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Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00217
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Creation Date: June 1957
Publication Date: 1961
Frequency: semiannual
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00184
System ID: UF00097366:00217
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Full Text

`rr r I-

_ _


Mo. 9
. 7, 1961

CulcO ides





ss Officer
ons Editor

ARTER, Governor-President

W. A. CP
JoaN D. Mcl


ELHENY, Lieutenant Governor mam. Vm m LI V JOSEPH CONNOR, Publicatil
WILL AREY Oflicial Panama Canal Company Publication Editorial Assistant
Canal Information Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. EUNICE RICHARD and Tol
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone WILLUAM BURNS, Offcial I
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stotre..snd Thr Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1t a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Boxt M, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Editorial offices are located in the: Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C. Z.

In This Is~sue
Miss SUSAN BARRETT is not aSleep, despite the fact
that she has her eyes closed. Neither is she ~in any
pain. Like many persons, she just didn't want to
Swatch while Mrs. Dorothy
IrHadstate, nurse in charge of
the Gorgas Hospital Blood
/ Bank, inserted the needle
t-ouenwhic lher11f-ifvin
i! into the bottle below her arm.
Miss Barrett was- one of
three young women who re-
cently visited the Gorgas
Blood Bank to make donations
in full view of the Canal or-
ganization photographer, who
made a complete photographic record of their visit
to show that making a blood donation is no ordeal or
anything approaching it. For an account of the girls'
visit and the uses to which blood is put at Zone
Hospitals, see the article starting in page 11.
THE THREE GIRLS who visited the Gorgas Blood
Bank were not the only persons going visiting last
month. Two young men and a young lady from
David also were doing some visiting. They came to
the Zone and spent several weeks studying various
communities in order to write reports which will
be part of their scholastic training.. Some of their
experiences are recorded on pages 14 and 15.


ie P ints frPrgpqsisgh .
Toward Banishing the Blighters .
He PioneeredeWith D s action .
The Story of a Barber ...
Saving Lives Can Be Easy .
Search for Better Understanding
Blast Downs Plant ....
A Trip Down Memory Lane .
Plaudits for Safety ....
Civil Defense Alert.....
Anniversaries .....
Promotions and Tran'sfers .
Carial History .....
Retirements ......
Health Insurance for 1More Retirees
Souvenirs From Cardenas ..
Shipping .......

. .

. .10
. .11
. .14
. .15
. .16
. .18
. .19
. .20
. 21
. 22
. .22
. 23
. .23
. 24

APRms 7, 1961


(Sand r es: to You)

FOR THE COVER PICTURE 011 thiS IlOnth's' issue of THE HEli.LI\\'
we turned to a microscope for an enlarged view of three midges
of the genus Culicoides, which are known on ~the Isthmnus as sand-
flies, in Alaska as mnooseflies, and among at least some of the
Spanish-speaking peoples of Central arid South America as jejenes.
But, by whatever name they are known, they are recognized as
pests wherever they e~xist.
Fortunately, the local sandflies are only about a thirty-second of
an inch long in real life and nowhere near the size in which we
picture them, with the aid of the microscope. (Maybe it would
be better if they were that big, on second thought, because ten
they would be unable to get through the openings in window
screens, as they can do quite easily in their real-life size.)
The Canal organization's expert on these pests, J. L. Hawkins,
who recently came to the Isthmus as entomologist for the Sanita-
tion Division, made a scholarly study of the Culicoides in connec-
tion with earning his master's degree. Here are some of the things
he has to say about them:
"Sandflies are not a problem restricted to Central America.
Approximately 600 species are known to science, some of which
occur in pest proportions in areas as widely separated and climat-
ically diverse as Alaska, England, Scotland, Western Europe,
Australia, Japan., China, the Pacific Islands, the ;Mediterranean
Africa, and throughout the Americas.
"The tourist business is greatly affected by sandflies because
of their prevalence at beach and mountain resorts in many areas
of the United States.

"The most pestiferous American species, is. Culicoides furens,
which occurs in coastal mangrove and pickleweed swamps rorn
Massachusetts to Brazil, being particularly troublesome from the
Carolinas south along the- Atlantic, Guilf, and Caribbean coasts,
and along the Pacific coast rmMexio~ to _cua or. -
Much to their discomfort, residents of the Isthmus have been
very much aware of these pests for years and now t le Can l
organization is making an effort to "throw the rascals out," as
described on pages 6 and 7.

Nine Points

For Progress

Program started a year ago
moving toward full imple-
mentation, with most points
fulfilled or work started.

Another section is added as waterline moves toward completion.
A YEAR AGo this month, President
Eisenhower announced a 9-point pro-
gram of benefits for Panama. Today,
five of the points have been fullfiled,
work on three has started, and one
remains to get underway.
Still awaiting a start is construction
of 500 houses in Panama for sale to
Panamanians- employed in the Canal
Zone but living in Panama. Plans for
the construction of these homes were
announced by Panama Finance Minister
,y --, Gilberto Arias last month during a press
conference held by Panama President
Roberto F. Chiari.
The 500 houses are to be built at Villa
,Ciceres, near the suburb of Los Angeles,
according to the announcement by the
$(HA Finance Minister. Arrangements for
a 11 '~financing the project now are nearing
.cow completiontio, officials report.
.One of the three points on which
work has started but is not yet com-
.pleted moved toward fulfillment during
.March, with partial completion of the
30-inch water main from Miraflores fil-
tration plant to the Los Rios pumpmng
station. Approxiately half of the line,
which wNill be 11,000 feet long when
completed, wlas put into service about
mid-Mlarch and the other half will be
A backhoe is loaded for removal to another section of the half-completed waterline project. put into service before July 1.


Purpose of the line, which will cost
$515,960, is to provide additional water
to meet the increasing needs of expand-
ing suburbs in Panama City. The com-
pletetd line will boost the amount of
water available to Panama City from the
Zone to 22.4 million gallons per day.
The two remaining points on which
wnork has not been completed provide
for the construction .of approximately
500 modern housing units to replace
.substandard rental housing units for
Panamanians who live and work in the
Canal Zone and a continuing review of
security positions in all U.S. agencies
in the Zone, with a view to placing more
Panamanian citizens in skilled and
supervisory positions.
On the first of these two points, 12
of the promised 500 housing units have
been completed and plans have been
developed for building the remaining
488 units in a 5-year budgeted program.
On the review of security positions, the
Company-Government has completed
one such review, removing the security
designation from a number of positions,
and has started a second review,
The Eive points which have been ful-
filled and the action taken in regard to
them are as follows:
1. A 10 percent increase in wage
rate schedules of unskilled and semi-
skilled employees was granted on
May 1, 1960.
2. The Panama Canal Company's
apprentice! program was expanded to

Clarence George, Jr.,
one of the
apprentices appointed
l ast year, was
such an apt
student that he has
been promoted from
apprentice carpenter
,to apprentice
jomner, a much 4lkall
more skilled job.

provide an opportunity for at least 25
Panamanians each year to begin
courses leading to qualification as
skilled workmen in various trades,
Last July, 27 Panamanian apprentices
were appointed under this provision
and plans for appointing at least 25
more this year were announced
last month.
3. The rate cagdPanama for
potable water supidfrom fitra-
tion plants operated by the Canal

organization was reduced on July 1.
4. The Company-Government sup-
ported congressional action to increase
the amount of cash relief payments
to former employees who were not
within the Civil Service Retirement
System and an increase of $10 per
month became effective July 1.
5. All teachers in the Latin Amer-
ican schools operated in the Canal
Zone received a 10 percent pay
mecrease on May 1, 1960.

-In May 1960, Maj. Gen. G. E. Edgerton, a member of the Panama
Canal Company's Board of Directors, manned the controls of a
tractor as ground was broken for new non-U.S.-citizen housing in
the Zone. With him, in the picture below, are from left to right,
Board member Robert P. Burroughs, Lt. Gov. John D. McElheny,
and Board member Ralph H. Cake. In January of this year, Maj.
Gen. Edgerton numbered one of the new units, as Gov. W. A. Carter
and former Board Chairman George H. Roderick steadied the ladder.

APRms 7, 1961



Role in


THE CONTINUING strategic importance
of the Panama Canal was emphasized
in two different ways last month by
events on the Isthmus, first in a simu-
lated enemy effort to capture the water-
way and second in the transit of a U.S.
nuc~lear-powered submarine.
The first event was, of course, Opera-
tion Solidarity, in which "enemy forces"
invaded Panama by air after diver-
sionary attacks had been made by sea.
The invasion was repulsed by com-
bined forces of the Organization of
American States, members of which
parachuted into the Rio Hato area to
open the maneuvers in a dramatic aerial
The nuclear-powered submarine
which made her way through the Canal
a few days after the OAS forces had
preserved the Isthmian waterway from
"capture" was the U.S.S. Theodore
Roosevelt, fourth Polaris-firing nuclear-
powered submarine to be completed
by the United States.
During a stopover at Rodman Naval

The Polaris-firing, nuclear-powered U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt enters Pedro Miguel Locks.

Station the submarine was visited by
Panama President Roberto F. Chiari
and a group of other Panamanian offi-
cials, as well as top U.S. officials in
Panama and the Zone.
President Chiari's visit aboard the
submarine, which included a 4-hour
trip and a 60-foot submersion in the Bay
of Panama, marked the ~first time that
the chief executive of any nation has
visited one of the Polaris-firing sub-
marines, Navy officials reported. John F.
Kennedy has visited one of the subma-

rines, but he did so as Senator and
not in his present position as President
of the United States.
The submarine's transit of the Canal
on its way to join Atlantic naval forces
pointed up the military importance of
the waterway in permitting rapid move-
ment of military craft between the two
major oceans, while Operation Solidar-
ity emphasized the necessity for keeping
the Canal in friendly hands through the
Joint efforts of the free nations of the
Western Hemisphere.

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~..r.";~?~ :IPL-'Irlrr ;~~*i~~C~;~r :II- :hr~r:4b .\i.
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-.;-r.. rdT*.
,~,z .r ~.~I ~
1~ ;- .,E

Airplanes massed at Albrook Air Force Base were visible and audible reminders to Pacific-side residents of the Rio Hato maneuvers.


Pastor Chavez, helper in Sanitation Division laboratory at Coco
Solo Hospital, catches a sandfly from his arm for laboratory study.

THE CANAL ZONE Health Bureau
has turned the determined glare of scien-
tific study toward one of th~e few insect
pests still thriving in the Canal Zone,
with the hope of finding a chink in the
pest's life cycle through which a control
program can operate.
For approximately 3 years, the Sani-
tation Division of the Health Bureau,
has been studying the lives and loves of
the sandfly, which plagues a number of
Zone commuites, particularly those on
'the Atlantic side but including Diablo,
Los Rios, and Fort Robbe on the
Pacific side.
So far, Sanitation Division officials
admit, they have not found an Achilles'
heel through which the pests can be
effectively and economically attacked
with lasting success. But the scientific
studies are continuing, with a youthful
entomologist, who wrote the thesis for

his master's degree on Culicoides, the
correct name of the biting pests, in
charge of the effort.
~If J. L. Hawkilis, the entomologist
who last January succeeded Dr. S. G.
Breeland, succeeds in finding an eco-
nomically feasible method for control-
ling the pests he will gain scientific fame
throughout thie coastal regions of the
entire Western Hemisphere, most of
which is infested with one or more of
the hundreds of species of sandflies.
Mr. Hawkins, who makes his head-
quarters in a special Sanitation Divi-
sion laboratory at Coco Solo Hosia,
says several sandfly control metos
are known, but all of them are im_
practical or too expensive for general
application here.
One of these methods was applied
about 8 years ago on the Pacific s~ide to
eliminate -several hundred acres of tidal

swamp in which sandfly larvae devel-
oped into adults. This successful pro-
gram involved installation of a tide gate
in a relatively narrow entrance through
which salt water entered the Farfan
swamps on the west side of the Canal.
Elimination of the salt water from the
swamps spelled doom for the biting
sandflies breeding there, 99 percent of
which require some salt water for
their development.
John P. Smith, Jr., Chief of the Sani-
tation Division, says there is one other
area in the Zone-again on the Pacific
side--where sandfly propagation might
be halted by such a tidegate installation,
but it is relatively small in area when
compared with the 3,000 acres of
swampland on the Atlantic side which
cannot be controlled in such a manner
because of the prohibitive cost which
would be involved.
Two years ago, Health Bureau offi-
cials had high hopes for controlling the
development of sandflies in the vast
tidal swamps of the Atlantic side
through aerial application of pelletized
dieldrin, a soil poison which--it wyas
hoped-would destroy the larvae before
they could become adults.
The first application of dieldrin
brought a marked reduction of breeding
in the treated areas for about 8 months
and a second application in February
1960 brought some reduction but not
as marked as the first application. A
third application of dieldrin in Decem-
ber was not nearly so effective, however,
and indications are that the sandflies are
becoming resistant to the material.

J. L. Hawhins, entomologist, and Luis Palma, examine specimens under microscope.

APRmL 7, 1961l

Tlowza rd


The Blighters

Zone Health Bureau is making
a determined effort to find the
Achilles' heel of sandflies.

After the ~first highly successful ap-
plication of dieldrin in April 1959 and
while sandfly development still was at
a low ebb in the treated swampland,
an unexpected thing happened: Atlan-
tic-side residents reported massive num-
bers of the blood-sucking insects again
were annoying them.
Investigation indicated that the sand-
flies involved in these attacks were orig-
inating about 3 miles from the homes in
which their -victims lived, although
Previous scientific studies had indicated
the insects did not travel that far from
their place of development.
By~ correlating information about
widdirection, velocity, and duration
with sandfly catches in directional traps
it was tentatively concluded that dry
season winds were carrying the mnsects
over great distances, thus adding to the
area in which breeding must be con-
trolled if the~ pests are to be elimiated
from the Zone.
Two major potential methods which
might be used to control the pests are
being studied at the present time by
both Mr. Smith and Mr. Hawkins. One
is the use of some kind of poison other
than dieldrin, and the othe9 is filling the
swamps to a point above tide level and
then running ditches through them to
let the rainfall escape to the ocean. The
latter method, like the installation of
permanent dikes, would be almost pro-
hibitively expensive because of the vast
areas involved.
The two men also are toying with a
potentially naturalistic control device
discovered by Dr. Breeland during the
2 years he spent studying the sandfly's
habits for the Canal organization. In
taking soil samples from. the swamps to
obtain sandfly larvae counts and other
information about the life-cycle of the
insects, Dr. Breeland said he never
found any larvae in areas where a certain
kind of fern grows.
"Although this was a casual observa-
tion, we're going to investigate it some
more," Mr. Smith says. "It is possible,
just possible, that something about those
ferns destroys the pests by a natural pro-
cess. Just think, if that is the case, we
might be able to eliminate the sand-
flies merely by seeding all the swamps
to those ferns. It's an intriguing idea-
even if it doesn't pan out," he concludes.
Individuals who have endured the
.painful bites of numerous sandflies don't
care particularly if ferns, poisons, dikes,
filling, -or some other device is used to
control the pests, but they do hope that
a solution can be found and the quicker
the better. Sanitation Division officials,
meanwhile, promise to continue the
search for a solution until one is found
or all hope for one is lost. It is impossible
to ask for more.

The dotted
areas on this
map are the
breeding areas
of sandflies
which infest
communities .

Sanitation Division Chief John P, Smith, Jr., preparing to inspect a trap used to measure
the rate at which sandfly pitpae reach maturity in an Atlantic-side mangrove swamp.


Munson Army Hospital at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., which was dedicated last month to memory of Mrs. Carter's father, General Munson.

He Pioneered WTith Distinction

The father of Mrs. W. A. Garter ingproved military
footwear, fought tropical disease mn the Philippines,
founded the Medical Field Services, and paced
~i~ ""~9"""""e~t~.~.ducks for the benefit of hunters.

recounted incidents of life in the Canal
Zone, with never an inkling that one
day in the future she would be an Isth-
mian resident. Later, on two Canal tran-
sits with her father, the .future Mrs.
Carter had brief glimpses of the Canal
Zone but didn't get a really good look at
Panama until she arrived last July, on
Governor Carter's assignment here.
Like General Gorgas, General Munson
was a pioneer in sanitation, hygiene,
and preventive medicine.
General Munson began his distin-
guished career as a professor of hygiene
at the Army Medical School in Wash-
ington, D.C. From there he went on
to serve with distinction on General
Shafter's staff and as Assistant to the
Surgeon General of the U.S. Army on
two separate assignments, first in 1898-
1899 and later in 1915-1917. In the
latter assignment he was in charge of
the training of all Medical Departmnent
General Munson served with distine-
tion in four different assignments in the
Philippine Islands, first as Assistant to
the Chief Surgeon of the Philippines,
then as Acting Commissioner of Public
Health, and two different tours as ad-
visor to the Philippine Government on
hygiene and sanitation.
In 1917 he was assigned to the Ger4-
eral Staff in Washington, D.C., as: Chief
of the Morale Branch and the following

IN THE EARLY 1900's, while William
Crawford Gorgas was devoting himself
to ridding the Canal Zone of yellow
fever and malaria, halfway across the
world almost parallel work was being
done in the Philippines by a young
Medical Corps offcer, Edward Lyman
Munson, father cof Mrs. W. A. Carter,
First Lady of the Canal Zone.
Both Gorgas and Munson made U.S.
Army Medical Corps history as out-
standing officers--both attained the rank
of general-and served with distinction
in th~e field of preventive medicine.
Gorgas Hospital in the Canal Zone
stands as a memorial to General Gorgas.
At Fort Leavenworth, Kans., last
week, $3 million, ultramodern, fully aii-
conditioned Munson Army Hospital
was dedicated in memory of General
Munson, founder of the Medical Field
Services and Correspondence School at
Fort Leavenwiorth, author of five books
which were accepted as texts by the
War Department, inventor of the
famous Munson shoe last, which has
stood the test of wars and is still in use
by the U.S. Army, and inventor of the
Munson medical tent, which is in use
by thc~~ieArmy Mediaerie in support
The paths of General Munson and
General Gorgas once met in Washing-
ton and Mrs. Carter, then a small girl,
listened with interest as General Gorgas

Gen. Edward L. Munson.

APRmo 7, 1961

year served as the Commariding Gen-
eral of Camp Greenleaf, Chicamauga
Park, Ga. In 1923, General Munson was
placed in charge of the Medical Services
of the U.S. Relief Mission sent to the
earthquake area in Japan and received
an oak leaf cluster to the Distinguished
Service Medal for his work in establish-
ing hospitals in Yokohama and Tokyo.
General Munson's invention of the
famous Munson last not only has stood
the test of military duty but is used
today in men's civilian footwear, in
nurses' shoes, and in orthopedic shoes.
The Munson last's principle is that it
conforms as closely as possible to the
shape of the average normal foot, and
its invention marked a revolution in
men's footwear.
Mrs. Carter recalls that it was prior
to World War I when her father began
his study of men's footwear, because the
foot soldier up to that time was a most
uncomfortable soldier. Men at that time
wore shoes with very pointed toes, as
pointed as any women's fashion de-
signer today has ever dreamed up, and
whenever the men marched a rash of
foot troubles followed
General Munson's invention of the
last that bears his name made military
shoes comfortable but it had no effect
on civilian shoes until World W~ar I
when civilians became soldiers. After
the war, the soldiers returning to ci-
vilian life refused to go back to the un-
comfortable pointed-toe shoes, and
civilian shoe manufacturers adopted the
Munson last.
A man of diversified interests, General
Munson was awarded the Distinguished
Service Medal for developing the system
of field training for officers and enlisted
men of the Med-ical Department, direct.
ing the organization and administration
of the Medical Officers' Training Camps,
and organizing and administering the
Morale Branch of the General Staff. The
British Order of the Bath was presented
him by Edward, Prince of Wales, in
recognlition by the British of his Morale
Branch work-
General Munson was a fine horseman,
a great hunter andfisherman, who shared
his knowledge and experiences with
Others through articles he wrote for
sports magazines.
Just as he was one of the first ever
to make a study of control of diabetes
by diet, which he did when he wrote a
thesis on diabetes for his master's
degree in 1893 at Yale, he was the first
person to pace the speed of the flight
of ducks for the benefit of duck hunters.
"He chartered a plane to pace the
ducks," Mrs. Carter smilingly recalls.
General Munson was retired from the
military service December 31, 1932 and
died July 7, 1947.

Governor Carter inspects four of the first coins ever struck in Panama, which were presented
to him by coin club members, Capt. Frank V. Kerley, Rabbi Nathan Witkin, and EarlO. Dailey.

C018 Of IVystery in 019w

'LColus or YESTERYEAR"~ will be on
display in the Canal Zone during Na-
tional Coin. Week from April 23 to
April 30. The display will feature early
Spanish coins and coins of Panama,
mecluding one mystery gold piece.

The mystery coin bears the lettering
"Panama Gold; One token; 1912." Pan-
ama Canal Pilot Frank V. Kerley, Pres-
ident of the Isthmzian Numismatic
Society, received it from a New York
collector of rare gold coins.
The New York collector was unable
to offer any past history of the coin. Nor
was the mystery cleared up by more
than 100 queries mailed to experts in
the United States, Germany, Spain,
.France, England, and New Zealand.
Answers ranged from "no record" to a
possibility that the coin came from the
collection of King Victor Emmanuel of
The Italian K~ing made a specialty of
gold coins that were of proof surface,
and scarce as a medium of exchange.
Shortly after World War II his collection
of rare coins was sold.
National Coin Week, April 23-30, was
formally proclaimed in the Canal Zone
by Gov. W. A. Carter, wrho was pre-
sented by the Isthmian coin club with
a plastic holder which contains a set
of the first coins ever struck in Panama.
Five separate showings of the coins
of yesteryear are planned by the Isth-
mian Numismatic Society during Na-
tional Coin Week. The opening display
will be at the Civil Affairs Building on
Monday, Aprdl 24. The coin exhibition
will move to the Jewish Welfare Board
On April 25; to the Balboa Clubhouse
on April 26; the Fort Gulick Army Edu-
cation Center on April 27; and to
the' Tivoli Guest House on Aqpril 28
and 29. Each exhibit will be open
from. 3 to 10 p~m.

Two sides of mystery gold piece.


Gilberto Moya at barber chair in Balboa.
ECUADO1UAN-BORN Gilberto Moya,
dean of Canal Zone barbers, originally
never had given a thought to living and
working on the Isthmus. When he ar.
rived, some 41 years ago, he was en
route from South America to Mexico
and planned to pause but briefly. He's
remained for a lifetime.
Of Spanish descent, Mr. Moya was
born in Guayaquil, Ecuador, grew up in
Chile, and was schooled in the barbering
trade in Brazil. As a youth he was a
well-traveled barber, who carried the
tools of his trade in his briefcase. When
fancy moved him, he was a ship's barber,
When life ashore beckoned, he stopped
in some colorful Latin American port.
Then came the prospect of working in
Mexico, and the fateful stop at the
Tivoli Guest House.
The manager of the Tivoli's barber-
shop at that time was ready to retire from
active work and saw the hand of fate in
Mr. Moya's arrival. He emphasized all
the good points of life mn the Canal Zone
and underscored the uncertainties of a
future in the land of Pancho Villa. Mr.
M~oya was talked mnto taking over the
barbershop for a few months.
Mexico was shelved, but two more
times faraway lands beckoned. An offer
came to manage a modern barbershop
in Paris. However, Mr. Moya had al-
ready met his future wife in Panama and
the offer was declined. In more recent
years, Miami offered an opportunity, but
this time Mr. Moya's many friends in
Panama and the Canal Zone prevailed
upon him to remain here.

Spanish school. He told the Tivoli man-
ag~er what had happened and, on advice
of the latter, recounted the matter to
the Balboa police. All unexpectedly he
gained news fame when records showed
the man was a pseudo-count wanted as
a Nazi spy, having escaped from Brazil.
The Moya family lived on Portobello
Street in Ancon for 29 years. Later they
lived in house 456, Ancon, remaining
there until recently, when the building
was scheduled to be demolished. Two
daughters were born here, went to
schools in the Canal Zone, grew up and
now have, married.
Barber Moya's customers don't forget
him when they leave the Isthmus, as
attested by the many letters, postcards,
and greetings that come to him not only
at holiday time but throughout the year.
Former residents, on returning to the
Isthmus even for the briefest visit, in-
clude as part of the agenda a visit to
Mr. Moya at the barbershop for a
haircut and conversation concerning
Isthmian activities,
There are two entrances to Mr. Moya's
barbershop. One is directly off the street,
up a few steps and through a door near
the Balboa Theater. The other entrance
is through the Balboa Service Center.
Either way brings the customer into an
international atmosphere where, if he
or she has an advance appointment, a
haircut by Mr. Moya is accompanied
by a glimpse into a courtlier age.
He is as much at home discussing pre-
Columbian art as he is in talking of
exotic perfumes, and newcomers find
him a mine of information about the
Canal Zone, Panama, and Latin America.

Governors, congressmen, senators,
and Joe Zonian have been seated in Mr.
Moya's barber chair at one time or an-
other for cosmopolitan conversation with
a haircut. Nor do men have a monopoly
on enjoyment of his tonsorial talents, for
Mr. Moya also has a feminine -clientele
and children, too, look forward to haircut
day with him.
Of distinguished appearance in his
white coat ~and with his white hair and
bushy brows, Mr, Moya has a flair for
invoking lively interest in any subject. A
discussion w~ith.him in Spanish is puno-
tuated by his precise, clear enunciation
and a dramatic flair.
After 34 years of operating the Tivoli
barbershop, Mr. Moya took over man-
agement of the barbershop at the Balboa
Service Center 7 years ago and today is
taking care of sons and grandsons of
original customers, along with a sizable
number of the original customers who
have remained on the Isthmus.
Barbershops seldom are theaters for
enactment of historic events, but one of
Mr. Moya s most exciting memories is
of his part in the apprehension of a
German spy.
"It was just before the United States
entered World War II," he recalls,
"when a blond man of martial bearing
came into the Tivoli barbershop, let it
be known he was a count, and asked for
'the works.' At bill-p~aying time, when
informed he owed $2, the enraged cus-
tomerr berated the barber, tossed $1 on
the floor- and stalked out.
The incident greatly upset Mr. Moya,
who is ever a gentleman of the old

APRmo 7, 1961

The Story of a Barber

Wand erer

by Choice


by Chance

Saving Lives CAN Be Easy

Zone hospitals depend on
volunteere donors for fresh
., blood, and fear only one thing--
I~ the possibility that a day will corne
when there isn't enough avail-
I ~able to save a life. You can
I~ help-if you. will.

"LTHIRTY-ONE PINTS of blood for one patient! I was
about to pull my hair out trying to round up donors."
The speaker was Mrs. Dorothy Hadstate, nurse
in charge of the Blood Bank at Gorgas Hospital, and
the person that Gorgas doctors depend on to supply
the l~ife-savring blood their patients need.
~~ The patient Mrs. Hadstate was disc~ussing was a
retired Panama Canal employee. He had been brought
'":';:-.~P ~to the hospital very near death as the result of a
perforated ulcer which was bleeding profusely.
~-P~i;- s"That was one of our worst recent cases," Mrs.
Hadstate said, "but we frequently have to supply a
4 --- lot of blood in a hurry to save a life."
There was the Spanish businessman from Madrid
wreck near Arraijan and required nine pints of blood.
"I never expected to see him leave here, but he did,"
|Mrs. Hadstate says.
It also was an automobile accident which brought
thewife of a prominent local businesman tothehos-
;~; ,,pital, where five pints of blood were administered in
II -o~r~l" ia successful effort to save her life.
Then there was the sailor who suffered severe burns
aboard a merchant ship approaching the Canal. Treat-
~~~"~'c~i:ment of the burns and a stomach ulcer which per-
forated after he was admitted to the hospital required
1.. 19 pints of blood. He, too, recovered and returned
i;to his ship.
....I~~The ill, the badly injured, those requiring surgery,
r:~:and others entering Gorgas and Coco Solo Hospitals
frequently need blood to aid their recovery and
~~i;E~both hospitals maintain two types of blood supply
t;;~~for their benefit: a fresh supply of stored blood
\ for additional needs.
.;i Mrs. Hadstate and her boss, Dr. Harold Mon-
b~~ dragon, Laboratory Chief at Gorgas, admit that a
i case requiring 31 pints of blood, or even 19 pints,
is not an everyday occurrence at the hospital. But
when such cases do occur, they point out, if is
~ri necessary to call on some of the volunteers registered
With the Blood Bank and there is very little time to
hunt up extra donors not on the list.
The same situation exists at Coco Solo Hospital,
where Mrs. Susan Smith and her fellow medical tech-
nician, Miss Jean Chassaignac, and their boss, Dr.
William M. Jackson, Laboratory Chief, report that
;~ii~S~~the list of registered donors is not great enough to
,__L_. ____ ___insure that there always will be an adequate su Ivy
of blood available to meet an emergency.
Mrs. Dorothy Hadstate, nurse in charge, on the lookout for blood donors. (See p. 12)

Mrs. Margaret Morris, medical technologist, takes blood
sample from Miss Barrett, while Mrs. Balentine watches.

Mrs. Joan Belden. Fac~ine ca~mera. Miss Susan Barrett,
center, andc Mrs~. Ph Hlii Balentinle Fill out routinle volunteerr
blood donor forms in Gorgas Hoipital Blood Badnk office.

SI~is Balen~tine. let. anid Mliis Barrett as their blood contributions are takeni.

because of the amoun-t sulpphed~t fol
such patients."
Approximately 1,400, points of: bloodt
are used at Gorgas Ho p~ital ach \ear.
or an average of ailmost hfour pints a1
day. The demand at Coca: LSo~l(: is abotli
400 pints per year, or ani ar e agec at
more than 1 pint per da~\. Last lear,
Gorgas finished the war w\ithi 1.'35
pints of blood contribul~tedl andi 1.360l
used, while Coco Solo: rtceitedc~ 511
pints, used 385 and sen.t about br5 to
other hospitals, including somle to
Gorgas and the rema~!~tr~de to :\.maldrjl
Guerrero Hospital in C~olon,! ~ a~ clirritedl
by the donors.
As these figures indlc-atl:-. both hos~-
pitals received slightly miore blood~ than~l
was actually required Juingl the !iir,
but what th~e figures doni' 5 how\l iS thle
amount of effort re~qullred to, plloide
even that tiny margin. No-r do the\ sho~r
the tirnes when the bloo~.d eqIred'"'~ had~c
reached the \ nishiinr p-il n!-tandappea~ls
had to be beam~ned to Zonl-e reszdtents
over Caribbean Folrej Neh-twolk radlio
and television.

prot? idel:d it ma~let perso-nj Irrgistelned for
.the walkingp bloodt banks~" at the twro

m.rnets to, rlCcatcr hI\ calling Ballboa 6355

an appo~inltment to~ \isit the BI-clood Banks;
to hate\ their blood ty ped and~i their
volunteer donor card filledl oult an~d bltd.

Coco Solo officials cite cases similar
to those reported by Gorgas officials.
"We had one woman who was hemor-
rhagiing in the stomach and required 21
pints of blood in a week's time," Mrs.
Smith- said. She also noted a case in
w\hil-h a badly burned boy required 19
pints of blood and 6 units of plasma over
a period of several months while he
recovered from severe burns and under-
went~aseries of siin-g laftinglLoperations.
"If we happen to have several ac-
cidents close together in which blood
is required for treatment, we often are
hlard-plr-swd to find enough donors~l to
keep a', headlt of the: demandd" they re-
PI..rt. "Llhke Goprgas, we would like to
have more pie...plc regisrtened as volun-
teer donollrj that wet a hidl call when an
emergency requires it.
The objective of Blood Bank officials
atI b. lth hosp,~titalls is to establish an ade-
qua1;teI walking.! blood bank" of "blank
chheek" donolc-rs. who will respond to
a neled forl blo:od regardless of who

The local b.~:.spitals can keep fresh
ble.wtl on hand for only 21 days after
it hasc been taken from a donor. There-
fore, they point out, only a lim~ited
supp[\ll can be stockpiled effectively and
sudden emagncies.11:l_ put a strain on the
"Pplli~ which can only be relieved
by \Ioluniteer s who will respond to a
call to donate. Hence, the need for a
"\ralkling blood bank."

The necessity for "blankc check"
donors arises because of the frequent
need to supply blood for a patient who
has no one on whom he or she can call
to replace it, thus replenishing the
hospital's supply.
"We have very little trouble obtaining
blood used for the benefit of anyone
employed by the Gompany-Government
or connected with other agencies in the
Zone," the hospital officials report.
"Fellow employees, friends, and neigh.
bors always seem to provide an ade-
quate supply for those with 'roots'
here," they say.
Difficulty in surpph ing~r blood does
arise, however, when someone with no
close friends, fellow employees, or rela-
tives requires one or more transfusions.
Such cases arise among aged patients,
who may not have friends or acquaint-
ances young enough to serve as donors;
among foreign sailors hospitalized here;
among U.S..-citizen patients brought
here from various parts of Central and
South Amertoca; among patients at
Corozal Hospital and Palo Seco Lepro-
sarium who are transferred to Gorgfas
or Coco Solo; and among others who
have no one they can ask to replace the
blood used for them.
Obs11?ioush, we can't just let these
people die because they can't replace
the blood used in trea~tinglc theml~." hw-
ptlofficials ~say, but mp ie e
fidourselves short of bloodl su~pplies

Miss Cecelia Wensing adjusts the flow of life-sa\ ingS blood.

TEIE P.N4NA.4 CANAL RE\~ll\l 13

APRnu.'", 1961

M~rs. Balentine andi Miwe Barrett iip refreshmlents after donat~ing blood. while
Dr. Mlondragon. Laborator! Chief. explains Blood Bankl record on, wall.

Antonio Cazorla examinles the activities bulletin board at Balboa
High School as Assistant Principal David A. Spier, Jr., explains it.

attend all are of interest -to him.
Like young Tapia, senior Cazorla was
introduced to community leaders and
school officials, who assisted him in the
pursuit of his studies, which he feels
have given him a good understanding
of the community.
The sole girl in the group, Rosemary
Hirzel, rapidly is filling the pages of her
notebook with a mass of information
about Cristobal and its surroundings,
people, and institutions. With Gerald
R. Fruth, supervisory accounting assist-
ant in the Terminals Division, serving
as her guide, she has taken a comprehen-
sive tour of Cristobal, Mount Hope,
Rainbow City, Coco Solo, Catun, and
Atlantic-side military reservations.
Although they are not usual areas
of feminine interest, she visited the
Atlantic-side dock area, oil plant, tank
farm, Mindi explosives dock, and, of
course, Gatun Locks. The Olympic Pool
at Rainbow City evoked a comment by
her that residents of the community are
very fortunate to have such a facility.
The visiting David students are form-
ing warm friendships on both sides of
the Isthmus, both inside and outside
the Zone. At, the Cristobal Junior-Senior
High School, at Balboa High School,
and at B3alboa Junior High School they
have met and talked with Canal Zone
boys and girls and have found, they say.
that they share many common interests
and ambitions.
All three agree that in their visit to
the Zone they are learning more every
day of the close ties that unite Panama
and the United States, as t'he two nations
continue the cooperation which made
the Panama Canal a reality.

14 APRms 7, 1961

and San Cristobal de las Casas in Mexico
are far from each other, and far from
the Isthmus of Panama and the Canal
Zone communities of Cristobal, Paraiso,
and Balboa. But all six communities
have one thing in common. Each is the
site of an "anthropological" study.
Each of the villages in Peru, Ecuador,
and Mexico is the site of an anthro-
pological "field station" maintained by
one of three North American univer-
sities: Columbia, Cornell, and Harvard.
The Canal Zone communities are
being studied by three students of the
Colegio Firlix Olivares C. of David.
These Panamanian students, like their
North American counterparts in Peru,
Ecuador, and Mexico, will submit
written reports of their findings.
The aims of the programs are similar:
"To yield a kind of cross-cultural under-
standing which cannot be obtained
by the casual tourist and that is not
available in books."
The three students from David who
have been studying the Canal Zone
communities are Rosemary Hirzel,
whose thesis will be based on Cristobal;
Josi Aristides Tapia, whose sphere of
interest is Paraiso, and Antonio Cazorla,
who is studying Balboa. Like the United
States students in South America and
Mexico, the Panamanian students are
Spending their February to May school
vacation on their studies, with the David
students concentratingmronte
sociological than the anthrop n;oleogical.
Until they arrived in the Canal Zone,
the David students had some factual
but little firsthand knowledge of the
area. They were surprised at the com-

plete lack of restraints on entering and
leaving the Zone-a freedom, they
feel, that reflects a genuine friendship
and understanding between the two
governments and peoples.
They also have been surprised-pleas-
antly-to hear Spanish spoken by North
Americans in the Canal Zone. And they
were surprised even more that busy
Zone officials took time to arrange con-
ducted tours of Panama Canal facilities
to aid them with their studies.
Young senior Tapia, with Paraiso as
his subject, was introduced to Ellis Faw-
cett, Principal of the Paraiso High
School, who in turn introduced him to
other school and community officials
who could assist him in his efforts to
learn all he can about the community.
"Paraiso is like a city," commented
the visitor from David. "A beautiful city,
but with a great lack," he added. The
lack, he feels, is of social clubs. And he
felt a similar lack exists in Balboa, which
he also studied. Young Tapia said he
missed the dance groups which are so
popular in his province, where, he said,
there also is more comradeship.
W~ith a desire to go into the diplo-
matic service, senior Tapia's range of
interests in his Paraiso study cover the
full scope of the community's life, from
the kind of work done by the residents
to climate and rainfall during the
past year.
Antonio Cazorla, who has some speak-
ing, reading, and wrriting knowledge of
English, is taking a scholarly anmd in-
quiring look at Balboa. The geography
and history of the community, the work
and social life of the people, the work
they do and the schools their children

Search for Better


David students studying Zone
communities find friendship,
cooperation, and Spanish-
speaking North Americans.

Dust spews from bottom of plant as demolition charge explodes.

Miss Rosemary Hirzel, seated in chair, talks with Gustavo Velarde,
Governor of Colon Province, as B. I. Everson, Director of Trans-
portation and Terminals Bureau, and Mrs. Ana de DeObaldia, Colon
resident with whom Miss Hirzel lived during her visit here, look on.

Plant virtually is enveloped by dust as it crashes into ground.

Blast Downs Plant
Historic Garnboa screening
plant heads for scrap heap.
THE GAMBOA gravel screening plant, which had not been
used for several years, headed back toward the steel mills last
month, when it was torn down for scrapping. The plant and
its predecessors in the production of sand and gravel at Gamboa
represent an activity dating back to construction days. But
all that history reached the cutoff point when a demolition
crew blasted the plant's supporting framework to bring the
plant toppling to earth.
Some gravel aggregate for use in the construction of the
$20 million high-level bridge across the Pacific end of the
Canal still is being obtained at Gamboa, but the screening is
being performed by a temporary plant especially installed
for that purpose by the bridge contractor.

Jose Tapia studies an serial photo of Paraiso, the community about
which he will write a paper as part of his training in a David school.


'"The Belgian locomotives .. were found to be remarkably well built."

the Isthmus in No\ e-mbe-r 1958, a number of con-
struction-day employees of the Canal organiza-
tion were on hand for the activities associated
with the observation.
The Isthmian Historical Society called a meet-
ing of the construction-day employees in the

Tivoli Guest House, during which each of those
present was asked to say a few words about his
or her mostt vivid memory."
The memories recounted by those in attend-
ance at the meeting were tape-recorded and later
transcribed. The transcription is on ~file at the
Canal Zone Library. A few of the quotes follow.

Edmund T. Paterson, Mechanical De-
partment shop worker, 1904-1907: "I
came with Col. Frank J. Hecker ..
We spent about two months making a
preliminary survey of .. the French
machinery and equipment and material
.(We experimented) with various
types of old machinery The old
French excavating machines .. were
put into service .. (but) the castings
would break shortly after they were put
into use and it seemed conclusive th~at
those machines were obsolete .. The
Belgian locomotives .. were found
to be remarkably well built and
they were interchangeable ixi their
various parts For locomotives that
were largely hand-built .. they very
greatly impressed our engineers as to
their skilled workmanship and building."
Stephen Latchford, clerk, 1905-1911:
"My most vivid recollection is when, as
a young man of 22, I had just arrived
and decided that I'd like to call on Dr.
Amador, the President of the Republic.
So I went around to his office and after
a few preliminaries they told me that he
was eating his breakfast but when he
got through he'd be glad to see me. So
they took me up to the diplomatic re-
ception room and I waited. I could see
him at the breakfast table dressed in his
bathrobe and his bedroom slippers, and
when he got through he beckoned me to
come in and we had a most enjoyable
conference lasting about an hour. He
was most gracious in every possible way
.. I've always had a most pleasant
recollection of that visit."

Charles F. Williams, planner and es-
timator in Balboa shops, 1905-1907 and
1912-1939: "W~hen I pulled into Colon
wre could see the old station in Colon.
There was an engine-we had heard lots
about fever, malaria, and yellow fever
and other tropical diseases and of course
it was in our minds--and .. next to
the engine was a car, a coach, baggage
coach, marked with large letters ..
'Funeral Car.' The one behind that was
the Hospital Car. I .. wondered what
that meant, until we started down the
road and we would pick (up) the dead
ones as we went along, and the sick
would go in the H-ospital Car, the dead
in the Funeral Car .. That was reg-
ular equipment on the Panama Rail-
John J. Murray, mechanical super-
visor, 1906-1946: "One of the biggest
jobs Ihad (during the early days) .
was helping put in the Barbacoas Bridge,
in 1908. On Good Friday of 1908 we
put in the first span, on Easter Sunday
we put in the second span, and the fol-
lowing Sunday we put in the third
span .. About 1910 I was transferred
over to the Engineering Division of the
Panama Railroad on various jobs on
steam shovels .. .During the time I
was on the shovels, out on relocation, a
rock rolled down on one of the pitmen
one day and we didn't know how we
were going to get it off I put a
dobie (charge of dynamite) on it and
shot it off and the man came back and
worked later .. (The rock weighed)
several tons. It flattened the man olt

like a board .. It was a rock about
six by six."
Reed E. Hopkins, railroad conductor,
1907-1921: "One of the things was
the hardships that the wives and the
women underwent .. In Gatun. ..
I've seen them walk down to the Com-
missary, which was clear down to the
lower locks, -and wade in the mud over
their shoetops, getting to the Commis-
sary, and then carry their groceries up
the hill. There were no means of trans-
portation. We had a standing
order that any conductor was to cut off
his engine andl pick up a flat car if some-
body got hurt and take him to the hos-
pital. That happened every day.
There was many a blast shot off with no
warning; you would always hear a blast,
then duck under a car or something to
get out of the way of the rocks that were
falling. There weren't many safety
devices in that day."
Morris M. Seeley, surgical nurse,
1907-1942: "Colonel Goethals held
court on Sunday morning. If you had
a complaint you could go before the
Colonel no matter what your status was.
. .. He called me as witness to a couple
of investigations that he was carrying
on. .. The second time he called me
. .. I said, 'Colonel Goethals, I under-
stand this is a private investigation and
I am not compelled to testify if I do not
want to.' He said, "Why, certainly, you
don't have to testify if you don't want
to." I said, 'Well, in this particular case,
I'd like to .. refuse to testify.' He
said, "Mr. Seeley, you are excused." "

APRmo 7, 1961

A Trip Down

Memory Lane

The memories of construction-day
employees of the Canal enterprise
provide an insight into what it
was like in the Zone at that timze.



IFhl -

"We sat there and saw the dike blown up and .then we crossed over into the Pacific waters."

Stuart G. Carkeet, clerk, 1910-1915:
"I have many vivid memories of the
days I spent here, but the one I cherish
most is .. of the trip I made from the
Atlantic side to Gamboa on the day that
the dike was blown. I came up in a
motorboat with several--I guess it was
a semi-offcial party. .. We came as
close to the dike as we were permitted
to come say five, six, seven, eight
hundred feet from the dike. We sat
there and saw the dike blown up and
we remained until the water almost
found a level, and then we crossed over
into the Pacific waters."
E. W. Baldwin, supervisory engineer,
1911-1916: "My most vivid memory, I
believe, is the time when .. I found
a very serious error in the design. ..
They had a return track (at Miraflores
Locks) .. built on fill out of Culebra
Cut. .. That fill came in big lumps
and I knew it was going to weather
down and sink for years. .. I wanted
to put piers up-I even went to the
trouble of drawing up a set of piers
under it. About a week or 10 days
later we got a revised plan. But if you 8
check today, you'll find there's one less
pier in the upper lock under the return
track than is shown on your Canal
drawing-my design was a little different
from theirs." (Mr. Baldwin explained
that part of the return track area had
been poured according to his plan before
the revised plans came through. En-
gmneering and Construction Bureau of-
ficials say there were many on-the-
scene changes made which, as Mr.
Baldwin said, are not shown on the

The Pacific side of the Gambon dike before water was permitted to fil the Canal channel.

Gertrude B. Hoffman, teacher, 1908-
1912: "My most vivid memory is the
premature blast at Bas Obispo. ..
The father of one of my scholars was
able to get into the dipper of a steam
shovel and his steam shovel was
completely covered with broken rocks.
I used that as an illustration of quick
action when I wanted to hurry the
youngsters along."
Col. David R. Wolverton, statistician,
1905-1916: "My most vivid memory of

those days was when Colonel Roosevelt
-that is, President Roose~velt--came to
visit the Canal Zone .. I was at Pa-
raiso .. and when he came by .
we started loading .. cars from the
steamshovels The President was
so pleased that he raised his hand and
opened his mouth, showing all his teeth,
and said, 'Keep up the good work' ~And
that's what we did I left the Canal
. .. in 1916 and since then I have been
doing my own work as a lawyer."




| i~~

Governor's Safety Trophy.

PLAUDITS for improvements in acci-
dent prevention were issued to two
different groups last month by Gov.
W. A. Carter, as the Governor-Presi-
dent's Annual Safety Trophy for 1960
was awarded to the Civil Affairs Bureau
and those in charge of the Gatun Locks
overhaul were congratulated for finish-
ing the job quickly and with one of the
lowest accident records ever established
on an overhaul.
Potentially ser-ious accidents during
the overhaul did not cause serious in-
juries as a result of advance safety
One of those involved in such an ac-
cident was Albert Shore, a machinist,
whose hard hat absorbed a blow of
approximately 900 foot-pounds when
the strip of steel fell on the hat perched
atop it in the picture at lower left. It
takes only 50 foot-pounds to fracture
an unprotected skull.
Another overhaul worker involved in
a potentially serious accident was Robert
M. Merrill, also a machinist, whose left
shoe in the picture at upper left shows
the gash made in it by a 500-pound steel
frame which fell on it. Thanks to the
steel cap in the safety shoe, he escaped
a serious foot injury.
The Safety Trophy, which was pre-
sented to Henry A. Donovan, Director,
on behalf of the employees of the Civil
Affairs Bureau in a formal ceremony in
the Balboa High School Auditorium, is
awarded each year to the bureau show-
ing the most percentage improve-
ment in accident prevention over the
average established by it during the
previous 3 years.


Machinist Robert M. Merrill.

Machinist Albert Shore.

21 2

ArratL 7, 1961






'80 '61 '60 61
232 (21) 13 (266f
4 82 "af 2 41 21)
ocks Overhaul injuries included in total.


control; public participation. in emer-
ge'ncy self-protection actions; mobiliza-
tion of forces; establishment of control
~point areas; and the development of
rescue and rehabilitation .activities in
conformity; vith thie introduction of data
by the Monitors.
Company-Government personnel and
operating units will mobilize in accord-
ance with; their official duty emergency
assignments or their respective disaster
relief-' plan instructions. Personnel as-
signed to rescue services, hospitals, or
specific rendezvous or mobilization
points will do so following the "alert"
signal (All Clear designation) or such
other instructions as they may have re-
ceived or will receive during the exercise.
The Balboa control poirit commander
and staff will supervise the mobilization.
of all his elements at the assembly area
in the Maintenance Division yards. He
will establish radio communication with
the Motor Transportation Division and
the main control centers; the main
control center and the alternate control
center in Cristobal will establish radio
communications on the theory that trans-
Isthmian telephone communications
have: been disrupted.
Refugee stations will be set upi by the
Welfare Service, casualtyr stations will
be set up by Personnel; parking and
marshalling: area will be located by
Motor Trans ortation Division; control

heducarmer; a eon amnrlion 0statai
will be set up by Engineerihg and
Construction Bureau.
The Police and Fire Divisiorns will
completely mobilize for ~this operation
but no off-duty personnel will be called
in. The Fire Divisiori will take dispersal
action during the Increased Readiness
Buildup period.
According to OCDM standards for
the exercise, the Federal Government
will assume, during the afternoon of
Wednesday, April 26,j that a deterio-
rating international situation requires

Isthmus and monitoring personnel have
been trained in the operation of the in-
struments required for these installations.
These fixed monitoring stations will
play an important part in this year's
exercise. The high schools and Canal
Zone Junior College, which have had a
radiological defense monitoring capa-
bility for the past 2 years, also will
participate in the RADEF part of the
This year, for the first time, the Office
of Civil and Defense Mobilization has
planned a two-part alert exercise: a
strategic type alert designated the "In-
creased Readiness Buildup" and, the
"Attack" phase. Also, for the ~first time,
the exercise will be monitored.
Lieutenant Governor McElheny has
appointed John D. Hollen as Chief
Monitor for this exercise. 1Mr. H~ollen
attended a secret briefing at OCDM
Regional Headquarters in Thomasville'
Ga., last month, at which he received
the data on the Canal Zone attack. Mr.
Hollen and his monitoring staff will be
the only ones who will know beforehand
what the attack pattern will be and they
will introduce prepared problem situa-
tions for solution by those participating
in the exercise.
The public will not participate inpat
one, the Increased Readiness Buildup,
which is for action at command level and
involves key personnel only. However,
in the Attack phas-, the general public
will participate, as well as all echelons
of thn Company-Government Rescue
and Operation forces.
The local training exercise will in-
clude: the sounding of the public action
warning signals; imposition of traffic

FOR THE FIRST time in 2 years, a full-
dress mobilization of the Company-
Government Civil Defense forces will
take place when the Canal Zone joins
with the 50 States participating in the
1961 Operation Alert the end of this
month. The national emergency pre-
paredness training exercise will be held
this year on the morning of April 28.
The exercise will include both~ opera-
tions forces and emergency civil defense
forces, as well as the members of the
Volunteer Corps.
The armed forces also will participate
to the extent decided upon by the in-
dividual components of the Caribbean
Command. The military will give active
support to the civil defense forces in
the development of the problem and
wil cooperate at command level.
During the past few weeks, approxi-
mately 600 official duty assignment
cards have been sent out to the members
of the Com any-Government emner-
gency civil dense forces. These people
include first aid workers, hospital attend-
ants and aides, litterbearers, decontami-
nation workers, radiological defense
personnel, and communications oper-
ators. The cards and accompanying in-
structions indicate the holder s official
emergency duty, mobilization area, and
rendezvous point, as well as the proper
action to be taken on the sounding of
the public action warning signals.
Nearly all of these employees have
been trained in their emergency duties
under a program approved by Lt. Gov.
John D. McElheny. In addition, during
the past year, 20 fixed monitoring sta-
tions in the national radiological defense
program have been established on the

Enipoloees of the Comptroller's Office, who recently completed first aid training, will take part in- the 4:oming CiviF Defense- exerchde.


Charles Edwards William Dunn
Navigational Aid Worker Clerk Typist r
Thomas E. Stephen Robert W. Pate ~r
W~inchman Telephone Operator
Manuel Andrade James L. Anderson
Seaman Heavy Laborer

F. P. Quihi6nes
Storekeeping Clerk
Dolores Lara
Railroad Trackman
Joseph ihJulian B. Hall
L c erator Shipfitter
Christopher N. Lewis
Helper Machinist

Henry S. Makibbin, Jr.
File Supervisor
V. D. Cunningham
Statistical Clerk
Ira E. Lascelles
Bindery Worker
John W. Hare
Chief, License Section
George L. White
Detention Guard
Paul H. Reynolds
Fire Sergeant
Wallace F. Russon
Safety Inspector
Earl V. Romigh
Accounting Assistant and
Budget O~fficer
Winfield F. Fearn
Maintenance Machinist
Eric S. Carew
Alvin B. Garnes
Clerk Typist
Vibert Turner
Powerplant Wiper
1Medardo Palomina
Helper Marine Machinist
Osvaldo Arauz
Helper Roofer
R6mulo Pinz6n
Transmission Lines
Cecil G. Callender
Clerk Typist
Vincent Francis
Helper Electrician

Alfonso Headley
Floating Plant Firemnan
William J. Atherley
Richard F. Beach
Ifelper Electrician
Viola D. Edwards
Nursing Assistant
Doris M. Tubar
Medical Aid
Oscar L. Marsh
Nursing Assistant
Cloveor o. Wila e
Iris L. Char ton

John F. Paes
General Engineer
Herbert A. Greene, Jr.
Marion B. Woo
TowingLoooi p
Harry E. Wese
Lock Oeao n
Worker amm.-
Edglon J. Crawford
Helper Lock Operator
Ruben E. Sandoval
Floating Plant Oiler
Alcibiades Romero
A. W. Bramwell
Launch Operator
Sebasti~n Serrano
Oscar L. Ellis
David E. Emery
Floating Plant Oiler
Ruben B. Jordan
Helper Machinist

Horatio Solomon
Leader Seaman
Victor M. Moreno
Heavy Laborer
Vicente C~ceres
Cement Finisher
Ste he A. B 11 l
Apce ntantise
Claudine L. Price
Food Service Sales Checker
Ruth sn

J hes A. Smih
llsM. Grant
Counter Atea

Myrtle Clark
Dryk Cleaning. SaePresser
Window Trimmer
Lucinda M. Alleyne
Feliciano Campbell
Linton B. Ivey
Andr~s A. Monasterio
Meat Cutter
Calliford S. W~atson
Undine M. Reid

Olive E. Hinds
Sales Section Head
Aguedo Ramos
Violet R. Harewood
Heavy Laborer
ROpetia Technician
Gordon F. Burgess
B. Cervinio
Laborer Cleaner
Lillian A. Morris
Utility Worker
Mary M. Long
Cago Cla~imsdClerk
Supervisory Cargo Officer
Vibert G. Rose
Clerk Checker
George L. Ford
Storekeeping Clerk
Fred J. Busch
Road Conductor
S. J. Loupadiere
Antonio Downer
Truck Driver
Trevor H. Taylor
Shipment Clerk
Francisco Paredes
Joel Williams
High Lift Truck Operator
Cleveland H. James
SuPervisory Motor Vehicle
Lester V. Forsgren
Heavy Duty Equipment
Chester J. F. Rhoden
Sign Painter

may continue for an extended period or
be terminated either by a relaxation of
tension or by warning of attack.
The attack pattern, the exact weight,
and the fallout pattern will not be dis-
tributed to participants before the exer-
cise. Pertinent attack information made
available to exercise monitors before the
exercise will be injected into the exercise
by monitors or through pre-positioned
Attack information which will be
injected into the exercise will consist
basically of descriptions of weapons phe-
nomena, and radiological dose-rate read-

ings or attack damage likely to be
observed. From these descriptions par-
ticipants are expected to estimate ap-
p~~sroximate locations and t pes of
brtapproximate yields, radio10gical
conditions, et cetera.
During the course of the alert exer-
cise, there will be no interruption to
essential services even duringtj the alert
period. Canal traf~ wl not be
delayed and emergency vehicles will be
permitted to move.
Further information on this exercise
will be released to the local press by
Philip L. Dade, Civil Defense Chief.

APRms 7, 1961


(On the basis of total Federal Service)

(Continued from page 19)
increased readiness on the part of the
Federal Government and that during
the afternoon of Thursday, April 27, the
situation has worsened to the point that
general war involving nuclear attack on
Ui.S. territory has become such an im-
minent threat that States and other po-
litical subdivisions should be notified of
the situation and increase their readiness.
Consideration will be given to proce-
dures and activities designed to meet
the assumed situation of a threat which

EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between February 10 and
Mareh1 are ow ng listed below With ngade
promotions and job reclassifications are
not listed.
Adrian B. Howell, Office Machine Op-
erator, from Personnel Bureau.
Customs Division
B. Edward Lowande, to Chief.
William W. E. Hoyle, to Chief Inspector,
Division of Schools
Lilybel Kariger, Laura S. H~enderson, Mar-
garet F. Morris, Thelma N. Scott, Edna
O. Wilson, Louise M. Caldwell, Anna
L. Barnes, Hazel Mi. McCullough, Shirley
B. Galvez, Mabel G. Bath, Jean R.
Wainio, Doris M. Robins, to Recreation
Eugenie E. Plummer, from Sales Checker,
Supply Division, to Dressing-Room
Beryl Waller, from Produce Worker, Supply
Division, to Dressing-Room Attendant.
Constance E. Morris, to Recreation Leader.
Dredging Division
Victor C. Melant, to Construction and
Maintenance Superintendent.
Harry W. Gardner, to Dipper Dredge Mate.
gast D orfln otoHeama Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Helper Weld'er.
Electrical Division
Stanwood O. Specht, to Supervisory
Operating Engineer.
Thom sn Fels, to Operator-Foreman
Paul M. Dishalroon, Jr., William Kosan,
Hugh M. Thomas, Jr. Gordon A. Up-
dyke, from Marine Machinist, Industrial
Division, to Operator-Diesel Machinist.
Charles S. Kerr, to Truck Driver,
James A. Leach, to Helper Machinist.
Maintenance Division
Clarence George, Jr., to Apprentice Joiner.
Napthali W. McLean, Higinio Morales, to
Robert A. Chambers, Victorino Espino,
Felipe C. Rangel, to Quarryman.
William G. Bingham, to Management
Analyst, Gorgas Hospital.
Coco Solo Hospital
Dorothy M. Hanners, from Supervisory Ac-
counting Clerk, Gorgas Hospital, to
Supervisory Accounting Assistant.
Kenneth R. Alberga, to Clerk.
Navigation Division
Theodore F. Jablonski, to Probationary
Nellie K. Whitney, to Clerk-Stenogra~ph~er.
Gerald W. Coffey, to Marine Traffic Con-
Byron S. Barriteau, from Telephone Op-


erator, Supply Division, to Deckhand.
Ezra Cohen, from Laborer, Community
Service Division, to Deckhand.
George R. Clovis, Abraham Julio, Trinidad
Mortm, Domingo Rodriguez, Marco A.
Roman, Alejandro Sandoval, Pedro B.
Santana, from Dock Worker, Terminals
Division, to Deckhand.
Clinton H. Stair, from Groundg Mainte-
nance Eqluipment Operator, Community
Services Division, to Deckhand.
Edwin C. Thomas, to Seaman.
Industrial Division
Carl G. Mather, Welder, from Maintenance
Locks Division
Luther E. Davis, to Lock Operator Ma-
Lester Hayles, to Leader Boatman.
Lewis W. Francis, Alejandro Guillett, Cres-
cenciano Ibarra, Rupert Peart, to Painter
SJuan Rodriguez, to Boatman.
Richard G. L. Smith, to Helper Lock
Arnott B. Julien, Juan M. Moreno, Heavy
Laborer, from Maintenance Division.
Albert E. Waithe, from Laborer Cleaner,
Electrical Division, to Heavy Laborer.
John H. Diaz, from Clerk, Gorgas Hospital,
to Qualifications Rating Clerk.
Leighi C. Paulson, to Supervisory General
Genu lyHOB rlburn, Pauline Kaplan, to
Service Center Manager,
Harold W. errie, to Merchandise Manage-

Cecil F. Haynes, to Supervisory Clerk.
Sibert F. R. Haynes, David S. Beckett, to

Lly E. Edwards, Dorothy E. Evans,
Azariah C. Coke, to Clerk-Typist.
Francisco A. Planes, to Waiter Captain.
Ernestina P. Archibold, Madlin J. Jones,
Elvina Mitchell, Lillian A. Morris, Vic-
torina C. Ramirez, Muriel E. Walsh, to
Counter Attendant.
Suzanna E. Cox, Ethel A. Sampson, to
Maybell M. Forbes, Purcell H. Marshall,
Silvia G. Wint, to Short Order Cook.
Ram6n E. Avila, to Meat Cutter.
.May A. Battist, Stanford M. Clement, to
Cornelius Reid, to Produce Worker.
Enrique A. Wedderburn, from Helper Lock
Operator, Locks Division, to Service
Station Attendant.
W IliamP E cferyLenora FaS on
Adassa Bell, Pearl H. Burke, John R. Car-
rington, Miriam Dennis, Mabel G. Farley
Agnes M. Harewood, Louise A. King'
Angela L. Price, Beryl L. Russell, Lilia
Rutherford, Jestina Trusty, to Sales
Edna S. Francis, Florence Wr. Grif~ths,
Dorothy A. Headley, Viola C. Lewis, to
Sales Section Head.
Francisco Brito, to Stockman.
Geraldine L. Watson, Marcus J. Williams,
to Storekeeping Clerk

Clara B. Belle, Albert S. James, to Snack
Bar Operator,
Sefred A. Bowen, to General Helper,
Florencio Akins, from Heavy Pest Control
Laborer, Division of Sanitation, to
Jorge C. Evers, to Heavy Laborer.
Ricardo Henry, from Hospital Laborer,
Gorgas Hospital, to Laborer Cleaner,
Community Services Division.
Francis A. Cadogan, to Utility Worker,
Jos6 C. Dominguez, to High Lift Tiruck
Operator, Panama Local Agency,
Terminals Division
Claude P. Swaby, to Cargo Clerk.
Arnold Benjamin, to Clerk Checker.
Lenord A. Bishop, from Painter Mainte-
nance, Locks Division, to Clerk Checker.
Samuel Bradiel, to Helper Liquid Fuels
Cristobal Delgado, to High Lift Truck
Paulino F. Abrahams, to Baggage Room
Irvin McClean, to Heav Laborer.
Felix Ross, Alberto Ward, to Ship Worker.
Motor Transportation Division
Gilberto Ortega, from Truck Driver, Elec-
trical Division, to Chauffeur.
Cec Ip.y Di es),nfrtomTKitakhen Attendant,
Lloyd B. Joseph, to Timekeeper.
PROMOTIONs which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Harry A. Dockery, Supervisory General
GSupplyRAssistant, S pply Divist n.
G Illermo Van HoordianConstr ctio
Inspector, Contract and Inspection
Addie L. Colclasure, Dietitian, Gorgas
Gary P. Dunsmoor, Graduate Intern,
Business Administration, Supply and
Community Service Bureau.
Philip J. Bauman, Adelle W. Cooper, Mrs.
Donald C. Pierpoint, Service Center
Supervisor, Supply Division.
Wilfred White, Service Center Manager,
Supply Division.
Adelaide V. Palache, Sales Section Head,
Supply Division.
Marcella W. Atkinson, Hilda F. Mootoo,
Rose W, Parker, Curtis B. Parnther,
Clerk Typist, Supply Division.
Marie L. Beresford, Francisco A. Bravo,
Mureal B. Dryden, Lileane Jones, Joseph
Roberts, Clerk, Supply Division.
Domingo Barrios, Launch Operator, Dredg-
mng Division.
Delfino Andrade, Domingo Davis, Gladwin
Edwards, Alberto G6ndola, Martin L.
Grenald, Marshall J. Herbert, Clyde
D. L~ashley, Tomas Marial, George A.
Wallace, Guard, Terminals Division.
Raimundo Dixon, Bookkeeping Machn
Operator, Accounting Division.
Joslin N. Harris, Cook, Supply Division.
Luis A. Fafardo, Laborer, Industrial


February 10 through March 10


Enforced Lea-ve Rulinr
THE COMPTROL;LER. GENERAL Of ployees' requests for annua leave
the United States recently ruled that are denied and the employees are
Federal agencies have authority to instructed to take annual leave at
place employees on enforced' annual other specific times come within the
Leave "as the needs of the service general rule that administrative of-
require," but noted that such action Beces may require an individual em-
might be illegal in disciplinary cases. ployee or class of employee to take
"Enforced annual leave situations annual leave at any time and for any
. such as the administrative closing of period within the limitations of the
an office for a period of time during Annual and Sick Leave Act, as the
which employees are required to take needs of the service require," the
annual leave or instances when em- rulilig said.

eniia-ancc firom Panama Bay to the lower
end of Miraflores Locks, although part
of the channel was not yet at its full
width and depth in that area.
The pourmg of concrete in the upper
lock chambers at Gatun was "practically
done" 50 years ago this month, while
the middle chambers were 80 percent
complete and the lower chambers were
15 percent complete. At the same time,
Pedro Miguel Locks were 76 percent
complete and Miraflores Locks were 15
percent complete.

S50 :Year-s A~go .
IT wAS ANNOUNCED during April l911
that a _generral project for lighting and
buying the Canal h~ad been approved.
The plan contemplated the use of range
markers to establish directions on the
longer tangents, or x.eaches, and side
lights spaced about a mile apart to mark
each side of the channel.
Wi~ith ~opening of the Canal still 3V2
years away, it was reported that it was
possible for ships drawing 18 feet of
water to use the Canal at the Pacific

25 Years Ago
WAR CLOUDS Were gathering 25 years
ago, with newspaper headlines reporting
danger of Russian-Japanese armed con-
flict and rejection by Ethiopia of Italy's
bid to end that particular war. The Lind-
bergh kidnapping case was on front
pages; Congressman John W. McCor-
mack of Massachusetts introduced a
5-day work week bill in the House of
Representatives; and 60 SwisS farmers
and their families came to Panama to
establish a colony in the Volcan region.
A Canal transit record was set by the
destroyer U.S.S. Manley, which made
the run from Balboa to Cristobal in
S4 houi-s and 38 minutes. The Manley,
which averaged 16 knots per hour on
the stretch between Pedro Miguel
and Gatun, was on orders of the U.S.
Navy Department to search for alleged
gun runners off the northern coast of
The highest monthly transit record in
nearly 7 years was set during March
1936, wen 56 ocean-going vessels
made the Canal transit. This was the
highest figure since October 1929, when
544 ships passed through the Canal.
1_0 Years Ago
THE CLUBHOUSES offered movie shorts
to entertain customers at the new Drive
Inn at te Li rary Building. The movies
were shown on a trial basis on Friday,
Saturday, and Sunday nights.
Preliminary returns for the 1950
census indicated that the number of
people in the Canal Zone that year was
substantially the same as in 1940, when
the last census was taken. An estimate
based on the returns already completed
showed that the population was about
51,000, including military personnel. Of
the total, 36,000 lived in the Balboa
Court District and 15,000 lived in the
Curn rth Dsth it was announced
that the position of Lieutenant Governor
of the Canal Zone had been designated
Sby the U.S. Civil Service Commission
as one of the 100 top government jobs
in the classified service.

One Year Ago
Maj. Gen. William A. Carter to be Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone and President
of the Panama Canal Company, to
succeed Maj. Gen. William E. Potter,
whose term wNas to expire June 30.

Victor M. Mendoza, Panama; Winchman,
Terminals Division; 10 years, 11 months,
Jua Biss;PC .a; Leader Track Laborer,
Railroa'1 Division; 32 years, 11 months,
12 days; Panama City.
Diego A. Ruiz, Panama; Chauffeur, Motor
Transportation Division; 25 years, 11
months, 7 days; Panama City.
Cecil A. Scott, Trinidad; Helper Electri-
cian, Electrical Division; 33 years, 1
month; Colon..
Hayward H. Shacklett, Kentucky; Safety
Engineer, Safety Branch, 21 years, 1
month, 16 days; State College, Pa.
Howard J. Shearer, New York; Timekeeper,
Motor Transportation Division; 17 years,
2 months, 29 days; Bronx, N.YY.
Edward J. Shepherd, Security Commander
(Lieutenant), Locks Division; 11 years,
S2 months; Philadelphia, Pa.
Mary E. Specht, Pennsylvania; Supervisory
Administrative Assistant, Maintenance
qD ision; 26 years, 6 months, 25 days;
Ceford I. Williams, Jamaica; Truck Driver,
Motor Transportation Division; 24 years,
8 months, 9 days; Colon.
Ivy W. Wright, Jamaica; Retail Store
Packager, Supply Division; 20 years, 5
months, 7 days; Colon.

RETIREMENT COrti iCateS Were pre-
sented at the end of Marc~h to the
employees listed below, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service
and future residence. -
Henry E. Argue, Pennsylvania; Police Ser-
geant, Police Division; 15 years, 9
months, 27 days; Isthmnus for present.
Lester S. Beetle, New Jersey; Operator-
Diesel Machinist, Electrical Division; 18
years, 2 months, 26 as;Udcie.
Alexander F. Betty,Pa maChuer,
Motor Transportation Division; 42 years,
9 months, 28 days; Colon.
Jos6 M. Bravo, Colombia; Dairy W~orker,
Supply Division; 15 years, 6 months, 15
days; Colon.
Temistocles Correa, Panama; Special Boat-
man, Locks Division; 17 years, 11
months, 18 days; Panama..
Mureal B. Dryden, Panama; Clerk, Supply
Dvson; 19 years, 8 months, 6 dys;
Claybourne N. Hbenry,,Colonb~ia; Dock
WVorker, Terminals Division; 28 years, 7
months. 15 days; Colon.
Thelma 'G. Lowe, Pennisylvania; Retail
Store Supervisor, Supply Division; 20
years, 1 month, 23 days; Florida.

APRIL 7, 1961


Health Insurance for More Retirees

iC~i~s~~i :


Donald G. S~chular, Assistant Regional Manager of the Federal Aviation Agency of Fort
Worth, greets the crowd which attended the formal opening ceremony at Cardenas Village.

operation of "Panama Radio," which
the aviation agency operates for the
benefit of aircraft flying in the vicinity
of the Isthmus.
About half of the finished units have
been occupied by FAA employees in the

month since the opening and the other
half of those now completed will be
occupied by the end of this month.
Municipal services for the community
are being provided by the Panama
Canal Company.

A GOoUP HEALTH illSurance program
for the benefit of disability relief reci-
pients of the Company-Government or-
ganization was expanded last month to
provide for enrollment of other retirees
who have no group health insurance
The program was developed by the
Personnel Bureau and originally went
into operation in February for disability
relief recipients. In addition to pro-

viding health insurance benefits, the
program also includes a death benefit
of $150, with double indemnity for
accidental death,
Robert Van Wagner, Employee Serv-
ices Officer, who is in charge of the in-
surance programs for both retirees and
active employees, reports that a total of
2,590 disability relief recipients and 170
other retirees were enrolled in the
program as of March 20.

Total cost of the insurance, which is
paid for by the retirees is $3.35 per
month. The coverage provided, in addi-
tion to the death benefit, includes up to
$7 per day for 31 consecutive days per
illness for hospital room and board, up
to $10 for ambulance service to and from
the hospital, up to $70 per illness for
drugs, medicines, anesthesia, bandages,
and similar items, and up to $150 for
specified surgical operations.

Members of the Canal Zone Retired Employees Insurance Group
Board during its first meeting, which was held March 14 in the
Administration ]Building at Balboa Heights are3, from left to right:
Arthur A. Pyle, James E. Hassocks, Robert Van Wagner, Joseph

A. Liverpool, Edward A. Doolan, chairman, William Johnson,
George N. Samuels, and Ellis Fawcett. Dean M. J. Peterson, an
advisory member of the board, was absent when the picture was
taken. Mr. Van Wagner and Mr. Fawcett are only advisory members.





number of Canal Zone youngsters are
foot-long strips of red satin ribbon car-
rying the signature of Gov. W. A. Carter.
The pieces of ribbon were part of the
62-foot strip which Governor Carter cut
on the afternoon of March 12 to open
Cardenas Village, newest Canal Zone
"Welcome, neighbors," was the key-
note of the opening day ceremonies'
during which an estimated 1,200 Zone
residents visited the new community,
where employees of the Federal Aviation
Agency will be housed.
Several regional officials of the FAA
from Fort Worth, Tex., attended the
opening day ceremonies and while here
inspected FAA facilities used in the

d 9 i. ..


*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going

Tankers Sold
tank steamers Esso Bufalo
Syracuse and the single-dec
tanker, Esso Pittsburgh, all bu

Bigger and Bigger Ships
AS THE INCREASING length and breadth
of Canal customers amply demonstrates,
the trend in ships today is to build
them bigger and bigger, and if they're
not big enough, they are "jumbo-ized."
TThat is just what happened to the
Liberian freighter Pathfinder, a recent
Canal customer,
The Pathfinder was build in England
just 10 years ago for the bauxite trade.
between Dutch Guiana and Trinidad
and had a deadweight capacity of
8,000 tons. By modern standards, that
wasn't enough. So, recently, she under-
went major surgery in a Japanese ship-
yard to have her length increased by
62 feet, her breadth by 4 feet, and her
draft by 9 feet.
Since her operation, the Path inder
can carry 12,500 tons, has the same
speed of 12 knots, the same fuel con-
sumption rate, and the same size crew.
Quite an increase over her original
The job on the ship took 75 days. The
vessel was chopped off at the bow and
at the after section, which included
engines and quarters. The entire mid-
section cargo space was removed and
replaced with a new one bigger in
all dimensions than the original, thus
lengthening the ship to 509 feet and
making her 64 feet wide.
When she recently passed through
the Canal, the rebuilt ship was car-
rying a load of wheat for the Domninican
Liberian Shipping Line
AqLTHOUGH THERE were 997 transits
of the Canal by ships flying the Liberian
flag during the fiscal year which ended
last June 30, the small African nation
has only recently moved to establish its
own shipping company, with formation
of a joint Liberian-Israel-Dutch ship-
ping firm, the Liberian National Ship-
ping Co. The Liberian government will
own half the shares, while the Israeli
and Dutch partners each will own
25 percent.
The firm has ordered two 33,000-ton
ore carriers. They will be built by
Verolme, at a cost of about $10 million.
Dutch officers and mixed Dutch and
Liberian crews will man the sh ps until
enough Liberians can be trained to take
over. Until the ships are completed in
the latter part of 1962, the new firm may
charter other vessels to carry ore from
Liberia to the United States and Europe.

:OING Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.,
Chester, Pa., in 1942 and 1943 and all
~RY owned by the Panama Transport Co.,
r960 19e; have been sold.
926 843 The two steamers were sold to Italian
20 20 firms for $235,000 each, while the motor
g4 8 ga tanker was sold to a Yugoslavian firm
for $265,000. All are to be scrapped.
;4,114,601 South Pacific Cruise
4,255,458 THE CUNARD LINE has announced
that its 34,172-ton Caronia will make a
long cruise to the South Pacific and Far
4,869,175 East between January and April of
233,546 next year instead of making its normal
5,102,721 world cruise.
The change in itinerary, Cunard Line
and small. OfficialS Said, was made at the request
of passengers for an all Pacific cruise.
The voyage will bring the liner
through the Panama Canal twice, as
the 32,800-mile trip is to begin and
Igle-deck terminate in New York. The itinerary
and Esso will take the Caronia to Australia, New
ck motor Zealand, New Guinea, Thailand, Japan,
lilt by the and the Samoan and Tongan Islands.


Commercial_-_-- -
U.S. Government ____
TBI__ ___

Commercial_ $4,420,247
U.S.Government 99,088
Total__ 4,519,335


CARGO, (long tons)

Commercial__ 5,161,461
U.S.Government 92,257
Total__ 5,253,718

This photograph of the Mount Vernon Victory as it entered Pedro Miguel Locks during a
southbound transit last month makes it obvious that the I10-foot width of the tanker is
near the limit for the 110-foot wide locks. The Mount Vernon Victory is one of a number
of 102-foot-wide tankers which use the Canal and all of them pose some special problems
in handling to keep them, from crashing against the sides of the lock chambers. With a
length of 700 feet or more, such ships need to set at only a very slight angle in the chamber
for either the front or rear section to move against the lock wall. The Mount Vernon
Victory, which is owned by the Mount Vernon Tanker Co. and is represented locally by
Fenton & Co., was carrying 37,682 tons of Navy fuel oil from Curacao to Pearl Harbor.

APRms 7, 1961

SH 1