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DLOC PCANAL



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Panama Canal review
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00216
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Creation Date: June 1957
Publication Date: 1961
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00184
System ID: UF00097366:00216
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Full Text

c~q21L~44~i~CAAL


1 ~


One 2More Bite





ARTER, Governor-President ik L.__ N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Pree
ELHENY, Lieutenant Governor JOSEPH CONNOR, Publicatic
WILL AREY Official.Pananna Canal Company Publication Editorial Assistant
Canal Information Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. EUNICE RICHARD and ToI
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone WILLIAMr BURNS, Official Ph
Onr sale~a aall Panama, Canal.Service :Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date-~ r 5 :erJ eji h.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and- back copiess: 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box IVI,:Balboa Heights,. C., Z..
Editorial offices are located in the Admlinistration Building, Balboa Heights, C.' Z.


Wi. A. C
JoHN D. McI

Panama


ss Officer
ons Editor
s:
st BITTEL
photographer


W~esley Towvnsend shows group of Scouts how to hand axe to.another person,


Boy Scouts Of America

To Mark Anniversary
MORE THAN 100 EMPLOYEES Of the Panama Canal Company and
many hundreds of their dependents are among those who this
month will participate in the observance of the 51st anniversary
of the Boy Scouts of America.
The Canal employees wvho are active in the Canal Zone Council,
Boy Scouts of America, are divided almost evenly between those
who serve as Scoutmasters and other adult advisers to Scout units
and those who are active in planning and making arrangements
for various Scout programs here.
The Zone adults directly involved in the activities of the Boy
Scouts of America and the 1,456 Cubs, Scouts, and Explorers who
belong to the various units will be joining thiis month with .thous-
ands of their counterparts in the United States in marking the
founding .0f the movement there. ~Appropriate programs and
displays are being planned by th~e various Zone units of the BSA
`to mark the event, with special emphasis during Boy Scout W~eek,
February 7-13.
Wesley Townsend, a Pacific side employee of the Panama Canal
Company, is typical of the Zone adults wrho contribute so freely
of their time, talent, and energy to provide hundreds of Zone
boys with memorable youthful experiences through the 51-year-
old Boy Scouts of America.


Bridging The World's T~raffi Lane
Into 196LWith An Overhaul .
Handling 'All. laims-Yours, Too .
Big Hairl For A Bigger Canal .
To. larlklit T11o.ugh The Canal .
He's Whittled Way Into Art JRanks
Civil' Defense
Worth Knowing ....
Anniversaries <..
Promotions And Transfers. ..
Safety Concerns Everyone. ..
Canal History .
Retirements .

Quarterly Shipping Statistics ..
Shipping .....


. 11
. 14
. 16
16
. 17
. 18
. 19
. 20
. 21
21
. 22


FEBRUARY 3, 1961


Inr Thzis Issure

THIE DIPPER (Iledge' Edticatfjus i5 3 maI;SSile~ IpCiee Of
ma1;ChJiinery~ capale)~j of I-chl~ing wi.lez thanl 50 feet
b~elowv the sur fa'.ce of the~ Panama~ Cana~l anld lifting
tolls of ma~itel;; l to the~ iiurface. Fo:l milny mni-iths it
has been.l doIngl~ just th;(t .n tli \ill conl~tinuelC to do so


'The spioil \\hichl the Canadas~ lifts to the; lsmiatle
mus~lt bei dli-posedi o-f. so scow s deSignet d for. the PurI-

the mal~ter~lidl out oiF the Cut to a1 clumps~tlite \r h~re it
wvill nlut inltelr fere withi the paissaige of whips. Hn\\ this
is dlone ij rclseibccd onl pagesr 11 to' 13.

F~ill SEV'ERAL ITIOHE t1 pliflillin b.e*, beenl underr\ y
for. the per'iodic owhai~ul of Cat~un~ Locks. .4pp~oul-
materly $731,,000I wothh of ma~lteia~l anid equ~ipmnt~n
was 3ccumulatedt dluringS thiS planniing; peneod anid
moreI.( tha~n 500n extra em1:plO)ees werel~ 1aClited to
handle the work.
The job started last m~onith and many changes in
equipment, methods,-~ l acid sepais ,Ire being made,
as described in the a !lcde btdginninlg on page 6.


:* ~


































From. end of the east side approach ramp, piers for bridge which will spazi the Canal point toward the distant west bank.




Bridging The World's Traffic Lane

The high-level bridge across the Paci~fic end of the Canal soon will
serve as a major link between eastern and western Panamza and
eventually will carry traffic using the lInter-American Highway.


FOR THOUSANDS of years, the Isthmus
of Panama served as a land bridge be-
tween the two great land masses -which
form North and South America, but it
also served as a barrier between the
world's two great oceans.
As long as people thought the world
was flat and didn t sail beyond the sight
of land, the narrow Isthmus bothered
no one. Then Christopher Columbus
discovered America and those who fol-
Slowed joined mn his search for a direct
water route to Asia.
The only route they found in the
Western Hemisphere was the one
around the southern tip of South Amer-
Sica, a long and hazardous route for ships
wanting to go from one ocean to the
other. Ofttimes, rather than make the
trip around stormy Cape Horn, ships
discharged their passengers and cargo
on one side of the Isthmus, from where
the overland trip was made to a ship on
the other side.
Finally, less than 50 years ago, con-
struction of the Panama Canal was com-


pleted and the centuries-old dream of
a direct water route between the oceans
was realized.
But, as the ancient adage says, "You
can't have your cake and eat it, too."
The Canal divided the land and estab-
lished a channel of water where once
there had been nothing but land. Hence~
forward, traffic overland between the
continents would have to be carried
across the Canal by watercraft or on
man-made structures. Overland traffic
within the Republic of Panama also
faced the problem of crossing the Canal.
At the time the waterway was opened
to commerce, automobiles still were
curiosities in Panama, as well as the rest
of the world, and overland movements
of innumerable private conveyances
were virtually unknown. Despite this,
the builders of the Canal considered
building a tunnel under the Pacific end
of the waterway, but finally settled for
ferries and crossings on the locks at
Pedro Miguel and Catun.
Rapid development of Panama and


the expansion of activities in the Canal
Zone led to the recognition during the
1930s that a more convenient means of
crossing the waterway was needed,
Partial relief to the growing flow of
traffic was provided in 1942, when the
swing bridge just south of Miraflores
Locks was opened. But the delays to
highway traffic resulting from the in-
creasing number of ships using the
Canal made it apparent that a more
satisfactory crossing wvas needed.
This was recognized officially in 1942
in a General Relations Agreement be-
tween the United States and Panama
and in the Treaty and Memorandum of
Understandings of 1955 the United
States agreed to build a high-level
bridge across the Pacific end of the
Canal.
That bridge, which will permanently
reunite the two halves of the Republic
of Panama ,and the two great land
ma~sse w\hk.h are connected b~y the Isth-
mus, now is moving rapidly toward


THE PANAM4A CANAL REVIEW







completion and is scheduled to open for
traffic in late 1962.
The benefits to Panama from the
bridge can hardly be understated. While
the nation's largest city and the inter-
national airport at Tocumen are located
on the east side of the waterway, most
of the highly developed agricultural
area and many urban areas are on the
west side.
Thousands of Panamanians who hive
on the east side of the Canal own farms,
ranches, and business establishments on
the west side. Many weekend homes and
popular vacation areas also are located
on the west side.
Cattle, sugar, and other products of
western Panama are moving to market
in Panama City in an ever-increasing
flow while the nation's expanding popu-
lation moves on the rubber tires of
modern automobiles, all developments
that will be facilitated by the bridge.
The bridge also will provide a con-
venient route to areas on the west side
which can be used for future suburban
expansion.
In addition to providing a crossing
for the local traffic originating near it,
the new bridge will serve the long-
distance trucking which increasingly is
providing a vital economic link between
the western half of the Republic and
Panama City.
It also will be the final major link in
the Pan-American Highway between the
United States and Panama City, the
completion of which is expected to bring
a tremendous increase in long distance
traffic. Extension of the highway through


-WL "PR~iWidened Fourth

Sof July Avenue

leads to Panama

City end of

bridge which will

cost $20,000,000.














age level of the Canal crosses directly
over the present ferry route between
the banks of the waterway. It will carry
traffc to the edge of Panama City from
Thatcher Highway, or vice versa.
Construction work on the bridge was
formally initiated on December 23,
1958, when former Panama President
Ernesto de la Guardia and former Canal
Zone Governor William E. Potter turned
the first earth at the base of Farfan Hill
on the west bank. Since then, two of
the six major contracts in connection
with the bridge have been completed,
two others have been started, one is
ready to be started, and the final one is
scheduled for completion in early 1962.
The two contracts already completed
are for construction of the east and west
approach ramps to the bridge. On the
east side of the Canal, this included the
widening of Fourth of July Avenue from
"J" Street to Avenue "A," and the cut
and fill for the approach roadway around
Chorrillo Hill, across the Gavilan mud
flats, Amador Road, Empire Street, and
to the edge of the Balboa Tank Farm.
On the west bank, it consisted primarily
of building a high earth fill with ma-
terial removed from Farfan Hill.
Contracts on which work now is being
done are construction of the substruc-
ture to support the bridge span and
fabrication of steel for the superstruc-
ture. In addition to fabrication of the


the Darien gap in eastern Panama to a
connection in Colombia also will make
the bridge an important link in the Inter-
American Highway.
The site where the bridge will soar
a maximum of 384 feet above the aver-


Ancon Post Office was demolished and the Ancon School playshed behind the crane will
have to be moved to make way for additional work on street approach to the bridge,


FEBRUARY 3, 1961







steel, the superstructure work also in-
cludes bridge roadway, walkways, rail-
ings, lighting, duct lines, and painting.
Of the two remaining contracts, one
is for extension of the east approach
from "J" Street to Tivoli Crossing and
the' other is for completing the unpaved
sections of both the east and west ap-
proaches. The present schedule calls for
the latter contract to be awarded in
time for completion during the 1962
dry season, thus paying thie way for
completing the entire project later that

yeahe substructure work, which is the
only major construction activity in con-
nection with the bridge at the present
time, has encountered some difficulties,
but none which should prevent the
bridge from being completed on sched-
ule.
Elmer Stevens, Project Engineer on
the bridge job, points out that con-
struction of the substructure on any
major bridlge project usually involves
the most difficult and painstaking part
of the job. Before work starts,~ the sub-
surface conditions must be thoroughly
studied and many times these studies
must be continued throughout the work
particularly where the use of coffer
dams is involved, as in the bridge project
here.
It has been the cofferdams, in fact,
which have caused most of the di~fficul-
ties encountered on the local project.
Mr. Stevens points out, however, that
a cofferdam "is merely a means to an
end and is no more a part of the end
product than a painter's scaffold."
As Mr. Stevens explains it, a coffer-
dam can be thought of as a four-sided
box which is open at both ends. One


ri.
-


Bridge will leave
solid ground
at this approach
ramp on the east
side of Canal,
then cross the
waterway on piers.


end of this bottomless box is pressed
down into the bottom of the water
channel with sufficient force to stop the
flow of water, thereby permitting estab-
lishment of a dry area inside in which
construction work can be carried on with
no interference from the water which
otherwise would be present.
Once a cofferdam is unwatered, the
dry interior thus created is ready to be
filled with concrete for the pier, with
the sides of the cofferdam serving as the
form and the supporting framework in-
side becoming a permanent-though un-
important--part of the permanent pier,
After the concrete has set, the steel
piling which formed the siding of the
cofferdam is removed for re-use else-
where.


By far the largest contract in con-
nection with the bridge is that for the
superstructure, which was awarded to
the John F. Beasley Construction Co.
of Dallas, on a bid of $9,119,000. This
includes furnishing the structural steel,
which now is being manufactured and
fabricated in West Germany as a joint
venture by four firms. The Beasley Co.
will erect the steel, which is scheduled
to start arriving on the Isthmus about
the middle of this year.
By the time the steel arrives here, all
east side piers for the bridge will have
been completed and work on the last
three of th~e west side piers will be far
enough along so that they will be ready
when needed by the superstructure con-
tractor.


From cofferdam near west bank, piers can be seen on east bank.


From Canal, east bank piers stretch toward Panama City in distance.


THE PANAIMA CANAL REVIEW


i :

C;:





Governor Carter,.Locks Chief Roy Stockham, Marine Director Capt. Richard G. Jack, and other officials inside center wall culvert.




Into 1961 With An Overhaul

Periodic project at Gatun Locks includes a number of
changed procedures and experimental mzodifications,-


.keeping Canal efficient.


but goal is th'e same


ONE NIGHT early last month, the
rising stem valves at the upper end of
the center wall culvert of Gatun Locks
were closed, the cylindrical valves lead-
ing from the culvert to the west lane
chambers were opened, then the rising
stem valves at the lower levels of the
culvert were opened to permit the lock
chambers to drain to sea level, comple-
tely emptying the upper chamber and
partia ly emptying te o er two.
A mobile crane then was lowered onto
the floor of the upper chamber, followed
by 50 metal plugs, each 4V/2 feet in
diameter, which were promptly placed
in the openings from the lateral culverts
which carry lake water into and out of


the chambers from the center wall
culvert during ship transits.
While the crane carried on its work
in the upper chamber, cranes on the
lock walls, aided by divers in the par-
tially empty chambers, placed similar
plugs in the identical, but underwater,
outlets in the intermediate and lowest
chambers.
By 7 o'clock the following morning
all the plugs were in place and the west
Jane was put back into service, with
water for transits being supplied from
only the side wall culvert instead of
both it and the center wall culvert. The
same draining and plugging procedure
then was carried out in the east lane.


while the plugging was being done
in the? east lane chambers, bulkheads
were installed at the upper end of the"
center wall culvert, which then was
permitted to drain to sea level. Later,
bulkheads were installed at the ocean
end of the center wall culvert, the rising
stem valves were removed, elevators
were installed, and pump stre put int

water from. the culvert.
Within 16 hours after draining of
the west side chambers was started,
men were inside the center wall culvert
beginning to "strip" the cylindrical
valves which control the flow of water


FEBRUARY 3, 1961









































NamHes COnfusing-'?


--He are's Guide

RISING STEM VALVES, COnter WR11 culVerts, cylindrical valves, pintles,
side wall culverts, wall reaction castings. Do these terms confuse you?
Here's a simplified explanation which should help you.
The locks of the Panama Canal raise and lower ships by using water
from Gatun Lake. That water does not flow directly from the lake into
the look 'chambers, however. It first enters giant pipes, or "culverts,"
16cated in the center and side walls of the locks; hence, the terms "center
wall culverts" and "side wall:culverts." From these culverts, the water
flows into the lock chambersitirough similar, but smaller, culverts which
run laterally from those in th~e ide anid center walls and, therefore, are
called "lateral culverts."
Naturally, the flow of water throu h these culverts must be controlled
by valves. Because of the way they are made and operate, the valves in
the center and side wall culverts, which control the ~flow of water into
and through those' culverta, are known as "rising stem valves." Again,
because of the way they are made, the valves wh~ich4 control the flow of
water between the center-n. all culvert and the lock chambers are known
as "cylindrical valves.
Pintles and wall reaction castings? In effect, pintles are hinges on
which the lock gates rotate, while wall reaction castings are devices
which transfer pressure from the gates to the lock walls,


from the culvert into the lock chambers
during normal operations.
Right from the very start of this peri-
odio overhaul of Gatun Locks it was
obvious to oldtimers that many changes
had been made in overhaul procedures.
For one -thing, when those 11- by
18-foot rising stem valves were liftedl
from atheir positions they were not laid
down on the lock wall, as in the past.
Instead, they were taken to a prepared
cradle and stood upright inside it,
making it much easier to clean and
repair them.
I~ess than 3 weeks after th-, work
started, the center-wall culvert was re-
turned to service and similar work now
is underway on the east lane, which
has~ been' removed from s-rvice until
work on it is completed, probably about
February 15. Overhaul of the west lane,
which also will. be removed from service
fojr the work, will start as soon as the
east lane overhaul is completed. The
west. lane is scheduled for completion
by March II.
Within the two-month period from
the start of work on the center wall
culvert to completion of work on the
west lane, approximately $750,000
worth of equipment will be used to
revamp the locks and approximately


-

-- .
.. g -
as
Declivities once used for emergency dams at locks are being modified for new locomotives.


$1,000,000 in wages will be paid to
those working on the job.
The work will include inspection of
all parts of the locks, replacement of
all damaged, broken, or badly worn


parts, installation of new seals on all
60O cylindrical .valves, repair of the
bituminous coating onl the lock gates,
replacement and addition of cathodic
protection against corrosion on both the
gates and rising stem valves, repair or
replacement of bottom seals on the lock
gates, replacement of badly corroded
plates on the gates, and extensive re-
pairs to the rising stem valves.
Many of the materials being used for
repair and replacement during the over-
haul is of similar type and quality to
the original materials, but a number of
changes are being made, including some
of an experimental nature.
Chief among the experimental
chnges is the completesr de inini lo
stem valves.
These valves, which are opened and
closed at least once during each lockage,
have been the determining factor in
the length of time between overhauls.
The weakest point in these vital valves
has been the metal rollers and guides
on which the valve moves up and down.
Major experimental change being
made during the overhaul is replace-
ment of the metal rollers and guides
with smooth pieces of almost friction-
less plastic, which is not affected by
exposure to water and is expected to
last much longer than the former metal
parts.
A new type of seal also will be tried
on the bottom of the lock gates during
this overhaul and several other minor
changes made, including the installa-
tion of additional cathodic protection
for metal parts where corrosion indi-
cates it is needed.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







water if any mishap should cause all
the lock gates to be opened at once.)
Actually, the declivities are not being
filled completely, but concrete strips
are being built across them to provide a
level track for the new towing loco-
motives being constructed in Japan. The
change is necessary because the new
locomotives will be unable to pass along-
side the section of lock wall which rises
above the declivities, and hence must
be raised to a point where the wall will
not interfere with them.
More than 725 employees, including
570 non-U.S. citizens, are engaged in
the Gatun Locks overhaul. One hundred
of these employees were shifted to the
project from other jobs in the Canal
organization, but more than 500 of them
were specially hired for the job.
On the overhaul of the center wall
culvert, the employees were split into
two full shifts and one partial shift, but
in the work on the east and west lanes,
three full shifts are to be used.
It will be about 5 weeks more before
things are back to normal at Gatun
Locks and it will be 2 more years before
the locks at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores
are overhauled. After the overhaul at
Gatun in 1964, the improved procedures
mentioned earlier are expected to
sharply reduce the period of time the
lock lanes are out of service, thus im-
proving the waterway's service to world
shipping.







# Governor Carter tilts
.-hard hat against sun
as Mr. Stockham points
to corrosion on rising
-stem valve sections.
Lt. Col. Robert D.
Brown, Director of
E&C Bureau, and
Capt. Richard G.
Jack, Marine Bureau
Director, look on..


Alexander McKeown, David Branford, and Stanford McKenzie prepare plastic replace-
ments for formerly all-metal sections of rising stem valves usually hard hit by corrosion.


The overhaul of the east and west
lanes will include the removal of two
gates in the west lane by the Hercules.
The gates will be floated to the upper
chamber of the locks, where they will
be completely overhauled, following a
procedure developed 2 years ago at
Gatun. None of the east lane gates will
be removed during this overhaul.
This is expected to be the next to last
overhaul of Gatun Locks in which the
chambers will be unwatered. After one
more overhaul at Gatun, probably in
1964, the miter gates will be removed
from the locks and floated to drydocks,
where overhaul work on them will be
done, while spare gates perform their
duties at the locks. Overhaul of the
gates' pintles and other fittings will be
performed from inside a special caisson
small enough to permit ships to pass by
in the locks while the overhaul is
underway.
Changes must be made in the sills at
the bottom of the lock gates and ar-
rangements made for fitting the caissons
against the walls during the overhaul of
tePacific-side Locks in 1963 and the
overhaul of Gatun Locks in 1964. After
that, the lock chambers probably will be
unwatered only for emergency repairs.
In connection with the changes plan
ned for overhauls after 1964, in which
efforts will be made to limit outage
time on any lane to a single day, several
engineers from ~the Omaha and Seattle
districts of the U.S. Army Corps of En-
gineers arrived here within the past few
days to observe present procedures, ex-
amine the lock gate pintles and other
fixtures, and study other facets of the
locks involved iri overhauls.


Although not considered part of the
overhaul, a major change is being made
in the outer lock walls at Gatun in con-
junction with the present work. This is
the filling of the declivities in which
the huge emergency dams were located
before being disposed of a few years
ago, after it was decided they were not
needed. (The emergency dams were
designed to block the escape of lake


FEBRUARY 3, 1961



































Claims Branch Chief Harry D. Raymond, standing in center, discusses a claim with Richard
W. Fuller, Supervisory Claims Examiner, while Gregory G. Cartotto, General Claims Ex-
aminer, studies one of reference works which Branch personnel apply in deciding claims.


These examples are just 5 of the
6,179 claims items processed by the
Branch -during the~ past 3 months. In
some cases, the claimlants filed their
claims,without assistance: in others the
claimarit sought ad;-lc.e from the Claims
Branch on what Iinforma~tionl and sup-
porting documents would be necessary
to formalize the claim.
The Claims Branch, as its name in-
dicates, is the unit responsible for the
audit and settlement of all claims and
demands for or against the Panama
Canal Company and the Canal Zone
Government, subject in appropriate
cases to legal review and to approval of
the Governor-President, occasional fi-
nancial review of contracts, and the
maintenance of subsidiary ledger ac-
counts for Company and Government
liability for employees' travel.
In the case of official travel expense
add similar routine claims by: new ap-
pointeers, employees traveclinlg on home
leave, or employees tra~nsf~~erre between
districts, thei admrinrstlrti\e officer of
thle unit mn w\hichi die claimant is emn-
pl o) ednI-ormalli l;;ndles the; initial
paperwork. but i~'n cses \ herle more
specialized k~now tldge Is req~culled, the
Claims Branch frequently advises the
employee.


H. D. Raymond, Chief of the Claims
Branch, says the primary responsibility
of the Branch is to settle claims in a fair
and impartial manner, while protecting
the legal rights and interests of the
Co~mpanyl!-Government and the claim-
ants.
How do you file a claim against the
Company-Government? The normal
method for claims other than those that
are strictly of a routine nature is to send
a letter to the .Branch stating the cir-
cumstances under which the claim arose
and supplying proof of the amount
involved.
For routine travel and transportation
claims, the Branch is responsible for de-
termining that the amount sought is
correct and certifying the vouchers for
payment. It also maintains- subsidiary
ledger accounts on such claims, pre-
pares monthly journal vouchers for the
amounts involved, and analyzes trans-
portation aInd travel costs to establish
standard cost rates for budget purposes.
Generally, claims invok~ing loss,
damage, or injury of e-ither personnel
or property, are handled by established
procedures. They are turned over to an
examiner, who is responsible for deter-
mining the facts and settling the claim,
subject to approval of the Branch Cer-


AN EMPLOYEE of the Company-
Government, recruited in the States and
brought to the Isthmus at CompEany-
Government expense, had to pay his
own travel expenses enroute to the Zone.
A ship suffered ~damage while being
docked at Cristobal. The owner of the
ship thought the Canal organization was
responsible for causing. the damage.
An employee was injured while- on
duty and was forced to be off work for
several days as a result.
A Panama merchant received a ship-
ment of goods from Europe which had
passed over the piers at Cristobal and
been transported across the Isthmus on
the Panama Railroad. A number of items
had been lost from a broken box in the
shipment.
An employee's personal automobile
was speckled with paint when a. gust oCf
wind whipped a few errant drops across
the street from where a house was being
painted.
Far different situations, you say? Yes,
but they all have one thing in common:
In each case, a claim, was submitted
to the Company-Government Claims
Branch, requesting a settlement for the
loss incurred by the companies and in-
dividuals involved.


THE PANA~MA CANAL REVIE


Handling :All Claims











The Claims Branch `repre-
sents the Canal organiza-
tion in all claims, whether
they are filed for or against
the Company-Government. i


- Yours, Too







tifying Officer, or submitting a report ~
and recommendation to the Chiefofte
Branch, in the more complex, question-
able cases.
The reviewing officials, including the
Branch Chief, may concur in the report
and recommendations, or may seek
further information and guidance, either
from superiors in the Office of the Comp-
troller, the Office of the General Coun-
sel, or other authoritative sources.
]Early in the investigation of any claim
requiring it, the Claims Branch is sup-
plied with factual reports from those
directly involved in the incident. Later,
it may seek medical facts and opinions,
police reports, court actions, technical
advice, and testimony by witnesses.
Once a decision is made, payent is
made or offered, or theclmds-
allowed, depending on the circulm.
stances. If the claimant is satisfied Evvith
the decision, the necessary papers are
signed, payment is made, and the case
is closed. If the claimant is not satisfied
with the decision, payment, or offer,
efforts are made by the Branch to reach
a voluntary, mutually acceptable settle-
menlt. In some cases, the claim finally
may be decided in a' court of law.
Handling claims against the Com-
pany-Governmentt is only one side of the
job performed by the Branch, however.
It also is responsible for processing
claims by the Company-Government
against others. If Company-Government
property is damaged, or losses are in-


curred in other ways, the Claims Branch
may find itself in the role of claimant
on behalf of the Company-Government.
Claims for travel and transportation
expense and for cargo loss and damage
far outnumber all other types of claims
handled by the Branch, but the adjudi-
cation of the numerically smaller num-
ber of claims for injury compensation
arising under the Federal Employees
Compensation Act nevertheless is a
primary function of the Branch.
Such claims are submitted to and
settled by the Clatims Branch, unless
they involve major permanent disability ,
compensation or are appealed by the
claimant. All malor permnilenlt disability
cases go to thE' Canal1 Zone Inljuryy Board
For recommenldation, then are submitted
to the Lieutenant Co\ernior-1'ice Pres-
ident loi hnal action. Appeals from
Branch decisions are made to the Comp-
troller, the~n, successi\eh\. to the Lieu-
tenant C~o\em~ol and Co\ernor.
Because of the nature of the Canal
enterprise, with its integrated supporting
facilities, the facts in most injury com-
pensation chses can be quickly ascer-
tained ;from ~inernial sources, with only
a rare occasion arising when informa-
tion is needed from individuals or
agencies outside the Company-Govern-
ment.
To be eligible for benefits under the
Compensation Act, which is by lawl the
only remedy for employees injured in
the performance of their duty, the em-


ployee must have been injured in such
performance. When such an injury will
result in a loss of work time, a complete
report of the incident is made imme-
diately and the Claims Branch goes into
action.
Employees of the Canal enterprise
who are injured on the, job seldom if
ever suffer any interruption in pay
periods. Generally, sufficient facts are
available quickly enough that approval
for payment of compensation can be
made without delay.
The Compensation Act includes pro-
visions establishing indemnity com-
pensation for certain types of permanent
physical impairments. Loss of one leg,
for example, entitles an employee to 288
weeks of scheduled (indemnity) com-
pensation in addition to temporary com-
pensation. Under the Compensation
Act, an injured employee may be paid
up to a-maximum of $525 per month,
After doctors attending permanently
disabled employee certify that he has
reached a maximum level of recovery,
efforts are made to rehabilitate him--at
Company-Government expense. If the
mnjury prevents him from returning to
his former job, efforts are made to locate
him another job within the organization.
When suitable alternate employment
cannot be found for the injured em-
ployee, his case is submitted to the
Canal Zone Injury Board for review and
recommendation. The Board considers
the medical history, efforts to find the
employee another job, and any evidence
which the employee may wish to submit,
including verbal testimony. It then
makes a recommendation to the Lieu-
tenant Governor, who takes final action
on the claim, subject to possible appeal.
In arriving at decisions on claims,
Branch personnel apply the Canal Zone
Code, the United States Code, Com-
pany-Government regulations and policy
files, standardized government travel
regulations, joint travel regulations, the
Code of Federal Regulations, the Fed-
eral Personnel Manual, the General Ac-
counting Office Manual, and decisions
of the Comptroller General, the Court
of Claims, and the ]Employee Compensa-
tion Appeals Board, which has final
authority in all Federal employee injury
compensation cases other than those in-
volving Canal employees.
In addition to its duties in connection
with claims, the Branch also reviews
contracts for financial integrity, when
asked to do so by the Contracts Officer.
In the same way, it reviews change
orders, supplemental agreements, and
the performance bonds and insurance
certificates furnished by contractors to
determine their adequacy in relation to
contract requirements.


L4p- 4
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- V


--.......
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4. f,
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,-


.ia-a a
Sample forms are supplied to aid persons filling out claims which are routine in nature.


FEBRUARY 3, 1961





































Water pours from the 13%/-cubic-yard bucket of the Cascadas as another big bite of spoil moves from the Canal to a scow.

Low-slung scowrs are the floating pack mules for the final phase in
widening the waterway through Gaillard Cut, carrying a quarter-
million cubic yards of material from nthe project each month.


by simply opening the doors which form
the bottom. of the craft. Each month,
approximately 250,000 cubic yards of
material is removed from. the Cut in this
fashion, as the banks of the Canal are
forced back to formn a channel 500 feet
wide instead of the present 300 feet.
The scows are loaded by the Dredg-
ing Division's dipper dredge Cascadas,
which presently is working its way north
past Contractors Hill in the wake of the
dry-land widening work of Merritt,
Chapman & Scott. In about 3 months,
this section of the project will be com-
pleted. Soon afterward, probably its r
July, the Cascadas and its sister dredge !
the Paraiso will go `to work on th~e ~
Empire Reach section of the Cut, where
Foster Williams Bros. now is doing the -
dry-land work.
The dry-land contractors are remov-
ing everything down to 95 feet above
sea level. From that point, 10 feet above
the normal surface of the Canal, to 52%
feet below the surface, the rock is big
blasted by the contractors and removed
by the Cascadas and the scows.


It takes the Cascadas an average of 2
hours and 15 minutes to fill one of the
scows, each of which is designed to
carry 1,000 cubic yards of spoil. At pre-
sent, the Cascadas is working 144 hours
each week. It loads about 65 scows
during that time, as its 13%-cubic-yard
bucket dips into the depths of the Canal
again and again to shif the spoil from
the future channel to the scows.
For the trip through the Cut, two of
the scows are lashed end-to-end to form
a single unit 50 feet wide and 300 feet
long. The tug is lashed fast to the side
of the end scow, which forms the stern
of the unit, then pushes the two scows
along throughout its 1%~-hour trip to
the Gamboa barge service station. Nor-
mally three to five scows are grouped
at the station, then towed to the dump-
ing site in Gatun Lake in a single trip.
When the scows arrive at the dumpmng
site, the tug captain is directed to the
proper location in the site by marker
buoys which are relocated daily byr the
Hydrographic Surveys Section. As the
tug and scows move slowly into posi-


SHIP PERSONNEL, passengers, tourists,
and others going through the Canal
these days can see evidence on every
hand of the improvements being made
to the waterway, particularly in Gaillard
Cut, where most of the work is being
done.
Throughout much of the Cut and at
the Locks they can see the lights which
have been installed to make night tran-
sits safer and faster. In the vicinity of
Contractors Hill they can see the naked
rocks and earth left bare by the massive
Cut-widening work.
Several ships each day also see tugs
moving through the Cut with low-slung
scows lashed alongside. During north-
bound trips, the scows are piled high
with dripping rocks and other spoil from
the widening work, while on the south-
bound trip they are empty.
On an average day, five such, trips are
made through the Cut, usually with each
tug taking two of the scows alongside.
The loaded scows are taken to a point
in Gatun Lake near Barro Colorado,
where the spoil aboard them is dumped


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Big Haul For A Big ger Canal





































Itun Lake at dumping site, making sure spoil will fall clear of scow.


It takes two crewmen a huge wrench, and a heavy sledge to loosen brake


Water spray, mixed with lighter fragments of spoil, bursts skyward from open hatch as water rushes in to fill suddenly empty hold of scw.


Two scows are lashed together preparatory to being towed through the Cut.


Ohway through Cut wit loaded scows, tug moves close to bank to pass southbound ship.































The once burdensomlle tallk of pickingr the lipe p~ineapple an1d learning it to al (Centrl
collecting point inl large rlhoulder bag?, ha-, beeni largel. eliminiiated bs the user of malChines.


Planter inbs hole iln mulch paper and roil
to set pinleapple slip. About 17.500 of the
!oune. slips are planted per acre oi lanid.


Packer inspectL pineple.P I \lice*, and sort thleml before canning.


.ln estimated 275.000 tons of pineapple glo through Canal eac~h ?ear.


brain n for li\ity: Jawsri 1;oft d~lrllns. and(. foodstl. rs cxtlractt e illol th~e


shell .r ..nd ti a ncrit h unmmn tg llthe mIc11 I al T ps:nes p.>
Pine h-l p ph~l.l-, c we nol grall~-tinfomseeb t r m l
taken imm ti n 5ture pll: mo Ficl~ m I t he Iil iti.. .1at. p~lasing






;1IIll C -3.1.1 .1C htisit s CdllrC tllifU~I lts. I jlll: i \\|10


Iupermlallrkt custonserr, find plenltiful suppllies of pineapple production onl sale
aIt reasonable prices. partiall! because of lowr-cost shipmlent \ia the Canlal.


The Han\ailan Touriit maskes regular trip through the Canal. cau\in g inle-
apples anid other

FEBRUA.RY .., 19(|)l '1HEI PINAM1 CA~NAL REllE11. 15


Thzrou~gh The Ist/unianz Waterwvay


To Market,



\VHEN CO)LUMBUSi \'isite2d the~ \\e(st Inldil.S iSlnd
of C~uadell~letap dur~ling his slec~ond \otage to- thec NI:\<-
Wocrld in 1193 his liclst merits these included ther pinc..
ap~ple. wrhich he~ andi felllow explolers crinsldcredl a

Tradelb sooni carried thlc Iefreshmgln fr-uit to, othe-.
par'ts of' the worki,rl inrl~cluin~g Europe*,. \! he-re- it \\as
cl~:lllrstic~lltIe ,I!1d Inllptlcl\r ill Itli licthouses~c oIf Eu.-

brcanme known\r as thec bellit oF kIn-gs.

I1100tl~c. ti on 31fic dis~ti ll i liOFI 11;1 IliladE 1t1 C( 00111111.) 11
al!{l pCpi~1.. A l~ i ill I 1 illl ?< 30iClid(1 0 t l ol i .~JI. \\'lt I




fO14.1!t ca .1 stll~ 1(liciid (It~l t1101 1 I?!'? FllfllCtild


To M/larket










THE ART OF- wood carvin is as old as the history of man.
Some potential wood carvers never get past the whittling
stage. But H~erschel N. Johnson, Jr., of Gatun, carved and
carved until today his work is sought in art exhibitions.
Mr. Johnson, a refrigeration and air conditioning mechanic
of the Engineering and Construction Bureau's Maintenance
SDivision, is a freehand artist. H~e has been sketching, drawing,
and cutting all his life. In fact, his first honors were garnered
in the second grade, when, he was awarded a ribbon for excel-
lence in the freehand cutting art.
Before starting':a wood carving, Mr. Johnson first makes a
freehand drawing' of his subject. The models he's used have
covered a n ide ranlge, from forms of marine life to the head of
the powerfu Indian Chieftain Urraca, who in 1519 fought
Spanish warriors for 5 days and emerged, unbeaten. Marine
lif~e, including coral and seashqils, was tlhe first subject matter
he chose for his carvinlgs. His carving of the profile of Chief
Urraca was from a drawing he made of the Indian's head on
the 1-cent Panamanian coin. Nor did he stop at just carving
the head of an Indian. One of his wood carvings that always
evokes attention at a showing is that of a most lifelike Indian
figure holding bow and arrow.
Mr. Johnson has ?carved the, conventional masks of Drama
and of Comeddy, a beautiful ;Sailing ship, and at present is at
work on a carving of a friends' coat-of-arin-s
Mr. Johnson is ase~onld genera~itioni P3 lanama Canal employee.
His parents camne to the Canal Zone in 1931 and his father was


Mr. Johnson at work on a friend's coat-of-arms.


employed as a track foreman with the Panama Railroad. Since
graduation from high school almost 20 years ago, Mr. Johnson
has been employed by the Company-Government organization.


THE SECOND PHASE of the Civil De-
fense first aid training program for
Company-Govbtrnment employees,
which started 10 months ago, is well
underway and is practically on sched-
ule. The program originally cont~em-
plated the training of about 500 persons
in American Red Cross first aid within
2 years, with half this number going
on to take the advanced first aid course.
The first phase was the training and
certifying of 20 instructors, which was
accomplished in April 1960. Since that
time, 15 of the instructors have trained
approximately 250 of the 500 first aid
workers required. In addition, however,
more than 200 employees. of the Com-
paywho are not assigned to a special
PCiv Defense duty, have been given in-
dustrial first aid training by the Civil
Defense instructors. Several of the ins-
tructors have given two classes, one has
given three, and one, five.
When all the necessary personnel
have received standard training, the
third phase of the program will get
underway, that is, the training of a spe-
cial group of 250 employees in advanced
first aid. One small group of 15 already
has received this instruction,
Those being trained under the Civil


Defense program have been or will be
assigned to rescue units, casualty sta-
tions, and the hospitals, the extent of
their training to be governed by their
place of assignment and duty. This
training and assignment is considered
part of~ the employees' official duty in
connection with their Civil Defense re-
,sponsibility in case of an emergency.
After the required personnel have re-
ceived their training, brief refresher
courses will be given each year to all.
In the development of the current first
aid training program in the Canal Zone,
two very important advances have been
made. The first was the organization of
the First Aid Committee for the Canal
Zone, which will administer the First
Aid training program, for this area. The
committee is composed of: M. F. Mil-
lard, Chairman; W. G. Dolan, Chief,
Fire Division; Philip L. Dade, Chief,
Civil Defense; W. H. Smith, Chief,
Safety Branch; Dr. Sidney B. Clark,
Medical Advisor; and William Wright,
Director of Operations, Caribbean Area,
American Red Cross.
The Committee will direct the pro-
gram based on the number of courses
that will be needed, the available in-
structors, and by consolidating small


groups into classes. Training programs
will be established by the individual
units involved, who will clear and co-
ordinate with the -Committee.
The second important advance, a
direct result of the first, was the appoint-
ment of a local Instructor-Trainer for
this area. The first woman to be named
to this post is Mrs. Charlotte B. Ken-
nedy, who was awarded her certificate
at the annual meeting of the Am~erican
Red Cross in January. This will enable
local units and organizations who need
instructors for first aid training of their
personnel, to obtain them locally as the
need arises.
First aid training also has moved for-
ward in the three communities where
Civil Defense Volunteer Corps are ac-
tive: Rainbow City, Paraiso, and Santa
Cruz. The volunteers in these towns, all
of whom have specific duty assignments
in case of an emergency, are continuing
with their training in all branches of
first aid.
At ceremonies held recently in these
towns, certificates for 5 continuous
years of volunteer work were awarded.
Rainbow City and Santa Cruz each had
27 who qualified for the certificate, and
Paraiso had 15 who received the awards.


FEBRUARY 3, 19631


He's Whittled Way Inta Art Ranks;


~~Civil Defense~














THE SUPERTANKER which heaves over
the horizon 3 hours ahead of sched-
ule, the small coastal steamer marked
for a tandem lockage, the ship that
doesn't show. These are some of the
problems to be tackled by the semi-
automatic marine traffic control system
now being devised for the Panama
Canal.
These problems and hundreds of


others which face the marine traffic con-
trollers, the pilots, and other members
of the Marine Bureau were under
special study last month by three en-
gineers from the New York firm of Gibbs
& Hill, which has the contract for de-
signing and installing the new system.
The Gibbs & Hill engineers, Jack
Shepard, Howard Flemming, and
Richard Kimball, were accompanied to


the Isthmus by Dr. Peter Friedlander,
outstanding computer programer, who
has been employed by Gibbs & ]Hill as
a consultant.
The problem which was receiving
the attention of the engineers and Dr.
Friedlander last month was determining
what information wiill have to be sup-
plied to the computer and how much
"weight" the various bits of such infor-
mation should be g~iven. The decisions
on these points will determine the type
of digital computer which will be
needed for the system.
During their stay here, they conferred
with pilots, marine traffic controllers,
Canal port captains on both sides of the
Isthmus, and engineers of the Engineer-
ing Division. They also took trips
through the Canal and visited ~the ma-
rine traffic control offices in both Cris-
tobal and Balboa.
The group plans to return to the Isth-
mus next month to make a series of radio
tests, after which work will begin on
specifications for the system. Bids on
the project are to be solicited early in
1962 and the new system is expected to
be installed by mid-1963.
The new marine traffic control office
will be located on the top floor of the
Terminals Building in Balboa. Sched-
ules determined by the computer will
be transmitted to the dispatcher's office,
the Port Captains' offices and to each of
the locks by teletype. The computer will
be able to alter and modify schedules
within minutes after a new set of Canal
conditions or other factors have been
introduced into the machine by the dis-
patcher.
The system will permit a computer
to do what it does best-repetitive cal-
culations- and at the same time will let
the pilots and marine traffic controllers
do what they do best-exercise judg-
ment.

Carnival Flag To Fly
Over Zone This Month

THE CARNIVAL FLAG will be flying in
the Canal Zone on both sides of the Isth-
mus this month as a part of the festivi-
ties planned for the celebration of Car-
nival, February 11 to dawn of Feb-
ruary 15. Momo, the God of Fun and
Frolic, will reign over the Isthmus and
Zonians will join their neighbors in Pan-
ama in the carnival celebration, as they
have through the years. ~.


A GOn~UP OF high school students who
are interested in engineering and archi-
tecture as a profession will be given an
opportunity to learn more about the
field during National Engineers' Week,
which will be celebrated from Feb-
ruary 19 through February 25.
Budding en-
gineers and ar-
chitects will be
released from
classes Fe b-
ruary 20 and
will be assign-
ed individual-
ly to spend the
entire day on
the job with
professional engineers and architects as
"engineers for a day.
On February 23, two teams of stud_
ents from Balboa and Cristobal High
Schools will compete for prizes on a
quiz show televised over CFN. Some.
time during the week all interested stud.
ents will hear a talk by Ralph A. Tudor,


well known civil engineer and a member
of the Panama Canal Company's Board
of Directors, who is expected to come
to the Canal Zone to be guest speaker
at the annual banquet marking En-
gineers' and Architects Day. The ban.
quet is to be February 24 at the Fort
Amador Officers' Club.
Other plans for the week include a
transit of Gaillard Cut by Zone en-
gineers, aboard the craneboat Atlas, to
observe the Canal widening and chan-
nel lighting work. The transit is sched-
uled for Feibruary 21.
The wbiek-long observance here will
be sponsored jointly by the Canal Zone
Society of Professional Engineers; Pan-
ama Society of Engineers and Archi-
tects; Panama Section, American So-
ciety of Civil' Engineers; Canal Zone
Post, So~ciety of American Military En-
gineers, and the Panama and Canal Zone
Chapter, American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning En-
gineers.


U.S. AMBASSADOR Joseph F. Farland
heads a list of prominent speakers who
will be presented during: the "Adven-
tures in World Affairs" series being
sponsored by the Armed Services Young
Men's Christian Association in Balboa
this month and next. The Ambassador
will open the series at 7:30 p.m., Feb-
ruary 21, with a speech on '"The United
States in Panama."
Second speaker in the series will be
Lt. Gov. odhn D. McElheny, who will
talk on The Canal's Role in World
Shipping." His talk is scheduled for


7:30 p.m., February 28.
Other speakers will be Col. Hartley
F. Dame, who will talk on "Com-
munism" on March 7; Col. John E.
Unverferth, who will speak on "Map-
ping the Americas" on March 14; Col.
Thomnas L. Crystal, Jr., on "The Birth
and Growth of NATO" on March 21,
and to conclude the series, Maj. Gen.
Daniel A. O'Connor will speak on
"Army GCuided Missiles" on March 28.
All of the talks will be at 7:30 p.m.
in the YMCA auditorium. and will be
open to the general public.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


WCorth knowing ..



Engineers Studying Canal's Computer Needs


Students Can Learn More About

Engineering Profession i~n February


Series Planned On W7orld Affairs





CTIVE AFFAIRS BUREAU
Edward E. Albin
Fire Lieutenant
B. Edwvard Lowande
Chief Inspector, Balboa
Customs Division
Laura A. Atchley
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
ENGINE ON- Z rmON
STRU RlQ LRIAU
Manuel P.Ca rea
LeaderSemn
Fidel C. Mackay
Meter Repairman
Agusti Mufioz 'tn e

Sepferino Pa '
Palancaman
HEALTH BUREAU
Nicor S. Bailey
Patient Food Service
Attendant
J. de los Reyes
Heavy Laborer,
Pest Control


ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Fitz M. Barton
Leader Laborer Cleaner
MARINE BUREAU,
David D. Minto
Sandblaster
Jesse DeWitt Tate
General Foreman

i A. nSiclen, Jr.

SUPPLY COMMUNITYY
SERVIl BUREAU
Gregorio Po

S NATION AND
NASBUREAU
Hubert E. Coke
Fireman
Eric N. Davis
Helper Carman
James F. Dougherty
Lead Foreman Carmnan
Ephraim Laken
Cargo Clerk


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Robert W. Lawyer
Police Sergeant
William G. Hoelzle
Police Private
Sylvia J. Stoute
Junior High Teacher, Latin
American Schools
Neheamiah B. Taylor
Laborer Cleaner
ENGINEERING AND CON-
STRUCTION BUREAU
H~ictor M. DeSouza
Oiler
Emeterio Pimienta
Palancaman
Hernitn Arroyo
Floating Plant Oiler
Juliiin Olmos
Heavy Laborer
Amado Moses
Maintenanceman
Charles G. Morency
Dipper Dredge Mate
Fitz H. Doyle
Oiler
Margaret P. Fessler
Clerk-Typist
Jos6 D. Moratn
Heavy Laborer
Thelma M. Sasso
Clerk Stenographer
JosSBeM. Anchundia
Catalino L6pez
Maintenanceman


Frank H. Dibble ..
Diesel Qperator Machimist
Isaac A. Hinkson
Helper Electrician
Inbs Albeo
Debris Control Winchman
Efrain Smith
Floating Plant Oiler
W~illiam C. Williford
General Foreman
Alva A. Nurse
Helper Electrician


Stanley A. Jones
Floating Plant Oiler
HEALTH BUREAU.
Luis Sampris
Hospital Laborer
Ed th.Ii. BIsistnt

Adina Rattray
Nursing Assistant
A. Henriquez
Chauffeur
OFFICE OF ~THE COMP-
TROLLER
Dorothy H. Tmmn i
Tie, Leave, and
Payroll Clerk
Oliver L. Riesch
Supervisory Budget Analyst
John J.i Fallon
Payroll Sys~tent's Officer
Regmnald Cled .
Bookkeeping ,ahe
Operation u
ADMINISTRA'iI E B NH
Albertina H. Vaz
ClBYiender GWorker
LaborerCla
Gloria M. Ses
Shorthand eotr
George A.
Shorthand Reporter
MARINE BUREAU
Frank T. Willoe ~
Chief Engineer, Towboat ~

Everaror eAprilla
E ai ter Mintenance
Launch Operator ~
Joseph E. Hall
Launch Dispatcher
Hezekiah Richards
Crane Hookmnali .
Clifford Gayle
Helper Lock Operator
Ralph E. Leathers
Maintenance Macdhinist
Byron B. Bowen
Carpenter


Santiago Sanford
Oiler
Auguste J. Agnoly
Helper Welder
Abraham Felixson
Supervisory Storekeeper
Patrcio Pinto
James A. Schofield
Lock Operator Machinist
Fedro Morales
Boatman
Antonie Agustin
DaHie A. LMon i(crator
Towing Locomotive
Operator
Albert A. Shore
Lock Operator Machinist
G. G. Hamilton
Seaman
Alberto 'sn


yR.Rons

L sVeliz





Leavyr Laborer Clae


Clerk

SeViR Cal tosCher Sprio
Jamesr Grfith n
Sbotter
Srtan- eL Oh Cleanr
Rodolfo J. ooer an
Beake Cte

LuanfordGittens
Laborer


Silvia G. Wint
Counter Attendant
Samuel C. Turner
Cook
Charles T. Mayers
Stock Control Clerk
Ruy aM. Scit e
Ula B. Woods
Food Service Sales Checker
Sebastiin Martinez
Laborer
Cyrus A. Morris

Wleor B. McQueen
Meat Cutter
Ethel L. Lucas
Clerk
Mary B. Pitterson
Clerk-Typist
Luther E. Gray
Laborer Cleaner
Lillian G. Hunte
Retail Store Sales Checker
Reginald Ford
Baker
Nazario de Gracia
Laborer
Albert Smith
Storekeeping Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND TER-
MINALS BUREAU
Alejandro Ramboa
C. P. a hnes
Laborer Cleaner
William R. Dixon
Letd nFr p e'I'ransporrta-

Josk I.o ontenegro
H-igh Lift Truck Operator
Joseph H. Smith
Boatman
Wilfred E. Barrow
Accounting Clerk
Stenhen E. Edwards
Clerk Checker
Edewar R. Innis
Helper Carman
T. N. Etchberger, Jr.
Guard


FEBRUARY 3, 1961


ANNIVERSARIES


(On th~e basis of total Federal Service)


CIVEL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Francis C.so
DetentGud



A OT TION AD
TER INUREA
Ae rF.Be











December 75 through January 75
HEALTH BUREAU
Humberto Paz, to Medical Radiology Tech-
nician, Division of F-reventive M/edicine
anld Quarantine.
Gorges Hospital
Walter Sandiford, Chauffeur, from Railroad
Division-
Raphael T. Price, to Motor Vehicle Dispat-
cher.
MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Th mas S. Clark, Jr., Roley J. Wesley, to

Charles R. Dade, to Probationary Pilot
Paul R. Guerriero, Kenneth R. Orcutt, to
SPilot-in-T'rainin .
Samuel Bent, Gladstone C. Hamilton, Eli-
seo Lemnos, to Leader Seaman.
Francisco Mercado B., Charles Taylor, Fitz
D). Roberts, Jos6 Gonz~lez, Salil Parada
M., to Seaman,
Levi A. Lewis, from Guard, Railroad Di-
vision, to Deckhand
Robert E. Nurse, to Launch Seaman,
Percival U. Johnson, from Guard, Railroad
Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Locks Division
Arthur L. Lubinski, Charles W. Crane,
Clarence E. Sykes, Frederick C. Atkin-
son, Arthur J. Millis, to Lock Operator
Machinist.
Juan M. C6rdoba, Antonio M. Dawkins, to
. Cement Finisher.
Jack Simon, Robert E. Budreau, Dallas B.
Thornton, Slaughter H. Sharpensteen, to

Leste H. arm ws, to ad Foreman Car-
penter.
Stanley E. Smith, Arlington A. Petro,
Euclid C. Jordan, to Timekeeper.
JosB L. Pefia, Prince A. Jones, Randolph
C. Hunt, Clifford Gayle, to Air Com-
pressor Plant Attendant.
Evaristo R. Manuel, Irvin F. Headley, to
Leader Boatman.
Justo E. Jaslin, to Truck Driver.
Arnold Best, to Painter Maintenance.
Herbert Lewis, to Helper Lock Operator.
Aurelio Tesis, from Laborer, Supply Di-

Jame n. tMHC ricL, b rrn Sheetmetal
Worker, Maintenance Division, to Tow-
ing Locomotive Operator.
Joh Van Der Heyden, to Lead Foreman
Crpe ter. *
Industrial Division
Andrew A. Burgess, from Laborer Cleaner,
Supply Division, to Helper Rigger.
William T. Pkrez, Isidro Martinez, Edwin
F. Baptiste, M~artin E. White, Seward
P. Cargill, Hezekiah Ricketts, to Crane
Hookman.
Hubert A. Campbell, to Furnaceman.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Community Services Division
Manuel Garcias, Manuel Barrios, Bernabd
Pedroza, Jos6 I. Herrera G., Victor Ruiz,
Josk C. Prado, Julio Arftuz R., Nicol~s
Tuliicn, Rogelio Lozano, Juan D. Paler-
mo, Victor Mufioz, Jos6 I. Martinez, Juan
Cabeza, Carlos Valiente, Manuel T. Mos-
quera, Jos6 E. Pimenta, Jeriinimo Quin-
tana, Fermmn Rodriguez, Ignacio G6n-
dola, Buenaventura Saavedra, Buenaven-
tura Sanjur, Juli~n G. Godoy, Luis A.
Rivera D., Luis Romero, Emiliano Cun-
dra, Juan Padilla, Ambrosio Espada B.,
Juan D. G6ndola, Juli~n Gil, Ismael M.


EMVPLOYEES who were~ promoted or
transferred between December 15 and
January 15 are listed below. Within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
William E. Dodd, from Clerk-Typist, Locks
Division, to File Clerk.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Joseph B. Clemmons, Jr., from Chief, Cus-
toms Division, to Assistant to Civil Af-
fairs Director.
David C. Rose, to Air Mail Tour Foreman'
Postal Division.
Meredith W. Brown, from Window Clerk,
Postal Division, to Customs Guard, Cus-
toms Division.
Ofelia I. Serrano, to Elementary and Sec-
ondary School Teacher, Division of
Schools.
OFiFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Isabel T. Wood, to Stenographic and
Typing Unit Supervisor.
George R. Downing, from Admeasurer,
Marine Bureau, to Accountant,
Mary T. Helm, from Clerk-Typist, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Clerk-Stenographer.
]Florence E. Derrer, Clerk-Stenographer,
from Administrative Branch, to Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk.
Esther R. Niskanen, Clerk-Typist, from
Employment and Utilization Division.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Dredging Division
Luther F. Jones, to Chief Engineer, Tow-
boat or Ferry.
Victoriano Jackson, German C. Lambridge,
Medardo Palomina M., Kenneth A.
Brown, James H. Holder, Victoriano
Carrion, to Navigational Aid Worker.
Charles H. Kissling, from Lock Operator,
Locks Division, to Di per Dredge Mate.
Rodolfo Davis, from He per Machinist, In-
dustrial Division, to Navigational Aid
Worker.
Augustie F. Morgan, to Leader Sand-
blse.Maintenance Division
Eric T. Smoll, Everad F. Pile, Dudley J.
Miller, Juan B. Quintana R., George A,
Morgan, Herbert A. W~aith, Ferdinand
M. Graham, Walter J. St. Louis, Bertie
E. Allen, James S. Daniel, to Wharf-
builder.
Kenneth R. Warner, to Lead Foreman
Public Works Road Repair.
Lothen E. Boyd, Louis W. Chenis, Leo-
poldo de Gracia, William R. Simmons,
Mariano Garcia, to Cement Finisher.
Jorge C. Canizales, Charles Brathwaite,
Florencio de Le6n, to Carpenter.
Alfredo C. Casal, Gabino Morales A., Do-
roteo Hern~ndez, Salom6n Vergara, He-
zabish Richards, Lorenzo A. Anderson,
Sebasti~n Barsallo, to Paver.
David S. Sinclair, Normeno Bailey, Ino-
cencio Villarrea~l, Adi~n Castillo, Elton
W. Clark, to Leader Asphalt or Cement
Worker.
Sidney I. Brooks, to Leader Laborer.
Ernest M. Straker, George N. Wratson, to
Automotive Equipment Operator.
Simeon Shirley, to Heavy Laborer.
Arnold L. Sandiford, Linton K. Dickens,
Adolphus A. Weeks, to Sheetmetal
Worker.


Soto, Luis Bethancourt, Adolfo Bedolla,
Gregorio Rodriguez, Andr~s Guioms, Ga-
briel Mendoza, Cayetano de Sedas, Ale-
Jandro Borbon, Rosendo Zerna, Marce-
lino Barrera, Amador S~nchez G., Parkin-
son Pyle, Concepcibn Visquez, Juan
Valdds, Eduardo Pacheco, Victor Valdt~s
H., Rafael Ipina M., Abelardo Reluz, Is-
mael 1Murgas, Juan D. Torres, Marco
Collazo C., Pedro L. Lara, L~zaro Mar-
tinez, Severiano Teofil, Mack P. Amon,
Felipe Aguilar, Antonio Chifundo, Te-
rencio Ortega, Hermenegildo Avila, Juan
Vald~s, Ceferino Nino, Alberto Valencia,
Romualdo Menacho, Cecilio Vald~s, Gre-
gorio Barrios, Ivan Duprey, to Garbage
Collector.
Supply Division
Vivian L. Bonney, to Accounts Mainte-
nance Clerk.
Robert M. Jolliffe, Jr., to Kitchen Attend-
ant.
Hasborn J. Lindo, to Warehouseman.
Clifford A. Dottin, to Service Station At-.
tendant.
Clarence Levy, from Guard, Railroad Di-
vision, to Laborer Cleaner.
Aurelia C. Navarro, to Laundry Checker.
John M. Brown, to Supervisory Merchan-
dise Management Ofheer.
GI dys a.eC'oney nR mond Mere a so

Management Officer.
Eldon H. Squires, to Farm ]Equipment Op-

EulatiorSosa, Mirian Pefialoza, to Leader
Milker.
Rodolph Gayle, Secundino Diaz, Joseph R.
Dyer, to General Helper.
Sefred A. Bowen, to Heavy Laborer.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Terminals Division
John I. Matthews, to Painter Maintenance.
Francisco Rivera Valentin Olivarez,
Julio Pazmino GLaurino Arboleda,
Luis TorreroPa Pasual Medranol
Dawson P., Apolinario Valarezo M., Jus-
to G. R'vs Rafael M D.,s Elio
Alonzo B,asPablo A. G er a, Jos6 Po

m nuz m. HortG ci D mig zDT.,
Horacio Granado, Magdaleno Rodriguez,
Agustin Cedefio, Diego F. Guerrero L.,
Higinio Ortiz, Segundo Bones M., Jos6
V. Ch~vez, Pedro Flores Q., M~anuel L.
L6pez, to Winchman.
Tommy Morris, to Leader Dock Cargo Op-
erations.
Pedro G6ndola A., Luis A. Portillo C., Luis
E. Cobaleda P., Silverio Acosta, to Car-
penter.
Barlos Ballou, to Liquid Fuels Gauger.
John T. Gabay, to Hlelper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman, Marine Bunkering Section.
Antomio Le6n, to Leader Laborer.
Arnulfo de Sedas, to Ship Worker.
Roy WV. Bryan, Magan Lallu, to Clerk
Checker.
Railroad Division
David Valderrama P., to Carpenter.
Mloisks Minas, to Leader Railroad Track-

Mema@nS.Hlenry, to Leader Maintenanceman.
Motor Transportation Division
Severino Hern~ndez T., to Automotive Me-
chanic.
Oscar W. Layne, to Heavy Truck Driver.
(See p. 20)


THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


----PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS -






























.


Owen W. Smith demonstrates the safety device he developed for drill press.
-ACCI DENTS


Promotions and Transfers (Continued from page 19)


Safety


Concerns


Everyone

AcCIDENT PREVENTION is a wide open
field. The Safety Branch and bureau
safety personnel are not the only ones
with a sustained interest in and ability
to reduce accidents. Every day new
ideas and methods to cut accidents are
being devised and put into operation by
experienced employees and supervisors.
A good case in point is shown in the
illustration. Removable "T" shaped
chuck keys are common to a great many
machine tools such as this drill press
and are essential for tightening drill bits,
lathe chucks, and similar devices.
An operator sometimes will forget to
remove the chuck key before starting
the machine. In 99 cases out of 100 the
error is noted, the machine is stopped,
and the key removed before any harm
is done. Unfortunately this is not always
the case. About a year ago a machine
operator in the Instrument Repair Shop
lost a middle finger when it was caught
by a spinning chuck key.
Shortly after this accident a member
of the Safety Branch was discussing
possible ways to avoid a repetition of
it with Owen W. Smith, a mechanic in
the Water and Laboratories Branch shop
at Miraflores. Long after the conversa-
tion, Mr. Smith continued to mull ideas
over in his mind. He knew that to be
successful, whatever he devised must
cancel out an operator's forgetfulness by
making it impossible to start the ma-
chine until he had removed the chuck
key. The answer he came up with was
simplicity itself, yet foolproof. A micro-
switch is put into the electrical circuit
and the microswitch must be closed
before the machine can be started. To
close the microswitch the chuck key is
removed and hung on the forked arm
attached to the microswitch.
Owen Smith's idea fills the bill-the
human element has been guarded
against. Even if the operator forgets to
remove the key, he's safe-the machine
can't be started until the chuck key is
hanging on the switch arm-
As Mr. Smith's idea demonstrates, ac-
cident prevention is not reserved for
safety people--it's open to all m~en with
ideas and the desire to use them to help
their fellow men. Put your safety ideas
to work- preventing accidents can be
challenging and has its own special
reward-the sense of a job well done.


Fon

THIS MONTfH
AND

THIS YEAR


DECEMBER

ALL UNITS
YEAR TO DATE


Y S
S T
'59
7226
29177


Albert G. Mootoo, Cleveland A. Piggott,
Alfredo Chambers, Bookkeeping Ma-
chine Operator, Accounting Division.
H~ylin Casanova eErnest Bernard, George
End RH. ,e Bry, Mildd Steiev, iscelyn
H. Evering, Clerk, Supply Division.
Manuel Torres, Clyde A. Sealey, Clerk-
Typist, Contract and Inspection Divi-
Lee Greene, Ap rentice Electronics Me-
chanic, Electrical Division.
Ruthwin Samuels, Sales Section Head, Sup-
ply Division.
Herman N. Watson, Clerk-Typist, Supply
Ucat A Barclay, Dairy-Utility Leader,
Supply Division.
Facundo Villarreal, Jorge Hernsndez, Abra-
ham Hernandez, Surveying Aid, En-
W loT erinyiisn, ward B. Callomn, Ar-
turo E. Agard 'Claude E. Burgess, Ashton
E. Crichlow, Joseph E. Hall, Edgar S.
Shaw, Emilio H. Archer, Edmond T.
Boyce, Carlos C. Castillo, Rodolfo F.
Abbott, Lionel A. Ashby, Ronald D.
Williams, Launch Dispatcher, Navjiga-
tion Division.


PRomorrows which did not involve
changes of title follow:
William M. Jensen, Finance Branch Super-
intendent, Postal Division.
William F. Gr dy, Supervisory Pharmacist,
Coco Solo hospital.
Efrain Escalona,alSupervisory Pharmacist,
Joseoh aG. Radon, Supervisory Time-
keeper, Terminals Division.
Joseph; J. Schack, Admeasurer, Navigation
BillD of ohr, Mechanical Engineer, En-
gineering Division,
Doris M. Young, Clerk-Stenographer, Ac-
Mcrl ti Joes Clerk-Typist, Treasury
Branch, Offtice of the Comptroller.
Joseph M. Watson, Supervisory Adminis-
trative Services Assistant, Engineering
Caml M Dorgan, Clerk-Typist, Division
of Schools,
Thomas F. McCullough, Apprentice Elec-
trician, Dredging Division.
Edward G. Wasam, Stock Control Clerk,
Supply Division.
Ram6n Benjamin, Clerk-Typist, Navigation
Division. .


FEBRUARY 3, 1981


I I /


FIRST AID DISABLING DA
C AS ES INJ URI ES ILO
,60 'SS '60 '59r '80
250 252 10 14 262
2909- 2812 141 160 15291





gates was to arrive about April 1.
Plans were announced in February to
611 in the swamp lying between Ancon
and Sosa Hills with fill from Culebra
Cut. The land was to be raised about
6 feet to the grade of the railroad tracks.
It was estimated that 930,000 cubic
yards of material would be required to
fi11 the area, which was to be used in
the future for building purposes.
25 Years Ago
FEBRUARY WAS Visiting month on the
Isthmus 25 years ago, just as it con-
tinues to be today. Among the hundreds
of tourists who came to see the Canal a
quarter-century ago were such celeb-
rities as George Bernard Shaw, Mary
Roberts Rinehart, Somerset Maugham,
and the Earl of Cromer, British head of
the Suez Canal Company, who took the


opportunity of inspecting the Panama
Canal facilities while visiting here.
Three former Canal Zone governors also
arrived for a visit.
Canal defenses continued to be a
matter of interest mn Washmngton, D.C.,
as Rep. William Sirovich, of New York,
told Congress that Japan already pos-
sessed a submarine capable of carrying
hydroplanes which could destroy the
Paanaa Cannal n even ofB sa 1he ac
Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, then
stage air raids on Hawaii and the United
States.
Negotiations on the new Panama-
United States treaty hit a snag in Wash-
ington when representatives of the two
countries were unable to agree on a
clause concerning United States military
maneuvers in Panama territory. Mean-
while, a bill authorizing payment of
pensions to non-U.S. citizen employees
of the Canal was introduced into the
House of Representatives.
10 Years Ago
DETAILS FOR organization of the new
Panama Canal Company were the sub-
ject of discussion by three members of
the Board of Directors of the Panama
Railroad Company who arrived on the
Isthmus tfor conferences, 10 years ago
tis mon h.
Rodolfo Herbruger, Panama's Ambas-
sador to the United States, made a
formal protest over what he called the
Panama Railroad monopoly on truck
transportation of freight from the Cris-
tobal and Balboa docks. In a nationwide
broadcast, President Arnulfo Arias took
the National Assembly to task for its
inaction against the Communists. He
told the nation that Red activity had
been noted in the schools of the Re-
public.
One Year A go
LONG RANGE studies on improvement
of the Panama Canal were reviewed last
February by members of the Board of
Directors, who met at Balboa Heights.
One of the major actions was the dieci-
sion to include dee emni of the channel
as part of program for increasing Canal
capacity.
TThe Foster Construction Company,
in a joint venture with W~ilhiams Brothers
of Tulsa, Okla., made a lowr bid of
$6,353,500 on the extensive Em ire
Reach canne improvement project.


50 Years Ago
DESPITE unusually dry weather 50
years ago this month, a section of the
east bank of the Canal opposite the
YMCA clubhouse at Culebra broke
away putting about 550,000 cubic
adof earth into motion. On the west
ank of the Cut, the annex of the hotel
at Culebra was torn down because
breaks in the ground under the building
indicated it was within the slide area.
The placing of concrete in the lowest
pair of locks at Gatun began toward the
end of the month. It was expected that

be bou to aa hi ht 5wf 2fet ui go th
dry season, thus forming a retaining wall
in places where material was sliding.
The excavation work at Gatun Locks
was almost completed and the Bfrst ship-
ment of structural steel for the lock


RETIREMENT certifloateS were pre-
sented at the end of January to the em-
ployees listed below, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service,
and future residence.
Shadrach A. Ba~ker CIomia; La 1cshoSb
28 years, 10 months, 8 days; Colombia.
Ruby E. Barnes, Jamaica; Nursing Assist-
ant, Gorgas Hosp tl b36 years; Panama.
Cal ial sonvi ion; Sila y ars, 6 as
Panama.
Obadiah Brown, Jamaica; Laborer, Supply
Division; 32 years, 11 months, 27 days;
Jose Bant, Panama; Carpenter, Terminals
Division; 16 years, 11 months, 25 days;
Colon.
Jos6 A. Centefio, Panama; Guard, Railroad
PD vsion; 32 years, 7 months, 7 days;
Errold Clark, Panama; Deckhand, Port
Captain's Office, Cristobal; 11 years, 8
months, 11 days; Colon.
Charles Davis, Barbados; Accounts Main-
6ena teheler~k,d Spplo division; 42 years,
Hylton E. Drew, Panama; Service Center
Supervisor, Supply Division; 32 years,
6 months, 22 days; Colon.
Federico Ferreira, Panama; Crane Hook-
man, Industrial Division; 27 years, 1
month, 2 da s; Panama.
Reuben E. Gallimore, Panama; Supervisory
Coen ', Spd /; Diviasoan; 46 years, 1
Manuel Gibus, Panama; Guard, Panama
Local Agency; 36 years, 1 month, 5 days;
Panama.
Arnold Gordon, Jamaica; Deckhand, Port
Captain's Office, Cristobal; 31 years, 9


months, 4 days; Colon.
CDr er nMoGo Trnspora adosDivi iocn
21 years, 6 months, 10 days; Panama.
Reuben Hart, St. Lucia, B.W.I.; Guard,
Panama Local Agency; 41 years, 3
Lu is A. PnghPanna ; Clerk Dredging
Division; 38 years, months, days; Colon.
James D. MacLean; Scotland; Electrician>
Dredging Division; 21 years, 2 months'
Dr Ldeaon J.eMalers, yGermany; Medical
Officer, Psychiatry, Corozal Hospital; 10
years, 6 months, 4 days; Ohio.
James Marshall, England; Assistant to Di-
rectr tl dAffairsFBur3 u; 30 years'
Alejandro Mendoza, Panama; Laborer,
Community Services Division; 18 years,
8 months, 24 days; Panama.
Geog J.u bxrl o, OA r nti;Eamp by
p~loyment Office; 19 years, 7 months, 4
days; Florida.
Minto G. Nugent, Jamaica; Chauffeur,
Motor Trans ortation Division; 32
Ni asi O tizmoPana n; Doc slorakmra.Ter-
minals Division; 19 years, 9 months, 4
days; Colon.
Elfreda Ottey, Jamaica; Pantrywoman,
Supply Division; 20 years, 7 months, 17
days; Panama.
Wilderson Pomare, Colombia; Dock
Worker, Tetrminals Division; 12 years-
Helr~ma .C Tmas, Panama; Chauffeur,
Gorgas Hospital; 32 years, I month, 27
days; Panama.
Simeon D. Wisdom, Panama; High Lift
Truck Operator, Terminals Division; 31
years, 11 months, 25 days; Colon.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


cCANALc



HIISTO3RY


RETIREMENTS






TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE, ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
1961 1960 Transits
1951-55
United States Inter coastal. ... .. ... .. .. .. 126 136 162
East Coast of U.S. and South America. .. .. ... .. .. 636 710 427
East Coast of U.S. and Central America. .. .. .. .. 81 102 143
East Coast of U.S. and Far East. .. ... ... .. .. ... 493 450 257
U.S./Canada East Coast and Australasia. .. . 58 53 55
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada. .. .. .. .. 193 262 160
Europe and South America. .... .. .. ... .. .. .. 279 261 116
Europe and Australasia .................. .......... 96 86 80
All other routes. .. .. .. .. .. .. ......... 676 572 374
Total traffic. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .., 2,638 2,632 1,774

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND T'OLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal years)
Tolls
'Transits (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Avernage
1961 1960 Transits 1961 1960 Tolls
1951-5s 1951-ss
July...... ......** 941 888 557 $4,680 $4,219 $2,432
August. .... 912 888 554 4,585 4,111 2,403
September. .., 847 823 570 4,172 3,828 2,431
ON ebrer. ....... 1 5 0 ,9 ,3 59
December. ..... 868 893 599 4,385 4,420 2,545
January. .... 580 2,444
February. ...... 559 2,349
March.. ...... 632 2,657
April. .. .. .. .. .. 608 2,588
Jue.. ..... :., 9 2,52
Totals tor first
6 months, or -
fiscal year..... 5,338 5,231 3,455 $26,621 $24,522 $21,730

CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year
1961 1960 1951-55
Nationality
Num- Tons Num- Tons Average Average

t asis ca 0o tb sis ca go trmlit r gonsf
British. .. .. .. .. 298 2,045,350 337 2,034,341 301 1,874,647
Chilean. .. ... .. 27 239,005 25 135,607 11 66,740
Chinese. .. .. ... 14 72,872 15 86,219 6 38,938
Colombian. .. .. .. 63 124,192 66 88,624 38 46,028
Danish.......... 91 256,511 107 360,369 58 213,240
ecuedhoren... 1 17963 1 1 0 1 249
German.......... 285 774,997 323 858,440 44 92,509
Greek ... .. .. .. 138 1,347,252 50 462,209 26 219,932
Honduran .. .. .. 49 52,680 53 64,071 96 120,854
Itaian....... 44 43038 44 27831 36 185,937
Japanese.. .. .. 2101 1,234,903 198 1,224,354 67 406,764
Liberian.. .. ... 248 2,086,921 258 2,302,541 43 260,602
Netherlands. .. .. 104 603,706 104 537,259 32 151,485
Nicaraguan. .. .. 11 14,480 20 22,969 6 4,648
Norwegian. .. ... 302 1,785,554 276 1,796,025 193 747,864
Panamanian. .. .. 92 490,618 57 209,774 115 604,619
Peruvian. .. .. .. 23 87,415 23 102,294 7 13,512
Swedish...... 73 342,571 66 342,983 43 175,551
United States.... 451 2,991,414 489 2,849,691 539 3,225,627
Venezuelan. .. 11 9,071 6 2
All Others....... 52 284,374 53 209,216 44 175,124
Total. ... 2,638 15,272,278 2,6332 14,130,725 1,774 8,797,124


FEBRUARY 3, 1961.


Dead Flattop Transits
A FORMER U.S. NAVY Escort Heli-
copter aircraft carrier, the U.S.S. Prince
Welliam, was towed through the -Canal
January 17 on her way from Philadel-
phia to Japan, where she will be broken
up for scrap. The old fighting vessel
arrived in Cristobal January 13~ under
tow of the Dutch flag tug Noord Hol-
land, was taken through the Canal by
a Panama Canal tug and left Balboa
January 17 for Japan by way of Hono-
lulu, with the Dutch tug again doing
the towing.
The 4655-foot long Prince William is
one of several baby flattops which have
paSSed through the Canal recently on
their way to the scrapyard. She was
converted from a mercantile hull in 1942
by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding
Corp. and was used during the war as
an escort aircraft carrier. When in active
service, she carried up to 90 aircraft'and
had a complement of 6463 officers and
men. C. B. Fenton & Co. handled the
ship at the Canal.

Bremen Returns
THE NORTH GERMAN LLOYD pas-
senger ship Bremen, one of a long line
of North German Lloyd ships to carry
this name, revisited the Canal in Jan-
uary, on- a cruise with 700 passengers,
and is due to return February 7 and 23
on two more cruises. The Bremen is
making the Caribbean island tour out
of New York, calling at Curacao and
Cartagena before arriving in Cristobal.
She will stop at the San Bllas Islanids on
her February 23 trip. The Bremen is
the only cruise ship scheduled this year
byContinental Sipping.
Other cruise ships expected to visit
Cristobal during February are the
Homeric and Empress of England on
February 10, the Bianca C on Feb-
ruary 6 and 20, the Mau~retania on Feb-
ruary 14, the Hanseatic on February 20,
the Ocean Monarch on February 24,
and the Nienw Amsterdam on Feb-
ruary 28.

Grain Car go
ANOTHER OF several large shipments
of grain passed through the Panama
Canal January 19 en route from the
United States W~est Coast to Oran and
Algiers. The shipment consisted of
20 025 tons of wheat crid b ad th







CANAL TRANSITS -- COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year

1961 960 ransits
1951-55


Commercial vessels:
Ocean going. .. ....... 1,338 1,300 2,638 2,632 1,774
Small ................... ...... 97 82 1 179 215 267
Total commercial. .. .. ... .. 1,435 1,382 2,817 2,847 2,041
U.S. Government vessels: on
Ocean-going.. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 30 22 52 43 148
Small*............. 37 41 78 53 71

Total commercial and U.S.
Governent. ... .. ... .. .. 1,502 1,445 2,947 2,943 2,260
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
asVessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July~ 1, 1951, Covernment-operated ships
transited free.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL

Pacific to Atlantic.
(All cargo figures in long tons)

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year


Ores, various .......... .......
Lumber. ......... .......
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt). ..
Wheat.. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .
garned food pouts. .. ..... .
Metals, various. .. .. . .. .. .. .
Bananas.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .
Barley. ................... ..............
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit). ................... .......,......
Iron and steel manufactures. .. ......
Pupodandprdcs.
Coffee d." 4~ .~ ~ ~~~
Fertilizers, unclassified. ........
Oilseeds and products. .......... .
All others. .......... ....,
Total. ... .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .


Atlantic to Pacific

SSecond Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodity
S1961 1960 Average,


I I


I


Atlantic
to
Pacific


Pacific
to
Atlantic


Total


Total


Total


Commodity


Average
- 1951-55
1,033,433
880,696
149,132
439,626

184,663
199 495
23,873

125,660
47,896
46,525
55,757
3,238
24,015
1,043,604
4.790.382


1961

2,127,370
893,939
6197,777
450,257

262,232
254,697
248,307
.146,532
134,063
131,340
125,284
112,617
101,443
1,004,248 1
7,400,597 I


1960

2,350,658
672,451
620,637
218,276

226,370
301,809
570,779
174,052
100,371
94,293
96,374
124,558
55,219
1,273,051
7,371,450


Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt). .. .
Coal and coke. .... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Metal, scrap. ... ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .
Soybeans.. .. .... ... ... .. ... .. .. .
Iron and steel manufactures. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Phosphates. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. ..
gC n ial classified. ..... ., ., ..
Paper and paper products. .......~
Sulphur. ............,.... ................
Machinery. .......... ....,

Sugar........ ..................... ...
Ores, various. ......... .....
All others. ......... ....,


2,590,055

409,192
382,844
343,457
12,3 6
107,307
104,143
92,602

83,607
77,322
1,410,692


1,928,383 901,706
696,803 14,645
340,767 128,551
327,614 415,441
307,422 181,170
12,61 7,78
109,398 97,333
105,377 89,389
75,479 74,768
88,99426,711
131,812 133,683
106,688 17,259
1,204,829 1,216,219
6,759,275 4,006,741


Total. .. .. .. . .. ... .. .. 7.800,871


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Greek flag bulk carrier Linda, a brand
new supership built in Japan by the
Ishikanajima Heavy Industries. The
.584-foot ship, which was on its maiden
voyage, is operated by the Marviento
Naviera, S.A., and is represented at the
,Canal. Zone by C. Fernie & Co.

Newest British Liner Due

PANAMA WILL BE a port of call mn
1961 for the luxurious new Oriana, the
first of two new superliners to join the
P&O-Orient Line's fleet of 16 fast pas-
senger ships. Completed in the Vickers
Armstrong shipyard at Barrow-in-
Furness, England, the vessel entered
service in January.
After a cruise from San Francisco to
Australia, she will sail in July for Eng-
land, by way of Panama, Jamnaica, and
Bermuda. The ship is due in Balboa
July 9 and will dock; at both Balboa and
Cristobal.
One of the largest passenger ships to
make the Canal transit since the former
German liner Bremen passed through
the Canal mn 1939, the Oriana is 804 feet
long, has a gross tonnage of 40,000 tons,
and accommodations for 600 first-class
and 1,500 tourist-class passengers. W~ith
a service speed of 27 knots, the ship will
cut almost 2 weeks off the record sailing
time between the west coast of the
United States and Eur pe. Norton, Lill
is agent here for the Oriana and other
vessels of the P&O-Orient Line.


Newr Canal Customer

THE SOUTHERNN CROss,"I the popular
all-passenger, round-the-world hiner seen
often in the Canal, will be joined in 1962
by the Northern Star, another Shaw,
Savill passenger ship, which will be
launched in June 1961 from Vickers
Naval Yard at Wallsend-on-Tyne.
Twelve months later she will sail on her
maiden voyage, joining the Southern
Cross on an integrated round-the-world
service.
The new ship is some 22,000 tons
gross. Her funnel and machinery are
located aft, as in the Southern Cross
and she will carry 1,440 passengers ir
fully air conditioned accommodations. Al-
though Andrews & Co., local agents for
the line, have received no advice on her
itinerary, reports from England are that
in addition to ports of call in South
Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, the
new vessel will serve the Canary Islands,
Fiji, Tahiti, and Trinidad.





As 1960 DREW tO a close, shipping
through the Panama Canal seemed to
,have hit a temporary plateau, with the
number of ships holding at a level just
short of 30 a day.
Despite the leveling off in the number
of ships, however, there were distinct
changes in the volume of certain types
of shipments. The volume of wheat,
coal, coke, and sugar was on the in-
crease, while banana and Chilean ni-
trate shipments showed marked declines.
The reduction in banana shi ments
rie ditd frbmda ce h naioinhofhiat orse
of the banana plantations, labor diffi-
nulnis han aU euced demand or ba
vast bulk of those moving through the
Canal are sold.
The drop in the volume of Chilean
nitrate was believed due to production
problems rather than a decline in de-
mand. Shipments at the end of the year
had dropped from over 70,000 tons per
month earlier in the year to a low of less
than 4,000 tons dizring October.
A marked increase was noted during
the closing months of 1960 in the
volume of grain shipments through the
waterway, with wheat accounting for
most of the increase. Most of the grain,
originating in western Canada and the
United States, was being moved to Eu-
rope and the Middle East. With a pos-
sibility that poor planting weather may
result in a sharply reduced French
wheat crop this year, the level of wheat


which have occurred during recent
months in the sources of sugar sold to
the U.S. Because of these changes, Pa-
cific-bound sugar from Cuba may meet
Atlantic-bound shipments of sugar orig-
inating in Pac~ific areas, resulting in
two shipments through the Canal where
before there would have been none.
The reduction in the number of ba-
nana ships transiting the Canal was one
of the factors contributing to the tem-
porary plateau in number of ships tran-
siting the waterway. The reduction also
had another effect: The average size of
ships usmng the Canal climbed from a
12-month average of 5,395 Panama
Cv~a gnet tons eat the endmof Juneoto an
year of 5,708 Panama Canal net tons.
The increase is equal to the net tonnage
of some of the smaller ships which carry
bananas through the Canal.
The present plateau in shipping is
similar to one which occurred between
mid-1958 and mid-1959, which ended
when transits started a gradual increase
that continued to almost the end of 1960
and pushed the daily average of ocean-
gomng ship transits from a 1958 high of
more than 26 ships a day to slightly
under 30 per day as 1960 ended.


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-COING
`VESSELS IN DECEMBER
19s me 0
Comnmercial... ;;::. 893 868
U.S Govenme ......... 18 16
Total. ....... 911 884
TSOLS
Commercial;.. .$4,422,807 $4,388,109
U.S. Government 83,538 82,155
T-otal.. .$4,506,345 $4,470,264
CARGO (long tons)
Commercial. ... 5,249,477 5,046,493
U.S. Government. 82,755 79,716
Total. .. 5,332,232 5,126,209
*Includes ltols on all vessels, ocean-going and smal'


shipments during 1961 is expected to
remain relatively high.
Coal and coke shipments, which have
been climbing upward for several years,
continued to advance, thus keeping pace
with the growth of Japanese heavy in-
dustry, which relies on such imports. -
TThe increasing volume of sugar ship-
ments through the Canal is, in large
measure, a reflection of the changes


OCEAN-GOING TRANSITS
Tunnal-t PANAMA CANAL


FROM NEW YORK
Cristobal-_--- -February
Ancon ____-_ _February
Cristobal----- -February
FROM CRISTOBAL
Ancon___--- _February
CristobaL_---- -February
Ancon___-__ _February


MouNTs


FEBRUARY 3, 1981


SH PP I


N\


G~


PANAMA

LINE

SAILINGS