
Alberto Arispe C., Mike N. Bent, Elvin S.
Binns, Domingo De Gracia, Vincent Gon-
zalez, Eulalio Lemos, Hubert H. Leslie,
Miximo L6pez, Marcos Reinaz, George
G. Rowe, Ivan A. Wallace, to Surveying
Aid.
Dredging Division
Gerold E. Cooper, to Dipper Dredge

Wltaer Jr. Grymala, Donald W. Marlow, to

Geo ge t.R ic 1 CCie nEngin ,eb ipper

Charles G. Morency, to Dipper Dredge
Operator
Leavell F. Kelly, from Lock Operator En-
gineman, Locks Division, to Engineman.
Larchan H. Robinson, to Launch Operator.
Clive O. Garbutt, to Leader Seaman,
Irvin R. King, to Floating Plant Oiler.
Lloyd N. Church, to Toolroom Attendant.
Fernando Carri6n, Luis A. P~rez, to Debris
Control Winchman.
Allen A. Welsh, to Clerk.
Electrical Division
Norman C. Anderson, from Lock Operator
Machinist, Locks Division, to Operator-
Diesel Machinist.
Evans Davis, to Helper Cable Splicer.
Maintenance Division

W 1 ermJ. Carson, to Lead Foreman
Laurel L. Highley, to Leader Welder.
Winfield F. Fearn, to Leader Machinist.
Henry J. Walker, to Helper Refrigeration
adAir Conditioning Mechanic.
Ashton M. Russell, to Roofer.


Zedikiah Henry, Asunci6n Pkrez, Alejandro
Navarro, to Heavy Laborer.
Ram6n E. Arosemena, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Contract and Inspection Division
Frank H. Robinson, to Construction
Inspector


Ramona JH Irland Bro AStaff Nurse,
Gor is Hospital, to Head Nurse
Rig~ley ate esly r za Hospitlist, from
Supply Division to Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine.
Albert J. Mitchell, to Patient Food Service
Attendant, Gorgas Hospital

MARINE BUREAU
Ethel W. Brown, from Clerk-Stenographer,
Contract and Inspection Division, to
Statistical Clerk, Office of the Director*
Navigation Division
Louis H. Hixon, Samuel Londynsky, Thomas
B. McAndrews, Charles H. Taylor, to
Pilot.
Robert S. Peake, to Pilot-in-Triaining.
Clarence J. Bascumbe, to Floating Plant
Oiler,
Edgar McDonald, from Clerk, Railroad
Division, to Deckhand.
Flix Guillermo Julienne, from Laborer,
Gorgas Hospital, to Heavy Laborer.
Industrial Division
Dennis A. Gilbert, to Purchasing Agent.
Arturo Smith, from Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Ernest V. Baptiste, from Package Boy,
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Locks Division

Joepchai t Burns, to Lock Operator
Norb F. Keller, to Lock Operator

George W. Rowe, to Helper Lock Operator.
Ferdinand R. Rose, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Sebasti6n Sfinchez, to Boatman.
Jose R. King, Heavy Laborer, from Main-
tenance Division.
Larry J. Miller, Bruno L. Emanuele,
Osmond N. Austin, from Firefighter,
Fire Division, to Towing Locomotive
Operator*

OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Patricia A. Humphrey, Clerk-Typist,: from
Central Employment Offce, to Account-
ing Division.

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU

Dwirh ctM. Van Eera, JO.l to Sup riso y
Manager.
Harry C. Seaman, to Food Processing
Specialist,
John H. Simson, Elsie B. Garcia, to Retail
Store Supervisor.


Carlos Brown, to Clerk.
Wilford B. McQueen, to Prepackaged Meat
Supervisor.
Clifford Blythe, Lionel Brathwaite, Felix
Ce Ilo Ro. oJones t Utility Worker.
Levi Best, from Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Warehouseman.
Lloyd G. Wilson, from Messenger, Locks

sate Wooc t kitchen Attendant.
George C. Bennett, Reginald A. Carter, Jr.,

Amonael r K nel to Ticket Seller.

TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Terminals Division
Daniel S. Hogan, from Painter, Locks
Division, to Dock Worker.
Ulric G. Easey, from Heavy Laborer, Locks
Division, to Dock Worker.
Juan Justiniani, Epifanio Hernhndez, from
Laborer, Maintenance Division, to Dock
H orker.
Miguel Couloote, from Counter Attendant,
Supply Division, to Dock Worker.
Calixto Martinez, to Helper Liquid Fuel
Wrharfman.
Crescenciano Vdsquez, Eliwood E. Beatty,
to Ship Worker.
Alvin L. Cameron, from Sales Clerk, Supply
Division, to T~imekeeper.
Steven E. Garnett, from Admitting Service
Aid, Coco Solo Hospital, to Cler .
Motor Transportation Division
Kermnit B. Williams, from Towing Loco-
motive Operator, Locks Division, to
Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic.
Malcolm N. Francis, from Stock Control
Clerk, Locks Division, to General Supply
Clerk.
Wilfred Daily, to Chauffeur.
Railroad Division
Frederick J. Brathwaite, to Clerk.

OTHER PROMOTIONS
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
John E. Deming, Magistrate, Magistrate
Court, Balboa.
Charles A. Garcia, Magistrate, Magistrate
Court, Cristobal.
Henry B. De Voll, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
John F. Paterson, General Engineer, Office
of the Chief, Locks Division.
Wilfred E. Barrow, Accounting Clerk, Ter-
minals Division.
Leonel V~squez, Nursing Assistant, Gorgas
Hospital.
Burton F. Mead, Time, Leave, and Payroll
Alyd S umth nA cu g Clerk, Ter-
minals Division.
Herbert Douglas, Clerk-Typist, Contract
and Inspection Division.
Ricardo R. Varela, Cartogrphic Compila-
tion Aid, Engineering Division.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


-----PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS ----


March 70 .through April 70







TRAFFIC MOVEMENT~ OVER. MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:

Third Qu~arter, Fiscal Year
SAvrr. No.
1961 1960 Transits
1951-55
United States inter coastal. .. . ... ... ... .. .. .. 102 138 146
]East coast of United States and South America,....... 570 770 445
.East coast of United. States and Central America. .... 111 138 129
East ~.l..>..s If Unritedl States and Far East.............. 537 469 261
Unlted brrate- C.llnacij east coast and Australasia.... 65 51 48
Elurope and west coast of United~ States/Canada.:: .. '230 1 3I212 193
Europe and South Arrierica. .. ... .. ... .. ... ... 295 256 123
Europe and Airs'trjlasia: .. ... ..... .. .. .... 104 105 95
All other routes.. ., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... 659 567 333
Total traffic. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . .. 2,673 2,806- 1,773

MONTHLY CONIIMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND T'OLLS
V~ssels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal years)
Transit Tolls


Month--(Ishousnds f dolars)
Avg. No.Average
1961 960 n 1981 1960 9T s
July............ 94 88 557. $4680 $4,29 $2432
Augut- 92 88 55 4,85 4111 2,43 1
Septmbe.. 87 83 57 4,72 3828 2,5431



Apri. .. *6082,588
May.... ...... 6292,672
June.............5992,528




CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY

Third Quiarter, Fiscal Year


1961
Num- I Tons
ber of of
transits cargo
12 23,564
302 1,899,596
:23 178,130
IG 85,027
60 104,754
67 271,735 |

31 L1%5 5 i
282' 779,538
130 1,302,906
36 48,479
15 34,808
47 259,292
207 1,264,985
230 2,071,172
135 721 968
.354 ?, 3 1:3 3,; 90

24174,537
-811 -498,230
417 .2,435,031
40 170,260
2,67j3 15,614,955


.1960
Num- Tons
ber of of
transits cargo

380 2,229,377
33 171,387
17 121,217
65 84,420
120 325,816
15 209 6

45 178,225
356 1,004,865
71 731,158
54 60,901
211 3,605
S52 1. 350,157
195 1,273,042
254 2,211,850
104 1 604,637
316 2,135,584

51 26,686
62 364,925
5031 .3,191,346
41 123,136
2,806 15,639,144


1951-55


Nationality



Belgian. ........
'British. ... .. ..
Chilean. .. .. ...
Chinese. ... ..
Colombian. ..,
Danish. .. .. ..
E un orean... .
French. .. .
German.........
Greek. ... ..
H~onduran.. .. ..
Israeli. .. ... .
Italian.. .. ..
Javanese. ...
,Liberian. ..,
Netherlands.. .. .
Norwegian. .. .
`Panra an an. .. .
Philippine; ..
Swedish. .. .. .. .
UVnited Stites. .
All others. .. ..
Total. .,


Average
number
transits

323
17
6
35
57
36
35
54
29
97
32
69
48
30
203
116

46
498
38
1,773


Average
tons of
cargo

1,936,872
85,011
54,599
37,708
224,852
23,543
163,419
109,721
253,278
130,876
182,089
470,531
300 445
151,379
833,741
665 0

198,424
3,088,092
144,588
9,063,392


M :~/AY 5, 1~961


.Speedy Trransit
WHAT MIGHT be a Canal transit record
for commercial ships was set during
April by ~the Swedish American cruise
liner K~imgsholm, when shie made the
trip from Miraflores Locks thou h
Gatun Locks in 5 hours and 12 minutes.
The 600-foot luxury ship entered Mira-
flores Locks at 5:58 p.m., Apr~il 8, and
left the last chamber of Gatun Locks
at 11:10 p.m. the same evening.
Although no official statistics are kept
on transit times, it is~ believed that this
may be the speediest trip through the
Canal in a number of years and probably
is a record for a..1arge commercial ship.
U.S. Navy ships have been sent through
the waterway at a fast clip at various
times, and the record for this kind of
vessel is. believed to -be 4 hours and
38 minutes, which was set by the
Madle a destroy in 1936.
The Kucngsholm arrived at Balboa
on April 8 after making a South Seas
cruise, and began the northbound transit
shortly afterward. She docked briefly
in Cristobal before continuing her trip
to New York with 400 passengers.
C. B. Fenton & Co. represent the line
at the Canal.

New Cruise Liner
THE ZIM LINE S CruiSe Ship, ferusalem,
will include Cristobal on her 1961-62
cruise itinerary, according to an advance
bulletin issued by the Zim Israel Navi-
gation Co., Ltd. The Jerusalem will
make nine cruises next fall and winter,
with all of them starting from New York.
The Zimn Line, which has several
cargo ships passing through the Canal
on regular schedules, entered the luxury
cruise trade between New York and
the Caribbean in 1958 with the new
Jerusa em. If the advance schedule for
next season is kept, it will be the first
visit to a Canal port by the ship. The
liner accommodates 350 cruise passen-
gers and is completely air conditioned.

Lumber Sh prment
ONE OF THE largest cargoes of pack-
a'ged um er ever shipped from the port
of Nanaimo in British Colombia passed
through the Canal in February aboard
the Greek freighter, Maria Hadfipateras.
The cargo consisted of more than
3 million board feet of Vancouver Island
lumber weighing approximately 11,000
tons. It was stowed in the holds of the
vessel and was bound for the United
States east coast.







CANAL TRANSITS -- COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT


Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
1961 1960 Transits
19st-ss
Atlantic Pacific
Pafi Atti Total Total Total

1,415 1,258 2,673 2,806 1,773
66 56 122 203 284
1,481 1,314 2,795 3,009 2,057


Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going. .. ... ... .. ... .
Small*. ....................
Total commercial. .. .. .. ... .
U.S. Government vessels: as
Ocean-going .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ..
Small*. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ..

Total commercial and U.S.
Government... .. .. ... .. ..


OVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Goverm~ent-operated ships
transited free.

PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)

| hird. Quarter, Fiscal Year


Ores, various. ... .. .. .. .. . .
Lumber... .......... ....
Sugar.....- ......... ....
Wheat. .......... .......
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)....
Metals, various.......... .................
Bananas. ..............,............... ,
Canned food products. .. . .. .. .
Ntrlate of soda. .. .. . .. .. .. ... ..
Food ~products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)..... :................... .........
Fertilizers, miscenlaneous. .......
Pulpwood and products. .
Oleds. ....,,... ......
All- others. ;...:- ..........
T otal .. ... ..................


Atlantic to Pacific


al Year
Average
1951-55


16,632
195,587
420,153
19 7
866290
27,416
41,882
10,0
82,17
88,306
70,660
1,059,977
S4,042,171


33
25


53 54 151
521 48 71


-----r-----i------1------
1,539 1,361 2,900 1 3,111


2,279


Commodity


Average
1951-55
961 032
868,628
233,804
508,144
249,439
162,399
192,445
304,637


163,265
3,545
48,257

691,372
S4,909,342


1961

1,601,749
952,264
698,516
551,600
298,090
265,847
255,324
229,379
22 ,6

221,960
184,414
126,447

1,174,673
7,234,076


1960

2,667,070
1,012,679
307,210
454,419
825 739
256,602
334,325
233,235


246,160
129,266
111,922
1 9,86
978,873
8,619,204


Third Quarter, Fisc;
Commodity
i 1961 1960

Pt 01eudm an products I( clude asphalt)... ,0,3 ,1,2
Metal, scrap. 56,594 458,237
Phosph~ates.. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. 431,181 361,459
Iron a~id steel manufactures. .... . .... 356,924 502,141
Soybesins....;... .. ...................... 33,3 3 352
Cotrnon; raw. ....;.......... 217,535 179,984
Ores, various. ..... .... .. `190,770 217,147
Chemicals unclassified. ... .. ... .. .. 15,0 111,058
S gr.... ... .......... ...... 193 1 661
Sulfur. ................. 87,465 89,898
Paper and paper products. ......... 77,214 82,321
Automobiles and parts .......... ... 76,920 92,995
All others ......... ....... 1,320,081 1,155,102
Total. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. .. 8,380,879 7,019,940


THIE PANAM~A CANAL REVIEW


The Maria Hadjipateras was under
charter to~the Canadian Transport Co.
on this trip and was represented here
by C. Fermie & Co.

'Ship ing Men Retire
TWO WELL; KNOWN Atlantic side shi -P
ping executives who have represented
,their companies in Cristobal since the
1920's are retiring in June and will
make their homes in the United States.
They are Anthony F. Raymond, manager
of the United Fruit Co. in Cristobal,- and
Arthur F. Howarcd, manager of the
Pacific Steam. Navigation Co. office in
Cristobal.
Mr. Raymond, a member of a well
known Isthmian family, came. to the
Canal Zone with his parents in 19036.
He attended school in New York and
was with the U.S. Army during World
War I before joining the Cristobal staff
.of United Fruit in 1922. He served in
a variety of jobs with the company
before being named assistant manager
at Cristobal in 1954. He has been
manager there for the past 18 months.
Mr. Howard is a native of Liverpoozl,
England, and was sent to Cristobal by
the Pacific Steam Na nation Co. .in
1929. He was employed in various sec-
tions of the company's Cristobal head-
quarters before being made manager
of the operation in 1951, following the
retirement of Allen N. Dodd.

NCShew Cargo hpS
ONE OF A SERIES of new cargo vessels
being built on the west coast of the
United States for the American Export
Lines transited the Canal April 21 on
her maiden voyage. The newv Export
Aid was carrying a load of west coast
grain to Egypt.
The transit of the 1Export Aid Icame
just 3 months after the maiden transit
of the American Export Line's freighter,
Export Agent, which passed through
the Canal in January, also with a load
of grain for Egypt. Both ships sailed
directly from Cristobal to Alexandria
and will be used in the Atlantic service
in the future.
A third new American Export
freighter, the Export Bay, was,1auriched
April 8 at San Diego, where she was
built by the National Steel & Ship-
building Co. This newest ship in the
series is named for the late Charles
Ulrick Bay, a former U.S. Ambassador
to Norway and former director of the
American Export Line. Boyd Bros.
represent the vessels at the Canal.





GOIN\G
CH I


of big tarikers some months ago,
"Petroleum Week" magazine said:


AS~ INDUSTRIALIZED nations exhaust
nearby raw materials and go, farther
afield for new supplies, the world's
shipping firms are turning to larger and
larger ships to maintain economically
sound transportation costs despite the
greater distances: and volumes involved.
The ever increasing number of super-
ships in the wo Id's maritime fleet has
raised considerable speculation about
the future of tlie Panama Canal, the
locks of which are too small to permit
the largest of such ships to transits.
Many of the medium-sized supjerships
-those in the 45,000-ton class-can go
through the Isthmian waterway, but are
causing problems such as-described
on page 2.
On routes where ships are not limited
in size by either the Panama or S~uez
Canals, some truly mammoth vessels are
being built and used. At least two
100,000-ton tankers,- the Universe
Apola lo and' Universe Daphne, are in
service at present and it has beeh
announced that two 130,000-ton tankers
are to be built in Japan. None of these
ships can transit the Canal.
The main reason behind construc-
tion of such mammoth tankers is the
economy which can be achieved with
them. The Idemitsu Kosan Kaisha Co.
of Japan, which announced plans for
the 130,000-ton ships, said they will
cut transport costs by 30 percent, com-
pared with tankers of 45,000 tons.
The two Japanese ships are to carry
crude oil from the Persian Gulf tO
Japan to feed that country's booming
industrial growth.
Construction of ships in the 45,000-ton
class, which are barely able to squeeze
through the Canal, has skyrocketed
during recent years and an increasing
number transit the Canal each year.
Just 5 years ago, during fiscal year 1956,
ships with beams of 80: feet or more
were transiting the waterway at an
average rate of less than 1 every 2 days.
During the first 9 months of this fiscal
year, transits by such ships have aver-
aged just under IV2 per~day, or triple
th~e rate of 5 years ago.
Major use of the superships is to
transport oil and metallic ores, with ah~
occasional cargo of gain. The ore
ships and tankers may soon be joined
by 40,000-ton ships hauling coal to
Japan through the Canal, according
to shipping tr-ade reports.
The increasing flow of petroleum and
petroleum products through the Canal


"A comparison of the operating costs,
i 'L"~'"'i profits, and losses of a war-built,
978 937 16i,600-ton T2 and a 45,000 tanner
15 18 underscores the edge held by the bigger
993 955 ship over the smaller. ..
"The reason: as tanker size increases,
costs increase at a rate proportionately
$4,728,432 less than the increase in size and earning
103,170 power of the ship.
$4,831,602 "Operating at the U.S. Maritime
Commission rate of $17.05 a ton, the
supertanker would show a profit (for
5,676,560 a round trip between the Persian Gulf
104,023 and Los Angeles) of $457,970, while
5,780,583 the T2 would make barely a quarter
of that." (The magazine points out that
ng and small. the more common rate of 60 percent
of the U.S. Maritime Commission rate
would leave the supertanker with a
profit of 94 cents per ton, while the T2
a. record would lose $2.14 per ton.)
go moved The trend toward ships far larger
ng March, than the T2's, which were the backbone
cord. Ore of oil movement by the United States
wn at the during World' War II, is expected
go to new to continue- in the years ahead, thus
. recession bringing ever nearer the day when a
larger Isthmian waterway will be neces-
conomics sary to enable the world's superships to
Operation move cargo steadily and economically.


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-
1'ESSELS IN MAR

CommerciaL_---- -
U.S. Government ____
Total _____-
TOLLS *
CommerciaL__ $4,636,567
U.S. Government 55,041
Total__ $4,691,608
CARGO (long tons)
CommerciaL__ 5,6509,669
U.S. Government 26,151
Total_- 5,635,820
*fnefudes tolls on all vessels, ocean-goi:


is shown by the fact that
1,203,000 tons of such car
through the waterway duri~
setting a new 1-month re
movements are slightly do
moment, but are expected to
heights as the current U.S.
.is. overcome.
In an article on the e
involved in construction and


OCEAN-GOING TRANSITS
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL


MOuNTS


j MAY 5, 1961


SH L


N\


G


YPP




Full Text

PAGE 1

, 40 -'ttt 10 1961

PAGE 2

W. A. CARTER, Governor-President N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Press Officer JOHN D. MCELHENY, Lieutenant Governor JOSrIH CONNOR, Publications Editor WILL AREY Official Panama Canal Company Publication Editorial Assistants: Panarna Canal Information Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD and TOBI BITTEL Printed atthe Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone WILLIAM BURNS, Official Photographer On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Editorial offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Supership Problems WITH SHIPS GETTING bigger and bigger and the Panama Canal locks remaining the same size they have been for almost half a century, more and more problems face Canal pilots and other 1 personnel responsible for getting all ships safely through the waterway. AFUU QUEEN To the casual observer it might seem that any ship under 1,000 feet long and less than the 110foot vidth of the locks would be able to transit the Canal. Such an observation disregards a number of factors which make the TuE ENGINEERS and technicians who are leading the way into the new age of electronics are not above usable size of the locks someengaging in high-jinks for laughs, despite their prewhat less than their actual size. occupation with transistors, algebraic formulae, and Most obvious of these factors related matters, as this view of the Siri, a Canal tug, is that a ship has to be guided shows. The tag of "Afrucun Queen" was hung on the into and through the lock chantug by a wag among the experts who recently completed a series of tests on the Canal to help solve bers without smashing into the problems connected with the design of the waterway's concrete walls of the structures. new marine traffic control system. On the basis of available experiMelvin Bierman, who is supervising the program ence, Canal officials say, the as project engineer, looks at the sign with a suns fm induced squint, while Jack Shepard of Gibbs & Hill, designers, smiles at him from the control house. The enant-type ship which can be more serious efforts of the experts are discussed in the safely transited is 102 feet wide, article on page 3. 850 feet long, and 36%-foot draft. For some ships, there may be ot'ier limiting criteria which would reduce the maximum size To Speed Shipping Through Waterw ay ---_even further, they say. Active Family Leaving Isthmus ----------_ The Ore Meteor, pictured on the cover of this month's REVIEW They Serve Retirees -----------------6 Seven Floors for Medical Care ----------8 as she was put through Miraflores Locks, is typical of the superToward Better Farming in Republic of Panama 9 ships. Lt. Gov. John D. McElheny recently pointed out to Colon Bridge Work Moves Ahead --_ 10 Rotarians that the number of ships unable to use the Canal when Century-Old Tie Revived --_ 11 fully laden increased from 231 in January 1959 to 393 in January Campsite Readied for Girl Scouts ---------12 of this year, thus indicating the trend toward such ships. Executive Changes in Schools Annonced 14 Power Needs Under Study --------15 The mammoth Ore Meteor is 102 feet wide and 751 feet long Per Needs Und atudy_ i_ 0* Of Pets, Babies, and a Boia -------16 At the present time she is on a run from the U.S. east coast to iron Accidental Poisonings Can Be Preventcd -17 ore mines in Peru. As the adjoining view from her deck and the I Isthmian Legacy ---------------------18 cover picture by Marine Bureau Safety Representative Lawrence Canal History ------------9 W. Chambers show, her width leaves her very little clearance. Retirements 19 In fact, she is so wide that a turn of less than 1 degree in angle Promotions and Transfers 21 will cause her to strike the lock walls. Shipping and Statistics-22 2 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 3

To Speed Ship ping Through Waterway Marine traffic control system now being designed will improve scheduling of transits, aid pilots, and assist traffic controllers. Test crew member adjusts antenna on Shearwater. IT HAS BEEN SAID that the big decimaking field would, almost without from El Paso to Denver." They also sions are easy, but it's the small exception, agree. know, however, that thousands of small ones which are difficult and tedious. Engineers, for example, recognize but nonetheless essential decisions will Engineers, lawyers, doctors, and that it is a relatively simple matter to have to be made before such a highway others with experience in the decisionsay, "We will build a four-lane highway becomes a reality. What kind of material to use; the thickness of the surfacing; width of each lane; maximum degree in curves; exactly where, right down to the inch, shall the paving be placed? Similarly, the big decision to establish an electronic, computer-equipped marine traffic control system for the Panama Canal was made because the Board of Directors was convinced that such a system would speed world shipping through the waterway. But hundreds of decisions about details are i necessary before the big decision can it become an accomplished fact. Many of these little but essential decisions are being made by men who have come to the Canal Zone from the States to study conditions and limitations of the waterway, climatic conditions, special problems which may be encountered in operation of this unique enterprise, and to actually make field tests of equipment which is being considered for use in the new system. Three members of test crew with the electronics gear installed aboard Siri for tests. Some months ago, for example, a THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 3

PAGE 4

50 years of operation with a minimum ruling computer, which automatically of electrical and mechanical devices? will determine if everything is working The answer is simple: increasing traffic out according to the original schedule through the Canal requires that ships and, if it isn't, issue the necessary advice be put through with an absolute minito pilots and marine traffic controllers. 7 imum of delay if costly tic-ups of world All the computers, radio signals, pilot shipping are to be avoided in the units, and related equipment are not years ahead. a substitute for human brains, however. A Although the present system for The system will not replace the importscheduling transits through the Canal ance of a pilot's judgment and control includes consideration of many related over a ship. His actions always will r factors, it is limited, for the most part, be the final link in the system used Av to putting ships through the waterway to transit ships. on a first-come~, first-served basis, even Communication from ship-to-ship and though this is not necessarily the fastest ship-to-shore must be accurate and nor the most economical scheduling continuously available if the system's method. various parts are to function properly. The first and foremost problem to be This final major requirement is to be dealt with, therefore, is the question met by replacing the 30-megacycle of how a given number of ships wanting radio equipment now in use with equipto transit during any single day can be ment which will operate on the more accommodated the most quickly, at the reliable and trouble-free 160-megacycle least cost, with the greatest amount of frequency range. This new equipment safety, and the most efficient use of will be used both for voice communicathe waterway, its personnel, and the tion and for the automatic assembling of associated installations, information by the monitoring computer. This need is to be filled in the The central office of the new system new system by a high-speed electronic will house a display panel showing "scheduling" computer capable of the complete plan of the Canal and analyzing all pertinent information equipped with a series of small tubes about the ships desiring to transit, the which will light up on instructions from in testing design of equipment for system. condition of the Canal, the economics the scheduling computer to show the of operation, and related data in order location of each ship in the waterway grotp of men spent several days in the to provide three alternate transit schedat any time. grpstudying spet severatidaysof the rules, one of which will be selected for The marine traffic controller, who Zone studying the operation of the the clay's transits by the marine traffic always will have over-riding control of waterway and asking hundreds of controller. the entire system, normally will sit at questions of Canal officials to determine 3ut simply getting all the ships started a control console directly in front of juist what information wvl have to be through the waterway in the proper the display board. By pressing the furished to the electronic computers order does not solve the entire problem. proper buttons on the console the conif they are to be of maximum value What, for example, happens to a ship troller will be able to obtain detailed in operation of the Canal. which shows up for transit after the information about any ship or group And during the past 6 weeks, seven day's original schedule has been started? of ships in the Canal. He then can use stateside experts conducted field tests Or what if something goes awry with such information to exercise human in Gaillard Cut to get the answers to one of the ships already in the waterway, judgment in arranging or rearranging such questions as the most efficient way forcing it to stop or slow down? Or scheduled ship movements. to wire some of the equipment, whether what if something happens to the The computer's preparation of the to use transistors or vacuum tubes in waterway itself, changing the condithree alternate transit schedules at the certain parts of the system, how the tions under which the original schedule beginning of each day will require v various sections of it should be was prepared? total of about 2 hours. Once the initial arranged for best results or minimum All these potential problems and many work is done, however, the scheduling maintenance, and similar problems. others can be solved quickly and easily computer can take new information an( To run their tests, the men put a lot by the computer, if it is kept supplied provide a new schedule in less than of electronic gear aboard the Siri, a with the necessary information as the 5 minutes. seldom used tug belonging to the Canal day progresses and is not sidelined Not only will the new system provide organization, equipped a pair of Canal after doing its first chore of the daythe Canal with more efficient operation, launches with related gear, then went preparation of the three alternate but it also will be beneficial to the out and conducted an exhaustive series transit schedules. marine traffic controllers and the pilots. of tests to see just what approaches To help keep the scheduling comIt will relieve the controllers of the seemed to offer the best possibilities. puter informed, a "monitoring" comtask of making repetitious calculations Most of the things they found out puter is to be used which will be in day after day and provide them with still are being analyzed from the cryptic virtually continuous contact with the tip-to-the-minute information necessary mathematical and other data recorded various ships through automatic electo altering original scheduling, if necesabout each test. When the evaluation tronic equipment located at strategic sary. At the same time, it will provide is complete, many of the so-called "little points along the waterway and in a the pilots with accurate information decisions" about design of the system small unit taken aboard each ship by about ships near them in the Canal, will be made. the Canal pilot in charge. even though they are not yet within Why, you may ask, is it necessary The information which the monitoring view, and in some cases will enable for the Canal to join in the trend toward computer continues to acquire throughpilots to reduce the time for transiting electronic equipment after almost out the day will be fed to the scheda slow ship by several hours. 4 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 5

Active Family Leaving Isthmus Lieutenant Governor and family ending tour of duty with fond memories of community and ;z fainily life in the tropics. Lieutenant Governor MeElheny and his family at their Canal Zone home. UP THE CHAGRES, camping on a sandthey've gulped enough water in sudden lasting friendships as they traveled. bar; water skiing at Gamboa and spills to comply with any legendary They also visited Haiti, including Cap Madden Lake and skindiving off the requirements. Haitien and the Citadel, and some of Perlas Islands; sightseeing with snorkles They will carry back with them many the Central American countries, as well at Fort San Lorenzo; catching a dolphin memories, a number of articles made as Medellin, Colombia. off the drift line; visiting a touristin Panama, and "recuerdos" that have Panama wasn't Lieutenant Governor untouched island in the San Blas no price-seashells picked up along some McElheny's first overseas assignment. Archipelago; picnicking at Goofy Lake sunny Panamanian beach, a fragment He was on duty with the 826th Engineer or along Shimmy Beach; relaxing at of pottery found while viewing marine Aviation Battalion at the outbreak of El Valle with both Canal Zone and life while using snorkles, and native World War II and served with that unit Panamanian friends. recipes to be tried out in the Washington when it transferred to England. SubA tourist folder, extolling the attraclocale-if the ingredients are available. sequently he served in France with the tions of the Republic of Panama? No, What impressed them most? The Ninth Air Force and then was assigned just a glimpse of a North American hospitality everywhere. as executive to the engineer of the family enjoying life on the Isthmus. The whole family feels completely Seventh Army, in Heidelberg. A family headed by the man who a part of the community, both LieuFrom 1947 to 1951, Colonel McElheny holds the second highest Canal position tenant Governor and Mrs. MeElheny commanded the combat engineer detach-Lt. Gov. John D. McElbeny. say, with friends and neighbors who ment at West Point. He attended the Lieutenant Governor and Mrs. greet one another on a first-name basis. Army War College after the West Point McElbeny and their two children, They have been an integral part of assignment and vas assigned to duty Phyllis Ann and Bruce Daniel, arrived the Canal Zone community, taking an with the Far Eastern Command, which on the SS Cristobal in July 1958 for active interest in all community affairs. brought to the family the experience their first experience in tropical living. Colonel McElhenv served on the Board of living in Japan for 3 years. starting Prior to coming to the Canal Zone, of the Boy Scout Council, the Executive when Phyllis Ann was but 4 years old Colonel McElheny was on duty with Board of the Y.M.C.A., and held offices and Bruce was 2. Military Supply in the Office of the in the Society of American Military They returned to Washington on Chief of Engineers. Now, at the end Engineers. Mrs. McElheny served on completion of that assignment, and the of his tour of duty here, they will be the Board of the Girl Scout Council Canal Zone tour of duty came next. returning to the Washington area, and the Board of the Inter-American The Lieutenant Governor and his where Colonel McElheny is to join the Women's Club. Both have been active family will sail from Cristobal on the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for supporters of the Minor League, in Company-operated Ancon May 29 for Logistics, Department of the Army, which son Bruce played, and both have New Orleans. They will leave New Washington, D.C. enjoyed their affiliation with the Balboa Orleans on June 2, the day they arrive If there's anything to the legend Union Church. there, for New York and then West about drinking the water of the Chagres, Lieutenant Governor and Mrs. Point, where Colonel McElhenv will Mrs. McElheny is certain they'll all McElheny and their children have attend the 25th reunion of his class come back to the Isthmus. For in the visited the Republic of Panama from before proceeding to Washington and course of water-skiing expeditions alone Puerto Armuelles to Chepo, making his new assignment. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5

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They Serve Retirees Nurses employed by Canal are helping provide medical care for disability relief retirees. Miss Florence Lao checks list of retirees she will visit during (lay's work. Miss Lao is leaving position to get married this month. THE SINGLE rtoOM in which the She explained that the man was the nurses say, "and at their advanced 84-year-old man lived was small and admitted to the old folks' home, where age they frequently forget to follow the furnishings shabby, although it was his needs are taken care of by trained instructions, don't understand them to apparent that an effort had been made personnel, but others only slightly better start with, or just get confused, so to keep it orderly. The nurse talking off cannot be accommodated in such we usually try to get some friend or to the aged man was sympathetic, howinstitutions. neighbor who can help them keep things ever, and not critical. She had seen worse Mrs. Felisa S. de P6rez, who is the straight. If they live with someone, living conditions during recent weeks. nurse stationed on the Atlantic side of it isn't so much of a problem." This man, however, represented a the Isthmus, and Miss Nellie V. BlackThe financial problem involved in special problem. Not only was he someman, who works with Miss Lao on the providing medical care for those diswhat feeble with age, but he also was Pacific side, cite cases very similar to ability relief retirees in need of it has totally blind. A kindly neighbor cooked those mentioned by Miss Lao. been largely solved by the Group Health his food and carried it to him, while "They are very poor," Mrs. Perez Insurance Program which was started neighborhood youngsters ran many of says, "and many of them are unable for the retirees during February under the little errands which he was unable to take care of themselves or their rooms, Canal auspices. to do for himself. so their living conditions are pretty bad Of the 3,400 disability relief retirees Miss Florence Lao, the nurse, checked a lot of times. We just have to do living in the Republic of Panama, 2,638 the man's blood pressure, asked if he the best we can, and give them what of them are enrolled in the insurance would like to have her leave a small help we can." program, which originally was instituted package of aspirin for the aches and Most of the 3,400 disability relief for those on the disability relief rolls pains which frequently afflict the retirees of the Canal organization, for but since has been extended to all nonelderly, and then told him she thought whose benefit the nurses were hired, U.S.-citizen retirees of local Federal one of the Panama social welfare are past 70 years of age. Many of them agencies. agencies might be able to get him have something wrong with their eyes, The Group Health Insurance Plan admitted to an old folks' home. a sizable number of them have suffered provides a maximum of $7 per day up Leaving the aspirins and a small box strokes, and others suffer from various to a total of $217 for hospital room of salve for a skin infection with the heart conditions, arthritis, cancer, skin and board for a single illness, up to lonely old man, Miss Lao told him she infections, ulcers, and a variety of other $10 for ambulance service to and from would return in a few days to see how health problems. the hospital, up to $70 per illness for he was getting along and take care The nurses carefully steer away from drugs, medicines, anesthesia, bandages, of further minor medical needs which anything which could be construed and similar items, up to $150 for specihe might have. as practicing medicine, leaving this to fled surgical operations, and a $150 "We were lucky in his case," Miss Lao doctors, whom they frequently call for death benefit, with a double indemnity says, discussing the work which she retirees in need of medical attention. provision of $300 for accidental death. and two other nurses employed by the If medication is prescribed, the nurses The health insurance plan and the Company-Government have been doing make periodic visits to see that the visiting nurse program both were among disability relief retirees of the doctor's instructions are being followed. developed with the approval and active Canal organization since last September. "A lot of these people live alone," cooperation of the Board of Directors 6 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 7

and Gov. W. A. Carter. The insurance plan is financed entirely by the disability relief recipients, but the visiting nurse program is free of any cost to them. Although the insurance program is designed to cover most medical expenses incurred by retirees who are in need of treatment, there are many other problems faced by the aged retirees which are not easily solved, primarily because of their lack of money. "Some of these fellows don't have beds, or clothes, or even enough food," according to Robert Van Wagner, Employee Services Officer of the Personnel Bureau, who administers both the nursing and insurance programs. "Consequently, these three nurses have become expert innovators and scroungers." Mr. Van Wagner hastens to explain that the nurses have found where and how to get "extras" for the retirees which otherwise would not be available. One ailing retiree, for example, had no bed on which to sleep and Miss Blackman arranged to get him one through the Red Cross. Others have been supplied with other items through such efforts on the part of the nurses, while Miss Nellie V. Blackman checks blood pressure of an aged retiree during a visit in her office. still others have been supplied canes and crutches by the Canal organization. On the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, A normal day for the three nurses made during the previous day. They most of the retirees live in or near starts at 7:15 a.m., when they report then pack the bags in which they Colon, with only a few in isolated areas, to their offices-Miss Lao and Miss Blackcarry vitamins, aspirin, dressings, salve, Mrs. Perez reports. Those on the Pacific man in the Central Employment Office thermometers, and blood pressure kits side are slightly more scattered, but building in Ancon and Mrs. Parez in and start the home visits on which they most of them are concentrated in the former commissary building in spend an average of 6 hours a day. Marai16n, Rio Ahajo, Radio City, ChorriCristobal. Their first task after arriving The nurses' visits to the homes of Ilo, San Miguel, Arraijin, and Chorrera is to complete the reports of the visits retirees sometimes are interspersed with brief calls at hospitals and social service agencies to make arrangements to get extra help for some retiree, or find out what has to be done to get such help. To save time, such calls usually are made when the nurses are passing near the office or hospital they wish to visit. At least once the nurses have played the role of cupid, using their spare time to arrange for a marriage license, civil ________ ceremony, and religious ceremony for a retiree, who expressed his thanks after the final ceremony by saying, "Now my heart is at ease." Another retiree's viewpoint of the nursing program was expressed one Evening at a meeting during which Mr. Van Wagner had explained the nursing service being provided by the Canal organization. A retiree barely able to stand because of the feebleness of old age, got slowly to his feet to say, Mr. Van Wagner, all of us old people A_ want vou to know that this is one of the best things you could do for us and we thank God that the Canal, for which we Soworkcd so many years, hasn't forgotten us. The shouts'and clapping of the other retires in attendance was suffiMrs. Felisa S. de Pdrez checks pulse of ailing retiree in Amador Guerrero Hospitar,.Colon. cient confirmation of their agreement. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7

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The new Gorgas Hospital is to be built on the two parking lots now located below the present hospital, as indicated by the overprint above. Seven Floors for Medical Care A STYLE OF architecture new to the conference May 12 and bids will be recreational facilities for the isolation Canal Zone will be introduced locally opened at Balboa Heights on June 5. ward patients. with construction of what will be In addition to construction of the As a result of the changes, most the tallest building in the Zone when new building, the plans also call for persons entering the new Gorgas Hoscompleted-the new seven-story Gorgas extensive changes in the existing hospital will receive all treatment and care Hospital. pital plant, three sections of which in one building, including recuperation The neoclassical design which charwill remain in service and be connected in a room on one of the three top floors. acterizes the present hospital and a to the new structure by tunnels and Plans for the Gorgas project, which number of other major Canal Zone pedestrian overpasses. will bring the physical plant of the buildings, including the Balboa Heights When the project is completed, vir79-year-old hospital up to modern strucAdministration Building, gives way to tually all medical services at Gorgas tural standards of similar stateside the modern trend toward more glass, will be consolidated under one roof and institutions, have been under preparaaluminum, and open exterior spaces in all clinics will be concentrated on one tion for the past 2 years. The plans the contemporary design of the new floor, with the exception of Obstetricswere drafted by the New York firm hospital. Gynecology, which will remain in its of Kelly & Gruzen, in cooperation Instead of the vertical lines and prepresent quarters. with Helge Westermann, a well known dominantly masonry exterior of the Only adult wards to be located outhospital designer. present structure, the modern building side the new building will be a medical The new hospital, which is to which soon will start rising on two ward on the second floor of Section "A" be completely air conditioned, will parking lots at the corner of Gorgas and of the existing hospital and an isolation include 135,000 square feet of hosHerrick Roads will feature horizontal ward on the second floor of Section "B." pital floor space and a parking area lines and vast expanses of glass. Section "A" also will house the medical for approximately 100 automobiles at Plans and specifications for the new library, brace shop, luncheonette, and the first floor ground level under the hospital now are being circulated facilities for the Red Cross and other elevated structure. among construction firms, both locally organizations. Section "B" will house With the exception of the Obstetrics and in the United States. Plans for the locker room facilities for hospital and Gynecology Clinic, all Gorgas project will be discussed at a prebid employees and a special kitchen and clinics xvill be located on the main floor 8 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 9

of the new building. A general information center will be provided at the main entrance to direct patients and visitors to the various clinics and waiting rooms. The main floor also will include the admitting office, administrative office, medical records, the emergency room, and the pharmacy. A surgical suite consisting of six operating rooms and a recovery room Student is to be located directly above the main Alfredo Orange, floor of the new building. This third floor area also will include laboratories, assisted by Mindi X-ray department, central sterile supply, employee and a new section to be called the inteno sive care suite, where patients who Romaldo Ramos, are seriously ill can be kept under vaccinates calf. constant attention by nurses and other medical personnel. The hospital's main kitchen and food supply rooms will be concentrated on the fourth floor, which is the bottom section of the four-story "tower" part of the building. This floor also will include a cafeteria-type dining room with a seating capacity for 96 persons. Location of the kitchens midway between the top and bottom floors of the building is expected to simplify the handling and distribution of food for patients. The three top floors will be patient hospitalization sections, with 1 four-bed ward, 15 semiprivate rooms, and 12 private rooms on each floor. Each room will have a lavatory and each floor will have 9 bath facilities. According to present plans, the communication system in the new hospital Toward Better Farming will be greatly improved, with installation of a modern paging system and a new type of communication system between the patients and nurses. in R epu Work now is in progress to bring the building in which the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic is located into the A YOUNG Panamanian agricultural age, has been studying animal husgeneral plan of the hospital reorganistudent last month completed a 2-month bandry at the Divisa school, and after zation. The central section of the period of on-the-job training at Mindi working at Mindi he voiced a desire ground floor is being remodeled to Farm on the Atlantic side of the to become a veterinarian. provide room for a children's playIsthmus as part of his education in The youth's 8 weeks at Mindi were room, examination rooms, and interns' animal husbandry and farming. spent in virtually every phase of the quarters. It also will contain an office Alfredo Orange, son of a small landfarm's operation, including everything for the Chief of the Pediatric Service. owner near La Pefia, came to the Canal from fencing and dry season field clearThe west wing of the Obstetrics and Zone farm as a participant in a regular ing to vaccination of animals, recordGynecology building is being converted program sponsored by the National keeping, and operation of heavy into 15 private and semiprivate rooms Institute of Agriculture in Divisa, where equipment, including a bulldozer. for children and the east wing into he is a student. Under the program, Dr. Paul H. Dowell, manager of the wards for the convalescent care of scholastic training is interspersed with farm, and Dr. D. E. Beckley were pri19 young patients. The central section work on large ranches and farms on marily responsible for the program and the west wing will be air conthe Isthmus. followed by the young student during ditioned, along with the new building. Each school vacation, students from his stay. "Alfredo was a very good When this part of the hospital improvethe Divisa school spread out across the student," Dr. Dowell reports. "He is an ment program is completed at the end Isthmus to augment their formal training intelligent boy and we were pleased of May, the Pediatrics Section will be with actual employment in their chosen with his willingness to learn by doing." moved from its present location in field. For their work on farms and Arrangements for the youth's stay at Section "D" of the present hospital to ranches, the students are supplied room Mindi were made in an exchange of the Obstetrics and Gynecology building. and board and receive at least token correspondence between Ruben Barrio Section "D" presently is being converted wages for their services. Arosemena, director of the Divisa school, into quarters for hospital employees. Young Orange, who is 17 years of and Canal officials. TiHE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9

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Bridge Work Moves Ahead First steel spans to be sent to Zone this month, as superstructure contractor opens office. As Governor Carter watched, workmen cleaned the inside of the Governor Carter and Walter M. Cathey, engineer for bridge installation, preparatory to pouring the base of the deepest pier. contractors, examine cofferdam from catwalk around upper edge. WORK COMPLETED TO DATE on the substructure of the Balboa bridge over the Canal was inspected by top officials of the Company-Government and the bridge contractors last month and given tentative approval. The bridge is expected to be completed on schedule late in 1962. ofGovernor Carter and Canal engineers spent a good part of the inspection trip giving a once-over to the cofferdam of pier 5, the deepest of the bridge piers, which had just been completed and was being unwatered. The cofferdam then was cleaned preparatory to pouring the base. Pouring of the footing or base was a 24-hour operation and required 1,400 cubic yards of concrete. Four more pours will be necessary to bring the base of the pier to a point 10 feet above water at average high tide. Following the completion of piers 3 and 5, the cofferdam steel now being used at those two locations will be moved to piers 4 and 6. All of the bridge piers are scheduled for completion by November 16, 1961. Meanwhile, work on the superstructure already is in progress in four plants in Germany and the first 4 of 14 steel spans are scheduled for shipment to the Canal Zone May 22, with the remaining spans following at regular intervals. The bulk of the steel superstructure spans are to arrive on the Isthmus between July and October. Before being prepared for shipment, the spans to be sent during May were completely bolted together in the German factory and given exhaustive tests for tolerances and fit. Field offices of the John F. Beasley Construction Co., which has the contract for the superstructure work, were opened May 1 in the former elementary school building in La Boca. 10 MAY 5, 1961

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Century-Old Tie Revived First steamer service between Isthmus and United States under Government auspices included call at New Orleans. The SS Cristobal is to become the Company's only ship, after an overhaul. ARRIVAL OF the Ancon in New Orleans tion of mail between New York, New to becoming the only ship operated on Monday, May, 1, as she inaugurated Orleans, and Panama, with stops at by the Canal organization. service on the new and shorter run Savannah, Charleston, and Havana. The The Company will use facilities made between the Canal Zone and the United United States Mail Steam Line was available to it in New Orleans by the States, marked the renewal of a tie organized to provide the service, for U.S. Army Transportation Terminal at between the Isthmus and the southern which it received a mail subsidy of Poland and Dauphine Streets, where coastal city which first was established $290,000 per pear. space has been provided for offices, under Government auspices before the It was largely as a result of U.S. cargo storage, docking, and a waiting California gold rush. interest in the Isthmian crossing that room. Those taking cars with them to Contrary to a widely held belief, the Panama Railroad came into existence the United States normally will be steamship service between the United a short time later to speed travel overable to get them from dockside shortly States and Panama was not started in land between the two oceans, and for after arrival. response to the demands of those seeking many years there was a close relationThe Army facilities are only 10 to 15 quick riches in the gold fields of the ship between the railroad and ships minutes by taxicab from tie central West. Congress had acted in March calling at the terminal cities. hotel district and railroad station and 1847, almost a year before the discovery Although the Ancon opened the Comabout 30 to 45 minutes from the New of gold, to improve communications pany s steamship service between the Orleans airport. Direct rail and air between the east and west coasts of Isthmus and New Orleans, she soon will service is available between New the United States, via the Isthmus. be succeeded on the run by the Orleans and a number of major U.S. Acting on congressional authority, Cristobal, which now is undergoing a cities and good highways lead to the the Navy contracted for the transportamajor overhaul in New York preparatory north, east, and west. 1961 VACATION SEASON SCHEDULE For those who will be staying in New Old New Old New Orleans for a few hours or a few days Reservation Reservation Reservation Reservation during trips to and from the Isthmus, to New to New from New from New the city offers the numerous attractions York Orleans York Orleans for which it is famous, including fine restaurants, excellent hotels, gala nightMay 25---13_ -------May 9 May 17 ----------------May 15 clubs, and many other features in keepMay 25_ _----------_ May 19 May 23_ _-----------_May 25 ing with its position as the 19th city May 31 --------------May 29 June 2 --------------June 4 of the Nation, on the basis of population. June 10 ----------------June 8 June 9 ---------------June 14 The first Company vessels to arrive June 17 ---------------June 18 June 21 and June 27 ----June 24 there are scheduled to dock shortly after June 29 ---------------June 28 July 7 -------------July 4 breakfast time, but later ships are slated Jculy 5----------------July 8 July 15 ---------------July 18 July 14 -uly 14 to arrive at dockside at 1 p.m. July 22 ---------------July 28 July 25-----------July 24 For those interested in seeing the Aug. 2 and Aug. 9 -------Aug. 7 Aug. I ----Aug. 3 sights of New Orleans, numerous tdurs Aug. 19 --------------Aug. 17 Aug. 11 Aug. 13 are offered, including one which proAug. 26 --------------Aug. 27 Aug. 18 --Aug. 23 vides a 4-hour introduction to New Sept. 6--------------. Sept. 6 Aug. 29 -Sept. 2 Orleans nightlife in the French Quarter Sept. 13 ---------------Sept. 16 Sept. 6 -----Sept. 12 and another through the nearby bayous. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11

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WIV This new -amp n. Gaitun Locks will be scene of first Councilsponsored camping session for Zone Gird Scouts in a number of years. Senior Girl Scouts who camped during Easter vacation used new cooking shelter. Apeiswrehaendbteouorlf. Sooto ot otoo oo otoood og oot tooo ood tto otokog toitot Appetiteso'o weeharpenedby theotdoor lift Campsite Readied for irl Scouts Gle SCOUT camping activities in the With approximately 800 Girl Scouts Capt. E. S. Shipley, Commander of during World War II. Fuds received Cma]a Zone are getting back into full enrolled in the program throughout the the Cristobal Police District, who is from sale of the camp's permanent insswing in their own campsite for the first Zone, the opening ofoa permanet campchairman of the committee in charge tllations are being used to help finance time since early in World War II and site last fall marked the beginning of of developing the camp, says all the development of the new camp. plans ae far advanced for the first a new era of activities for them work will be completed by the time Mrs. Nellie Farrell, executive director Zonwide Girl Scout camping sessions and the adult leaders who supervise the first camping session opens in June. of the Zone Girl Scout Council, who sine the war. their programs. Mrs. Shipley, who will be in charge assumed that post last September, says Work o the campsite, which is of the camping sessions as Girl Scout outht Giout troop in the Canal Ctpt. and Mrs. E. S. Shipley located on a 28-acre tract of land near Comicil Camp Director, has announced Zone was organized in 1925, but it was Catu Locks, still is not comploto, but that the Jne 12-17 several years later before the Council enough work has been done that some girls who are completing the fifth, sixth, was formed. ofthe Zoe's Girl Scouts already hao and seventh grades thisyoar adoar "With Cmp Caribbeaot oorisootoped thoro. A week-long camping I Ithrough 13 yers of ag. The second posal," Mrs. Farrell says, "we will be session by a group of senior Girl Scouts session, from June 19 through June 24, able to conduct a much more complete during Easter school vacation was the will be for girls completing the eighth ond oojoyoble Giol Stoot program. It it too on treated use of the permanent grade or who are in high school and going to be a big asset and all thoso facilities which have been installed. are 14 through 17 years of age. attive to Girl Sot ottivits tn tho Hammocks equipped with covers to shield against rain have been obtained for the camp. The girls who participated in the Camp activities being planned by Zone sinerloy oppectiato the volonte Easter camping session joined in the Mrs. Shipley, who has been a Gil Stool elp and United Fuid support which 4< coontioigoeffotoofolounteeosoidleae aoilnod hhaditrainioginotdoor othipito coninung ffots f vlutees ad lade an hs hd tamm m utdor have helped make it possible." Tents acquired for use in the camp also were "checked out" by participating girls. others to change the 0000 overgrown life and camping at the National Girl area from o long-abandoned townScout Adult Training Center in the The carpiogotesiosrigJune site into a permanent and efficiently United States, and Mrs. Marjorie Hall, will h itod to a maximoo of 75 giols titootto pottootofot eath sootion, Moo. Fatooll ti, arranged campsite. program director, are designed to help boeasetht istho, Mares. F r shich Almost daily, as the calendar advances the campers develop resourcefulness, tht otlol n b thi p toward the first Zonewide, Girl Scout initiative, and self-reliance. can be effectively handled at the carp. Council-sponsored camping session since Tho scheduled programs will ineld Regitratio for tho otapitg tssiots World War II days, the work which has hiking, cooking, folk dancing, nature stooted Apoil 15 aod oili tnd May 2f. ben done on the campsite for the past study, arts and rafts, dramatics, and, irs. Frances Sharp, Balboa, is it charge year continues. of course, outdoor living and camiopfir ofcgitrationonthePatif sil, while When work is completed on the songfests. All of the activities will be Moo. Alont MoHat, Margotito, it banperanent installations, the campsite, supervised by adults. iig registration ot tho Atlantit tud. whioh was officially dedicated as Camp Officials of the Canal Zone Girl Scout In addition to Mrs. Shipley and Caribbean last fall, will include two Council note that Camp Caribbean will Mrs. Hall, the caop staff will include permanent cooking shelters, a cotbibe thesoeond campsite operated by and lrs. Jun Swain, co-directo of the nation dining shelter and oteting hall for Girl Scouts in the Zone since the amrp, and Mrs. Mobs Ausnemr, ao 20 feet wide and 70 feet long, numerous Council was organized in 1936. The first egistered nurse, who will tos oamp fireplaces, and a number of other minor camp, hiic was located oil the Pacific nrse and will be on hand at the camp facilities. side of tho Isthmus, was disposed of thooughout the sessiots. 12 MAY 5,1961 THE PANAMA CANAL REvIw 13

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Xg,, Senior Girl Scouts who camped during Easter vacation used new cooking shelter. Appetites were sharpened by the outdoor life irScouts during World War II. Funds received from sale of the camp's permanent installations are being used to help finance development of the new camp. Mrs. Nellie Farrell, executive director of the Zone Girl Scout Council, who assumed that post last September, says the first Girl Scout troop in the Canal Zone was organized in 1925, but it was several years later before the Council was formed. "With Camp Caribbean at our dis~ posal," Mrs. Farrell says, "we will be able to conduct a much more complete and enjoyable Girl Scout program. It is going to be a big asset and all those active in Girl Scout activities in the Hammocks equipped with covers to shield against rain have been obtained for the camp. Zone sincerely appreciate the volunteer help and United Fund support which have helped make it possible." Tents acquired for use in the camp also were "checked out" by participating girls. The camping sessions during June will be limited to a maximum of 75 girls for each session, Mrs. Farrell said, because that is the largest number which can be effectively handled at the camp. Registration for the camping sessions started April 15 and will end May 26. Mrs. Frances Sharp, Balboa, is in charge of registration on the Pacific side, while Mrs. Alena McHan, Margarita, is handling registrations on the Atlantic side. In addition to Mrs. Shipley and Mrs. Hall, the camp staff will include Mrs. June Swaine, co-director of the camp, and Mrs. Mebs Ausnehmer, a registered nurse, who will serve as camp nurse and will be on hand at the camp throughout the sessions. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13

PAGE 14

In Zone Schools Executive Changes Announced Francis A. Castles Theo F. Hotz Charles A. Dubbs PaoMoTIONs and reassignments in the was born in Bryan, Ga., and is a graduate Tiffin, Ohio, received his master of eduCanal Zone Division of Schools brought of William & Mary College in Virginia. cation degree at Ohio State University, about a series of personnel moves, as He received his master's degree in eduand has done additional graduate work some school officials moved into new cation at the University of Florida at the University of Cincinnati. Prior positions on May 1 and others prepared and did additional graduate work at to coming to the Canal Zone, he was to assume new duties on July 1. the University of Havana and the a high school teacher for 9 years. In the Francis A. Castles, former principal University of Florida. 1937-38 school year, he was teacher of of Diablo Heights Junior High School, A veteran of the U.S. Air Force, mathematics at Cristobal High School. was promoted to assistant superMr. Speir received an honorable disIn 1943 he became principal of Cristobal intendent, U.S. Schools, succeeding charge and taught for 3 years at JacksonHigh School and in September 1947 Roger W. Collinge, who retired from ville Beach, Fla. In 1951 he came to the moved to the Pacific side to become Company-Government service last Canal Zone and taught social studies principal of Balboa High School. month and will leave the Isthmus May 8 at Balboa High School. He was proMr. Fawcett, who succeeds Mr. Castles for an extended trip in Europe. moted to the position of assistant prinas principal of the Diablo Heights Junior Charles A. Dubbs, formerly assistant cipal in 1959, upon the retirement of High School, was born in Colorado to the superintendent, was made assistHarold J. Zierton. Springs, Colo. He is a graduate of the ant superintendent, Latin American Mr. Hotz, present principal of Balboa University of Redlands in California, schools, in March. Senior High School, will supervise the received his master's degree in educaJohn C. Fawcett, formerly principal classroom instruction program and tion at San Diego State College, and of Cocoli and Fort Kobbe schools, was teaching methods in the U.S. junior and did additional graduate work at San promoted to principal of Diablo Heights senior high schools after he moves into Diego State College. Junior High School and took over his his new job July 1. A corresponding He served with the U.S. Air Force new duties on May 1. position already exists in the U.S. eleand is now a major in the Air Force Theo F. Hotz, present principal of mentary and Latin American schools. Reserve. He came to the Canal Zone Balboa High School, will become superThe supervisor's position in the U.S. in 1946 and taught physical educavisor of instruction for U.S. secondary secondary schools is an outcome of the tion for 2 years at Cristobal High schools on July 1. tremendous increase in enrollments in School. In 1948 he was transferred David A. Speir, Jr., presently assistant grades 7 through 12, with a resultant to Balboa High School as physical principal at Balboa High School, will increase in the number of teachers at education instructor. be promoted to principal of the school that scholastic level. In the school year 1950-51 he served on July 1, succeeding Mr. Hotz. Mr.HotzwasborninNewHaven,Mo., as acting assistant director of physical Balboa High's new principal-to-be He is a graduate of Heidelberg College, education and athletics, and the following year was physical education instructor and athletic coach at Balboa High School. Mr. Fawcett was promoted in 1958 to the position of principal of the Cocoli and Fort Kobbe elementary schools. Mr. Castles, the new assistant super-intendent, U.S. schools, was born in Revere, Mass. He received his bachelor's degree at Villanova University, Villanova, Pa., and his master of education degree at Boston University. He taught school and was an elementary school principal in Massachusetts for 4 years prior to coming to the Canal Zone in 1946. He first taught Junior High School David A. Speir, Jr. John C. Fawcett Lawrence E. Horine mathematics; then, in February 1947, 14 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 15

was appointed acting principal of 1T Balboa junior High School. The followPower Needs Under Study ing school year he became principal. During the school years 1952-53 and As PART OF a long-range plan which nishes for all Government installations 1953-54, he was principal of the La Boca eventually will result in modernization in the Zone, including the Canal locks. Junior-Senior High School. In 1955 of the Canal organization's electrical Since the construction of Madden he was appointed Balboa Junior High generating equipment and an increase Dam in 1935 and the installation of the School principal, a position he has held of electrical power potential in the hydroelectric power station there, the until his present promotion. Zone, a survey of electrical power power supply of the Zone has not been He was awarded a Fulbright scholarrequirements is being conducted. increased except for installation of auxiship for study in Norway and Italy in The survey will be made by officials liary diesel power stations, which are 1960, the first Fulbright grant to be of the Canal Electrical Division and used principally for conservation of received by a member of the Canal top men in the Engineering and Conwater and emergencies. Zone's Division of Schools. He was struction Bureau, with R. A. KampDuring the past few years and espeselected by the Board of Foreign Scholarmeier, assistant manager of power for cially since the conversion to 60-cycle ships of the Department of State for the Tennessee Valley Authority, serving current, power demands in the Zone the grant, which is more formally as a special consultant. have increased through the use of known as the International Educational Mr. Kampmeier, who is visiting the modern electrical appliances and air Exchange Program of the U.S. GovernIsthmus at the request of the Canal conditioning in both private homes and ment, and was one of a group of organization, arrived here at the end public buildings. 20 U.S. educators who took the 2-month of April and is scheduled to stay until The gradual increase in traffic through seminar on comparative education. May 10. the waterway has indirectly affected the In his new position, Mr. Castles will Studies are to be made of the power generation capability of the power be responsible for U.S. elementary and needs of the Canal organization in the system. During the dry season months, secondary schools. future and problems connected with hydroelectric power from the Gatun the production of electrical energy, station has had to be increasingly Mr. Dubbs, the new assistant superwhich the Panama Canal Company furcurtailed in order to conserve water. intendent, Latin American schools, was born in Elkhart, Ind. He received his bachelor's degree and his master of education degree from Bell State Pagein Canal History Closed Teachers College, Muncie, Ind., and did additional graduate work at the ANOTHER PAGE in Canal history was demolition crew which will tcar it University of Indiana. closed near the end of April as the down to end a career started with its last family to occupy house No. 364 construction in 1907. He taught school in Indiana for 4 years in Ancon moved out, leaving the The house is the last one in Ancon and was an elementary-secondary school sprawling, four-family building to the which was built prior to the opening principal there before coming to the of the waterway. Canal Zone in 1946. He was principal Originally, fourof the Silver City (now Rainbow family wooden City) High School until the school year houses and a number 1950-51, when he was appointed of wooden cottages director of vocational education in the were built in the Canal Zone schools. Ancon area, but all From 1951 to 1953 he was with the those of construeCanal Zone Personnel Bureau as a tion-period vintage training officer and then returned to have given way to the Division of Schools as director of masonry homes in secondary education. In 1958 he was recent years-except appointed assistant to the superintendent No. 364. in the Division of Schools. Three wooden cotIn addition to these executive changes tages, which were in the Division of Schools, a new superlocated just beyond visor of physical education and athletics Sacred Heart Chapel in the Canal Zone Division of Schools in Ancon and which recently was appointed to succeed also were built in G. C. Lockridge, who retired from 1907, recently were demolished, leaving Company-Government service April 30. nn Date Ca ed the four-family house as the last one Opening D Changed of that age in the area. Soon, it too The new physical education official For Zone's U. S. Schools will be gone. is Lawrence E. Horine, who had been a physical education teacher and coach U.S. SCHOOLS IN the Zone will reopen at Balboa High School. He was born on Friday, September 8, this year Insurance Bids Received in Colon and attended the Canal Zone instead of the traditional first Wednesschools, being graduated from Cristobal day after Labor Day. The change was PROPOSALS from life insurance comHigh School in 1949. He has a bachelor's made because of the change in Company panics interested in providing group life degree with a major in physical edusteamship sailing schedules. The first insurance protection for non-U.S.-citizen cation and a master's degree with a September sailing from New Orleans is employees of the Company-Government major in education from the University to arrive in Cristobal on September 6, were being received at Balboa Heights of Colorado. just 2 days before the first day of school. this week and will be through May 15. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15

PAGE 16

Of Birds, Babies, And a Boa This Gamboa family has a menagerie all its own, including a "mobile mobile" in the porch area. Jan Gale feeds young ocelot, while 3Y-year-old Jere casts a wary eye toward family owl. A BIRD PERCHED on a little boy's enclosed in a big swimming-pool type The one that Dr. Gale has was acquired shoulder is no uncommon sight on the of plastic ring, on the side lawn. in Iquitos, Peru, in 1956 and is rarely Isthmus, and there's nothing too unusual The Gale family, moreover, has the raised in captivity. Right now it is about about seeing a little girl feeding a kitten most interesting conversation piece on 5% feet long, and will grow to 7 feet with a (loll bottle. But when the boy the Isthmus in the form of a "mobile at maturity. The boa, perhaps because is Jon or Jere Gale, and the little girl mobile" in the porch area of their home, of its unobtrusiveness, still has no name. is their sister, Jan, the bird probably where a beautiful rare emerald green The baby ocelot's name is Jos6. At is a baby owl and the kitten a youthful boa dozes, coiled on a forked perch a quick glance, Jose looks like a house member of the ocelot family. Jon, Jan, suspended from the ceiling. This parkitten, except for the markings of his and Jere are the children of Dr. and ticular specie of the boa family, Dr. Gale fur, which is tawny yellow, with a Mrs. Nathan B. Gale, Jr., of Gamboa. explains, is a native of South America, distinctive design in black. Dr. Gale is a veterinarian with the is born in trees, and spends all its life When he first came to live at the Canal Zone Division of Veterinary in trees. The newborn baby boa is brick Gale home, Jos6 was fed every 2 hours, Medicine and, as far back as he can red, but as the snake matures, the red day and night. "Like having a baby in remember, has always had some young changes to green and the green becomes the house again," Mrs. Gale observed. bird or animal in his care. His children, ever deeper with every boa birthday. Now 1% months old, Jos6 consumes a quite apparently, are following in their father's footsteps. Mrs. Gale, who is a school teacher, never studied animal Jon Gale feeds Timmy, the family's deer. care and feeding, but she's become an expert at it. The envy of all the neighborhood This green boa small fry, the Gale children also have provides something a little deer in the backyard. And they different in the way have guinea pigs who live in a rustic of mobiles for the sort of guinea pig housing project, Gales' living room. 16 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 17

doll-size bottle of milk every 4 hours. He's still a lightweight kitten and, like a kitten, will curl up on a handy lap or shoulder. When fully grown, he will 4"an*e a~ldso-ounds sAccidental Poisoning weigh between 20 and 25 pounds. As c id n a Po si g for relatives-they roam from Texas to Patagonia. The owl, Juti (Hooty) who is living CPe at the Gale home is a mere baby by bird standards and is hand-fed every 5 or 6 hours. He spends most of his time looking wise, owl fashion; or napping, head in wing. The letter "J" is the predominating FOUR EASY STEPS TO REMEMBER initial in names at the Gale home until one is introduced to the baby deer, Dilute the poison by making the child drink water. whose comfortable abode is back of Make him vomit unless he has burns around thc mouth, or has swallowed the house. The deer is called Timmy Met hm vo is uns nscbus routiot s w and was named by 3 -year-old Jere petroleum products or is unconscious or in convulsions. Gale, who could think of no greater Call a physician. tribute to his bosom chum, Timmy Garber, youngest son of Gamboa school Keep the child warm; keep his air passage open; give artificial respiration, principal and Mrs. W. C. Garber, who if necessary. live next door. -From the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning, Timmy consumes three or four baby Academy of Pediatrics. bottles of milk at a feeding, and somePanama Canal Poison Information Center 2-2600. times will stand up on two legs in his eagerness to get his dinner. The same basic milk formula is used for all the WITH 250,000 poisonous household enough to put medicines on high shelves, feedings of the baby animals. products on the market every mother for children in the climbing stage will Injured animals and birds seem to must be alert to the poisoning hazard. go to amazing heights in search of gravitate to the Gale home, and the Be suspicious if the child exhibits any forbidden items. whole fanly cooperates ba their care of the following symptoms: sudden pain, Don't keep household chemicals under and feeding. The acmal boarders in the unusual flushing or pallor, agitation, the kitchen sink. The one-year-old who past mnluded such interesting specirestlessness, drowsiness, nausea, vomitcrawls under the sink to ingest bleaches mens as a crab-eating raccoon, and a ing, muscle twitchings, convulsions, and lyes, accounts for 37 percent of prehensile-tailed porcupie, signs of fear or panic and burns around poisoning cases, according to one study. Dr. Gale, a native of Ashland, Oreg., the mouth or skin. Four easy to Hazardous household products belong arrived on the Isthmus from California remember first aid steps are given in on high shelves, preferably in a locked in January 1960. He was graduated case of accidental poisoning and it is compartment, inaccessible to the crawler. from Washington State University in recommended that they be cut out and Never transfer a poisonous sub1953 with the degree of doctor of pasted up in a handy place. stance, such as turpentine, into a veterinary medicine and received his Nearly all accidental poisonings common container such as a cola or master's degree in public health at could be prevented if toxic materials milk bottle, drinking glass, or pitcher. Tulane University in 1959. were stored and handled properly, A child could easily mistake the poison He came to the Canal Zone from according to the National Clearing for food or drink. Compton, Calif., where he specialized House for Poison Control Centers. Here Never put poisons in cupboards used in mycology on the staff of the Los are precautions to take: for food storage. Angeles County Livestock Association. Lock your medicine cabinet. Drugs, Make a regular check around the He also has worked with animals in the including aspirin, the largest offender, house to be sure poisonous items are Walt Disney studios and did veterinary account for one-third of all fatal poisonnot within a child's reach. Danger areas work there. In Los Angeles, he comings in children under five. It is not are kitchen, bedroom, and bathroom. mented, it is not unusual for people to have pet bears, pet lions, and even ACCI DENTS pet tigers, all of which contribute to making a veterinarian's life something FOR quite different than humdrum.\ His interest in animals also led him THIS MONTH to a post as curator at the Portland, Oreg., zoo and then to the Los Angeles AND zoo as a veterinary consultant. His work THIS YEA R meant there always was some animal that needed a friend, since many baby animals born in a zoo are rejected by MARCH FIRST AID DISABLING DAYS their parents. The Gales would lend a CASES INJURIES LOS T hand until the wee animal was able to 61 '60 '61 '60 61 '60 eat alone and to take his place in zoo ALL UNITS 314(75) 268 11 8 317(32 211 society. Then, as now, another would YEEA TO DATE 849(397) 750 37(4) 32 978(58) 423 always come along. L >ocks Overhaul injuries included in total THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17

PAGE 18

Scrap left behind by Canal-builders still is being recovered and salvaged by Company unit. IT HAS BEEN more than 70 years since the French effort to build the Panama Canal collapsed in a financial morass James Doran, right, and Rupert Foster inspect salvaged pieces of old railroad equipment. and almost a half-century since the waterway was opened to the world's ship traffic, but the task of cleaning up by the French were discovered on the tion as it becomes outmoded or obsolete debris left scattered in the massive conCut-widening project. A few days later and heads for the steel mills once more. strution efforts still is not completed. -and several miles away-pieces of a Each year, the Scrap and Salvage Almost daily, as the widening of similar dump car were found in the Section disposes of approximately 4,000 Gaillard Cut moves forward, scraps of path of the new waterline being built tons of scrap metal and for the past abandoned construction equipment are from Miraflores Filtration Plant to the 2 years about one-fourth of the total unearthed. Most of the rusting pieces Los Rios Pump Station. has been recovered during the process thus recovered date from the days of All metal scrap found in the Zone of the Cut-widening effort. Joseph L. H. the French effort, although an occaduring the course of other operations is Demers, who heads up the section, says sional piece of American construction salvaged by the Warehouse, Scrap, and he expects that about 1,000 tons of eq pment also is found. Salvage Section of the Storehouse scrap will continue to turn up on the ryalrada dmzeas ue Branch, which also disposes of presentCut-widening project for the next year European-style day equipment of the Canal organizaor two, and possibly longer. Inspector Ralph E. Furlong looks on as 1 Jose Felix Hine uses torch to remove old dump car from trench for new waterline. This shovel helped salvage parts of old railroad cars uncovered during Cut-widening. 48 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 19

50 Years Ago plentiful and cheap. The list announced the day after the fleet's arrival and it that porterhouse steak was selling for was estimated that they spent approxiTHE ACTUAL work of constructing the 20 cents a pound, pork loin chops mately a million dollars in Panama Gatun Locks gates began 50 years ago at 14 cents a pound, lamb legs at during their stay. this month, shortly after the arrival of 17 cents a pound, and such delicacies as Canal Zone Democrats held meetings the first shipment of material. The first pheasant, partridge, and grouse at in the Canal Zone to select delegates gates were those situated in the upper 50 cents each. to attend the Democratic convention or lake level locks. in Philadelphia, although Executive Plans Were approved for the con25 Years Ago Secretary C. A. McIlvaine announced struction of terminal docking facilities IT WAS U.S. Navy month in the Canal that Civil Service regulations regarding at the Atlantic entrance of the Canal. Zone and Panama 25 years ago this political activity of Federal employees The project called for a series of five May, with the main body of the U.S. would be enforced to the letter. reinforced concrete docks which TIE Fleet arriving in Balboa about midA boom in Canal Zone construction CANAL RECORD said could accommodate month after maneuvers off the west activity was forecast with an announce10 vessels 1,000 feet long, or 20 vessels coast of South America. ment that the U.S. Army was to receive f te more than $2,300,000 to improve local of the type used i the Isthmian trade. With the fleet including 11 battleArmy posts and that bids were being Construction life for the early Canal ships, 4 aircraft carriers, 12 heavy sought by the Canal organization for employees might have been rugged at cruisers, 7 light cruisers, 72 destroyers, construction of the Gainboa townsite. times, but according to a commissary 12 submarines, and 28 auxiliary vessels, bulletin issued in May 1911, food was some 25,000 sailors went on shore leave 10 Years Ago IT WAs announced in Washington that the Canal Zone was to be made a proving ground in U.S. Army plans to integrate ___ volunteer civilians into its antiaircraft program. The program was to set a pattern for the ultimate coordination RETIREMENT certificates were preSegundo Jim6nez, Colombia; Winchman, of Army and civilian auxiliary efforts scented at the end of April to the Terminals Division; 11 years, 1 month, in defense against air attack on the listed t eedof Awit ti bthC.24 days; Panama. United States and its possessions. employees listed below, with their birthG. C. Lockridge, Iowa; Supervisor, Physical places, positions, years of Canal service, Education and Athletics, Division of Relief appeared in sight for the and future residence. Schools; 30 years, 6 months, 27 days; pocketbooks of U.S. citizens employed Florida. in the Canal Zone, despite the beginning Victoriano Luzcando, Panama; Helper, William H1. Basham, Jr., Ancon, C.Z.; Postal General, Dreding Division; 26 years, of income tax collections from th em at Division; 15 years and 27 days; Canal 10 months, 13 gays; Panama. the beginning of the year. A bill to Zone. Lucius McLoud, Jamaica; Grounds Keeper, remove a retroactive Ifeature of the James S. Bennett, Jamaica; Seaman, Division of Schools; 35 years, 4 months, new law extending income taxes to Navigation Division; 38 years, 6 months, 20 days; Panama. n 11 days; Panama. Gabriel Ortega, Colon; Lockman, Atlantic U.S. citizens employed in the Zone Was Mrs. Alice 0. Benthall, Indiana; Telephone Locks; 34 years, 10 months, 29 days; reported favorably by the House W\avs Operator, Electrical Division; 15 years Colon. and Means Committee and the U.S. and 29 days; Florida. Clarence A. Priestley, Panama, ChaufCivil Service Commission proposed pav Dillion Brock, Colombia; Aids to Navifeur, Iaintenance Division; 23 years, raises of nearly 7 percent for classified gaton oreanDredging Division; 9 months,' 25 clays; Paniama. -lCvrl lt nation Foreman, DredgingDivisi Herbert E. Rothwell, England; Water employees of the Federal Governmnt. 30 years, 7 months, 24 days; San Andres, System Control Man, Maintenance DiviColombia. sion; 15 years, 10 months, 25 days; Hubert Brown, Antigua; Liquid Fuel Houston, Tex. One Year Ago Wharfman, Marine Bunkering Section; Alphonse J. Roy, Massachusetts; Guard, THE PANAM A CANAL Company 29 years, 3 months, 4 days; Panama. Terminals Division; 17 years, 3 months; announced last May that the contract Roger W. Collinge, Wisconsin; Assistant Arkansas. to furnish new towing locomotives for Superintendent, U.S. Schools; 30 years, Louis E. Snedeker, Cuba; Liquid Fuel Dis4 months, 4 days; Florida. patcher, Terminals Division; 35 years, the locks had been awarded to MitsuSamuel J. Garriel, New Jersey; Lead Fore1 month, 7 days; Florida. bishi Shoji Kaisha, Ltd., of Tokyo, man, Maintenance Division; 21 years, Bulin A. Truick, Jamaica; Oiler, Floating japan. The Japanese firm had entered 5 months, 7 days; undecided. Equipment, Dredging Division; 38 years, a base bid of 83,829,900 for the pur5 months, 17 days; Panama. Jos4 B. Goti, Panama; Truek Driver, Aston L. Wilson, Jamaica; Warehouseman, chase of 6 test locomotives, 33 addiMotor Transportation Division; 21 years, Wholesale Section, Supnly Division; tional locomotives, and 3 locomotive 4 months, 3 days; Panama. 34 years, 11 months, 19 clays; Colon. cranes William F. Grady, North Carolina; SuperJose D. Winter, Panama; Boatman, Hydrovisory Pharmacist, Coco Solo Hosnital; graphic Section, Engineering Division; The population of the Canal Zone, 29 years, 1 month, 28 days; Florida. 15 years, 11 months, 29 clays; Panama. as of April 1, 1960, was 41,683, it was Herbert C. Hawvichorst, California; ElecSydney R. Worrell, Barbados; Stock announced. This was a reduction of trician, Electrical Division; 16 years, Control Clerk, Supply Division; 46 years, 11,139 in theZone population since 1950. 4 months, 9 days; California. 1 month, 18 days; Panama. TUE PANAMA CANAL REVIEw 19

PAGE 20

ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU MARINE BUREAU Richard A. Edmondson Thomas E. Semper Police Sergeant EERING Leader Seaman Fred S. Southerland Laurence D. Duncan Polie. station Clerk S UCTIO BU U Helper Lock Operator Aston M. Parchment Wil rd .Percy SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Junior High School Principal, Ia Ial a I safety SERVICE BUREAU Latin American Schools it g i t ctor Fitz N. r Burton J. Hackett, Jr. HEALTH BUREAU Main m cem n Lead Grounds Foreman Hayne T. W. Trumpet Mack F. Bailey aint Laborer Cleaner Supervisory Sanitation TRANSPORTATION AND Inspector TASOTTO N Clifford V. Russell TERMINALS BUREAU Hstal Administrative S. F. Jean Baptiste ofcer Clerk ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Howard Zeffron Enid E. Perryman Donald C. Miller Housekeeping Aid Dry Cleaning Presser Head, Composing Section Robert G. Grocott Enrique de J. Aburto Medical Technologist Laborer Cleaner CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Fred A. Howell Julio Ariuz Marjorie V. Jones Clerk Heavy Laborer Elementary and Secondary Santiago S. Morrice Valentin Ja6n School Teacher Housekeeper Laborer James F. McGloin Martina S. Greenland Ann Pascals Fire Lieutenant Medical Aid Pantryman Emmett A. Collins MARINE BUREAU Samuel Hammond Police Private Meat Cutter EMPLOYMENT William T. Clute Enid L. Simmons CENTRAL EMLYETPilotSaeClr OFFICE Joseph A. Blackburn Oscar Edmund Lester 0. Clarke Guard Supervisor Laborer Clerk Typist Jos6 D. Villarreal Hyman G. Forth Heavy Laborer Stock Control Clerk ENGINEERING AND Donald S. Hewitt Nesta H. Bowen CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Helper Lock Operator Utility Worker Macon W. Foscue Justo Valencia C. D. Cumberbatch Supervisory Electrical Boatman Clerk Engineer Daniel J. lanoale Rosendo Zerna Gale A. O'Connell rd Superviso Heavy Laborer Structural Engineer Andre erez Bernardino Moreno Orlando L. Flye, Jr. e Lock pe or Milker Electrical Engineer Fitz al C. o r James Hilberto He er -v~ ? t Cyril E. Jones James~ i Hibr H rM Leader Laborer Cleaner Maintenanceman Re -.ro Alfred A. Joseph Pitters el Sh t tal Worker B AAeyne Maintenanceman yr Smit Victoria Pineda Juan D. Calame an Floating Plant Oiler icchLadry Checker Eduardo Castillo Shipfit er Etheline A. Rowe Quarryman iche Laundry Checker Julio Jimnnez Launch Seaman Edna L. Walton Chauffeur Ricardo Diaz Meat Packager Charles W. Jarvis Seaman Arcadio P6rez Ielper Carpenter Laborer Miguel Algandona OFFICE OF THE TASOTTO N Seaman COMPTROLLER TRANSPORTATION AND Rafael Bernal Donald M. Luke TERMINALS BUREAU Floating Plant Oiler Supervisory Accountant Roy M. Steele Andres Diaz Frank A. Baldwin General Foreman, Ship Helper Refrigeration and Supervisory Accountant Cargo Operations Air Conditioning Mechanic Eldermae A. Duff Leopold E. Welch Alfred G. Williams Accounting Technician Supervisory Cargo Clerk Oiler Joseph Tomlinson Hermenegildo Moreno SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Truck Driver Boatman SERVICE BUREAU Randolph F. Simmons HEALTH BUREAU Robert G. Rowe Clerk Miriam Lindsay Retail Store Supervisor Oscar R. Pinto Nursing Assistant, Medicine John Henry Francis High Lift Truck Operator and Surgery Stockman Hector Magdaleno G. L. Campbell Sidney 0. Ford Maintenance Carpenter Clerk Stockman Alberto H. Dogue Mabel Edwards Berenice L. Jordan Timekeeper Nursing Assistant, Psychiatry Clerk Clarence B. Glasgow F6lix Rodriguez Evelyn A. Lowe Helper Liquid Fuels Heavy Pest Control Laborer Kitchen Attendant Wharfman 20 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 21

PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS March 10 through April 10 EMPLOYEES who were promoted or Zedikiah Henry, Asunci6n Perez, Alejandro Carlos Brown, to Clerk. transferred between March 10 and Navarro, to Heavy Laborer. Wilford B. McQueen, to Prepackaged Meat Ram6n E. Arosemena, from Dock Worker, Supervisor. April 10 are listed below. Within-grade Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer. Clifford Blythe, Lionel Brathwaite, Felix promotions and job reclassifications are ..v. A. Ifill, Roy L. Jones, to Utility Worker. otisContract and Inspection Division Cecilio A. Brown, to Packager. not listed, Frank H. Robinson, to Construction Levi Best, from Heavy Laborer, MainInspector tenance Division, to Warehouseman. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Lloyd G. Wilson, from Messenger, Locks Kenneth L. Morris, from Window Clerk, HEALTH BUREAU Division, to Bus Boy. Postal Division, to Customs Guard, Ramona J. Ireland, from Staff Nurse, Walter Woodcock, to Kitchen Attendant. Customs Division. Gorgas Hospital, to Head Nurse George C. Bennett, Reginald A. Carter, Jr., Police Division (Psychiatry), Corozal Hospital. to Laborer Cleaner. Polce iviionRigley R. Wesley, Clerk Typist, from Annabelle C. Kunkel, to Ticket Seller. Fred E. Perra, Charles S. Smith, to Police Supply Division to Division of Preventive Lieutenant. Medicine and Quarantine. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS Ralph E. Masters, to Police Sergeant. Albert J. Mitchell, to Patient Food Service BUREAU Division of Schools Attendant, Gorgas Hospital Terminals Division Dorothy T. Abplanalp, Glenn E. Darnell, MARINE BUREAU Daniel S. Hogan, from Painter, Locks to Elementary and Secondary School Division, to Dock Worker. Teacher. Ethel W. Brown, from Clerk-Stenographer, Ulric G. Easey, from Heavy Laborer, Locks Wilfred G. Earle, to Leader Heavy Laborer. Contract and Inspection Division, to Division, to Dock Worker. Statistical Clerk, Office of the Director. Juan Justiniani, Epifanio Hernindez, from EXECUTIVE PLANNING STAFF ..Laborer, Maintenance Division, to Dock Lillian M. Vogel, Clerk-Stenographer, from NWorker. Administrative Branch. Louis H. -ixon, Samuel Londynsky, Thomas Miguel Couloote, from Counter Attendant, B. McAndrews, Charles H. Taylor, to Supply Division, to Dock Worker. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Pilot. Calixto Martinez, to Helper Liquid Fuel Robert S. Peake, to Pilot-in-Training. Wharfman. Ethelridge Daniels, to Messenger. Clarence J. Bascumbe, to Floating Plant Crescenciano Vfsquez, Eliwood E. Beatty, Oiler. to Ship Worker. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION Edgar McDonald, from Clerk, Railroad Alvin L. Cameron, from Sales Clerk, Supply BUREAU Division, to Deckhand. Division, to Timekeeper. .n .o .F6lix Guillermo Julienne, from Laborer, Steven E. Garnett, from Admitting Service Engineering Division Gorgas Hospital, to Heavy Laborer. Aid, Coco Solo Hospital, to Clerk. Alberto Arispe C., Mike N. Bent, Elvin S. Binns, Domingo De Gracia, Vincent GonIndustrial Division Motor Transportation Division zalez, Eulalio Lemos, Hubert H. Leslie, Dennis A. Gilbert, to Purchasing Agent. Kermit B. Williams, from Towing LocoMiximo L6pez, Marcos Reinaz, George Arturo Smith, from Utility Worker, Supply motive Operator, Locks Division, to G. Rowe, Ivan A. Wallace, to Surveying Division, to Laborer Cleaner. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Aid. Ernest V. Baptiste, from Package Boy, Malcolm N. Francis, from Stock Control Dredging Division Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner. Clerk, Locks Division, to General Supply Clerk. Gerold E. Cooper, to Dipper Dredge Locks Division Wilfred Daily, to Chauffeur. Mlvaster. Wilfred Daly tons Chauffeur.ato Walter J. Grymiala, Donald W. Marlow, to JosephinM. BrstoLc OpaorRailroad Division Towboat or Ferry Chief Engineer. Norbert F. Keller, to Lock Operator Frederick J. Brathwaite, to Clerk. George F. Reichel, Chief Engineer, Dipper Ppeter Dredge. Charles G. Morency, to Dipper Dredge George W. Rowe, to Helper Lock Operator. OTHER PROMOTIONS Operator. Ferdinand R. Rose, from Dock Worker, Leavell F. Kelly, from Lock Operator EnTerminals Division, to Heavy Laborer. PROMOTIONS which did not involve gineman, Locks Division, to Engineman. Sebastian Sanchez, to Boatman. changes of title follow: Larchan H. Robinson, to Launch Operator. Jose R. King, Heavy Laborer, from MainClive 0. Garbutt, to Leader Seaman. tenance Division. John E. Deming, Magistrate, Magistrate Irvin R. King, to Floating Plant Oiler. Larry J. Miller, Bruno L. Emanuele, Court, Balboa. Lloyd N. Church, to Toolroom Attendant. Osmond N. Austin, from Firefighter, Charles A. Garcia, Magistrate, Magistrate Fernando Carri6n, Luis A. P6rez, to Debris Fire Division, to Towing Locomotive Court, Cristobal. Control Winchman. Operator. Henry B. De Voll, Marine Traffic ConAllen A. Welsh, to Clerk. troller, Navigation Division. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER John F. Paterson, General Engineer, Office Electrical Divisioi Patricia A. Humphrey, Clerk-Typist, from of the Chief, Locks Division. Norman C. Anderson, from Lock Operator Central Employment Office, to AccountWilfred E. Barrow, Accounting Clerk, TerMachinist, Locks Division, to Operatoring Division. minals Division. Diesel Machinist. Leonel VAsquez, Nursing Assistant, Gorgas Evans Davis, to Helper Cable Splicer. SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY Hospital. Maintenance Division SERVICE BUREAU Burton F. Mead, Time, Leave, and Payroll William J. Carson, to Lead Foreman Dwight M. Van Evera, Jr., to Supervisory Clerk, Accounting Division. Plumber. Procurement Officer, Office of General Lloyd S. Smith, Accounting Clerk, TerLaurel L. Highly, to Leader Welder. Manager. minals Division. Winfield F. Fearn, to Leader Machinist. Harry C. Seaman, to Food Processing Herbert Douglas, Clerk-Typist, Contract Henry J. Walker, to Helper Refrigeration Specialist, and Inspection Division. and Air Conditioning Mechanic. John 11. Simson, Elsie B. Garcia, to Retail Ricardo R. Varela, Cartographic CompilaAshton M. Russell, to Roofer. Store Supervisor. tion Aid, Engineering Division. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21

PAGE 22

TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: Third Quarter, Fiscal Year Avg. No. 1961 1960 Transits Speedy Transit 195 1-55 United States intercoastal .102 138 146 WHAT MIGHT be a Canal transit record East coast of United States and South America .570 770 445 for commercial ships was set during East coast of United States and Central America ...111 138 129 April by the Swedish American cruise East coast of United States and Far East ..537 469 261 liner Kungsholm, when she made the United States/Canada cast coast and Australasia .65 51 48 trip from Miraflores Locks through Europe and west coast of United States/Canada .230 312 193 i s. Europe and South America ..295 256 123 Gatun Locks i 5 hours and 12 minutes. Eurrope and Australasia. ..104 105 95 The 600-foot luxury ship entered MiraA Il other ro etrs .659 567 333 flores Locks at 5:58 p.m., April 8, and Total traffic ..2,673 2,806 1,773 left the last chamber of Gatun Locks at 11:10 p.m. the same evening. MONTLY C MMECIALTRAFIC ND TLLSAlthough no official statistics are kept MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS transit times, it is believed that this Vessels of 300 tons net or over may be the speediest trip through the (Fiscal years) Canal in a number of years and probably is a record for a large commercial ship. Transits Tolls U.S. Navy ships have been sent through Month --Avg. N (In thousands of dollars) the waterway at a fast clip at various Avg. No. Average times, and the record for this kind of 1961 1960 Transits 1961 1960 T9s51 vessel is believed to be 4 hours and -38 minutes, which was set by the July .941 888 557 $4,680 $4,219 $2,432 Manle a destroy erw in 1936b August .912 888 554 4,585 4,111 2,403 September. ...847 823 570 4,172 3,828 2,431 The Kungsholm arrived at Balboa October .-913 853 607 4,495 3,820 2,559 on April 8 after making a South Seas November ..857 886 568 4,299 4,124 2,361 cruise, and began the northbound transit December. .868 893 599 4,385 4,420 2,545 shortly afterwvard. She docked briefly January ...893 902 580 4,449 4,146 2,444 February ..843 926 559 4,113 4,417 2,349 in Cristobal before continuing her trip March. 937 978 632 4,725 4,633 2,657 to New York with 400 passengers. April .608 2,588 C. B. Fenton & Co. represent the line May .629 2,672 at the Canal. June .599 2,528 Totals for first 9 months of __New Cruise Liner _fiscal year. .8,011 8,037 5,226 $39,903 $37,718 $22,081 TE ZIM LINES cruise ship, Jerusalem, will include Cristobal on her 1961-62 CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY cruise itinerary, according to an advance bulletin issued by the Zim Israel NaviThird Quarter, Fiscal Year gation Co., Ltd. The Jerusalem will S6 9-make nine cruises next fall and winter, Nationality 1961 1960 1951-55 with all of them starting from New York. NumTons NumTons Average Average The Zim Line, which has several ber of of her of of number tons of cargo ships passing through the Canal transits cargo transits cargo transits cargo on regular schedules, entered the luxury Belgian. 12 23,564 ....cruise trade between New York and British ..302 1,899,596 380 2,229,377 323 1,936,872 the Caribbc'an in 1958 with the new Chilean. .23 178,130 33 171,387 17 85,011 Jerusalem. If the advance schedule for Chinese. .16 85,027 17 121,217 6 54,599 Colombian. 60 104,754 65 84,420 35 37,708 next season is kopt, it will be the first Danish ..67 271,735 120 325,816 57 224,852 visit to a Canal port by the ship. The Ecuadorean. 10 17,744 15 20,617 36 23,543 liner accommodatos 350 cruise passenFinnish. .10 22,373 3 4,797 ..i French ..31 210,575 45 178,225 35. 163,469 gers and is completely air conditioned. Gernan. .282 779,538 356 1,004,865 54 109,721 Greek. .130 1,302,906 71 731,158 29 253,278 Lumber Shipment Honduran ..36 46,479 54 60,901 97 130,876 Israeli. .15 34,808 21 3,605 ...ONE OF THE largest cargoes of packItalian .47 259,292 52 350,157 32 182,089 aged lumber ever shipped from the port Japanese ..207 1,264,985 195 1,273,042 69 470,531 o .p Liberian. ...230 2,071,172 254 2,211,850 48 300,445 of Nanaimo in British Colombia passed Netherlands .135 721,968 104 604,637 30 151,379 through the Canal in February aboard Norwegian ..354 2,333,790 316 2,135,584 203 833,741 the Greek freighter, Maria Hadjipateras. Panamanian .112 584,606 71 327,967 116 665,039 The cargo consisted of more than Peruvian .32 123,955 23 93,429 4 9,135 3 million board feet of Vancouver Island Philippine. .9. .24 174,537 5 26,686 .. Swedish. .81 498,230 62 364,925 46 198,424 lumber weighing approximately 11,000 United States .417 2,435,031 503 3,191,346 498 3,088,092 tons. It was stowed in the holds of the All others ..40 170,260 41 123,136 38 144,588 vessel and was bound for the United Total. ...2,673 15,614,955 2,806 15,639,144 1,773 9,063,392 States cast coast. 22 MAY 5, 1961

PAGE 23

CANAL TRANSITS -COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT Third Quarter, Fiscal Year Avg. No. 1961 1960 Transits The Maria Had jipateras w'as under _____________ __951-55_ charter to the Canadian Transport Co. Atlantic Pacific to to Total Total Total on this trip and was represented here Pacific Atlantic by C. Fernie & Co. Commercial vessels: Ocean-going .1,415 1,258 2,673 2,806 1,77:3 Shipping Men Retire Small. 66 56 122 203 284 Two WELL KNOWN Atlantic side shipTotal commercial. .1,481 1,314 2,795 3,009 2,057 ping executives who have represented U.S. Government vessels: ** their companies in Cristobal since the Ocean-going. 33 20 53 54 151 1920's are retiring in June and will Small *. 25 27 52 48 71 make their homes in the United States. They are Anthony F. Raymond, manager Total commercial and U.S. of the United Fruit Co. in Cristobal, and Government .1,539 1,361 2,900 3,111 2,279 Arthur F. Howard, manager of the *Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. Pacific Steam Navigation Co. office in *Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships Cristobal. transited free. Mr. Raymond, a member of a well known Isthmian family, came to the Canal Zone with his parents in 1906. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL He attended school in New York and Pacific to Atlantic was with the U.S. Army during World War I before joining the Cristobal staff (All cargo figures in long tons) of United Fruit in 1922. He served in a variety of jobs with the company Third Quarter, Fiscal Year before being named assistant manageIr Commodity 1961 1960 Average at Cristobal in 1954. He has been 1951-55 manager there for the past 18 months. Ores, various. 1,601,749 2,667,070 96 ,032 Mr. Howard is a native of Liverpool, Lumber ...952,264 1,012,679 868,628 England, and was sent to Cristobal bv Sugar. 698,516 307,210 233,804 the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. in Wheat. .551,600 454,419 508,144 Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt). 298,090 825,739 249,439 1929. He was employed i various secMetals, various. 265,847 256,602 162,399 tions of the company's Cristobal headBananas. 255,324 334,325 192,445 quarters before being made manager Canned food products. 229,379 233,235 304,637 of the operation in 1951, following the Nitrate of soda. 226,066 222,505 360,514 reiemn o lenN Dd.Barley .225,622 656,596 58,964 retirement of Allen N. Dodd. Fn products in refrigeration (except fresh fruit). .221,960 246,160 163,265 New Cargo Ships Fertilizers, miscellaneous ..184,414 129,266 3,545 Pulpwood and products .126,447 111,922 48,257 ONE OF A SERIES of new cargo vessels Oilseeds. 114,446 62,738 26,259 being built on the west coast of the Coll rs. ..107,679 119,865 76,638 Unte Sats orth Aerca Epot All others .1,174,673 978,873 691,3721 United States for the American Export ---_' : Lines transited the Canal April 21 on Total ..7,234,076 8,619,204 1 4,909,342 her maiden voyage. The new Export Aid was carrying a load of west coast grain to Egypt. Atlantic to Pacific The transit of the Export Aid came just 3 months after the maiden transit Third Quarter, Fiscal Year of the American Export Line's freighter, Commodity Average Export Agent, which passed through 1961 1960 1951-55 the Canal in January, also with a load -_----of grain for Egypt. Both ships sailed Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt). ..2,703,732 1,815,920 968,731 Coal and coke. 1,288,761 1,379,124 676,946 directly from Cristobal to Alexandria Metal, scrap ..656,594 458,237 16,632 and will be used in the Atlantic service Phosphates. 431,181 361,459 195,587 in the future. Iron and steel manufactures .356,924 502,141 420,15:3 A third new American Export Soybeans .333,633 323,524 134,079 Corn .261,050 57,986 19,077 freighter, the Export Bay, was launched Cotton, raw .217,535 179,984 66,290 April 8 at San Diego, where she was Ores, various. 190,770 217,147 27,416 built by the National Steel & ShipChemicals unclassified ..152,706 111,058 41,882 building Co. This newest ship in the Sugar .134,861 116,611 101,508 series is named for the late Charles Sulfur. 87,465 89,898 82,173 Ulrick Bay, a former U.S. Ambassador Paper and paper products. .77,214 82,321 88,306 to Norway and former director of the Automobiles and parts. .76,920 92,995 70,660 American Export Line. Boyd Bros. All others ..1,320,081 1,155,102 1,059,977 represent the vessels at the Canal. Total. .8,380,879 7,019,940 i 4,042,171 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23

PAGE 24

H I PPI IG As IN)USTIUALIZED nations exhaust TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING of big tankers some months ago, nearby raw materials and go farther VESSELS IN M,\IARCJ1 "Petroleum Week" magazine said: afield for new supplies, the world's _, "A comparison of the operating costs, shipping firms are turning to larger and 12661 profits, and losses of a war-built, larger ships to maintain economically Colercial 978 937 16,600-ton T2 and a 45,000 tonner sound transportation costs despite the U.S. (:;vernet 15 18 underscores the edge held by the bigger greater distances and volumes involved. 993 955 ship over the smaller. ... The ever increasing number of super"The reason: as tanker size increases, ships in the world's maritime fleet has TOlLS costs increase at a rate proportionately raised considerable speculation about Coiiercial -,636,567 S4,728,432 less than the increase in size and earning the future of the Panama Canal, the '.S. Iovernnit 55,041 103,170 power of the ship. locks of which are too small to permit Tot '4,69 160 84,83 1,602 "Operating at the U.S. Maritime the largest of such ships to transits. Commission rate of $17.05 a ton, the Many of the medium-sized superships CARGO (long toNs) supertanker would show a profit (for -those in the 45,000-ton class-can go C(oX 1erijL_ 5,609JiW 5.676.560 a round trip between the Persian Gulf through the Isthmian waterway, but are U.S. Gvernmnt 26,151 104 023 and Los Angeles) of $457,970, while causing problems such as described Total 5.635.820 5780,583 the T2 would make barely a quarter on page 2. of that." (The magazine points out that On routes where ships are not limited Icues tolns oi a! vesses, ocea -in and smal. the more common rate of 60 percent in size by either the Panama or Suez of the U.S. Maritime Commission rate Canals, some truly mammoth vessels are would leave the supertanker with a being built and used. At least two profit of 94 cents per ton, while the T2 100,000-ton tankers, the Universe is shown by the fact that a record would lose $2.14 per ton.) Apollo and Universe Daphne, are in 1,203,000 tons of such cargo moved The trend toward ships far larger service at present and it has been through the waterway during March, than the T2's, which were the backbone announced that two 130,000-ton tankers setting a new 1-month record. Ore of oil movement by the United States are to be built in Japan. None of these movements are slightly down at the during World War II, is expected ships can transit the Canal. moment, but are expected to go to new to continue in the years ahead, thus The main reason behind construeheights as the current U.S. recession bringing ever nearer the day when a tion of such mammoth tankers is the is overcome, larger Isthmian waterway will be neceseconomy which can be achieved with In an article on the economics sary to enable the world's superships to them. The Idemitsu Kosan Kaisha Co. involved in construction and operation move cargo steadily and economically. of Japan, which announced plans for the 130,000-ton ships, said they will cut transport costs by 30 percent, compared with tankers of 45,000 tons. The two Japanese ships are to carry crude oil from the Persian Gulf to OCEAN-GOING TRANSITS Japan to feed that country's booming THROUGH PANAMA CANAL industrial growth. 1000 Construction of ships in the 45,000-ton 1961 N class, which are barely able to squeeze % -U through the Canal, has skyrocketed 900 M during recent years and an increasing E number transit the Canal each year. R Just 5 years ago, during fiscal year 1956, 0 ships with beams of 80 feet or more F were transiting the waterway at an 7 700 T average rate of less than 1 every 2 days. R During the first 9 months of this fiscal '" A (AVERAGE 1951-1955) 600 N year, transits by such ships have averaged just under 11/2 per day, or triple the rate of 5 years ago. T Major use of the superships is to transport oil and metallic ores, with an occasional cargo of grain. The ore JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN ships and tankers may soon be joined MONTHS by 40,000-ton ships hauling coal to Japan through the Canal, according to shipping trade reports. The increasing flox of petroleum and petroleum products through the Canal 24 MAY 5, 1961