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Fuel for a Pacific Light
Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
ABOUT THE COVER
The cover photograph of Dredging Division employees
unloading gas accumulators at a Pacific lighthouse
was taken by P. A. White, Chief of the Division, during
one of the periodic visits to the station. It shows some
of the difficulties whch are routine in the servicing of
the aids to navigation which. help protect ships from
danger in their voyages to and through the Panama
Canal. For more on these aids, see the article on pages
8 and 9
N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Press Officer
JOSEPH CONNOR, Publications Editor
EUNICE RICHARD and Tost BITTEL
WILLIAM BURNs, Official Photographer
W. A. CARTER, Governor-President
JoHN D. McELEENY, Lieutenant Governor
Panama Canal Information Officer
In This Issue
PERCHE hghwon tehll Hpocs e thieb Dibl Servc
time home for more than 300 boisterous youngsters
within a few days. A similar, but
larger building will be filling a
similar role at Los Rios for more
than 425 youngsters. While the
palm trees rustle softly in the *
breeze outside, the pages of study
books will rustle inside, accom-
panied by the soft scratching of
pencils, the harsher scratching of
chalk and the soft brushing of
erasers. For a complete rundown on the two new
schools, improvements made in existing schools and
a list of 21 new teachers from the United States, see
pages 6 and 7.
THOSE ARE HOf giant Stairsteps dreamed up by an
engineer who believes in giants, nor are they a section
of Egyptian pyramid. Many probably will spot the
picture for what it is: The outer
r--- edge of Miraflores Locks, taken
while the Locks were under con-
struction. It is one of thousands
of construction-day pictures in the
files of the Official Photographer
which now are undergoing some
special treatment for the benefit
of posterity. For more construc-
tion-day scenes :and an explana-
tion of what is being done with these historic photo-
graphs, turn to pages 14 and 15.
Canal's Future Discussed .
Fire At Balboa Heights ..
.S. Sch ols Ra penig
Women In Dredging ..
Icda Pts o Ca nal ..
Paraiso PTA Is Lively ..
Canal History ...
New Ambassador Welcomed .
Civil Defense . .
Retirements . .
Worth Knowing ...
Anniversaries . .
Promotions And Transfers .
Shipping . .
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
Legacy Of Competency
ELEANOR, or "Mac," as she is known to most of the local newspaper
fraternity, has turned in her notebook and blue pencil after almost 30
years in Isthmian journalistic circles.
With her husband, I. F. (Ted) McIlhen-
ny, who is retiring as Supervisory Elec-
trical Engineer in the Engineering Divi-
sion, Eleanor will leave for the. United
States tomorrow aboard the Panama Line's
SS Ancon. Following a visit to her home-
town, Cleveland, Ohio, Eleanor and Ted
will make a round-the-world trip which
will take them to moost of the countries of
Europe and several of those in Asia before
returning to the United States via the 50th
State and heading for their retirement
home in San Antonio, Tex.
As Editor of THE PANAMA CANAL
REVIEw and as a stalwart in the Infora-
Stion Office, Eleanor has been an out-
S standing member of the Canal organiza-
Eleanor McIlhenny tion. TIhrough her writings, much of her
contribution literally is a lasting one.
Eleanor became editor of THE REVIEw a year ago this month,
following the death of J. Rufus Hardy, original editor of the publica-
.tion. Backed by eight years of experience as assistant editor, she created
a legacy of competency in one year which will serve as an example
for THE REVIEw editors who follow her in the years ahead.
Locations of several alternate canal routes considered by the Board of Consultants.
AS TH~E PANAMA CANAL moved within
four years of completing its ~first half-
century of service to world shipping,
fresh discussion of the waterway's future
has accompanied the recent presenta-
tion to Congress of a report by a special
Board of Consultants on Isthmian Canal
The "Report On A Long-Range Pro-
gramn For Isthmian Canal Transits" has
benunanimously adopted by the
House Merchant & Fisheries Committee
and formally submitted by the Com-
mittee Chairman, Representative Her-
bert C. Bonner. It was prepared by the
Committee's panel of consultants, ap-
pointed in 1957.
The printed report of the Board
covers 831 pages, including numerous
supporting and explanatory documents,
maps, statistical tables, and both
present-day and construction-day pho-
tographs of the existing Canal. The
Board's explanation of the study, its
conclusions, and recommendations are
condensed in the first 5% pages of the
report, however, and have been further
condensed here because of space limi-
Reason for the study undertaken by
the Board is the rapid increase in traffic
through the Panama Canal. "This in-
crease," the report says, "has narrowed
the gap between capacity and traffic
demand to the point where some con-
cern was aroused as to future capacity
and a possible limit of all service by
TThe Board .reached the conclusion
that the ultimate solution of the basic
problem is probably a sea-level canal,
but its construction should await a traf-
lic volume that can support the large
cost. In the meantime the useful life of
the present Canal should be extended
by increasing its capacity and two-lane
Eight recommendations were made.
These center on three major points: Ac-
celeration of the present channel widen-
ing and deepening, and Locks and Cut-
lighting projects to increase the capac-
ity of the present Canal, augmentation
of equipment anid improvement of over-
haul procedures at th~e Locks to reduce
to a minimum the duration of periods
of single lane operation, and continuing
engineering studies of routes and meth-
ods of constructing a sea-level canal
across the American Isthmus.
The full list of recommendations by
the Board is as follows:
1. The already-initiated Panama
Canal Company plan for interim im-
provements to the present Canal at
an estimated cost of $61 million
should be accelerated as rapidly as
2. Effective two-lane operation of
the present Canal should be pro-
vided by augmenting the ~hydraulic
and other Lock machinery and by
improving Lock overhaul and ship
3.. The power and water supply
situation should be studied by the
Panama Canal Company with a view
to alleviating present and increasing
difficulties during periods of water
4. Further engineering studies of
sea-level canal routes across the Isth-
mus in Colombia should be initiated
and prosecuted vigorously.
5. A continuing study of new and
conventional methods of canal con-
struction should be carried on under
TH PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
REPORT ON CANAL'S FUTURE
direction of the Panama Canal Com-
pt.~The experimental develop ment
of excavation by nuclear explosions
should be vigorously pushed by the
appropriate federal agency.
7. The entire situation should be
reviewed in 1970, or if the present
traffic estimates are appreciably ex-
ceeded, at an appropriately earlier
8. No sea-level canal project in
the Canal Zone should be undertaken
in the near future.
The purpose of the study made by
the Board of Consultants, as explained
in its report, covers the following seven
1. To review and evaluate avail-
able forecasts of growth of traffic
through the Panama Canal-
2. To examine the present status
of the Canal and to determine its
present traffc capacity*
3. To evaluate proposals to in.
crease the capacity of the Canal to a
4. To estimate the time when the
Canal will have reached traffc ca-
5. To review and evaluate plans
for enlarging the existing Canal.
6. To review and evaluate alter-
nate routes for crossing the Isthmus.
7. To recommend the steps that
should be taken, among those that
represent sound engineering and
are econoimical, to mamntamn trans-
Isthmian service at a level that ade-
quately satisfies the needs of United
States and of world commerce.
The report considers the ultimate po-
tential of the present Canal; the fea-
sibilities of lock-canal crossings at other
sites across the Isthmus; and the suita-
bility of a sea-level canal in the Canal
Zone or elsewhere.
No new field engineering was done
for the report, which is based on data
and studies made by others foir orby the
Panama Canal Company. In addition to
considering four alternate plans of the
Company for increasing the capacity of
the present Canal, the Board also in-
vestigated the possibility of a Nicaragua
Lock Canal, 11 alternate routesj in Pan-
ama, Eive routes located partly in Pan-
ama and partly in Colombia and six
entirely in Colombia, all of which were
included in the "Isthmian Canal Studies
Report of 1947, which was reviewed
by the Board of Consultants.
The Panama Canal Company plans
considered by the Board of Consultants,
in addition to the $61 million interim
improvement plan which it recom-
mends be carried out as rapidly as pos-
sible, are for a Third Locks Canal at an
estimated cost of $733,080,000; a Con-
THE BOARD of Consultants which
made the "Report on a Long-Range
PrograLm for Isthmian Canal Transits,"
was headed by S. C. Hollister, who
was dean of th~e College of Engineer-
ing of Cornell University from 1937
until 1959. Other board members
were Francis S. Friel, retired Gen.
Leslie R. Groves, Hartley Rowe, and
John Elliott Slater. E. Sidney Ran-
dolph was a member of the Board
until November 10, 1958, when hq
withdrew for personal reasons.
Mr. Friel, onetimre president of the
American Institute of Consulting En-
gineers and of the American. Society
of Civil Engineers, is president of the
Birm of Albright & Friel, Inc., which
hie joined in 1922 and has headed
General Groves, now a vice pres-
ident of Remington Rand, a division
of Sperry Rand Corp., was mn charge
of the Manhattan atomic bomb project
during W~orld War II and until Jan-
uary 1, 1947, when atomic energy
affairs were turned over to the Atomic
Mr. Rowe, who served in various
positions in design, construction, and
operation of the Panama Canal from
1904 until 1919, when he resigned as
head of the Construction .Division of
the Panama Canal Commission, served
as a consultant to the Manhattan Dis-
trict, Los Alamos, and was a member
of the General Advisory Committee
of the Atomic .Energy Committee
from 1946 until 1950.
SMr. Slater, executive vice president
'of American Export Lines from 1935
until 1949 and president from 1949
until 1956, is a senior partner in
Coverdale & Colpitts, New York, con-
sulting engineers, and is an honorary
vice president of the Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers.
Mr. Randolph, who started with the
Panama Canal in 1910 and retired in
1946, was design and construction en-
gineer on Madden Dam and in 1937
was design engineer in charge of the
early work on the Third Locks project.
solidated Third Locks Canal at an es-
timated cost of $1,020,900,000, and a
Zone Sea-Level Canal at an estimated
cost of $2,368,500,000.
The Interim Improvement Plan, on
which work now is being done, "will
provide additional capacity and will
permit safe operation under heavier an-
ticipated workloads for at least one
decade and possibly two," the Board
Talhe Interim Plan involves extensive
channel improvements and the devel-
opment of techniques to decrease delays
to shipping caused by lock overhaul
work, b~ut does not appreciably change
the present Canal alinement. It calls for
widening the entire Gaillard Cut chan-
nel to a full 500 feet; increasing the
depth of the channel through both the
Cut and Gatun Lake from 42 to 47 feet;
modification of miter gate repair and
setting procedures; changes in the ma-
rine traffic control system by consoli-
dating the dispatching offices into a
single control center with direct com-
munications to all ships and the Locks
control houses; continued channel
dredging as required and regular main-
tenace of the Lock structures and equip-
The estimated design and construc-
tion time for the interim program is 6
to 10 years, the report says, noting
that the plan "has been approved, de-
sign is practically completed and con-
struction has been initiated on several
of the projects." The report also says,
"It is anticipated that this entire interim
improvement program will be com-
pleted by 1970," and concludes with
the statement, "In our opinion this pro-
gram should be accelerated."
The Third Locks Canal project
"would provide a look Canal capable of
handling practically all commercial
shipping through the year 2000," the
Board says. This plan includes extensive
channel improvements and construc-
tion of a Third-Lock lane at each of the
existing lock sites, using the ex\istill
Third-Lock excavations. The new Locks
would be 140 feet wide, 1,200 feet
long, and would have a minimum depth
of 50 feet of water over the sills, while
the entire fresh-water channel would
be deepened to 50 feet. Construction
time would be 9 to 11 years,
The Consolidated Third Locks Canal
proposal, although similar to the Third
Locks Plan in many respects, also' in-
cludes a provision for adding another
level to Miraflores Locks, raising Mira-
flores Lake to the level of Gatun Lake
and abandoning' Pedro Miguel Locks.
The third set of locks, under this pro-
posal, would be somewhat larger than
in the other Third Locks Plan, being
200 feet wide and 1,500 feet long, while
the channel of the Canal would be
deepened to 55 feet. Construction time
would be 12 years.
The Zone Sea-Level Canal Plan would
(See page 20)
'SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
BOard of Consultants
APPROXIMATELY $250,000 worth of
damage was caused by the fire which
hit the second floor offces in the west
wing of the Administration Building at
Balboa Heights, on the evening of
Company-Government fiefighters did
an outstanding job of bringing the blaze
under control and confining it to the
wing in which it started.
Tlhe freak blaze began in the office
of Comptroller P. L. Steers, Jr., as lac-
quer thinner was being used to clean
a wall before repainting it. No one was
seriously hurt in the flash explosion and
fire as the highly flammable liquid
flared up. ulm a:en8:
with fumes and smoke from tefrbt
no irreplacable records were destroyed-
Employees in the several damaged of-
fices sorted through smoke-smudged
materials the next day, then moved to
temporary quarters elsewvhere in the
The Comptroller's office was the most
seriously damaged in the blaze, but the
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEw 5
offices of Gov. W. A. Carter, Lt. Gov.
John D. McElheny, the Executive Plan-
ning Staff, the Executive Secrdtary, the
Marine Director, and the Panama Canal
Information Office also were affected
by the blaze and evacuated while re-
pairs were made.
Repair and rehabilitation of the wing
still was going forwai-d as THE REVIEW
went to press and best estimates were
that it: would be several weeks before
all the damaged offices would be back
Gov. W. A. Carter talks with Miss Bitsy
Frensley about her boss's burned Bible,
Th iervgdofc fCmtolrPii .SerJ. ot eeeydmgdo fie i yAmnsrto uligbae
FIRE HITS BALBOA HEIGHTS
Classes To Resumze September 7
U. S. Schools Set To Reopen
THE NEW\ dEmenlc~taf SChols at Diablo
"' I*,.I~I.~C~E and Los Rilos \ il'l resounlld to the
~~~laughiter andl chaitter of chiil chn fo~r the
*:- L ~~first timer on~ Se~ptember ;. \rhen! their
*1. ~ L.! *? do o~ri su\ing o pe nl to, I'i n m! the 'esum p
,, 1 *i :ri~tionl of U1.S. sc~hoocl opcratlconl afttrth
summelrr va.ca;tionl peri~d.
Thc eight classroomsl anid kinder-
if~L garten ant Diablo will house 31S pupils,
who also- will have a clinliC, mlusic room,
anid Playgro"und facilities available to
re~g g' theml. Somie 135 pupils w~ill attend
school in the 1" classroomsl and k~inder-
.gilrtenl at Los Rio~s. which also inlcludles
a c~lin~ic. mulsic mum,~m and play ground
r.- s wo~crk onl the two( new\ buildings
scle draws to a close, remnodeling o-fth
.,* ~~Diablo gymnansiumln and the conlstrue-
r,-.;llU*IIU tion of the nlew junior higih school see-
tionl there is be~ingF pushed towardi com-
tZ~L. ~~P IIPIIII~ ~llll~apletio~n by th~e end o-f thec first semester
1In Januar! 1961.
This school at Diablo ij onle of twro newr buildineqs to open as ll.5. Ichools this lear.
The Los Rios School i, the larger of the twro newr building\ and wrill house more than 125 pupils w\hen school ctartsi.
6, SEPTEMBER 2. y6
NJew Teachers From Uh. S.
The new buildings will help make
room for the record enrollment of 7,648
students expected to be attending the
schools this year. This year's enrollment
of students from kindergarten through
the Canal Zone Junior College is ap-
proximately 5 percent higher than last
October, when some 7,274 students
were enrolled at all levels.
High school enrollment is expected
to increase about 11 percent and junior
high school enrollment about 7 percent,
but little change is expected in the
Junior College enrollment. A substan-
tial increase is expected in kindergarten
The expected enrollments are: Kinder-
garten, 732; elementary schools, 3,818;
junior high schools, 1,140; senior high
schools, 1,800; Canal Zone Junior Col-
In addition to the new schools and
the work on the new junior high school
section at Diablo, considerable main-
tenance has been carried out during
the vacation period, including enlarge-
ment and improvement of the play-
ground at Ancon Elementary School
and installation of a bulkhead and
bleachers in the Balboa Swimming Pool.
Other improvements in athletic facili-
ties operated by the Division of Schools
include preparation of a practice foot-
ball field at Cristobal High School and
trading and improved drainage of
t field at Balboa Stadium.
Interiors and exteriors of a number of
buildings have been painted, while
floors at the ROTC building and the
activity building at Balboa Elementary
School have been tiled. Classroom light
mn is being modemizedc at the Balboa,
G ulboa, and Gatun schools and two
classrooms are being air-conditioned at
Margarita, Ancon, and Balboa and one
each at Gatun and Gamboa.
As school opens this year, four teach-
ers who have sent a year's leave of
absence studying in the United States
will be back at their jobs in the Canal
Zone schools. They are Jacques Cook,
mathematics teacher at Balboa High
School; James L. Wolf, social studies
teacher at Balboa Junior High School;
Stephen R. Peck, Spanish. teacher at
Balboa Junior High School, and Mrs.
Margaret Wilson, kindergarten teacher
There also will be 31 new teachers
and librarians joining the Division of
Schools this year, 21 of whom were re-
cruitec\ in the United States. Thirteen
of the new employees from, the U.S.
will teach in junior and senior high
scool and eight will teach in the ele-
School opens__ _____ _
End of first grading period _
Panama Independence Day (holiday)_ _
-- _ _Nov. 3
Veterans Day (holiday)_ ____ ________ Nov. 11
Thanksgiving Holidays (four days) _____ Nov.ov 24-27
End of second grading period_______ __
Christmas holidays (10 days) ____
Dec. 24-Jan. 2
End of third grading period_______ ____ _Jan. 20
Washington's Birthday (holiday)--
End of fourth marking period_ Mar. 3
Easter Holidays (nine days) Mar._:_____ f 25-A r. 2
End offifth marking period---- _
Memorial Day (holiday) _ __
End of sixth marking period ___
r____l _______ _May 30
_ --- ____June 5
.----------- -_June 6
_ ------ __ __ __ Jun 6
Taxlr Nvuw teachers from the United
States, their degrees, the schools from
which they received them and their
assignments in the Division pf Schools
are as follows:
Mrs. Mary C. Beck, Bachelor of Science,
Western Carolina College, second
grade, Fort Kobbe.
Elmer Beshearse, Master of Arts, South-
eastern State College, mathematics,
Balboa High School.
George Bettle, Master of Science, Univer-
sity of Oregon, typing, Balboa High
Clayton Bradford, Master of Arts in
Teaching, University of Massachusetts,
English, Balboa Junior High School.
Miss Rebecca K. Clayton, Master of Arts,
Uny rst sof Michigan, third grade,
James N. Cook, Master of Arts, Marshall
Colggeneral science, Balboa High
Mrs. Rose Cobb, Bachelor of Arts, Glen-
ville State College, first grade, Cocoli.
Mrs. Elizabeth Duff, Bachelor of Arts,
Stetson University, fourth and fifth
Mrs. Sue M. Funchess, Master of Educa-
tion, Alabama Polytechnic Institute,
first grade, Cocoli.
Miss Patricia Hillman, Bachelor of Science
in Education,Mississippi State College
for Women, second grade, Fort Kobbe.
James Johnson, Doctor of Philosophh, Uni-
bersity oNlorthLCarolina, Spam s, Bal-
Miss Helen Johnston, Master of Arts, Pa-
cific University, librarian, Cristobal
Junior-Senior Hig~h School.
Glendon M. Kriese, Master of Arts, Col-
orado State3 College of Education, math-
ematics, Balboa High School.
Alfred L. Lazar, Master of Education,
University of Illinois, special education,
Balboa Junior High School.
Edward A. McFarland, Bachelor of Sci-
ence, Ed Wagner College,. ffth and
sixth grades, Coco Solo.
Dabney Meeker,. Master of Education,
Texas Wesleyan, sixth grade, Margarita.
James D. Norman, Master of Science,
Oegon toatle College, biology, Ci-istobal
Haror Probert, Bachelor of Arts and Bach-
elor of Education, State College of
Washington, social studies and shop,
Balboa Junior High School.
James W. Rice, Jr., Master of Education,
Howard Payne College, art and English,
Cristobal Junior High School.
Charles W. Ridenour, Master of Educa-
tion, Western Maryland College, social
studies, Balboa High School.
James Rollins, Master of Arts, University
of Arkansas, general science and social
studies, Cristobal Junior High Social.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIE'M
School Calendar 1960- 61
New Cut-lighting illuminates waterfall and Canal banks.
A ship approaching the Canal from
the Atlantic Ocean still is 300 miles at
sea when it enters a system of light-
]louse~s op;late~d and maintained by the
Panama Canal Company. On the Pacific
end of the Canal, the Company-operated
lighthouse system extends 200 miles into
the Bay of Panama.
Once through the chain of lighthouses
on the Atlantic side, a ship picks up
Toro Point Light four miles west of the
enltlilc.rnc Ir the breakwi\ates. This is orie
of the most powerful lights- oporat~ed by
the Canal organization-100 feet high
and visible for 16 miles. Next, the ship
picks up the two lights on the break-
water entrance, a ~flashing white light on
the left a'nd a flashing red one on the
On the Pacific end, the approaching
ship picks up Flamenco Light, a flashing
light on an island near the end of the
channel, and then the sea buoy, located
a mile from the end of the dredged
On either end of the Canal, after
passing thd sea buoy or going through
the breakwater, the ship picks up and
follows the sea ranges. These are white
lighthouses arranged one behind another
so that an extenslionl of the straight line
established by theim marks the center of
the channel. Similar ranges mark all the
reaches of the Canal.
From the sea to the.first set of locks
the channel itself is niarlied with both
buoys and beacons. On the starboard
side they are red and display red lights
and had 231 aids in operation. Today
th~~ese on 35j fu~ll timle employees aind r30
part-limne employee-s. w\ho divide~ their
time between dredging operations and
trips to service and maintain the naviga-
tional aids, of which there now are 817.
To' the casual layman, the naviga-
tional aids he sees are little more than a
conglomeration of buoys, lighthouses,
markers along the shore, and the lights
which go with. theml. To expeien~'coc1
sea-going men, however, the aids serve
the same purpose as highway signs and
BACK IN 1911, while the Panama Canal
still was under construction, the build-
inig of a compllete 4!istem o~f.1ighsho nes,
lancesP. bm,-ona)", mdl bUoss was started
for the- ships that were to come later.
Usually navigational aids systems are
extensions or additions to other existing
installations, but because the Canal was
The lighthouse service organization,
now a section of the Dredging Division,
started out with a force of 30 employees
A Dredgin~g Division employee services a buoy in Gatun Lake as a ship passes. The launch
which put him on the buoy has backed away to wait for him to finish, then will pick him up,
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
of Gaillard Cut, a second-and the only
one which ever has been used-is on the
west bank just opposite Gamboa and
the third is in Gatun Lake.
About three years ago the Aids to
Navigation Section took over operation
of a radio beacon station at Cristobal
which formerly was operated by the
U.S. Coast Guard, thus extending its
service beyond the visual-aid level and
into the electronic era.
The Aids to Navigation Section, with
a smoothly functioning system for help-
ing ships get from one end of the Canal
to the other in safety and with the least
amount of difficulty, is not simply main-
taining the aids now in use, however.
As with any organization, changes are
being made and still others are being
Latest major addition to the aids is
the night-lighting of Gaillard Cut, which
now is nearing completion. Less pub-
licized is the section's conversion of gas-
operated aids to electric operation, a
program which is to be carried out over
the next ~five years. And future planning
calls for elimination of as many buoys
as possible from Gatun Lake by re-
The article on these pages was ex-
cerpted from a paper to be presented by
P. A. White, Chief of the Dredging Di-
vision, at the Sixth International Light-
house Conference in Washington, D.C.,
on September 26. The complete text of
Mr. White's report has been printed in
both English and French and will be
discussed by the delegates to the con-
fer ene n distriue p i them. Mhre
meeting, first of its kind since 1955, by
at night, while on the port side they are
black and display white lights at night.
The channels' in Miraflores Lake and
Gatun Lake are marked with either
buoys or beacons, depending on the
topography. Where the channels are
wide enough to permit it, the sailing
lines marked by the ranges are 125 feet
off center, to permit ships to pass each
In Gaillard Cut, however, the ranges
are located in the center of the channel,
just as they are in the entrance reaches
to the Canal. The ranges in the Cut are
diamond-shaped targets painted white
and with a black cross in the center.
They display fixed green lights at night.
In addition to these sailing aids, the
banks of the Cut are marked every 500
feet with white lights on the South
American side and red lights on the
In addition to the primary channels
of the Canal, some 56 miles of auxilhary
channels are marked with spar buoys
in Gatun Lake. These channels serve
the many Panamanian farmers along the
Lake and are maintained as a friendly
service to provide our neighbors in Pan-
ama with cheap water transportation,
Not all the navigational aids in the
Canal are designed to keep ships from
running aground. In fact, there are
markers at three different locations
along the Canal to tell where a ship can
be beached in case of serious marine
casualty. One of these is on the east
bank of the Canal near the south end
Twin lights on deepwater ends of Atlantic entrance breakwater steer ships through safely.
placing them with beacons, where to-
pography makes such a move possible.
Other changes undoubtedly will be
made in the future, as man continues
his relentless battle of improving the
devices he has' invented in his drive to
tame the elements. One thing about
these future developments is certain,
however: Ars long as ships use the Pan-
ama Canal there will be navigational
aids to help them make the passage
.quickly anid safely.
Isla Grande lighthouse is the only attended
light operated by the Panama Canal Co.
Shore markers in Cut tell pilot where
dredged channel is and if ship is in it.
THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW B
k. .. .
Mrs. Ethel Cooper and some of buoys on which she keeps Dredging records.
sible for accounting for all Dredging
In addition to the 250-ton crane
Hercules, the Dredging Division op-
erates the 15-cubic yard dipper dredge
Cascadas; the 28-inch pipeline suction
dredge, Mindi; a mighty midget, the
10-inch pipeline suction dredge Man-
dinga, which was constructed in the
Gamboa shops; and a fleet of dump
barges, lighter barges, tugs, motorboats,
and launches. These are easy to keeP
track of compared to wrenches, ham-
mers, flashlights, and the parts needed
for the lamp mechanisms and lenses for
the lighted buoys which mark the
harbors and channels of the Canal.
Mrs. Cooper, who has been with the
Dredging Division 12 years, says she
learned th~e nomenclature of tools since
coming to work for Dredging.
For 10 years prior to her Canal serv-
ice, she was with the United States
Embassy in Panama. She had majored
in French and Spanish, but at the
Embassy she was engaged not only in
translating, but also in accounig and
property work, which included keeping
track of t-he Embassy's china and
She is the first women to hold the
property desk position in the Dredging
Division and says her work, in some
phases, is comparable to that of a ship's
In addition to her property ac-
counting work, Mrs. Cooper often has
gone on the Division's crane boats, tugs,
and launches as an interpreter and tour
director. She recently played this role
for a group of Latin American librarians
visiting the Canal Zone.
She has "inherited" the details and
follow-up on safety reports and, as
secretary of the Supervisors' Safety
Conference, occasionally attends the
monthly meetings and keeps the
Chie ofC ph re AigS irison fr tsi
years before she took over the property
desk, and she can and has pinch-hit for
her fellow distaff-side employees.
She is an accomplished organist and
shares her husband's enthusiasm .for
water skiing. Her husband, too, is with
the Dredging Division and is acting
captain of the Cascadas during the
summer vacation of the regular captain.
Ask Mrs. Flenniken where a tug or
any floating equipment ivas on a gi\en
date, and she will have the answer! She
handles the logs for thle tugs and floating
equipment and, as ;Iccouintinig assistant,
helps in the work on the money angle
of the Dredging Division's paper work.
Although she has been with the
THE DREDGING DIVI[sIon is almost en-
tirely a man's world. Almost, because
the Division's 559 employees include
four women: Mrs. Ethel Cooper, who
keeps track of the Division's property,
from the 250-ton crane Hercules down
to the last binoculars or compass; Mrs.
Lucille Flenniken, accounting assistant;
Mrs. Dorothy Hall, secretary to P. Alton
White, Chief of the Dredging Division;
and Mrs. Kathleen Cheney, stenog-
raphic clerk, who has yet to be baffled
by a Dredging Division term.
Canal traffic sails past the windows of
their office in the Dredging Division's
Administration Building in Gamboa and
they don't even have to leave their
deskts to see what is going on or, rather,
through the waterway.
Mrs. Cooper who may be, and often
is, found anywhere from high on the
boomI of the crane Hercules to below
decks in some engine room, is respon-
Mrs. Lucille Flenniken checks the log book of a Dredging Division launch,
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
Mrs. Dorothy Hall doesn't have to leave her desk to see what's in Canal.
away. A year later she returned to the
Canal Zone and the Dredging Division.
Mrs. Hall came to live in Gamboa just
after the town was built. In fact, it
wasn't even finished. The commissary
was housed in a tiny temporary building
and the post office was about the size of
two office desks,
A pianist with limitless repertoire,
Mrs. Hall can play any song anyone
names. While in high school, she played
the piano in movie theaters in her native
Nevada, and when the family resided
on the Atlantic side she was the pianist
in the Cristobal Clubhouse Theater for
. ] *
Her two children are in the States.
Both are married. Her son, Lindley M.
Hall, finished an electrical ap~prentice-
ship) in the Dredging Division, was
graduated from the University of Miami
with a B.A. degree in Electrical En-
gineering, and now is an electrical en-
g~ineer with Sperry at Long Island. Her
daughter, Mrs. Velma H~all Weidoff,
who lives in California, worked with the
Navy and with the Canal Zone Customs
Division before her marriage. Mrs. Hall
is grandmother of three girls and one
Names and locations of Dredging
Division equipment are as familiar to
Mrs. Cheney~ as her own Gamboa street
address, andl her pencil never stumbles
over a dredging term when she's taking
Second only to Mrs. Hall in years of
service with the Dredging Division,
Mrs. Cheney is a second generation
Dredging D~ivision employee. Her fa-
ther, Reuben Dew, came to the Isthmus
and employment with the Dredging Di-
vision in 1941. Mrs. Cheney followed
her father to the Isthmus in 1944. In
1947 she returned to the United States.
Julius Cheney, a fellow employee in
-the Dredging Division, followed her
there and they were married in Florida.
Soon after, they came back to the Canal
Zone: Kathleen. to her same desk in the
Dredging Division; her husband to a
position as electrician in the Aids to
Navigation Section. He, also, is a second
generation Canal Zone employee, for
his father has a construction days'
Mrs. Cheney has two hobbies: Kim
and Julie Cheney, 5 and 3 years of age,
Dredging Division just two years, Mrs.
Flenniken has worked about 18 years
for the Panama Canal. She worked in
the Commissary Division at Mount
Hope until her section was transferred
to the Office of the Comptroller on the
Pacific side and came to Dredging from
She was active in Girl Scouting when
the family lived on the Atlantic side.
But now, when she's not at the of~iee,
she's working on an accounting degree
which takes up most of her free time.
She is taking a Florida University course
and her last four vacations were spent
at the University of Tennessee, from
which she hopes to receive her ac-
counting degree two years hence, at the
same time her youngest daughter, Carol,
Mrs. Flenniken's oldest daughter,
Mrs. Freda Stohrer, is one of the Pan-
Canettes, the women's quartette which
has presented concerts on both sides of
the Isthmus. Her second daughter, Mrs.
Betty Dunning, is a Penn State student.
Mrs. Hall, -who tosses around Dredg-
ing Division terminology with the best
of them, and who makes up monthly
and annual Division reports, came to
the~ Isthmus in 1922 with her husband,
She has been with the Dredging
Division for 23 years.
Mrs. Hall transferred to Dredging
from the Lighthouse Sub-division in
Gatun, which now is part of the
In 1925, she went back to the UTnited
States and was living 35 miles from Los
Angeles at the time the St. Francis dam
broke. Members of the family had to
swim for their lives, while their home
and all their possessions were swept
Mrs. Kathleen Cheney with office picture
of 15-cubic yard dipper dredge Cascadas.
THE PANAMVA CANAL REVIEW
Panama's Legislative Palace is a familiar sight to residents and visitors.
Waterfront French Plaza in Panama City is symbol of recent past.
Old Panama City is a world-famous attraction to tourists and other sightseers.
"~C;;:::~tlrm~lllrr~r~lrrr~mrsrmrs~u ar n~ y rrEfllll 1llll~a~l)
"71.; -~ 1 "~-,
~-~-~r~~~f~::!: j."~"~ ..TrLL~r*J~ .~,~ylir*L~*~S~e~;;;i~i-*cP*~-Js
~lodernistic design of this building at the University of Panama reflects trend in architecture.
Fitz Brnmes uses a densitometer on a glass negalive to determine
the best method of reprodiscing it for the permanent photo file.
A PERMANENT photographic record of
the Panama Canal from the days of the
French construction effort to the early
1930's is being made here for the Na-
tional Archives and Records Section of
the U.S. Government and the files of
The photographs are being printed
from a file of glass negatives which
wNould reach higher than the elevation
of the continental divide on Gaillard
Highway, if stacked one on the other.
The negatives now are stored in some
330 feet of file drawers in the basement
of the Administration Building.
Offcial Photographer William Burns
says it probably nr ill take at least three
years to complete the task of making
prints from the estimated 16,5i00 glass
negatives in the files. Two prints and a
positive transparency of each of the
plates are being made. One of the two
prints will be sent to the National Ar-
chives, while the second print and trans_
parency will be retained in Company-
In addition to the complete files
being prepared, Mr. Burns plans to
select 200-300 of the most representa-
tive photos for a special album. On these
particular photos, regular celluloid neg-
atives also will be made. These nega-
tives will be retained here and prints
will be available from them at minor
cost, Mr. Burns said.
Final disposition of the glass plates
has not been determined. One tentative
idea is to offer them for sale as souvenirs
at a nominal price, after permanent files
of prints and transparencies have been
Hundreds of the plates show early
construction-day scenes and the vast
majority of them are of "excellent
quality" Mr. Burns says, considering
the materials and equipment available
to photographers in those days.
In order to maintain a constant qual-
ity in the prints and transparencies, the
photography laboratory is using a den-1
sitometer to determine the printing time
and other factors necessary to produce
prints of equal quality from each of the
By using this method, the prints all
will have an equality of tone and copies
made from the transparencies and neg-
atives will require a uniform amount
of time to print to achieve pictures of
the same shading and intensity.
The immense task of making per-
manent ~files of the photos was prompted
by deterioration of the glass plates. On
a number of them, the emulsion of the
negative has separated from the glass
plate and on others the emulsion is dis-
coloring. The prints and positive trans-
parencies being made from the glass
plates will be specially treated to insure
This cracked plate illustrates one of the reasons behind current printing of' glass negatives,
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
French dump cars being loaded near Gold Hill in December 1904. Most of the digging to this point had been done by the French.
The two shovels in the center of this picture, taken January 6,
1913, in the Cut, are standing on the bottom of the Canal.
This steam shovel, pictured on December 9, 1913, was the last to work on
the west bank of Gaillard Cut before the Canal opened the following year,
Scene aboard SS Ancon on September 2, 1909, as it
arrived at Cristobal with 1,500 Barbados laborers.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Students concentrate on the English instruction being given by Ashton Parchment in this class sponsored by the Paraiso PTA.
Paraiso PTA Is Lively Youngster
JUST ABOrrr the liveliest youngster in
these parts is the Paraiso High School
Parent-Teacher Association, which will
celebrate its first birthday tomorrow.
Despite its youth, it manages to pro-
vide all the activities ordinarily spon-
scored by a PTA and a good many others,
It turns out an attendance of 200-300
persons for each monthly meeting. The
meetings are held alternately at the
high sch-ool in Paraiso and at the Santa
Cruz Service Center.
More than 300 attended the recep-
tion for parents of this year's graduates,
a highlight of the group's first year of
In the monthly meetings of its Ex-
ecutive Committee, the dozen commit-
tee members-from Paraiso, Santa Cruz,
and Pedro Miguel-plan future pro-
grams, discuss problems which are ex-
pected to arise and arrange agenda for
All of these are routine PTA activ-
ities, as common to Keokuk, Iowa, or
San Rafael, Calif., as they are to the
Paraiso High School PTA.
The Paraiso unit, however, has gone
beyond these run-of-the-mill matters
and entered the education-sponsoring
field on its own initiative. It sponsors
night classes where more than 200 men
and women meet for one-hour classes
in English, Spanish, mathematics, short-
hand, and elementary and advanced
typing three times each week. One of
the classes is made up of 21 Spanish-
speaking Latin Americans who are now
discussing local topics in English, prac-
ticing shopping in the unknown tongue
and rapidly becoming bilingual.
Paraiso PTA officers help two students, Wilma Agard and Eleanor Edwards, enroll for
adult classes. Officers, from left, are Mrs.. Karl Harris, Eric S. Oakley, and Jorge Long.
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
These classes for adults started
June 27 and with the exception of one
English class at Santa Cruz meet in the
Paraiso High School classrooms. Each
pupil pays a monthly tuition of $2 per
subject. The funds go to reimburse the
teachers, all of whom, are members; of
the high school faculty.
A number of the high school students
are housewives, but a good many of
them are Canal or Armed Forces em-
ployees who are brushing p nsuh
office subjects as typing andhotad
in order to qualify for promotions or for
registers for better-payring positions.
The adult night classes are a cohgical
Po lwu no rsumdmer clats s whisea h
vacation for students at the high school
and junior high school. More than 200
boys and girls turned out for the
refresher courses in English, Spanish'
and mathematics-and turned in some
good grades, too.
To prove that they were not com-
pletelyP hard-hearted, the sponsoring
group adjourned the vacation classes
two weeks before regular school ses-
sions began, thus giving the students a
slight' respite from study and books.
No particular problems led to for-
mation of the PTA at Paraiso, according
to its president, Eric S. Oakley, who has
five youngsters, two of whom are stud-
ents in the high school.
A PTA for Paraiso had been dis-
cussed at Civic Council meetings and
when groups of teachers got together.
It was agreed that such an organization
would bring parentsia~nd teachers closer
together and that many
find that many others had similar dif-
ficulties, all of which could be ironed
out in group meetings.
Currently the PTA is working toward
the addition of counsellors to the school
staff to coordinate individual student
abilities with courses of stud They also
wo ld like to see the scope of the high
school's vocational work broadened.
Students now have 45 minutes in the
vocational classes. The PTA would like
them to have sufficient time -to study
the theory of what they are doing as
well as learning the practical side. An
expanded vocational program, the mem-
bers of the PTA feel, might enable some
of the high school graduates to enter
the expanded apprentice program of
In addition to Mr. Oakley, officers of
the lively, though young PTA are Jorge
Long, vice president; Mrs. Laura Pe-
.rez, secretary, aBnd Mrs. Karl Harris,
- ;Canal transits showed a decrease
during the month, with the daily aver-
age of ships for the first 15 days set at
12.20. Balboa Heights announced that
the price of meat and eggs was sched-
uled to rise in Canal Zone commissaries
because of an increase in prices in the
10 Years Ago
PRESIDENT TRUMANr signed a bill 10
years ago this month permitting him. to
reorganize the Panama Canal and Pan-
ama Railroad Company. The White
House announced at the same time that
the President had rescinded a Pres-
idential proclamation which would have
increased tolls levied for use of the
Canal from 90 cents to $1 per ton for
laden ships. The proposal had been op-
posed by both the Defense Departmnent
and the Bureau of the Budget at a
Senate Armed Services Subcommittee
Following a House and Senate con-
ference committee meeting which set
the effective date of the Canal Zone
income tax payments at January 1,
1950, the Panama Canal administration
started drafting a measure opposing the
retroactive tax. The resolution was to be
introduced during the November session
of Congress. Canal Zone women's
groups also joined in the successful fight
against the retroactive aspect of the tax.
The United States took over main-
tenance of the trans-Isthmian Highway
in September 1950. Under the new
agreement with Panama, the United
States would have use of the other high-
ways in the Re public and would not be
obliged to contribute one-third of the
cost of their maintenance as had been
One Year Ago
WITHI A BmD of $1,855,984, A. C. Sam-
ford Overseas, Inc., of Albany, Ga., was
low among 12 contracting firms on a
contract to build 45 replacement hous-
ing units at La Boca and to construct
three new Pacific side schools.
The schools-two elementary schools
at Diablo Hleights and Los Rios and re-
modeling of the Diablo school into a
junior high school-were coming fust in
time. When the U.S. schools opened a
year ago this month, they showed a
record enrollment of 7,060 boys and
SO Years ~Ago
CUCARACHA SLIDE, which had been a
bugbear to Canal engineers since Canal
construction began, became a first-class
nuisance 50 years ago this month. Earth
andt roc began t90 move th m cht fo
lowing morning railroad tracks in the
area had been covered or pushed out of
sl1 e, T E CA ECOd aid pthhe
matically, "is to continue excavating
them as they move into the Canal and
steam shovels are constantly at work to
A new record for laying concrete in
the Pacific Locks was established in
September 1910. During one week,
13,390 cubic yards were poured at Pe-
dro Miguel Locks and 5,048 at Mira-
flores, for a grand total of 18,438.
Plans were approved for the spill-
way to regulate the water level in Mira-
flores Lake, according to THE CANAL
RECORD. The 432-foot spillway was to
be a concrete dam, connecting the east
wall of Mirailores Locks to the hill
nab.It was designed not only to
hadethe flow of the lake's tributary
streams, but also the large amount of
water which would reach the lake
through the Cut, should an accident
opqEen p one of the twin locks at Pedro
Plans were underway to test the
Stoney gate valves which Eontrol the
flow of roater through the Lock culverts.
The tests were? to be made with two
concrete piers erected on the floor of
thze w~est upper chamber at Gatun.
25 Years A o
Wonx: progressed on the construction of
the new million-dollar town of Gamboa
25 years ago, as bids were asked for the
construction of a number of industrial
buildings and employees' quarters.
There were some changes in the or-
:ganization of the Panama Canal, with
.a plan for elimination of the former Bu-
-rea of Clubs and Playgrounds and the
consolidation of this bureau with the
Supply Division and the Canal Zone
Toward the end of the month a new
Panama Railroad train schedule became
effective which increased the number of
passenger trains and cut 15 minutes off
the run fronri Colon to Panama.
1`HE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Ambassador Joseph S. Farland and Gov. W. A;. Carter on train.
UNDER TH[E lateSt revision of Company-
Government policy on employee devel-
opment and training, employees can be
reimbursed for the cost of certain spec-
ified studies on their own time, the Per-
sonnel Bureau reports.
Although the tuition-refund program
is new to the Company-Government,
similar programs have been operated by
a number of leading businesses and in-
dustries in the United States for some
The Company-Government plan au-
thorizes individual bureaus to establish
programs to refund tuition costs to em-
ployees who successfully complete ap-
proved school or correspondence courses
directly related to their jobs.
Provision for establishment of the bu-
reau programs was included in Revision
No. 2 of General Order No. 47, the
Company-Government statement of pol-
icy on employee development and train-
ing, which has just been published.
.The newly revised General Order
permits any bureau to set up a tuition-
~refund plan for its own employees
without waiting for implementation of
a plail in other bureaus. If funds are
available, bureau directors are allowed
,wide discretion on numbers and kinds
of employees to be assisted and on what
studies to subsidize under the plat.
rThere are some limitations: The plan
includes only training that takes place
on the Isthmus, either in off-duty classes
or by approved correspondence study.
No expenditures may be made solely to
help aifn employee obtain a degree to
qafyfor an appointment to a par-
ticular position for which the degree is
a basic requirement.
An employee who wishes to qualify
for reimbursement of tuition for a spec-
ific course must obtain the approval of
his own bureau director and the Per-
sonnel Director before starting the
course. These officials must certify that
the proposed study is related directly
to the employee's present work, that
the study will contribute to more effec-
tive job performance by the employee,
and that the school and course of study
are of acceptable status and quality.
Not all bureaus are expected to an-
nounce their tuition-r~efund programs
immediately, inasmuch as budget con-
siderations are involved. Nevertheless,
one .or two bureaus probably will start
plans soon on a limited scale.
When training can be given to only
part of the employees in a given occupa-
tional or organizational group or level,
the Civil Service Commission suggests
the following factors be used to select
those to be trained:
1. The degree of employee's need
2. The employee's potential for
3. The extent to which employee s
knowledge, skill, attitudes, or perfor-
mance are likely to be improved by
4. The employee's ability to pass
Sthe training on to others upon return
to the job.
5. The length of time and degree
to which the department expects to
benefit from the employee's improved
knowledge, skill, attitudes, and per-
6. Training opportunities previ-
ously afforded the employee by the
7. The employee's own interest in
and efforts to improve his work.
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
Nrew U. S. Ambassador
Welcomed By Governor
THE NEw United States Ambassador to Panama arrived on the
Isthmus last month and was welcomed on behalf of the Canal
Zone community by Gov. W7. A. Carter.
Ambassador Joseph S. Farland and his family arrived here
August 18 aboard the Grace Line vessel Santa Elena and
proceeded to Panama City via the Panama Railroad.
Governor Carter met the new Ambassador and his family
at Pedro Miguel, boarding the special railroad scooter carrying
them across the Isthms. The Governor rode with them to
the Balboa Railroad Station, where he left the train.
A native of West Virginia, Ambassador Farland was ac-
companied by his wife, Virginia, their two daughters, Brooke
and Page, and their two sons, Richard and Christopher.
Plan Set To Repay Tuition
JUST ABOUT anywhere you looked in local medical circles this
summer you found someone by the name of Kourany.
At the out-patient clinic in Gorgas Hospital, you'd run into
Dr. Gabriel Kourany. If you had business at the Public Health
Laboratory in Panama, you might have met its director, Dr.
Miguel K~ourany, whose title belongs to a Ph.D. rather than
an M.D. If you made an appointment at Gorgas' Eye, Ear,
Nose, and Throat service, you probably talked to Miguel's
wife, Mrs. Arilla Kourany, receptionist there.
And if you had ~any occasion to have laboratory tests, it
could have been Oscar or Edgar Kourany, twin doctors-in-the-
making and youngest of the four medical Kourany brothers,
who took the blood from the tip of your finger.
The two doctors and the two doctors-to-be are sons of Mr.
and Mrs. Solomon K~ourany, of Panama. Until recently their
m-other, Margaret, was an employee of the Canal Zone Central
All four brothers are graduates of Balboa High School and
Miguel also attended the Canal Zone Junior College. The
twins were well known for their swimming skill and were
members of the high school water polo team. They also were
members of a team which played in a Panama water polo
league some years ago.
Dr. Gabriel Kourany is a graduate of Indiana University
Medical College and of Morningside College, in Sioux City,
Iowa. He trained at Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago.
Dr. Miguel Kourany holds his Bachelor of Science degree
from lowa State University, his Master of Science degree from
Loyola University in Chicago, his Master of Public Health
degree from the University of Michigan School of Public
Health, and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan grad-
The twins, following in the footsteps of their older brother,
Gabriel, took their pre-medical courses at Morningside and
this fall enter their junior year in the University of Indiana
Along with Calvin Claxton, who will be a senior medical
student at Georg~e Washington University this fall, the twins
are the first medical students to be employed in a Canal Zone
hospital as summer assistants. Technically, they are known as
student assistants. Actually, they are externs, who are learning
Edgar and Oscar Kourany, doctors-in-the-maldng.
Telephone Balboa 4169
ficial Company -Government training
program will be accelerated.
The new edition of the Civil Defense
Disaster Relief and Survival Plan is
complete with the lone exception o
nw is bxn edittran It 1s yeied tca
tthib ebytir dlnwl betready for dis_
Two new information bulletins were
received by the Civil Defense Office
during the past month and now are
available for the public. The first is on
"mouth-to-mouth" resuscitation. This is
a splendidly illustrated booklet pub-
lished by the New York State Health
Department and clearly and graphically
explains this method of emergency ar-
tificial respiration. The second booklet
is on emergency storage of canned milk.
Canal Zone residents are urged to
stock an emergency supply of food for
disaster preparedness. While attention
is invited to the information bulletin on
canned mil, the Civil Defense Office
also has other informative literature on
this subject tavailableito islat no coto
should call the Civil Defense Office and
give their post offce box number to
have the material mailed to therm.
The Retail Store Branch still has a
supply of the food cohcentrate MPF
-Multi-Purpose Food-for emergency
use. This item, very reasonable in price
and long-lasting, is ideal for storage and
is recommended for emergency rations
under all conditions. A can in a car or
boat is a guarantee of nourishment in
case it is needed.
THE FINAL establishment of the fixed
radiological monitoring stations on the
Canal Zone will be accomplished within
a month by the distribution of the radio-
logical instruments. The monitoring
meters and counters are being prepared
by Civil Defense Chief Philip L. Dade
and James A. Brigham, Assistant Radio-
log h 2fth-0 fixed stations will have
both high and low intensity measuring
devices and personnel dosimeters. Ap-
proximately 100 employees and a few
non-employees have been trained for
During the past month, five Civil De-
fense classes in first aid were completed
by employees in the Canal Zone. With
the return of employees from sumer
vacation, it is expected that this of-
THE I]ANAMA CANAL REVIE
This Family's Really In M~edicine
RETIREMENT CertifiCateS were presented
at the end of July to the employees
listed below, with their birthplaces,
positions, years of Canal service, and
future es dences.1Pa Hep A
lantic Locks; c2e3 yearam 1 mon hs, 16
Don~ald1 R. Boyer, Iowa; Relief S~aat.upervisor,
Psta Division; 21 years, 18 days;
Alfredo Lombana, BogotA, Colombia; Ac-
counting Clerk, Accounting Division;
40 years, 6 months, 7 days; Florida.
Domingo Marquez, Ecuador; Deckhand,
Crist10bal Port Captain's Office; 19 years,
I. Fankli Mc& ny, Texas; supervisory
Electrical Engineer, Engineering Divi-
sion; 30 years, 6 months, 12 days; Texas.
Ric~ardno Mowatt, Pa lam Ch feur Motor
months, 20 days; Panama.
Jack Pearson, Indiana; Lock Operator, At-
antic Locks; 20 years, 9 months, 2 days;
ChAnle na; Shay, Pennsylvania; Retail Store
Supervisor, Supply Division; 30 years,
10 months, 16 days; undecided.
George D. Suddaby, New York; Master,
Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredging Di-
Iison a33 years, 7 months, 17 days;
Hazel V. Welby, Nova Scotia; Head Nurse,
Gorgas Hospital; 15 years, 6 months, 9
9,day F Woly, Arkansas; Supervisory
Construction Inspector,. Contract and
Inspection Division; 13 years, I month,
1 day; Florida.
Wells D. Wright, Massachusetts; Chief of
Po ect sBranc1h, Eg ne ing devisin;
Future of Canal Studied
(Continued from p. 4)
Oprye ts ro lnas a od devyst msben re e firoom the
mouth of the Rio Majagual off Manzanillo Bay. Removal of the
stumps will clear the way for the dredge Mandinga, which is
engaged mn mosquito control work on the Atlantic side.
dancing, a great number of popular songs, and piano
.solos. Musical pieces of all types by Panamanian com-
posers and a collection of chamber music now is being
awaited. Anyone interested in examining or borrowing
froin the collection is welcome to visit the library, which
is open Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. until noon
:'and 3 p.m. until 8 p.m. It is located at 6i6 Perfr Avenue.
Worth known . .
A FouR-CENT postage stamp featuring the Administration
Building of the Company-Government at Balboa Heights
will be issued by the Canal Zone Postal Service on
November 1. The brown stamp will carry the words
"Administration Building" in one corner, the stamp's
denomination and the words "Canal Zone Postage."
Collectors desiring first-day cancellations of the stamp
may send addressed envelopes, together with money to
cover the cost of the stamps to be affixed, to "First Day
Covers, Postmaster, Balboa, C.Z;." Postage stamps anld
personal checks will not be accepted. Orders should be
submitted in, ordinary letter-size envelopes with a close-
fitting enclosure of postal card thickness, as envelopes
will not be used for return of fist-day covers. Orders for
covers must not include requests for uncancelled stamps.
A MUICAL SECTION for both music lovers and the general
public is being organized by the librar\ of the Pan-
amanian-North American Association. Dr. Zdenka Fisch-
mann, musicologist, is assisting the library in organizing
the new section. The Association's library noiv has a
collection of musical scores for orchestra, modern music
by North American composers for big bands, music for
follow generally the alinement of the
existing Panama Canal in the deepest
sections of the Continental Divide, but
elsewhere the alinement would take
advantage of the most suitable terrain
and total length would be reduced from
the 51.2 miles of the present Canal to
46 miles. Flood-control structures would
be built to divert the flows of streams
tributary to the Canal, but no tidal con-
trol structures would be included in the
initial project. Such structures could be
built later if experience demonstrated a
need for them.
The channel of the Sea-Level Canal
would be 60 feet deep and 600 feet
wide. Its capacity, the Board says,
"would be sufficient to handle the
largest ships and enable traffic to move
in both directions without interruptions,
except where passage through the tidal
lock is necessary and where fogs and
other adverse weather conditions such
as tropical dopwnpours and floods are
In discussing the plan for doing with-
out tidal-r-egulating devices, the report
says the difference between the Pacific
tidal range and the Atlantic tidal range
would at times cause currents in te
channel of up to 4.5 knots. "This flow,"
the report continues, "combined with
currents caused by flood and inter-
mingling of fresh and salt water, would
produce currents up to 7 knots in cer~
tain places, such as below Gamboa."
Construction time would be 12 years.
In discussing the various proposals
for a canal in Nicaragua, the report
says, "A sea-level canal in Nicaragua .
has been eliminated from consideration
because of the existence elsewhere of
more favorable and less costly routes."
The report makes no recommendation
in regard to a lock-type canal in Nica-
ragua, although its estimated cost of
$4,095,000,000 is far greater than other
alternatives available for a canal with
The Board made no recommenda_
tions about the 11 alternate routes in
Panama and the five which cross parts
of both Panama and Colombia, but
does recommend, as noted earlier, that
further study should be made of a pos-
sible sea-level route across Colombia.
Members of the Board visited the
Isthmus during the course of their
three-yeai- studyl and in their report,
copies of which were recently received
at Balboa Heights, acknowledge and
express appreciation for the coopera-
tion given theur by: the Canal orgamiza-
SEPTEMBER 2, 1960
ENGINEERING AND CON-
pe v~iso G nevisralMd
Mike G. Budd
ENGINEERING AND CON-
Daniel M. Eggleston
Charles W. Harrison'
Vih F. e las
. Samuel .rzt
Marco .A. Lavayen
Ce ile Gooden
Frank A. Brown
Stanford H. Hewitt
Mabel G. Farley
Carmen L. Hlassocks
Sales Section Head
Jos6 J. Estrada
Miriam A. Riney
C. M. Dandrade
Sales Section Head
1Maria M. Headley
Lawrence R. Baptiste
Meat Cutter Assistant
Eduardo M. Armas
Lo enz Howell
Pedr A. S~nchez
David S. Beckett
Samuel A. Angelio
Bertram L. McLean
Fani M. Sosa
R giald H. Colb
e stributio Cl rk
George I. Goinflith
Franss ger son
Demti F.r Cabal
Laby sorer Ceaner
ENGINEERING AND CON-
Julio M. Lapeira
William G. Mummaw
Lead Foreman Carpenter
John A. Buckley
Clarence R. Taht
Pumping Plant Operator
Ralph C. Thorne
Ha int na kman
Rogelio A. Pacheco
O. N. Battershield
James W. Small
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Oscar A. Brewster
Robert L. Malone
Water System Controlman
Cuthbert L. Wharton
Ambrose V. Foote
B. S. Chambers
Frank R. West
Rhoda May Johnson
William H. M ie
Elvina W. Lansiquot
Jose D. Waitoto
Ni ls Lanas
Joseph D. Powlett
Noe rS. Da
Woodrow W. Rowland
Walter M. Trasavage
Lock Operator Machinist
Robert T. Thomas
Leader Lock Operator
Charles A. Emlaw
Lock Operator Boilermaker
Hernandez B. Corpus
Louis E. Jarrett
Joseph R. Boyd
Jaceline B. Newell
E. S aR nolds, Jr.
Lock Operator Machinist
Arthur M. Hiland
Towing Locomotive Operator
e C. Escartin
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Bart J. Elich
Kerne Fer rauenheim
Service Center Manager
Daviad C. W lliarms
High Lift Truck Operator
Dorothy A. Bellamy
A NNI VE RSA R IES
(On the basis of total ~Federal Service)
EMPLOYEEs who were promoted or
transferred between July 15 and August
15 are listed below. With-grade pro~
motions and job reclassifications are not
OFFICE: OF THE COMPTROLLER
Donald H-. Boland, from Auditor, Intemnal
Audit Branch, to Business Analyst
(Rates), Budget and Rate Division.
Raimundo Dixon, from Clerk,. Office of
General Manager, Supply Division, to
Office Machine Operator, Payroll Branch.
Carleton R. Woods, Edmond F. Johnson,
Dalis L. Quiroz, Pedro Sgnchez, Dudley
G eri k,T Rolo RNisbebmh, Roban S
Goldson, Harold L. Daniels E., to Book-
keeping Machine Operator, Accounting
Mrs. Rosa V. G. de Paredes, to Card Punch
Supervisor, Accounting Division.
Felix C. Louis, Wentworth Ennis, to Book-
keeping Machine Operation Supervisor,
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Contract and Inspection Division
Fred L. Rayboure, Jr., from Transporta-
tion Rate Auditing Clerk, Accounting.
Division, to Clerical Assistant (Typing).
Miguel A. Pacheco, Seaman, from Ferry
Alfred vi ameld, to Chief Engineer, Tow-
boat or Ferry.
Howard B. Harrison, to Lead Foreman
Landon HI. Gunn, to Dipper Dredge Op-
Ju an .sales, from Palancaman, Electrical
Division, to Seaman.
Irvin R. King, Seaman, from Navigation
Robustiano Griflin, Joseph Amantine, to
Feli cG ions tfro~m Laborer, Mainte-
Lucio G6ndola, to Seaman.
Lte Jd e, SoD peT Drede En-
gi .Electrical Division
Manuel M. Camarena, to Laborer (Heavy).
Orlando L. Flye, Jr., to Electrical Engineer
Antheon ym Mann, to Civil Engineer (Soil
Mrs. Florence E. Redmond, to Supervisory
William~lr t~ EMD hchrit ct (General).
Charles W. Brown, to Supervisory Admin-
istrative Services Assistant.
Wilford T. Malcolm, to Laboratory Helper,
Water and Laboratories Branch.
Eduriges Ardines, to Helper Machinist
Clayton Cummings, Cyril Hamilton, to
Reginaldo Urriola, from Laborer, Com-
munity Services Division, to Heavy Lab-
orer, Water and Laboratories Branch.
Julio Fontalbo, to Warehouseman.
Eduardo A. Robinson, from Laborer, Com-
munity Services -Division, to Truck
Driver, water and Laboratories Branch.
Mauricio W~illiams C., from Quarryman,
Maintenance Division, to Maintenance-
man, Water and Laboratories Branch.
Earl Jordan, Frederick J, Bynoe, from Dock
Worker, Terminals Division, to Heav
Laborer, Waterand Laboratories Branch.
OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL
Mrs. Marion L. Mallory, Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, from Employment and Utiliza-
Alvis B. Carr, Jr., to Hospital Administra-
tive Assistant, Offce of Health Director..
Garfield N. Peterson, to Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and Surgery).
Jacob A. Mason, to Patient Food Service
Eugenio Beauville, to Recreation Assistant.
Robert M. Blakely, Jr., to Hospital Admin-
istrative Officer. ~
Coco Solo Hospital
Dr. Oren C. Irion, to Chief, Medical Ser-
Sydney S. Albritton, to Inspector (Elevator
Mas. DCrh .W. Montanye, to Secretary
Robert E. Waggoner, from Usher, Service
Center Branch, to Towing Locomotive
Ru era VVter, to Lock Operator, Helper.
Rafael E. Figueroa, from Laborer, Com-
munity Services Division, to Laborer
William E. Welch, to Towing Locomotive
M fus H. BuN tedRoadrt T.FHeam t.,
John B. Willis, William E. Williams,
noeh E. Gagnon ton doc dOerator
Geog rB i ecn oHaolrd o. L rue
Alfred V. Simonsson, to Lock Operator
Warren E. LeDoux, William V. Hall,
Herman R. Wakem, to Lock Operator
01ve C Paterson, from Automotive Ma-
chunist, Motor Transportation Division,
to Towing Locomotive Operator.
Et nanae iv sin, toomTwnge Lcmoti
Reynold Yearwood, Theophilus Drake, to
Helper Lock Operator.
Julio Macia, to Oiler.
Russell M. Jones, to General Foreman (Lock
Genova J. Gibbs, Joseph J. Riley, to Lead
Foreman (Lock Operations).
Robert W. King, William H. Keller, Jr., to
Leader Lock Operator (Machinist).
Manuel M. Progana, to Lead Foreman
(Locks Control House).
Fred W. Whitney, to Leader Lock Operator
Robert A. Christie, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer,
Clfr Hwnoon tfr m Dekhand, Pilots
Force, to Seaman, Ferry Service.
Ralph C. Plummer, Arthur W. Habeck, to
John B. Spivey, to General Foreman (Dock-
ing and Un~docking).
Walter H. Hebert, to Director of Admeas-
Eugene E. Hamlin, Jr., to Chief Admeas-
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Community Services Division
Dudley G. Jones, to Gardener (Manage-
Dawson Jolley, to Messenger, Office of
Be nie E mth, Clerk-Typist, Office of
Retail Store Branch
Lionel D. Davis, to Laborer (Heavy).
Stanley Green, to Leader Laborer (Heavy).
Luis G. Trejos, to Laundry Worker (Heavy).:
Nathan W. Ashton, to General Supply Of-
Willa P. Escoffery, from Laborer, Main-
Hu 19ieDivisin to tihity W rkcer.
Frank N. Green, to Warehouseman.
Rupert A. Knight, to Truckdriver.
James N. Miller, to Supervisory Clerk.
Gabriel V. Adonicamn, Jr., to Laborer.
Service Center Branch
Mrs. Donald C. Pierpont, to Service Center
Cornelius A. Shand, to Heavy Laborer.
Mrs. Florence C. Connolly, to Counter At-
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
DaiMotor 'han portation Divi inm t
pendant, Maintenance Division, to Chauf-
Verena C. Williams, from Field Tractor Op-
erator, Maintenance Division, to Chauf-
Antonio Jimknez, from High Lift Truck Op-
Ferlat r,LTe rmi als ID v sion, to Chauffe~ur
vision of Schools, to Truck river.
Gilbert C. Wilson, to Automotive Mechanic
Fran H.atoT n f IliLaborer, Supply Di-
Arthur G. Yarde, Paulino F. Abrahams,
William U. Allen, to Clerk (Checker).
Donald S. Griffith, to High Lift Truck Op-
Alfredo Garcia, Eusebio Pe~rez, Eusebio
Gonziilez, to Ship Worker.
James C. Garth, to Clerk-Typist.
Tombs A. Salinas, Marco T. Alvarez, to
Leader (Dock Cargo Operations).
SEPTEMBEn 2, 1960
-----PR OMOTI ONS A ND TRANSFERS
July 15 through August 75
Urville W. Wallace, to Timekeeper (Typ-
Cl fod B. Allen, to Cargo Control Clerk.
Milton E. Stone, to Supervisory Cargo
AAssistat W oward, to Heavy Laborer.
PRomorrows which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Joseph N. Gill, Rupert E. Ifill, Charles H.
Arington, Guard, Industrial Division.
Mrs. Eileen C. de Brown, Clerk-Typist, Di-
vision of Schools.
Mrs. Maria C. Borst, Clerk-Dictating Ma-
chine Transcriber, Engineering Division.
Clifford Francis, Clerk, Division of Veter-
Mrs. Viviana N. Martin, Clerk-Dictating
Machine Transcriber, Gorgas Hospital.
Jorge E. V~squez G., Engineering Drafts-
man (Civil), Engineering Division.
Jonathan C. Seales, Cleveland A. Piggott,
Albert G. Mootoo, Egen W. Mike, Ri-
cardo R. Royo, Georges R. Colbourne>
Edm~ondo F. Joseph, John M. Blackman,
Claude R. Tait, James H. Apollo, Carlos
A. Payne, Rudolph E. Mitchell, Book-
keeping Machine Operator, Accounting
Yoland Valencia, Clerk-Stenographer, Ac-
Frank O. Eastmond, Accounting Clerk, Ac-
Bennett J. Williams, Supervisory Account-
ing Assistant, Payroll Branch.
Jimmie Scott, Supervisory Cargo Assistant,
J. Ernest Tigert, Guard Supervisor, Indus-
Lucinda M. Alleyne, Clerk, Retail Store
HarroalndW. Williams, Supervisory Clerk,
Retail Store Branch.
Philip T. Green, Industrial Training Co-
Ordinator, Electrical Division.
Willard E. Percy, Training Instructor, Elec-
Mrs. Lea N. Lane, Recreation Leader (Gen-
eral) Corozal Hospital.
Mrs. Wilhelmina H. Cushing, Administra-
tive Assistant (Stenography), Washington
Mrs. Alice E. Byers, Clerk-Typist, Oflce of
General Manager, Supply Division.
Margaret Mussa, Norma R. Stamp, Lina
Davis, Clerk-Typist, Retail Store Branch.
Glen W. Winherg, Chief Engineer, Tow-
boat or Ferry, Dredging Division.
Dr. Luis A. Picard-Ami, Medical Oflieer
(Psychiatry), Gorgas Hospital.
Stuart Wallace, Budget Analyst, Budget
and Rates Division.
Gloria M. Spears, Shorthand Reporter'
General Services Section.
Herbert L. Clark, Clerk, Customs Division.
GREATLY increased use of home elec-
trical appliances in the Canal Zone as a
result of the conversion from 25-cycle
to 60-cycle current has introduced fire
hazards which previously did not exist
and which will become more serious as
time goes by.
The wooden construction of niany
homes makes it necessary to be espe-
cially careful of electrical appliances
which are beginning to show signs of
wear or abuse. Electrical fires often
start during the night, when occupants
of the building are asleep-and such
sneaky ~fres can have tragic results
whether in wooden buildings or other!
Unsafe electrical appliances and wir-
ing cost the American public more than
$83,000,000 yearly: Approximately
30,000 fires each year are caused solely
by electrical equipment which simply
has worn out in service. AND IT CAN
An international, non-profit, fire safety
organization analyzed five years of in-
cidents to determine the chief causes
of electrical fies and placed wornout
equipment-from home refrige~rators
and industrial motors to house wiring
and commercial building panel boards-
at the top of the list of faults.
Improper use of equipment which
meets safety standards when used as
ALL UNITS 240
YEAR TO DATE 1747
intended ranked second on the list.
Using electric light extension cord
where heavy duty cable should be used
-to operate a home workshop motor,
for example, or in replacing frayed
cords on irons or toasters-is only one
way in which "safe" equipment can be
made unsafe by improper use.
Other kmnds of carelessness which
earn the "accidental fire" label include
blazes resulting from clothes left in con-
tact with lamps (or heater elements in
dry closets), inadvertent shorting of
electrical equipment or fixtures with
foreign materials, or leaving heated ap-
The fourth major cause of electrical
fires was listed as failure to follow the
National Electrical Code in the instal-
lation of equipment. Do-it-yourself
"electricians" who try to save money by
doing their own wiring should take note
of this. Unless they have every item in
the house covered by fire insurance and
are willing to risk the lives of themselves
and their families, they should resist the
temptation to save money by running
wires all over the house or repairmng
electrical appliances themselves. Such
actions could prove very costly in the
Give yourself a break, not a fire: K~eep
electrical appliances in good condition
and when repairs or additional wiring
are necessary, let an expert do the job.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
SAFE TY BRANVCH
Can Be Danger ous
AI D DISAB LI NG DA
:S INJURIES LC
'ss 1'5o 'ss 'so
238 7 '12 198
1630 79 80 13706
August 21 on her m~id.:n voyage from
Japan and was expected to make the
run between Yokohamna and New York
in 21 days. The Brooklyn Maru, car-
rying general cargo, is -reportedly one
of the fastest cargo liners ever built in
Japan. Continental Shipping Corp. is
agent for the Daido Line in the Canal
Reina del Mar Delayed
THE PACIFIc Stisam Navigation Com-
pany's luxury liner Reina del Mar,
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN JULY
Commercial. . :.. .. .. . ... 888 941
U.S. Government.. .. .. .. .. 19 17
Tot~al. .. .. .. .. ..... 907 958
Commercial. .. $4,222,365 $4,683,578
U:S. Government 90,328 127,137
Total. .. $4,312,693 $4,810,715
SCARGO (long tons)
Commercial. .. 4,838,691 5,634,335
U.S. Government 96,962 134,517
Total.... 4,935,653 5,768,852
* Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small
Italian Line Cruise!
CRISTOBAL will be a port of call this
year for the Italian Line's Cristoforo
Colombo, which, is scheduled to make
one cruise this winter from New York
to Caribbean ports. The 30,000 gross-
ton ship, making her first visit to Canal
ports, is due to arrive at Cristobal at
9 a.m., December 31, with 500 cruise
passengers and will sail on her return
trip to New York at 6 a.m., New Year's
Day. Her ports of call on the cruise will
include St. Kitts, Port de France, Cur-
acao, Kingston, and Nassau. The Cris-
toforo Colombo was built in Italy in
1954 and runs regularly between New
York and Mediterranean ports.
A' NEW TO n 11he ol 01aag gSeryicce
wras started in July by the Yugoslav
Splosna Plovba Lmnes Piran, which ar-
rived at the Canal July 16 from the
United States West Coast. The Piran is
being followed by the Gor~anka, which
is dlue here this month on the same
run. Both ships were built last year and
are part. of a fleet of 14 modern ships,
three of which were built in Yugoslavia.
The Firan has a registered weight of
10,879: gross tons and accommodations
for 12 passengers. After leaving Canal
ports, the ships on this service will call
at Orani, Genoa, Naples, and other
1Mediterranean ports on their way around
THE NEw 11,500-ton Philippine P~res-
ident Quezon, is expected to make the
Canal transit sometime in October on
her maiden voyage between Manila and
United States East Coast ports. The
ship, commissioned in July by President
Carlos Garcia, will ply the Manila- New
York route by way of Hong Kong>
Japan, the United States W~est Coast,
and the Panama Canal. The first of 12
cargo ships bought by the -Philippines
from Japan, the Philippine President
Quezon will be followed by the Philip-
pine President Rizal and the Philip-
pines. They are owned by the United
Philippine Lines and agents at the Canal
ports will be C. Fernie & Co.
SPEED ~RECORDS between Japan and lifew
York were being broken last monthnby
the 20-knot Brooklyn Maru, the newest
addition to the Japanese Daido Line's
cargo fleet. The vessel arrived in Balboa
The British freighter La Estancia, built in France this .year, is shown in Gaillard Cut on its
first transit through the Canal. The ship arrived at Cristobal on August 1 from Receife,
Brazil, where it picked up a cargo of 12,800 tons of sugar for Kobe, Japan. The Eltancia,
which has a gross tonnage of 9,485 tons, is owned and operated by Buries Markes of London
and is one of a number of similar cargo ships-owned by the same company which run
through the Canal on an irregular schedule. Agents mi the. Zone area are Andrewr s & Co.
delayed two weeks in Liverpool b! the
British Seamen's Union strike, is making
her current run alorig the Wecst Coast
of South America without cannlug at
Bermuda, Nassau, Havana, anid Kin-gs-
ton on either the outward or inwarld
\o\ agecs.~ The ship arrived in Balboa onl
August 27 from Valparaiso, Chile-, and
made the' northbound transit th~e fol-
10wing day, sailing immediate(\! for
Cartagena, Curacao, and La Guaira.
Following her arrival back in Li\ el p~ool
in the middle of September. shte w\ill
resume her regular schedule w\ith thle
September 29 sailing from Li\ er ~pool.
Cruise Liner Sold
THE CRUISE Ship Ariadne,' which has
been operated by the Hamburg Ainer ic a
Line for the past~three years, an-d wrhic h
made frequent winter cruise stops at
Canal ports, has been sold to
newly formed Ehgish company! for
$3,500,000. Accoi-dling to the Pac~ific
Shipper, the. ship, is now undergoing
conversion to ines eas:- ~the number of
passengers it can carry and will be used
next year for Los Angeles to A4capukoc
.cruises. The Continental Shipping
Corp., which formerly handled the ship~
here, reports that so faur there is nio r~e-
placement for the vessel in the local
SEPTElklBER 2, 1960
PPI IN G