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MRS. POTTER and I leave the Canal Zone after four most rewarding years. We both
feel that no other period in our service has resulted in as many new friendships or as
We are grateful for the pleasant recollections we take with us, and for your acceptance
of us as a part of an outstanding team. To my knowledge, no other organization can
show such efficiency and dedication to a task as this multi-national group which performs
the multitudinous functions necessary to transit ships and to service the Zone and its
While our methods and our practices are derived from the experience of half a cen-
tury, they in no way resemble those of the early years. During the first decades of the
Panama Canal, changes were slowv. In the past five years, they have -been most rapid
and the pace of change is still accelerating.
Most surely the good old days are gone. The booming traffic through the waterway
will prove the Canal's increased importance to all nations. Again and again, the worth
of the organization will be shown in its adaptation to new and greater demands.
The near future will be challenging. It will take imagination and adaptation by all
to successfully maintain our high reputation. I have no doubts as to the outcome.
My successor is a man of great and proven abilities. He will come well versed in the
problems which the Canal faces. Together you and, he will develop solutions to these
problems and meet the challenge of the world's growth as it affects the Canal.
As a final word, I remind you that here in the Canal Zone many people of other
nations see the United States in action--many for the first time, many never again.
Their impressions will be formed by the efficiency of the Canal operation and by the
friendliness of our residents here. Indeed, your ambassadorship is of great value to our
Thank you for a great experience.
Governor of the Canal Zone
President, Panama Canal Compdazy
W. E, POTTER, Governor-President
JoBN D. McELHENY, Lieutenant Governor
ELEANOR MCILHENNY, Editor
EUNICE RICHARD and Tour BITTEL
WILIAM~.NRE, R. Official Panama Canal Company Publication I~loll Hssat
ma Canal Information Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
MAY 6, 1980
Al lot went on
FO YE RR S
of the Governor's terrn
ON MAY 28, 1956, the day W~illiam
Everett Potter was sworn in as Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone, 20 ships transit-
ed the Panama Canal. Traffic, in fact, so
strained the Canal's capacity that day
that two ships were unable to transit
and were held over until the following
day. The largest of the 20 ships was the
520-foot, 8,368-ton Wolverine State, en
route from New Orleans to Japan with
a cargo of phosphate.
On April 28, 1960, just 47 months
later, there were 32 ships transiting the
Canal. And of these, 4 were so large
THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIETV
The Canal put through its billionth ton of cargo.
And :among them
Coco' Solo b~ecame a Canal Zone community.
Work moved right ahead on the Balboa bridge, a Treaty commitment.
The Governor made 33 round trips to the States.
Or so unwieldy that they required clear-
This tremendous increase in the
number and in the size of the ships
which use the waterway not only
exceeds all forecasts but is the major key
Sto many of the changes, physical and
otherwise, which have taken place
during; Governor Potter's term of office.
.IF THERE is & Single qualification which
Scan be given to' the four years which
Governor Potter has spent at the helm
of the Panama Canal organization, it is
~superlativie-~superlative, that is, in the
sense of the most, the biggest, the first,
and, sometimes, the last. These super-
latives range through everything from
ship traffic to personal associations.
He has seen more ships, and bigger
ships, transit the Panama Canal than
any governor in its history. During his
administration, the Panama Canal put
through its 200,000th commercial
ocean-going vessel, its billionth ton of
Never has a governor been faced with
more international problems. He has
been described variously as Panama's
best friend and worst enemy. He is one
of the few Spanish-speaking chief ex-
ecutives, and the first to encourage the
study of Spanish within the organiza-
The construction program of the past
four years is the largest of any admin-
istration since the days of the Third
Locks. It encompasses not only major
improvements to the Canal itself but
also to housing, office buildings, schools,
and sales outlets.
Through the Community conferences
which Governor Potter inaugurated and
through his personal participation in
such civic activities as the United Fund,
he has become more widely known to
the man on the street than, probably,
MAY 6, 1960
any other governor since Goethals. And
he is, certainly, the first ever to i-
troduce himself to a public gatheringby
aaswiell-ph 11i Ili nickname-in hs
ce rtiorc att h ve Aben prsente prdem
sonally by the Governor. Every em-
pore wi h sh r e mor yd rs oo Cnd
ded pin from the hands of the Governor
during whose administration length of
service was first recognized by some
symbol, such as pins and certificates.
And during this same period, dozens of
Master Key certificates have been given
to those who have done the Canal an
Another superlative concerns travel.
The outgoing governor has been the
most-travelled of any in the Canal's
history--33 round trips to the United
States in 47 months. He has been more
accessible than almost any of his pred-
ecessors, and has carried the Panama
Canal's story farther and wider than
any previous governor, in speeches on
the Isthmus and in the United States.
DURING THESE four years, the Canal and
the community have had a face-lifting'
In May 1956, the capacity of the Pan-
thaCal ors aiie la th t300- oot
the Cut s narrowest confines are being
widened and deepened in a $90-milion
program which will, within the next
ten\ \~..us. make the Canal a two-way
sect ti through which ships may safely
na~r,! it mounid the clock.
.1t Psllllol and Cucaracha Reaches,
Merrritt Chapman & Scott are well
00ngli o-n thelir $7,363,675 contract for
n\Ictis-nin gand.deepening that three-mile
rtietl.h oIIf Gu;.illard Cut. Since their con-
struc~tionl forces went to work in March
lays.). ther\ have moved about 90 percent
at1 lhi- i.t million cubic yards of earth
anil Icook thil contract entails.
Iin the~i 'S working days between
jurillu! yI anld April 1 this year, on a
t\~u\-sht oprleration, they moved an
aIilr cl a,1 of2,540 cubic yards a day
ndll aI on sIltruction men say, that's real-
I la sho, l.ng-1 dirt. At their present rate,
ilhr eastll \\nrk should be completed by
llnld-,llulntn-l The boring and drilling,
fo~r latrr wIrnoval of underwater ma-
trlndi h ir tlldges, is going a little more
slow\ 11. bu~t the overall project is now
aboutl ;3 5 prcent finished, well ahead
o.f icoart lc. t schedule.
A~ Iltth- Farther up the Canal, at Em-
pire- ILac l. work is just getting under
n a\ onI a1 -56.353,500 contract held joint-
1. bil the Foc.ster Construction Company
and1( \\filli.llns Brothers. This contract,
\r hic h c
as much material as in the Paraiso-
Cucaracha Reach section, was signed
last March 24.
Equipment and personnel for the job
10ce aeb itg estaa ised t th w s
opposite La Pita Signal Station, and
excavation will start early this month.
Already in the planning stages is the
widening of the remaining three-mile
section of Gaillard Cut-the part known
to be provided, through a contract now
IMPLEMENTATION of the provisions of
tte and Pnma tas eeen aco lisehd
ed during Governor Potter s term of
o @ employees of the Company-Gov-
ernment are now carried on a single
roll; employees in identical jobs receive
identical base pay, regardless of nation-
ality; and the privileges of Civil Service
retirement have been extended to non-
U.S. citizen employees,
The west approach to the $20O-million
bridge across the Canal is finished; the
east approach is almost done; work is
umder way on the substructure; and the
contract fo the superstructure has been
Over $28-million worth of Company-
Government property and real estate
has already been transferred to the
Republic of Panama, in accordance with
treaty provisions. This includes Paitilla
Point, the former Colon Hospital, the
one time Cristobal elementary school,
the Hotel Washington and block after
block of New Cristobal residences are
among this property. The Atlantic side
railroad station has been moved to the
former Cristobal commissary building,
in the Canal Zone; bids have been open-
ed for a Pacific side passenger station in
With the withdrawal of Canal Zone
purchasing privileges from non-resident,
non-U.S. citizen employees, seven Pan-
ama Canal Company retail outlets were
closed over three years ago.
Elsewhere mn the international field,
Governor Potter has been a leader in
encouraging Panama to increase its in-
dustrial and agricultural production to
meet the Canal Zone's needs. Despite
this, he is the first Governor who has
had to use his police to prevent invasion
of the Zone by maliciously inclined
"(IF I HAD tO pick one thing I've done
here of which I'm most proud, it would
be the Special Education Program in
the Canal Zone schools," Governor Pot-
ter said recently.
Conceived in November 1956, the
program was in full swing two years
later. In the meantime, the need and
scope of such a program had been
surveyed, a director hired, and 13 hand-
picked teachers sent to the United States
for months of special training.
Today, close to a thousand Canal
Zone boys and girls have benefitted from
full or part-time teaching in this Special
Education Program, and among these
(See Page 24)
The Special Education Program provides
aid for close to a thousand young Zonians.
as the Las Cascadas-Bas Obispo Reach
-which will be started about fiscal year
1962--and the deepening of the entire
waterway to a 47-foot maximum. The
$21-million, four-year deepening pro-
gram, approved by the Panama Canal
Company's Board of Directors in Feb-
ruary, will permit the transit of all ves-
sels loaded to a capacity which can be
accommodated in the Locks.
Twenty-four hour operation, of course ,
cannot be accomplished without ad-
equate illumination. This is being pro-
vided through a $396,159 contract for
lighting the Locks, awarded last Sep-
tember to E. M. Freund, and a $467,201
contract for lighting the Cut, awarded
ten days later to contractor Louis Som-
mer. Material for the Locks lighting has
been ordered and test lights were to be
installed at Pedro Miguel last week. In
the Cut, the 100 high lights are up and
the low lights are being put into place.
Both Cut and Locks jobs are to be done
by early fall.
And, to speed up the dispatching of
the increasing traffic, the firm of Gibbs
& Hill is designing and installing an
electronic system which will involve the
use of a computer. Finally, new and
more powerful towing locomotives are
TH E P.111.1 A CANAL REVIEW
The historic old house
was completely rejuvenated.
WumN Governor and Mrs. Potter came
to the ,Canal Zone four years ago, they
moved into a 50-year-old house which
had been home for 12 other Canal Zone
governors, beginning with Col. George
W. Goethals. With the exception of a
new porte cochere, an awning here and
there, and several coats of paint, there
had been no major change in the struc-
ture during l these years.
United States this month,thywill leavefo t
a modern tropical residence which has
been completely renovated and redec-
orated but which still retains much of
the basic architectural charm of the
early French-style horse which was first
built in Colebra in 19063 as a residence
for the Canal's Chief Engineer.
The metamorphosis from an old
fashioned and slightly inconvenient res-
idence to a gracious and comfortable
modern house with ample facilities for
official entertaining was accomplished
through the efforts of Governor and
Mrs. Potter who rejected plans for a
completely new official residence and
insisted that the original house be re-
constructed instead. This was the only
way, they believed, that the original at-
mosphere of the historic old structure
could be preserved.
WIlalls and foundations were reinforc-
ed, wooden floors were replaced with
tile on the first floor, a stairway was
moved, and a modern service section
was built on the basement floor. The
wide sweeping porches, characteristic
of the construction day houses, were
kept, as were the high ceilings and the
large gracious rooms.
One of the major changes on the first
floor, in addition to the relocation of
the main stairway, was the conversion
of a small bedroom, bath and library
into a comfortable guest suite. This was
completely air condiitioned as were the
other four bedrooms in the house.
The large kitchen and serving pantry,
also on the first floor, have been changed
little in outline but the recently installed
wall ovens, the modern table top stoves,
and the stainless steel service tables
would have been a wonder and delight
to the original residents.
ST~he furnishings and"decoration
throughout the house reflect the charm
and personality of the Canal Zone's first
lady, who, with the assistance of a pro-
fessional interior decorator, selected
most of the new furnishings and drapes
and chose the color scheme with its
general theme of off-whites, ice-blues,
cool greens and pastels.
Whenever possible, material such as
the polished tiles on the first floor, the
ornampuntal iron gates in the garden and
the native cativa panelling in the second
floor family room, was obtained in Pan-
The handsome dining table, its 22
matching chairs, a buffet, and two serv-
ing tables were built by the Mainten-
ance -Division of native mahogany to
replace furniture which dated back to
An enthusiastic gardener, Mrs. Potter
directed most of the landscaping which
surrounds an enlarged patio area and a
well-clipped lawn. This patio, with its
founlltanl and indirect lighting is an at-
tractive outdoor tropical living roomi
which is uSed often during the dry
seasoriffor gardenn parties.
MAY' 6, 1960
House on the H~ill
For \eari the rnain itairwra\ had led oil froni
one jide of the li~ingr room. asi Ihownl inl thii
photograph. takenl in 1953. It unsl relocated to a
point directly! opposite the fronit entrance hall.
Closine the li\ ing room wall provided a spot for a gracious furniture arrangement.
The handsome stairway now rises from the hall.
The side \eranda has been retained but refurnished. It o\erloole the garden.
I ____ ~~ _____
AN INTENSIVE campaign was started last month to acquaint
every United States citizen employee of the Company-Gov-
ernment with the four major health benefit plans which will
be available to him in July.
Between April 19, when representatives of the various bu-
reaus and divisions heard an explanation of the plans, and
July 1 when employees will select the plan they prefer, every
employee will have an opportunity to learn fuller details,
either from a counsellor for his unit, or in group meetings.
Robert Van Wagner, recently appointed Employees Services
Officer for the Personnel Bureau, expects to meet with between
80 and 90 groups of 50 or more employees, to discuss details
of the various plans.
sxAny ostfhem pans eichh the oenm ovee3 maect aoofh e-
first pay period after July 1. All plans can be carried over into
retirement provided the employee meets certain qualifications
as to length of service, and all provide that the widow of an
employee enrolled in one of the plans may continue to receive
its benefits if her husband was enrolled on a family basis.
Under each plan, the Company-Government pays approxi-
mately half of the premium.
Enrollment in any of the plans closes July 1. The next enroll-
ment period will not be until October, 1961.
A thumbnail sketch of each plan, its benefits and its cost
This plan pays up to $13.00 per day for
as long as 70 days for any one illness
Pays up to $75.00 for any one hospital
Pays up to $250.00 according to Health
Pays up to $135.00 for childbirth or mis-
carriage, including prenatal care and
Pay raea b nfit as listed above plus
$3.00 per call in hospital medical care,
when surgery is not necessary up to 50
the Canal Zone
Pays up to 90% of hospital and surgical
expenses incurred from the 71st day of
continuous hospital confinement until
release, but not to exceed $10,000.00.
Self. ... $0.92 $0.92 $1.84
Family .. 2.25
A.F.G.E. GROUP HEALTH PLAN
FOR ITS MEMBERS
For those employees of the AFGE, the following plan is
OPrION 1-Member and Dependents--Hospital room and
board-$12.00 per day for 60 days. Hospital Miscellaneous-
1st $150.00 paid in full-then 75%~ of balance. Surgical Sched-
ule-$;250.00. Maternity Benefits-N~ormal Delivery, $150.00;
Caesarean section, $;300.00; Abdominal operation for extra-
uterine pregnancy, $300.00; Miscarriage, $75.00.
Bi-Weeklyl Member Female and Non-
Pre~miums Only Family Dependent Husband
Government pays $ 0.82 $2.55 $1.53
MOm IONq 2Mernber d Dep nents-Hospital r507m and
Board (limited to semi-private rate if private room used)
--100% of first $2,500 of expense incurred iis any calendar year
-then 80% of additionalsexpense. (No deductible). Other
hospital expenses and other covered medical charges-80% of
other hospital and.medical expenses in excess of first $50.00 in
any calendar year for such expenses incurred in the hospital.
80% of other medical expenses in excess of first $75.00 for
such expenses incurred outside the hospital in any calendar
year. (Includes prescription drugs and charges by doctor for
home or office calls.) Maximum deductible $75.00 per person.
Surgical-80% of such covered surgical charges in excess of
the deductible amounts. Maximum benefits--$20,000 for all
years combined. Maternity benefits-normal delivery, $150.00;
Caesarean section, $300.00; Abdominal operation for extra-
uterine pregnancy, $300.00; Miscarriage, $75.00. Restoration
of maximum benefit-automatic each year of $1,000.00.
Bi-Weekly Member Female and Non-
Premiumns Only Family Dependent Husband
Government pays $1.30 $3.12 $1.82
Member pays... 2.11 5.81 7.11
In addition, both options provide: Conversion privilege;
retired coverage; extensions.
MAY 6,' 1960
EMPLOYEE GROUP HEALTH PLAN
(GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE BOARD)
Benefits of This Plan Include Dread Disease Coverage
GOVERNMENT-WIDE INDEMNITY BENEFIT PLAN
Kind of Expenses
First $1,000 each calendar .year, 80% of any
charge over that amount.
20% of any charge over $1,000.
80% of charges over first $50.
First $50 each calendar year (the Deductible)
20% of remainder.
Hospital-up to $15 a day for 10 days.
Obstetrician--up to $90 for normal delivery, $150
for Caesarean, $60 for miscarriage.
Anesthetist-up to $18 for normal delivery, $30
for Caesarean, $12 for miscarriage.
First $250 each calendar year, 75% of any charge
over that amount.
25% of any charge over $250.
75%~ of charges over first $50.
First $50 each calendar year (the Deductible)
25% of remainder.
Hlospital-up to $10 a day for 10 days.
Obstetrician-up to $60 for normal delivery, $100
for Caesarean, $40 for miscarriage.
Anesthetist-up to $12 for normal delivery, $20 for
Caesarean, $8 for miscarriage.
Self Only ..
Family .. .. .
Female with non-de-
pendent husband .
Self Only. ..
Family. .. . ..
Female withl non-depend-
ent husband. ....
GOVERNMENT-WIDE SERVICE BENEFIT PLAN
,,Basic Benefits ible
Same as for High Option but to 30 days
Same as for High Option, but to 30 days
.Amounlt ret by fee schedule.
$10 a day hospital expenses up to
Amounts set by fee schedule for
doctor and anesthesiologist.
Up to 120 Days Per Admission in
In full $12.00 a dal
In full 90% of actu
Amount set by fee schedule.
Up to $100 hospital expenses.
Amounts set by fee schedule for
obstetrician and anesthesiologist.
Self Only. .. . .. $1.30
Family ........ 3.12
Female with non-dependent
husband. . .. .. 1.82
$2.11 $3.41 Self Only .: ;. .. .
5.82 8.94 Family ......
Female w~ith non-de-
7.12 8.94 pendent husband .
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The Newcomers make monthly field trips, like this one to the Training Aids Reproduction Room of the USARCARIB School at Ft. Gulick.
For wornen only
takes care of new arrivals
formerly of Burlington, Ky., the wife of
Dr. Ronald D. Moore of Coco Solo
Hospital, second vice president, Mrs.
Eleanor Kelley, a former Atlanta, Ga.
resident, secretary. She is the wife of
M/Sgt. Avis I. Kelley of Fort Davis.
Treasurer is Mrs. Emory Irion, wife of
Dr. Oren Irion of Coco Solo Hospital.
Mrs. Irion calls Pasadena, Calif. her
New officers are elected every six
Speaking for the organization, Mrs.
Gove said meetings are held on the
fourth Thursday of each month, g~eneral.
ly at some local club. The cluub host.
esses set the location and also arrange to
have a speaker. Speakers are civic lead-
ers, Canal Company officials, and local
At these meetings, members are iden-
tified by name cards, which are an out-
line of the State they call home. New
members are introduced and asked to
tell the other members something about
their background. '
The club tries to schedule a monthly
field trip either to various activities in
the Canal Zone or to business enter-
prssin the Republic of Panama. Of-
fcasof these various operations have
cooperated to such an extent that on
each trip, a turnout of more than 50
percent of the members take advantage
of these tours.
An added attraction with this club is
the Pan-Canettes, a quartet which sings
everything from the barbershop tunes
to songs that have survived the passing
Mrs. Gove is the bass voice and Mrs.
Moore handles the lead. The baritone
part falls to Mrs. Freda Stohrer and the
tenor is Mrs. Elaine Whitsell. Mrs.
Whitsell, from Lake Charles, La., is the
wife of Dr. W. R. Whitsell of Coco Solo
Hospital. Mrs. Stohrer was born in
Denver, Colo., but raised on the Canal
Zone. She is the wife of canal pilot
Capt. Andrew Stohrer.
iiThis group made their first Pacific
Side appearance in March, when they
sang at the Balboa Fashion Show.
With happiness is sadness and that
comes when a woman finds her two
years in the club is nearing an end and
she is no longer considered a Newvcomer.
One of the ex-members summed up
the organization when she said, "Joining
the Newcomers is the nicest thing that
can happen to any girl when she arrives
on the Isthmus."
(Editor's Note: In June 1954, THE REVIEw
carried a story on the Newcomers Club,
bhin newlup to ae on sthisuiqissugrou
IF YOU HAVE been on the Atlantic Side
of the Canal Zone for less than two
years-and if you are a woman-mem-
bership is open in the Newcomers Club,
which will oust you when you have been
on its rolls for two years.
This club, the idea of Mrs. John
Sugar, formerly a resident of Margarita'
was born in March, 1954. Mrs. Sugar,
who came from Westfield, N.Y., joined
such a club in Westfield and rose to
the president s chair. Her ideas and
background started the Atlantic Side
club with a charter membership of 18.
In March of this year, 72 were on the
active membership roll.
The organization is now headed by
Mrs. Cecelia Gove, wife of canal pilot
Capt. Thomas Gove. Both are former
Seattle residents and now live in Coco
Other offcers are Mrs. Alice Garvin,
a former Chicago resident, the wife of
CPO Robert L. Garvin, Coco Solo, first
vice president, Mrs. Wilma Moore,
MAY 6, 19650
~: ~ ~ ~ `~." orth knowing...
r r~kz~HISTORIC HRIROS frOm early days in the Canal [Zone will
be used for the three new 2,400 hp. tugs now being con-
structed for the Panama Canal Company by the: Diamond
Manufacturing Company, of Savannah, Ga. The Isthmian
Historical Society has been called on to aid Canal author-
ities in naming the tugs. Suggestions are to be submitted
sometime before November 1. The tugs are the first new
craft of the sort to be built for the Canal in 15 years.
They were designed by Thomas D. Bowes, naval architect
and engineer of Philadelphia.
COMMENCEMENT Week starts May 22 for graduates of the
Canal Zone Junior College and of Balboa and Cristobal
High Schools. Baccalaureate services are scheduled for
a that day. The Cristobal ceremony will be at 5 p~m. in the
school auditorium. The Junior College and Balboa High
School baccalaureates will take place in the Activities
Building, the former at 5 p~m. and the latter at 2:30 p.m.
May 27 will be commencement day for all three schools.
The high school graduation exercises will be held at
~cL~-8 p.m. in the Balboa Theater and th~e Cristobal High
School auditorium respectively. The Junior College com-
- mencement will take place at 10:30 a.mn. in the Activities
Led by Lt. E. J. Shepherd of the Locks Security Force, mem- Building.
bers of the club straggle across the great gates at Gatun. -
THAn'S GOLD in them thar hills--but not the kind that will
do anyone any good. Workmen engaged in widening the
Canal channel opposite Gold Hill recently discovered a
vein of what appeared to be the yellow stuff. Since legend
At Gatun Locks, the Newcomers hear Lt. Shepherd explain how has it that the French expected to find enough gold in the
the triple flight of locks was built and just how they work* area to finance their Canal, Cut-widening activities took
second place to gold-digging. It was only pyrite, however,
a metal which fooled many a '49er and is corqfmonly
known as "fool's gold."
A NEW HEADQUARTERS fOr the Panama Canal Records Stor-
ag ecinisnwune ontutini Bidng4-
on Diablo Road. It will house the thousands of Canal
records which are now taking up 2,500 cubic yards of
Pi: 4AA ~~~' uL space in a building in the Balboa Industrial area and
which are fast exceeding their allowed space. The new
center, formerly a steel and cable warehouse, should be
ready for occupancy about July 1. The work is being done
by Isthmian Construtctors on a low bid of $2,594.
t~l,~~i ~~" ?EMPLOYEEs who avoid serious injury by wearing safety
~ garb will now be eligible for membership in three nation-
ally-known safety organizations. These are the "Turtle
Club" (hard hats), the "Wise Owl Club" (eye protection),
and the "Golden Shoe Club" (safety shoes). Bureau safety
1 ployee who has avoided serious eye or toe injury in the
~ ..last six months or a serious head injury since 1957. At-
r '' r!tractive lapel pins and scrolls will be given to all members
rii~L Il~t~in such clubs.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11
James A. Weiselogel used a boat to reach
the Lake areas where he was census tacker.
BY BOAT, by car, and by foot, 41 census
enumerators set off around the.. Canal
Zo~ne on April 1 to make the count of
~every man, woman and child which is
taken for the United States Census each
10 years. As this issue of the REVIEw
went to press, the count stood at 36,786,
and was approximately 95 percent com-
The last minute returns may change
the estimate made on April 22 that the
1960 census would show a decrease of
about 10,000 from the 52,427 popula-
tion counted in the decennial census in
1950, but whether this estimate is a
little high or low, a considerable drop in
population is apparent. Final figures will
be available early this month.
IT TOOK an airlift last month to help'
build two of the Panama Canal Com-
pany's new telemetering stations which
are Incatetd iln almot inaccessible spots
in the Gatun Lake basin watershed.
The stations, one at Agua Clara and
the other at San Miguel, must be rebuilt
as they are not now suitable to handle
the new equipment which will be in-
stalled as part of the Canal's new rain-
fall and river-level telemetering: system.
Transportation of material to the
station sites proved to be one of the
major problems. Cement and gravel, as
well as aluminum and lumber would
have to be carried successively by truck,
launch, cayuco and human pack train
to the two station sites--a three-week
job. Costs would increase. The answer
was an airlift, with an:Army H-19 heli-
Carrying 300,to 1,100 pounds of ma-
terial from Mad'den' Dam each trip, heli-
copter pilot First Lt. Wallace H. Frank-
lin completed the transportation job in
about seven hours. Meteorological and
Hydrographic Branch employees receiv-
ed the helicopter loads at the two sites
and had the concrete foundations for
the new 50-foot towers poured and the
building foundations laid the following
W. H. Esslinger, Panama Canal Hy-
drogr~apher, rode the helicopter on the
first trip to show the pilot the sites.
A after that Lt. Franklin ran a continuous
shuttle service with a total of nearly
9,000 pounds of cargo.
The contract for the installation of
the rainfall and river-level telemetering
equipment was awarded in January to
the United Electric-Dynamic Inc. of
Pasadena, Calif. who made a low bid
of $98,795 on the project.
The new system, designed bjy Gibbs
& Hill of New York, will insure a more
efficient operation of flood and reservoir
control through regular radio and micro-
wyave reports by code from remote
stations on Gatun Lake and Madden
Dam. to the headquarters of the Meteor-
ological and Hydrographic Branch at
The equipment will consist of two
major parts. One is the instrumentation
and control for a hydrologic radio tele-
metering system. The second is the high
frequency radio telemetering system
from the hydrologic stations on the
watersheds to base stations at Gatun
and Cerro Pelado. From these two
points it will be connected by existing
Iand lines to the central office at Balboa
Teequipment is now being as-
sembled by the contractors in Califor-
nia. Actual installation on the Isthmus
is expected to begin in August.
Rainfall and river-level stations are
located at strategic positions throughout
the watersheds, but only three of them
have communication facilities. The 25-
year-old telephone lines to these stations
are unreliable and at least two of the
three have stopped operating recently.
MAY 6, 196)0
A 10-year count
"Who, me?" one of the Bob Tlhompsons' youngsters asks Balboa enumerator John Haky.
At 12 cents a head, Mr. Haky did well here, even though one boy is away at school.
AIRLIFT TO THIE RESCUE3r
The Marine Director and his staff hold frequent meetings in this panelled office.
erate. thei Locks, all are members of the
But the Marine Bureau's job doesn't
stop with the safe handling of transiting
or docking vessels. Its people also ex-
amine candidates for marine licenses,
which entitle them to operate in Canal
waters, and inspects and certifies to the
safe condition of all floating craft, from
the tiniest outboard motorboat to the
largest vessel afloat which may wish to
operate in the Canal Zone.
All of this they do quietly, efficiently,
and thoroughly, and occasionally some
One recognizes their worth. One of the
Bureau's proudest possessions is a scroll,
now in the office of the Balboa Port Cap-
tain, drawn up and signed by a number
of sea captains who were Axis prisoners-
of-war during World War II, commend-
ing the Panama Canal in general and
the Marine Bureau in particular for the
job they have been doing so well for so
1VT THE exception of the floa~tilg
equipment which belongs to the Dredg-
ing Division and a few small boats as-
signed to the Engineering Division and
the Police Division, everything which
travels on or in the Canaf's water is the
province of the Marine Bureau, largest
in the Company-Governmen~t organiza-
The Marinre Bureau docks ships,
measures them for tolls, transits them,
repairs them, and, in case they are in-
volved m an accident in Canal waters,
finds out the whys and wherefores of
From the time a vessel teaches the
outer anchorage at BDalboa or the Limon
B3ay anchorage at Cristobal until it
leaves Canal waters at the other end, it
is under the control of the Marine Bu-
reau. The men who pilot the ships
through, the men who make up the
transit schedules, the men who put the
handling lines aboard, the men who op-
Keyed in to the numbers are: 1. Charles
T. Jackson, Administrative Officer; 2. Capt.
Geoffrey Thompson, Chief, Industrial Divi-
sion; 3. Roy C. Stockham, Chief, Locks
Division; 4. Betty Farrell, stenographer; 5.
Capt. William C. Hughes, Jr., Marine Di-
rector; 6. Mrs. Joan C. Clare, secretary; 7.
Capt. Axton T. Jones, Cristobal Port Cap-
tain; 8. Capt. Claude S. Farmer, Balboa
Port Captain; 9. Walter A. Dryja, Assistant
to Marine Director; and 10. Capt. Elmer
G. Abbott, Assistant Port Captain, Balboa.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
THE TRAFFIC BOOM which is bursting
the seams of the 46-year-old Panama
Canal is the major problem facing 1,400
employees of the Navigation Division,
whose main job is putting ships through
For them there is no such thing as a
quiet day in the Canal-not these days
anyway. Time was when 24 transits in
one day put the Canal Marine Traffe
Control men in a tizzy. The other day,
however, they shoved through 47 ships
of all sizes of the 51 which h~ad arrived
for transit, without much more trouble
than a few hours overtime at the Locks.
Traffic now averaging about 33
ocean-going ships daily, has reached a
level predicted for 1978. Although the
Canal and its transit system are in the
process of being modernized, Naviga-
tion men are handling this heavy load
with the equipment they used 30 years
There is an air of quiet tension in the
Marine Traf~ic Control offices located in
the Terminal Buildings on both sides of
the Isthmus. From these nerve centers,
a jigsaw puzzle of transit schedules is
worked out each day 24 hours in ad-
vance of ship arrivals, pilots are alerted,
tugs lined up and boarding parties
gwven the picture. Despite a general
impression of smooth operation, things
do not always move smoothly and there
is always a possibility of a hitch in the
carefully prepared plans.
Such a hitch occurred March 18
when fog obscured the entire Pacific
entrance and northbound transits were
delayed until 10 a.m. This sort of thing
can be a dispatcher's nightmare. So can
a tug breakdown, a ship accident, or the
arrival of several unscheduled ships, all
asking for transit at once.
The Canal's 24 admeasurers, the men
who measure the ships to determine the
amount of tolls, also are affected by the
heavy traffic. Every ship arriving for
initial transit is measured physically
from stem to stern. During the past
three months alone, an average of
60 new vessels have arrived at the
Canal terminals each month-double the
number 10 years ago.
There are three new Canal tugs
building in the United States but at
present the Canal is handling th~e record
traffic load with its present comple-
ment of nine tugs, three of which are
kept in the Cut by the Dredging Divi-
sion. When a super-ore-carrier such as
the 745-foot-long Dynamic makes a trip
through the waterway, two tugs ease
her into the locks, one helps her out the
Panama Canal tug Trinidad hulls and pufs
as she brings United Fruit liner Metapan
alongside a Cristobal pier on a windy day.
Leonard Wolford, Supervisory Marine Traffie Controller at Balboa, directs operations in
the Balboa Port Captain's office as two clerks check the progress of ships moving north-
bound through the Canal. The board at the right shows the ships at the Pacific Locks.
MAY 6, 1960
other end and two shepherd her through
the Cut. Only Canal tugs are used for
towing in the Panama Canal and, of
course, they bring ships to dock-at the
rate of 3,441 in Cristobal and 1,271 in
Balboa during the past fiscal year.
Launches, which work under the di-
rection of the Harbor Masters in Balboa
and Cristobal, also are part of the N~avi-
gation Division's floating equipment.
There are 12 regularly stationed in
Balboa and 12 in Cristobal, and three
more are being constructed in the In-
dustrial Division Shops at Cristobal.
From the time a ship arrives at a
Canal terminal until it leaves Canal
waters it cannot move without a Canal
pilot. To meet the increase in traffc, the
pilot force has been increased to 118
men, 91 of whom are qualified to handle
any type of ship.
The qualifications for a pilot are rigid
but nowadays, in addition to super-
ships and heavy traffic, he may some-
times be faced with a language problem.
If crew members on a foreign ship have
learned little or no English, it can be a
stopper to the man who must relay his
orders to the able seaman or quarter-
master who handles the wheel.
Stepping off the Cristobal harbor launch Bonefish, Cristobal pilot Roy L. Hearn climbs the
gangplank of the cargo vessel Baltic Swift shortly after its arrival in Cristobal Bay. Hie
will guide the ship south through the Panama Canal and disembark in Balboa anchorage.
Signalman James F. Ambergey operates
the 24-inch light on Flamenco Island. This
is often the first Canal contact for ships.
George Downing, one of the Canal's Ad- Dead baby flattop Savo Island is warped in
measurers, measures the size of an engine to Balboa Pier 14 under the direction of
room, in 120-degree heat, for toll charges. HI. S. Driscoll, Canal lead dock foreman.
THE PANAlkA CANAL REVIEW
:I I(rr ;*
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;~i~f~L*;t*~*:. *.li ;Lli
the Canal locks is remarkabll\-11: for~ t usl
things--the quiet effic i -Ic\ \i ithl \ hlch
of people who do it. Th.. "cI"'";on as
to efficiency is quite cansoi~ t bl. i that .Is
to force is quite wrong
The casual visitor 1ct th_ lawc~kage
crews but is not apt t.. Ilt n .1I.I.s, th!..
mechanics and painters, th. ILr nes1 ad !i
carpenters, the payrll ..hll ks~r and ha
safety men whobaktm 1-
tl...g. thlr, the locks foll. l.-l~: makes a i the
second largest divis:~..o in the~ c: in <1
Like a ship, the Il~.~ .s.ks "! **" :.n-
stant maintenance, alth~.l.ughi tha~ti de-
E~lmelr F. II.lrrisonl is onie of thle control
house open antc-l w\ ho, gulde each lockLage.
set units Pauoirnen like trar on Mathene
to he sure that nothis 9 is passed a bore or pui
men is busit beaten than th. \ kw<<.
E1....pt 1.0 the I..placem.-nt ..1 the
. La br al clistiants...o
< .teth as th..i \...re J.-signe-cl half a
cent..gs ag., And alth..ugh they are
n..1 tna as, all .,nd to... -laii to handle
th.- task th : an- b.-nig called on to
ped..Iln. th 1..com..t. es hate held up
w ell. F...r ti .[ th.: 11.1 males ..late back.
to 0.111. N. ..ne has @:.-1 ..heel
Line handlers, like Victorino Garcia, are real artists. A split second after he released a coil of rope in a combina-
tion underhand, sidearm throw of his right hand, he followed it up with the rest of the line paid out from the left.
tr, n it ni each ~hip
lout clue pe~lmi. ion.
th.. i,.. IIu bit even with their limited
!il.. !r in..s~t b~r- considerable.
l~.... h.Ib~l b~~lks and locomotives must
bc~ I.-!,t 1!1 r.p condition. Locks carpen-
r,-I, I.. ;1.1111:e.:e have a recurrent job
I! pI-sL g !! her wooden fenders which
I'.r.....t rh'.. .,pproach walls from tran-
roll.l hapsI on)!ce or twice each week
~..I... ..I th. m1 .:rul.nches under the weight
.1~ I.ac Ie .--~l whip or tanker. This par-
tll'lll a w..ellaterance job is about to
.. |.~l1 In 111.... il developments. Rubber
1~..!i..lu ?.1,a. h will eventually replace
the wooden ones, are already being
used on a trial basis at Pedro Miguel.
Regular tests are made every two
weeks on the one-inch cables-the locks
people call them wires-which link
locomotives to ships. The friction de-
vice which limits the pull to 25,000
pounds on each line is checked and the
500 feet of wire on each locomotive's
reel examined, tested, and then coated
with a special anti-corrosive compound.
Despite all of this, the average life of a
wire is only four to six months these
In addition to all of this day-by-day
or week-by-week preventive mainte-
nance, there are, of course, the regular
overhauls when the lock chambers are
emptied and every inch of wall, every
bit of gate, every piece of machinery
gone over with the thoroughness of
these experts on their jobs. An overhaul
is scheduled for next dry season and
procedures are being developed to cut
to a minimum the time a lock chamber
is out of service.
I r- 'rr f
rr* ~ ,*~
'I: t r:*
.11 ilailolres Locks, touring lorcomloti\ e opeslator-wireman Fred 11.
11h Iitne\ andl Lockmnaster E. F. Klearnesl take a brief hleathetr be-
tween whjip 'The.\ mlaker up part or thec Cana.l's 13 lockage creusr.
At the lum~lnnytile repair shed~t at C~atunl L~cks. I. X1. Mlorri o
while matlhniti helperI lose L.. Pela.. guides it inlto Idate. P
at the other endt. The kw~loc lmthem are carefull\ andl Ireq~uet
ar rorn a niule
'd la u pant
Eldon Thompson, an oiler at Miraflores, is oiling the motor of the hydraulic drive of the huge fender chains. These
chains are the only hydraulic equipment used in the Locks operation. All other equipment is driven by direct me-
chanical linkage. Behind him stretches approximately 1,250 feet of the 6,600 feet of tunnel at Miraflores Locks.
"r Pau1 6NAL REVIEW 17
hl\a 6,. I
U.S. minesweeper Thrush goes onto the Marine Railway at Mt. Hope for repairs.
W. G. Brown, meter inspector, and C. V. Brathwaite, helper,
check the quantity delivered from a La Boca station gas pump.
It must be accurate to within 1% ounces for each 5 gallons.
Industrial Division cranes flip a new launch
so its hull can get a coat of marine paint.
WHEN the Governor of the Canal Zone
presents a key to the Panama Canal
Locks to a deserving employee or a
distinguished visitor he recognizes a
very important function of the Panama
Canal Industrial Division whose Instru-
ment Repair Shop makes keys for all
the locks of the Panama Canal Com-
Instrument repair employees claim
that they have the original key to the
locks of the Panama Canal and if any-
one were to use the one the Governor
gives away it wouldn't work. This may
be pure professional jealousy but there
is no denying that the demand for keys
seems to be heavy enough to'keep one
man busy on this job exclusively.
While heavy machinery, ship repairs,
and major marine work take up the
time of most of the employees in the
Industrial Division shops in Cristobal,
the Balboa Instrument Repair Shop
devotes itself mostly to precision jobs.
One of these is checking each month
the gasoline pumps used in the Panama
Canal service stations. These must be
within .0575561426 percent correct or
within a little less than 90 cubic centi-
meters of error in each five gallons
delivered. If the customer gets the bene-
fit of this error, he wouldn't get very
far-about 800 yards more or less on a
18 MAY 6, 1960
Blocking up a ship after it is drydocked is
one of the important parts of that opera-
tion. Above, Industrial Division men make
sure the ship is level before they begin on
any of the repairs to the docked vessel.
Rising-stem gate valves, which will be used in the forthcoming overhaul of
the Atlantic Locks, first undergo a thorough inspection. Here they are being
planed true to .005 of an inch at the Industrial Division's shops at Mt. Hope.
ing them in their extra-curricular activi-
ties such as baseball or fishing.
Here is located the only marine dry-
dock in an active status within a radius
of several hundred miles. It will accom-
modate ships up to 386i feet in length.
There is another in Balboa of 1,000 foot
length but it is used only for emergency
repairs and for the overhaul of certain
Panama Canal equipment too big for
During the past fiscal year, the Cr-is-
tobal drydock handled 33 vessels over
65 feet in length and one under that
size. Counting ships in drydock, the In-
dustrial Division serviced 1,020 ships
during fiscal year 1959. On marine re-
pairs the Salvage Depot located in
Gatun often enters the picture and the
divers and diver tenders participate in
underwater repairs as well as other
tank of gas.
On the Atlantic side where the main
Industrial Division shops are located,
there is a constant hum of activity and
this hum occasionally rises to a small
roar. Capt. Geoffrey Thompson, USN,
who has been chief of this division for
the past three years, sees to it that things
keep moymng and occasionally puts out
a little bulletin praising the men not
only for a job well done but encourag-
THE PANAMA CANAL PREVIEW
ERNEST M. KRUEGER, who is now a full-fledged third class
diver, has learned a lot of things in six weeks, like as-
sembling a flange under water in the diving training tank
at the Industrial Division Diving School at Gatun. An
experienced machinist on land, Mr. Krueger, then a stu-
dent diver, was in the process of getting his water legs
.4 when this picture was taken.
Students taking the course had to spend four hours
each day working out problems under water in addition
to four hours of intensified classwork above water. Mr.
Krueger, dressed in deep-sea diving gear, was working
under 12 feet of water, which is the depth of the circular
*' training tank. Later he took on more complicated jobs in
the 60-foot water off the Diving School barge. Anchored
a short distance off-shore on Gatun Lake, the barge is
directly over the spot where the Dutch coaster freighter
Brion was sunk in 1934. The old wreck provides a perfect
laboratory for both budding divers and those more ex-
--' .perienced who want to learn new techniques or practice
The diving school wyas started during World War II
by William Badders, veteran diver and now head of the
Salvage Depot and Diving School, who was sent to the
Isthmus in 1943 by the U.S. Navy to train diving person-
nel for wartime ship repair and salvage work. This class
in which Mr. Krueger and three other student divers and
six diver tenders were graduated last month, was the first
to be conducted by the Canal organization since 1948.
. Graduation ceremonies were held at the Diving School
KNow what's going to happen in the picture at the right?
Somebody's going to ask Miraflores tour guide Robert J.
Byrn whether the Pacific Ocean is higher than, the At-
lantic, or is it the other way around?
How do we know? Because someone always does. The r-- 2 aS"_~;~"Ci~
question about the level of the two oceans is the favorite
among the thousands of visitors who stop in at Miraflores
Locks each month.
But despite this, the tour guides enjoy their job, which .
has more than tripled in the past few years. A little less
than four years ago, only 2,042 persons visited Miraflores
Locks in one month. In March this year, there were 7,064
visitors, and over a third of them were Spanish-speaking.
Escorting visitors is the most publicized job of the Locks
Security Force but their other duties are legion. Just as
the name implies, the men who wear a shoulder patch
showing a key over the Canal Locks are responsible for
the safety of these same locks. .
When the last ship h~as been locked down each night, ; ~
it is their turn to lock up, but what they lock is every-
tunnel gate, every outside gate, and every entrance to a
vital part of the locks. At Miraflores alone this means 19
gates on the north end and 27 at the south end. They I
guard every locks entrance as well as the vehicular cros- ~"
sing at the sea end of Gatun Locks, and they patrol miles
of fencing which surrounds the locks areas.
Most of the 66 men on the Locks Security force are
former servicemen and all have been specially trained for
their jobs. They have been instructed in criminal law,
judo, investigation, report writing, public relations and ru
marksmanship. A number of them are crack shots. ::-"
$2,697,954.98 To Panama
DIRECT benefits to Panama from the Company-Government
during March totalled over $2.6-million, according to figures
compiled from the Supply Division, the Contract and Inspec-
tion Division, and the Payroll Branch. The figure, the highest
for any month so far this calendar year, exceeded that for
February by over half a million dollars.
The eight contracts which were awarded during the month
to local firms helped to boost the March total. These local
contracts amounted to $1,193,607. Largest of them was one
for $580,000, awarded to Geneva, S. A. for the Pacific side
s~ewaee disposal system. Twlo other large March contracts were
oneion539.95 le toClkan.Inc 10 thle conlstrucltioln of
Pate nlt Clinil aIt Ccc~ Solc Hospital.
Larged ot(f the- tha w~ mel~,,as *ule,11 I1ons int oll ed in tht dlr. it
roll flir lnon-linit ed Stait.s ultlze ns~. In Ma.rchl this parrolll to-
tallcd $1.35;.6-E.9.5. Thet majrilt! of ther empi~llce4 In this
non-Ui S catego~r! li\l ini the- Rerubhll c ofI Pana~ma andl spend
most o-f their takec-ho~me pal thcre.
formrr ComnPamI-Go\, emrnelnt inlplloyees, retirement pa\ for
noni-U.S. citizeni-s h\ Ing In Panama~h. norJ the~ amounlllt paid olt
b! Panai~manianii citlti-n Iin llnCome tal\ to theiir.~0 gternmenl~t.
The~ folllo-nin tablei shows pllrchases it. Pa'nalma bi the
1. Food Products:
a. Meats: Native Beef, Sausage Products
b. Seafood: Fish, Lobster, Shrimp. ..
Coffee.. .. . ... . ... . .
Vegetables, Fruit in Season.....
d. Dairy: Eggs, Milk Products. .. ..
e. Bakery: Bread, Rolls. .. . ...
f. Others: Brewers Grain, Blackstrap
Molasses.. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .
Rl. l Boxlat-'S: BI..-er. SoJ. \\a;ter .............
'j. TI- ba, IeC. Prod:uctS.. . . . . . . . . . .
-I TwIcilt .11ne
5 Haittencs~ "T lasc ....... ......
I,. Gme---,. .1s..tilrrni Oi\~clle HydI..,rogen. C~ool-
.1. Folrst Prodne llts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
<. Saind.. ... .......
ai Panelt. ctc. . . . . .
c. Mis~cellaniousj Bulildint Ma~terIA~...
lllce-llaneo-us G;-oods fol:r re-Sale: Planltjul
Chips. Spo~rt shirts. Post Lanlds. Broo~ms.
9I A\llalrlian sm isc Ue tlem-- l'i quetln Bags. Plasj-
ti.. Bass. liiratoin ms DI\ ke.. .. .. .. ..
Totall (Consuimer CIondsl. ...
10 Sartice~s ........... ..... .........
CI ane-l Totall. ...............
Easier accounting for
SoMIETHING NEu\. in the~ Form of~ a help-
ful su~nni\-\ellow Tratel Folde~r. has
beenl aIdded tol thet unsltalnce the Canlal
Zonet Tiansportaltion jectionl gi\ls an
emploatee tra\rlling on homle lat1\e or
On the fo~ld~er a back; cover is a form
to bet filled oul~t forI usej as anl it!inesary.
remndlclr. and! c thetre is pace~ fo~r recordl-
handllnng. andC tollS paid.
.111 of~ which shouldl tend to make a
painless operation of blling ouit a Travrl
l ouc her for re~imlbu~rsementl~ of inc~iden-
tal expenises. a task; o-nce approached
tax\ form evokel~s, despite the meanilng of
thf w\oi d reimn-bu~irsement. rd tha~t w\as
because. in the past. an emp~loyee~ rehled
on me~mor!. or brief no~tebook\ In-ttings
-when he-l Jl emllemlbeled to, maket themr-
foi 3LuCh data as wh a~t Cdate anid ho)ur the ~
famln-ll saidl gooldbye to Aul-nt Xlam-ic~ in
New~ Y'ork and \\ent onl to cee Urnclr-
Josh1 11n the old homell town\1. Somew\\ here ~
The Tratel Folder, whei n opened.h1as
two ( Icke~itts filled w\ith details aboul~t the
emllplor ~c's tra\l l and transiportation. .
together w\ith pe~rtinent reminders. suich
as a pamphlet oni United States Cus-
to~ms Hints."' instructions on the use of
li. S. .4. transponrtationi requests. and
for1ml tO o ase an\ number of contil-
Le~nc ies. Mo~.st important. a ssample forn'
is inc luded w hlich Shlow~ s ust whalt in-
Here is where the formn onl the bnck ;
enter o-f the Tra\rel Fo.ldrr co~mesj it,
hand\. for date- anid hour of arliani and l
dleparture are needed. from thie starting
po)'int in the Canal Zoneli to, poinlti of
e~nti! anid d~parture~ In the Urnitrcd
States,. to arri\al in thle Canal Zone alt
the erd of travel. For automobletie ra~tl.
speedlomelter readlings and mnilesj traverl-
Irld .Ire impor~tant par~ts of the~ recordt.
.\nid all inciden~tal exptinses in ~conneer-
tion writh the traw~l hate to be Itemizecl.
:itormpatnied bi receipts for all e~penrd-
rture~s of h15 or more.
The Tra\el Folder's pockets them-
sekesti. inl red and black type. carry a
last minutes checklriSt. togettherl with Pan1-
amia Lines telephone~ numlbers. at Balboa
Heights. and inl New\ York.
Claims for reimbursement of allow\-
.ible expenlses are rnade on return from
lease, anid should b~e iiubmittedl withini
:30! clays. toge~ther w\ith all receipts and
original of the Let~~e Tra\el Order.
Bel on usge!
THE PIN.4Ml.4 C4N.IL REllEW\
Dry season program brought
~~B At Rainbow City, this quartet was engrossed in handicraft, which ranged from. raffia work to making dailies.Prl"
and girls of elementary school age
proudly displaying their accomplish-
The handicraft work ranged from
baskets made of Christmas cards by the
seven and eight-year-old girls, to real-
istic rubber foam and velour paper
flowers, raffia work, tembleques, stoles,
clothespin bags and embroidered blous-
es by the older girls. The boys made
bamboo planters, carved and decorated
calabash baskets, made silhouette wall
plaques, and lamp bases.
Materials were purchased through
the $1,650 allotment to the Canal Zone
Latin American Communities Summer
Recreation Board, an agency of the
With the exception of the treasurer,
all the officers of the Board have been
reelected each year since the organiza-
tion meeting in 1952. Harold W. Wil-
liams is president; Hamilton H. Lavalas,
vice-president; D. Elman Clarke, secre-
tary; and Claude A. Smith, treasurer
The district officers, who also in-
structed the handicraft classes, are:
Pedro Miguel, Mrs. Josephine Soley,
chairman, and Mrs. Maud Powell, vice
chairman; Paraiso, Mrs. Eloise U.
Clarke, chairman, and William McKin-
non, vice chairman; Santa Cruz, Mrs.
Leonora Prince, chairman, and Mrs.
Pearl John, vice chairman; Rainbowr
City, Mrs. Hazel Jolliffe, chairman and
Mrs. Leonora Green, vice chairman.
They were assisted by women of the
communities, and by high school stu-
YELLow split peas, elbow macaroni, and
rice are the basic ingredients of a good
meal, to a cook, but to the boys and girls
who participated in the 1960 summer
recreation program in the Canal Zone
Latin American communities, these
were materials with which to create
attractive decorations. The yellow split
peas, glued in original designs onltle
cardboard plates, became wall hangings.
Macaroni, and rice, dyed and then glued
onto foundation cardboard, turned into
butterflies and pastoral scenes.
The handiwork of over a thousand
busy fingers was placed on exhibit at
the Paraiso High School gymnasium
April 23. Two days before, each com-
munity at Pedro Miguel, Paraiso, Santa
Cruz, and Rainbow City, had its own
individual exhibition, with 636 boys
The boys got into the act, too. They stenciled tee-shirts when they weren't busy in a spirited game of ping pong.
22 MAY 6, 1960
Fun for Everybody
CLASSES in first aid will soon be organized among those
Company-Government units whose employees have been
assigned to first aid duties as part of their Civil Defense
By the end of this calendar year at least half of the 500
persons assigned to first aid duties will have been trained.
The remainder will receive their training during 1961.
All of those who have had first aid instruction will take
brief refresher courses each year.
Serving as teachers for this group will be 20 men and
women who have been given the required preliminary
and advanced first aid instruction by Mrs. Charlotte Ken-
nedy, American Red Cross Volunteer instructor. This
group, which includes both United States citizen and
non-citizen employees, is now taking the Instructors
Course from Eugene Jones of the Red Cross organization.
Training of this group as instructors for their fellow
employees was the first step in the intensive first aid pro-
gram of the Canal Zone Civil Defense organization.
The first aid workers have been assigned to rescue
units, casualty stations, and the hospitals. The extent of
their training will depend on their assignments.
In line with the long-range Civil Defense training
schedule, three Comp~any-Government employees will
take special work in their fields next month in, the United
Dr. I. Robert Berger, Chief of the Out-Patient Clinic
at Gorgas Hospital, will attend a course in "Management
of Mass Casualties" at the Brooke Army Medical Center
at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Tex. Vernon
Douglas and Robert Hlerrington, both from the Engineer-
ing and Construction Bureau, will go to Manhattan
Beach, N.Y. to take the Rescue Course at the Ofliee of
Civil and Defense Mobilization Eastern Instructor Train-
Classes in radiological defense, known as "RADEF,"
which will be given at the Army Chemical W~arfare
School at Fort Clayton, have been scheduled for early
June. T~he trainees will include persons assigned to rescue
and decontamination operations and members of the
Police and Fire Divisions. The latter will be used as
monitors in the fixed radiological monitoring stations
which will be established across the Isthmus.
Last month, while he was in the United States to attend
the annual convention of State and Territorial Civil De-
fense Directors, held in Washington, Philip L. Dade,
Canal IZone Civil Defense Chief, also attended the course
on "E~mergency Operations" at the Manhattan Beach
Making baskets was tricky work, but interesting.
Skilled teachers helped the girls with their sewing.
Foam rubber and velour paper became amazing flowers.
TmIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
out of ten of then were 25, \tarrs old ~r
The leading cause of theset alcadcnts
was collision between a scooctter andlt ;1n
automobile, and the major it\ oft tht ac-
cidents occurred between 3 pni~. and l
9 p.m. Most of the accidents; tool~k p~lace t
during summer vacation.
In seven out of ten of the fatal slcoo-tr
accidents in the United States, the
scooter operators w-ere violatllng a la~.
Failure to have the right of u ayI w as the
most frequent traffic regulationI \iola-
tion, with excessive speed and~~ unropu '''
turning close behind, in thalt ~rdtle.
These facts, the Natllonall Saht lt
Council points out, seem to- indlicate
e-neoullld es theil o)PCeratorS toJ iOrnlet
li111 lpcellld IlS~ narraltin. 0 5~in..bu m
buit most Ihkel\ \son do dtei~r an1 .cuto-
1~\.1 .10u me tcacher, \\lth scolotcr
drlocls inl \our obses~r~ us thel parent of
a smoks~t i dr;i\ I-. n\ hII Il.t talkl the icooter
,h--(\ ifa~ctr me~. \\lth the.lll Suc~h a
DID YOU KNOw that 176 scooters and 46
motor-bikes are zipping around the
Canal Zone these days? And did you
realize that they have become such
favorite vehicles for the teenager that
Balboa High School has just provided a
special parking lot for them and that
the Canal Zone Police are prepared to
give scooter safety talks to their drivers?
So far, the Canal Zone has been com-
paratively lucky in its scooter accidents;
there has been no serious one for a year
But the accident potential is always
present. In the United States according
to the National Safety Council, between
100 and 125 persons were kildan
more than 4,000 mnjured during 1958 in
scooter accidents. The victims ranged in
age from 9 to 79, and more than seven
-ACC ID EN TS
YEAR TO DATE
FIRST AI D
DI SAB LI NG D AY S
'60 '59 'LO '59
6 12i 51 330
28 301 423 1275
the physical plant of the schools hias
been augmented by the ROT`C and the
Activities Buildings at Balboan High
School; the Coco Solo e~ltmnlcltar
school, remodeled at a cos~t of Iar ea
$250,000 from a onetime Nai\\ bulikl-
mng; and the new Cristobal High ShoolJ.
which cost over $1,125,000 to convert
from three former Navy structures at
Last September, contracts were
awarded for two new Pacific side ele-
mentary schools, one at Los Rios, and
the other at Diablo Heights, and for the
remodeling and enlarging of the pre-
sent Diablo Heights elementary school
into a junior high school. The new ele-
mentary schools will be ready when
school reopens after the summer vaca-
tion, and the junior high school will be
Occupied at the end of the first semester,
Funds have been budgeted for altera-
tions to the present Paraiso elementary
junior high school to convert it to a
lumior-senior high school. The present
high school will' then house Paraiso's
And, in the scholastic line, advanced
achievement sections have been estab.
thel da~\ ini thl. C.anal Zonllc for tll., pa't
floui wd r. \\luleI. thc $1 m~illliion flce-
lifting of the venerable Administration
Building is the largest of this sort, other
office buildings have been painted, re-
equipped, air-conditioned and, altogeth-
er made into more pleasant places to
work. An outstanding example of this
modernization is the conversion of two
buildings once occupied by the Ancon
Commissary into a trim headquarters
for the Personnel Bureau.
With the advent of 6i0-cycle current,
air conditioning is no longer the excp
tion for many Canal Zone househod
and is rapidly becoming the rule for
office and other public buildings.
Widespread improvements are al-
ready under way or planned for the
Canal Zone hospitals. These include a
new out-patient clinic at Coco Solo Hos-
pital and a newv central building for
Housing has received much atten-
(Continued from page 5)
are at least 25 physically or mentally
handicapped youngsters who would not
have been able to attend school with-
out such a program.
Other children who could not read
or who read with diffcultyi are now
doing so with ease. Children with
sp~eeh defects are learning to overcome
te.Children who cannot hear are
learning lip reading or working with
special hearing aids. Children who are
lame or crippled attend school with
children who can run and play. Chil-
dren who are blind are being taught in
Braille. And children who are mentally
limited are being taught to the extent
of their capabilities,
Aside from the Special Education
Program, much has been done toward
the improvement, physical and other-
wise, of the Canal Zone s school system
whose enrollment has increased by over
800 in the past four years. Over $2.5
million has gone into the construction
of new school buildings, and this does
not include remodeling, additions, or
other improvements. Since the Paraiso
High School was dedicated in July 1956,
MAY 6, 1960
50 Years Ago
SLIDEs interrupted the excavation of the
Panama Canal 50 years ago this moilth.
On May 17, 1910, half a million cubic
yards of mud and rock slid' down the
east bank of the Canal into the Cut,
covering the bottom -and stopping only
when the slide reached the top of the
west bank. All of the railroad tracks in
the prism were covered or broken,
moi OzMM te son khoonu in a
gave whay between the Obispo Diversion
Empire, spilling water from the diver~
sion into the Cut. Seven of the steam
shovels were flooded as the water rose
to 55 feet above sea level.
A board of military men, who had
looked over the canal with an eye to
defending it, came up- with a report
that approximately $~14 million would
be needed for seacoast fortifications and
submarine-mine defenses, plus a gar-
rison for the military posts.
tion, too, since 1956. The. Company-
Government has now embarked on a
$9-million housing replacement pro-
gram calling for the construction of ap-
pr0xiemately 30P0apa a dent sh Thes wi
the transfer of Coco Solo to the Com-
pany-Government three years ago, plus
additional quarters from the Army at
France Field, have filled Gold Coast
The first of this new Pacific side hous-
ing was built: at La Boca to replace
quarters torn down to make way for the
new bridge. Now under construction
are 45 more apartments at La Boca at a
cost of $794,000. And next year's hous-
ing program is to be speeded up to
provide 110 apartments.
FINALLY, his associates say, there is one
more superlative, to be applied to the
outgoing Governor. .The-men who have
worked with him and with other Gov-
ernors, are unanimous in their praise
for William Everett Potter's grasp not
only of the mechanics but of the econ-
omics of the Canal enterprise. He has
made this evident, they say, in the
monthly mknta ment review meeting s
25 Years Ago
THE. INCREASE in, scrap shipments tO
Japian and the gradual decrease in
Canal traffic were two topics of general
interest in Canal shipping circles a
quarter of a century ago.
While large scrap shipments had
been passing through the Canal from
U.S. east coast ports to Japan for some
time, the tonnage gained in the month
ships carryies a tnta aof 20a7 eton r
b ud. Dauing tehe sae mots e ot
were received here that the United
States State Department was worried
about the establishment of a Japanese
fishing base on a small island west of
the Panama Canal.
Official figures, meanwhile, revealed
that Canal traffc the previous month
had dropped to a low of 432 ships, or a
daily average of 14.4. On May 10 there
were only nine ships using the Canal,
the lowest day in history. Experts
predicted a further decline.
10 Years Ago
THE ERA of change in the Canal organ-
ization had begun in May ten years
ago. Legislation on the reorganization,
due to become effective July 1, had
been sent to Congress. At the same time
a Canal transit toll revision bill whic
would require the reduction of the cap-
ital investment in the Panama Canal by
an amount representing its fair andl
proportionate value for national defense
xpnros endas t military asset was
hOur th~e lcal so n,h the policing a
dolph Road to Cativa was transferred to
Panama by the Canal Zone following
the signing of a boundary convention
bettoeen Panama and United States.
This placed the highway under Panama
One YIear Ago
:MAY 1959, set another of a series of
shortlived records for Canal traffic. The
897 ocean-going commercial vessels
were an all-time high, to then, as were
cargo and tolls figures for the month.
Heading the Panama Canal legal team now are David J. Markun, left, and Theodore
P. Daly. Mr. Markun has been appointed General Counsel, succeeding Paul A. Bentz
who retired the end of March. Mr. Daly, a specialist in admiralty law, has moved up
into Mr. Markun's former position, as the Canal Zone's Assistant General Counsel.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Top legal talent
Bernardo E. Howard
Leader L r
Frederick N. Hinds
OFFICE OF THIE COMP-
James R. Johnston
Hayden B. Jones
Wesley H. Townsend
Ronald A. Archbold
S Sng '~!ebns )~ve Operator
SPY AND OMNT
L s P. c
Jos plh SC Te mpson
Allan A. Faulkner
William A. Woodcock
William S. Wigg
CIVEL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Virginia K. Roberts
ENGINEERING AND CON-
Heavy Duty Equipment
Orlando P. Lashley
James S. Daniel
Alfred A. Reid
Ferdinand M. Graham
Heavy Truck Driver
Ernest C. Taylor
Leonard W. McBean
Navigational Aid Worker
Robert F. Dunn
George E. Phillips
HepeRoElEe t ksis Mechanic
Jog A. N'~ e
Mezel o. rH. Glissant
Cecilia E. Waldorf
Dr. I. Robert Berger
Chief, Outuatient Service,
Clara A. Zapponi
Thomas A. Barrett
Roy A. Watson
Ivy M. Tompson
Pest Control Laborer
Fitz Gerald Bowen
Grover R. Barnes '
Lock Operator Iron Worker-
Towing Lo bmo 'eOp actor
Charles A. Sa
Helper Sheet Metal o r
JosB M. Castro
Mig~uel A. Rs
Cecil L. Iles
George H. Evans
Edward R. M~cDonald
Hilary L. Maynard
Alfred J. Sterling
Frederick A. Watson
Fitz H. HoweH
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Ignacio L6pez G.
Roy M. Green
High Lift Truck Operator
Manuel E. Hernsndez
Rafael J. Femenias
Alma V. Larnier
Leader H~igh aift ~ruck
n oK. d
Eg~bert E. Davis
Pedro Oses C.
Samuel A. P~owell
Clifford W. Edwards
Extractor and Tumblerman
Sadie D. Bell
Idonia L. Horne
Retail Store Sales Clerk
Vincent E. Trotman
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Alfred C. Drakes
Fabian O. Brown
Meat Cutter Assistant
Alfred A. Hall
Clerk ~ -
Vivian O. Bowen
Helper Liquid Futels
Joslyn A. Fearon
Clarence A. Taylor
Admiral E. Maitland
Conrad R. Wade
William R. Graham
Wilson H. Waldron
Leader Automotive Mechanic
Carlos Segreda C. I v:k
Helper Heavy Duty
Helper Locomotivd! Engiitteer
26 MAIY 6,: 196i0
EMaPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between March 15 and April
15 are listed below. Within-grade pro-
motions and job reclassifications are not
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Reed E. Hopkins, Jr., from Towing Loco-
motive Operator to Firefighter.
Mrs. Betty M. Petersen, from File Clerk,
Employment and Utilization Division,
to Clerk-Typist, License Section.
Division of Schools
Miss Cecilia M. Alvarez, to Personnel Clerk.
Miss Maria C. Kidd, to Library Assistant.
Bartolome Savory, to Maintenanceman.
Charles K. Cross, to Supervisory Admin-
Axs Kathl en M.FIImaa n Ac u tain
Clerk, Printing Plant. h f
cila IE.p Buns n tograp er, from
Vivian E. Johnson, to Mail C r.
OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL
David J. Markun, to Ceneral Counsel.
Theodore P. Daly, to Assistant General
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Mrs. Margaret B. May, Clerk-Stenographer,
from Gorgas Hospital.
,let C ooto, ,to Bokepitg Machine
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Julio M. Lapeira, to Surveying Techmician.
Arthur W. Farrell, from Substitute window
Clerk, Postal Division, to Guard Super-
Ruben D. Gibson, to Oiler
Henry Bradfield, to Stockman.
H~ugh M. Thomas, Jr. from Maintenance
Machinist, Industrial~ Division, to Ma-
William Kosan, Burnell F. Dowler, from
Marine Machinist, Industrial Division,
to Machinist Diesel-Operator.
Christopher C. Bennett, from Elevators and
Cranes Inspector, Industrial Division, to
William Yarde, from Kitchen Attendant,
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner,
Vibert Turner, Hugeh L. Shannon, Regi-
naldo A. James, Jr., Richard Stephens
B., Ruben Eversley, to Power Plant
Reginald N. Lloyd, to Painter.
Pierre A. Gibbs, Fernando Gutibrrez T.,
Charles J. Greaves, Frank A. McIntosh,
March 15 through April 15
Carmine Ammirati, to Leader Mason.
Mlarcelino Llontop, to Asphalt or Cement
An oni Palma V. to General Helper.
Aguedo Villa, to Q~uarryman.
Jorge A. Rivas, Felix A. Aviles, JosB Mkn-
dez, Juan F. Hunt, Alejandro A. Hunt,
Jesits I. Ramirez V., from Dock Worker,
Termmnals Division, to Laborer.
Coco Solo Hospital
Mrs. Johanna John, to Nursing Assistant.
Mrs. Anna B. Rheney, Medical Radiology
Technician, from Gorgas.
Mrs. Bonita Kadoch, to Assistant Chief
Josk eAn Colinaid fm CIerlk-Stenographer,
St. Clair L. Thorne, to Dental Medical Aid.
Mri Lillie W. Wood, to Assistant Chief
Mrs. Mavis I. Bushell, Clerk-Typist, from
Office of the General Manager, Supply
Dennis Fernandez, Medical Radiology
Technician, from Coco Solo Hospital.
Cecil B. Walker, to Nursing Assistant,
Samuel Moore, Laborer, from Railroad Di.
Norman A. Hinds, from Laborer, Supply
Division, to Nursing Assistant.
Edwin D. Anderson, to Housekeeper,
Division of Sanitation
Richard A. Williams, to Supervisory Sani-
Vi tr T. odrge z, William H. Rose, Flo-
rencio Salazar, Pedro V~squez, to Lead-
Manuel Labastid, to Truck Driver.
Biviano Marciaga G., Marcos A. Muiioz, to
Heavy Pest Control Leader Laborer.
Blas Del Cid, Ezequias Pineda, Tomis
Diaz, Antonio Valiente H., Jos6 M. Vi-
llaverde, Emilio Pacheco, Abraham Cas-
troverde S., Isidro Simpson, Orlando
Garibaldi, Juan B. Ruiz, Jos6 Villalobos
V., Pedro Delgado S., Rutilio Murillo,
Luis Vargas, Juan A. Salazar, Crescen-
cio Paco, Agustin Ortega R., Leonard A.
Ploughwright, Carlos Menchacab Jos6
A. Delgado, Hector Henningham, Clyde
E. Alleyne, Esteban Jiminez, Miguel
Avila, Santiago Quesada, Andrks Barria
M., Filix Rodriguez, Julio Samaniego
M., William A. Campbell, Jos6 de los
Reyes S., Temistocles Zeballos, Ger6ni-
mo Rodriguez, Reyes Rodriguez, Moises
A. Coote L., Juan B. Villar, Elis Mar-
tinez, Secundino Moran, Carmelo To-
rrente, Abraham Reyes, to Heavy Pest
Louis H. H~ixon, Samuel Londynsky,
Charles H. Taylor, to Probationary Pilot
Marvin R. Broadbent, to Marine Traffic
Henry B. DeVoll, from Window Clerk,
Postal Division, to Marine Traffic Con-
Henry M. Garnes, Laborer, from Supply
Division to Navigation Division.
Washmngton Watler, from Helper Core
Drill Operator, Dredging Division, to
Clifton A. Hayward, to Shipwright.
Stanley A. D Iks n, Hrm ie mPn efita
Harry F. Shannon, from Pumping Plant
Operator, Maintenance Division, to Tow-
ing Locomotive Operator.
Luther Davis, from Service Station At-
tendant, Supply Division, to Laborer.
Rafael Secaida, Silverio Villafranco, to
Helper Lock Operator.
AlvinLRoles, rom Waiter, Supply Division,
Alfonso Bergilido, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Laborer.
Si rsdtoe Ca 1taeo, Pto n e Cable W~orker.
Mrs. Aristea C. Arosemnena, from Clerk-
Typist, Employment and Utilization Di-
vision, to Statistical Clerk, Office of the
Eugene L. Hudson, from Automotive Me-
chanic, Motor Transportation Division,
to Towing Locomotive Operator.
Arlington A. Petro, Laborer, from Supply
Ismael Zorrilla M., Laborer, from Mainten-
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Emmett T.aHarper, Wilfred R. Waldrip, to
Miss Elida E. Sandoval, to Retail Store
Robert J. Saarinen, to Restaurant Manager
Miss Ruth E. Trotman, Oscar H. Blackman,
Miss Estella L. Isaac, Miss Inez C.
Howell, Sylvestra Worrell, to Sales Sec-
Mrs. Myrtle C. Grannum, to Food Service
Earvien A. Hinez, to Furniture Refinisher.
Clifford L. Green, Arthur J. Myke, Bernard
R. Regis, to Teller.
Ruperto E. McEachron, to Sales Clerk.
Alrick A. Campbell, Harold O. Hart, Juan
Tesis, Claude V. Halligan, Florentino
Uaytoti, Bysy Mapp, Dorico Mambache,
Agustin Gordon A., Manuel P~rez, Mavis
V. Miller, Alberto C. Smith, Fitzgerald
A. Edwards, Robert Phillips, Juan A.
Espinosa, Steven Couloote, Pedro Simp-
son, Jose F. Butler, to Utility Worker.
Rafael Vernon, to Bak~er.
Jos6 I. Macias, from Laborer, Maintenance
Division, to Produce Worker.
Beryl Waller, Fedrick A. Lawrence, De-
mostenes Hines, Julian G. Wharton, to
Stanford H. Hewitt, Nemesio Wood J., to
Pablo Coto, Beresford D. Gittens, to Meat
(See page 28)
THIE P.1N.4 MA CANAL 11EVIEW
Clyde S. LaClair who has taken
more photographs of the
Panama Canal, its ships, locks, and docks,
than an other single tperson
last month. As official photographer
for over 20 years, he took pictures
from the air, below ground, on the land,
and on water, and never seemed to
be tired of or in doing it.
As he heads Stateside toward retirement
he leaves behind him priceless examples
of his camera art.
Driver, Mlotor Transportation Division;
27 years, 3 months, 20 days; Panama.
Christopher A. Scantlebury, St. Peters,
Barbados; Carpenter, Maintenance Divi-
sion; 31 years, 7 months, 6 days; Pan-
Jos6 Serranos, Bohio, R.P.; Guard, Ter-
minals Division; 26 years, 1 month, 15
Mrs. Ruth M. Sill, Argyle, Minn.; Elemen-
tary and Secondary School Teacher,
Balboa Junior High School; 15 years, 8
months, 7 days; Canal Zone for the
Ralph A. Sylvestre, Nashua, N.H-.; Admin-
istrative Assistant, Health Bureau; 30
yeas, 5 months, 10 days; St. Petersburg,
Promotions and Transfers
(Continued from page 37)
Alfred Dillon, Lariston Pomare, to Meat
Carl L. Cockburn, to Store~keeping Clerk.
Miss Ivy A. Sisnett, to Warehouseman.
Vivian C. Thompson, to Service Station
Casimiro P~rez, from Track Laborer, Rail-
road Division, to Laborer, Community
Mrs SeEl snoi fo Bnight, to Cash Account-
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Nicolis E. Calder6n, Laborer, from Com-
niunity Services Division, to Railroad
Motor Transportation Division
Clarence D. Prescod, from Helper Elec-
trician, Electrical Division, to Chauffeur.
Leonel S. Boyce, from Guard, Community
Services Division, to Chauffeur.
Arthur E. Critchlow, to Leader Carpenter.
Augusto Moreira, Baltazar Pinto, to Lead-
er Ship Cargo Operations
Icelus A. Stewart, to Clerk Checker
Calvin Thompson, to Clerk-Typist. '
Benjamin H~urtado, Benedicto G. L6pez, to
Grimaldo Acosta, Gilberto Barrera, Segun-
do Demera, Roberto Martinez, Teobaldo
Gonz~lez R., Ram6n Gonz~lez, Segundo
Henriguez, to Ship Worker
PRcoMOTION'S which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Dr. Willard F. French, Chief of Dental
Dr. WIllam E. B od,HG i .1l Dental Of-
ficer, Gorgas Hospital,
Mrs. Paulmne L. Todd, Chief Dietitian,
Melvmn Bierman, Office Engineer, En-
gineering and Construction Bureau.
William SF. oGrady, S pervisory Pharmacist,
James D. Heblin, A hunting Assistant'
Mrs. Mata E. mRacha~r.,News Writer
Panama Canal Information Office. '
Joseph M. Corrigan, Sanitation Inspector,
Roland Carter, Clerk, Division of Preven-
tive Medicine and Quarantine.
Russell M. Lawrence, James M. Walsh,
Raymond A. Nesbitt, Admeasurer, Navi-
Levy Beckford, Beryl Fletcher, Emily R.
Malcolm, Ella J. Maynard, Victor E. De
Portage, Leticia E. McDowell, Petronila
C. de Jimknez, Carmen F. Leacock,
Sales Clerk, Supply Division,
Johnny Vaucher, Systems Accountant, Of-
fice of the Comptroller.
Miss Doris Cox, Clerk -Stenographer,
Mrs. Coralia R. Aviles, Clerk, Gorgas Hos-
Mrs. Margaret H. Morris, Medical Tech-
nologist, Gorgas Hospital.
Herschel Gandy, Supervisory Administra-
tive Assistant, Maintenance Division.
Victor H. May, Jr., Marine Traffic Control-
Jer, Navigation Division.
Paul J. Brooks, Supervisory Sanitation In-
Mspectr,s Dvisib of Sani t tica Cer
Division of Schools.
Mrs. Juanita O. Jones, Clerk-Typist, Divi-
sion of Schools.
James L. Harding, Library Assistant, Di-
vision of Schools.
Leon F. Small, Lloyd M. Tait, Fitz J.
Taylor, File Clerk, Gorgas Hospital.
Mrs. Elizabeth N. Kilpatrick, Clerk-Steno-
Mi aRiear,EMoto Transpmr atio Divi on.
valtauskas, Clerk-Stenographer, Division
Victor Abrego, Laborer, Maintenance Di-
Aparicio Soto B., Laborer, Supply Division.
Vernon C. McCalla, Winston O. Thomas,
Nursing Assistant, Coco Solo Hospital.
Ivan R. Evering, Stock Control Clerk, Sup-
Phra A. Ashby, Lead Foreman Hospital
Maintenance, Maintenance Division.
Cecil W. Bruce, Thelma A. Earle, Josefina
R. de James, Rosa M. Kirven, Sales Sec-
tion Head, Supply Division.
Mrs. Phoebe Thorpe DeCosta, Clarence G.
Pitter, Desiderio Gonzsilez, Martin J.
DeSilva, Fitz G. Bowen, Adolphus Phil-
lips, Erasmo R. Rivera B., Albert S.
Clarke, Phyllis M. Facey, Alick D. Bell,
Lorenzo Jos6, Joseph S. Levy, Ivan R.
Lowe, Ralph Minott, Ettie Ap~plewhite,
Antonio St. J. Fray, Cecilia F. Beck-
ford, Adolphus Rogers, Vincent L. Ellis,
Iris Irving, Edna M. Mignott, Il\lrtle E.
McFarlane, Hector J. Payne, N~ursing
Assistants, Gorgas Hospital.
MAt 6, 1960
RETIREMENT certificates were presented
at the end of April to the following emp-
ployeess who are listed alphabetically
below, together with their birthplaces,
roiins, ea ossejanal service, and
Clement E. Chambers, Montego Bay, Ja-
s n;a;Launc arperatoorn Navi sin
Frank L. Cunningham, Sedalia, Mo.; Gen-
eral Foreman Electrician, Electrical Di-
vision; 36 years, 7 months, 19 days;
Kansas City, Mo.
Ladrick L. Djuffus, Jamaica; Carpenter,
Maintenance Division; 41 years,, 3
months, 23 days; Colon, R.P.
George A. Jones, Jr., New York, N.Y.; Ad-
ministrative Assistant, Terminals Divi-
sion; 35 years, 7 months, 11 days; Spring-
Clyde S. LaClair, Faribault, Minn.; O~fficial
Photographer, Administrative Branch;
20 years, 5 months, 29 days; California.
Jos6 J. Martinez, Panama City, R.P.; Labor-
er, Terminals Division; 32 years, 9
months, 25 days; Arraijan, R.P.
Roger A. Orvis, Chicago, Ill.; Supervisory
Accountant, Industrial Division; 35
years, 1 month, 27 days; Sarasota, Fla.
Thomas Paul, Panama City, R.P.; Laborer
Cleaner, Housing Branch; 26 years, 25
days; Panama. .
Arthur Prescott, Paraiso, C.Z.; Truck
counted for by the fact that ships are
continuing to increase in size, therefore
carrying more tonnage per trip. One
shipper is now talking in terms of
45,000-ton vessels, somewhat similar
to those which now carry iron ore from
the South American West Coast through
Major increases are foreseen in the
shipments of several commodities. In
the ores and metals field, for instance,
tonnage is expected to increase from 6.3
million in Fiscal Year 1959 to 10.8-
million for Fiscal Year 1962.
There is an increasingly heavy de-
mand in Europe for ores, even more
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MARCH
Commercial. .. .. ... .. .. .. .882 978
U.S. Government. . .. .. . 24 15
Total.. .. ... .. .. .. .906 993
Commercial. ... .$4,103,262 $4,636,567
U.S. Government. 107,649 55,041
Total.. ... $4,210,911 $4,691,608
CARGO (long tons)
Commercial. . ... 4,726,631 5,609,669
U.S. Government. 84,035 26,151
Total...... 4,810,666 5,635,820
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small
CARGo shipments through the Panama
Canal should increase 30 percent by the
end of the next 28 months and the
number of transits should be approx-
imately 22 percent more than they are
These predictions were made this
week to members of the Budget Com-
mittee of the Panama Canal Company's
Board of Directors, who were discussing
assumptions for the Company's 1962
In tonnage and number of ocean-
going ships, the Committee was told,
this will mean that in Fiscal Year 1962
a total of 66.5 million tons of cargo will
move through the Canal, compared to
51.2 million for Fiscal Year 1959, and
that the number of ocean-going transits
will increase from the 9,922 of Fiscal
Year 1959 to approximately 12,100 for
Fiscal Year 1962.
The forecast of cargo and traffic
movements was presented by John D.
Hollen, Chief of the Executive Plan-
nin 1 Staff on iHug hA. Norris,w te
the results of a survey they made last
month of U.S. Government bureaus,
and shipping, industrial, banking and
commercial sources on both coasts of
the United States.
The apparent discrepancy between
the percentage increases in cargo ship-
ments and in the number of ships is ac-
A look ahead
rapid than that in the United States
where reserves of high grade ore are
nearing depletion. Whether destined for
Europe or the United States, the ore
shipments will mean increased tonnage
for the Panama Canal.
The Japanese economy, which is
developing at an almost fantastic rate,
will account for increased shipments of
coal, coke, scrap and phosphates, the
Budget Committee wras told. Japan's
steel industry is growing at the rate of
16 percent a year and will probably
double in the next six years.
Most of the coal for Japan comes
from Hampton Roads on the U.S. East
Coast, and during the next few years
larger colliers will~ be built to haul it,
Coal shipments, 92 percent of which go
to Japan, totalled 3.4 million tons in
Fiscal 1959; by the end of Fiscal 1962
they should amount to 5.4 million tons.
An even larger per-centage increase is
iceal 159 to mlloni ton iFs cian
1962, while one expert forecast an even
Other major cargo mecreases are ex-
poece is o s~h mental for l9i million
in Fiscal 1962; in lumber; and in iron
and steel manufactures. The survey led
the Canal representatives to expect a
recurrence of the movement through the
Canal of residual oils and heavy move-
ments of asphaltic crude.
THE PANA1VA CANAL REVIEW
CANAL TRANSITS -- COMMERCIAL, AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
1960 1959 Transits
to to Total Total Total
CoOce ngoin_ ----- .----- 1,455 1,351 2,806 2 ,499 1,773
Small*......... .. .. .... ... ..~ 108 95 203 244 284
Total commercial__- _____- ...6 ..~4 3.0 2,4 ,5
U, S. Government vessels **
Ocean-going ____ ..._--~ 30 24 54 52 151
Small* _ ____ ._,,_-. ___. 18 30 48 56 71
Total U, S. Government... ....... 48 54 102 108 222
Total commercial and U. S.
Government_------- --.. 1,611 1,500 3,111 2,851 2,279
*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited, Prior to July 1, 1951, Goverment-operated
ships transited free*
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodity 16199 Average
Ores, various . .. .. .. .. 2,667,070 1,736,939 961,032
Lumber . .. .. .. .. 1,012,679 857 428 868,628
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt). .825,739 716,347 249,439
Bananas ............... 334,325 280,158 192,445
Sugar 307,210 313,552 233,804
Metahs, various ... 256,602 238,814 162,399
Food prducts in refrigeration (except feh 2610 2052 1325
Canned food products . 233,235 252,265 304,637
Nitrate of soda. .. 222,505 260,899 360,514
Fertilizers unclassified .. 129,266 63,458 3,545
ernand steel manufactures. 2 7 1,4 650
Pulpwood and products .111,922 80,343 48,527
All others. . .. .. .. .... 914,637 1,269,619 656,859
Total ...... . .. 8,619,204 7,752,032 4,909,342
Atlantic to Pacific
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commdity1960 1959 Average
I I 1_1951-55
LAST MONTH a full sized Texas tower
was added to the list of strange contrap-
tions which have been brought through
the Panama Canal in recent years. The
Texas tower, which is really a rig mount-
ed on a platform for off-shore oil drill-
ing, made the southbotmd transit April
19 together with another barge with
pile driving equipment.
Both were brought to the Isthmus
from Houston, Tex., in tow of the sea-
going tug M. P. Anderson and were on
their wray to San Pedro, Calif. While
making the Canal transit, the equip-
ment was towed by two Panama Canal
tugs. The unusual oil drilling equip-
ment is owned by Brown 6 Ro-ot, Inc.,
and was handled here 'by the United
New Danish Freighter
THE Westfal-Larsen Company's Siran-
ger, fourth of a series of new cargo
liners to' be placed on the European-
West Coast of United States run, came
through the Canal the last part of April
on the second half of her maiden voy-
age. The ship went west in March with
a cargo of European automobiles and
returned with general cargo.
The Siranger was built in Norway
and has two deep tanks for oil or dryr
cargo. It has, accommodations for 12
passengers in completely air-condition-
ed quarters and a swimming pool on the
shelterdeck forward. This ship and
others of this line are represented here
by C. B. Fenton & Co.
THE Pacific Steam Navigation Com-
pany's luxury flag ship Reina del Mar
is due in Cristobal today from England
under the command of Capt. John
Emrys Evans, who was recently ap-
pointed commodore of the PSNC fleet
to succeed Capt. A. G. Litherland, who
has retired. Formerly master of the
company s new cargo passenger liner
Pizarro, Captamn Evans is making his
first voyage as master of the Reina del
Mar and commodore of the fleet.
Captain Evans has been with the
Pacific Steam Navigation Company
since 1927 and has served on various
vessels. During the last war, he held
the rank of lieutenant commander in
the British Navy and served as com-
modore of the Coastal Convoy. In 1945
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt). ,
Coal and coke .............
Iron and steel manufactures. ...
Metal, scrap .. .. . .. .. .
gP opates .....
Ores, various. .
Cotton, raw .. ......
AC o ics,esuncldssif -
Paper and paper products. ...
Inl ohrs .
Total . . . . . . .
1,0 0, 8
1,1 5, 8
MAY 6, 1960
TRAFFIC MOVEMIENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows~ the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Third Quarter, Fincal Year
1960 1959 Transits
United States Intercoastal .. .. . .. .. 138 151 146
East Coast of U. S. and South~ America. . ... .1 770 594 445
East Coast of U. S. and Central America ... 138 125 129
East Coas~tof U. S. and Far East ... . .. '.I 469' 390 261
U. S./Canada East Coast and Australasia. . . .1 51 48 48
Europe and WVest Coast of U. S./Canada. .. .. .1 312 317 193
Europe and South America. .. .. .. . . 256 241 123
Irope adouAustralasia .. 1 15 103 3
Total traffic. . .. . . ... ... 2,806 2,499 1,773
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL, TRAFFIC AND T'OLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Transits(In thousands of dollars)
1960 1959 Tanis 1960 1959 A lse
July .. .. .. . 888 767 557 $4,219 $3,681 $2,432
August. 888 777 554 4,111 3,664 2,403
September .. 823 717 570 3,828 3,357 2,431
October .853 806 607 3,820 3,718 2,559
November. .886 773 568 4,124 3,628 2,361
December. 893 793 599 4,420 3,682 2,545
January... -. 902 826 580 4,146 3,925 2,444
February 926 791 559 4,417 3,654 2,349
March 978 882 632 4,633 4,100 2,657
June:. .. .. .. .. . .. . 859 599 ,, .. 403 2,528
Totals for first 9 months
of fiscal year.. . 8,037 7,132 7,062 $37,718 $33,409 $29,969
CANAL COMMERCIAL, TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
1960 1959 1951-55
Nationality INm os INm os Ivrg vrg
SbNr Tf s be Tfons Avmer ge n a
transits cargo transits cargo 'transitsl cargo
British 380 2,229,377 331 1,844,408 3231 1.936,872
Chilean. 33 171,387 22 101,792 17 8,1
Chinese .17 121,217 15' 112,538 6 5,9
Colombian .165 84,420 62 78,777 35 37,708
Danish.. , 120 325,818 91 263,900 57 224,852
Ecuadorean 15 20,617 18 20,478 36 23,543
French. .. .1 45 178,225 38 177,412 35 163,469
German . 356 1,004,865 291 904,010 54 109,721
Greek ... 71 7i31,158 41 380,235 29 253,278
Honduran. 54 60,901 39 22,743 97 130,876
Israeli , 21 3,605 1...... .......... ,...... .....
Italian .. 52 3150,157 48 238,405 32 182,089
Japanese .. 195 1,273,042 210 1,512,366 69 470,531
~Liberian .. 254 2,211,850 253 2,249,530 48 300,445
Netherlands .1 104 604,637 97 406,742 30 151,379
Nicaraguan .19 36,913 17 35,277 6 6,551
Norwegian .316 2,135,584 257 1,276,055 203 833,741
Panamanian .71 327,967 94 390,216 116 665,039
Pervin 23 93,429 11 58,083 4 9,135
Swedish .. 62 364,925 57 211,937 46 198,424
United States 503 3,191,346 473 2,860,962, 498 3,088,092
All others. .. 30 117,706 32 176,145 6 28,396
Total. .1 2,8061 15,639,1441 2,499 13,322,071 1,773 9,063,392
he was appointed to command the
R.M.S. M~ullion Cove with the rank of
New P. C. Launches
TWO NTEW 40-foot launches, the first tO
be built in the Cristobal shops, are
nearing completion in the Industrial Di-
vision and should be ready for delivery
in May and June. To be named the
Barracuda and the Pelican, the new
launches will be given sea trials and
after, being delivered to the Panama
;Cyiiit lCompany, 'will be used by the
Naviigation Division, one in Cristobal
and the other in Balboa. Of all-steel con-
struction the launches are powered by
GM6-71 engines. They were designed
bhy ~tPhi Rhodes, New York naval ar-
TWOa PROMINENT shipping company
executives were visitors on the Isthmus
last month-both, of them owners of a
fleet of fast cargo carriers which make
regular trips through the Panama Canal.
~They were Ivor Lauritzen, prominent
ship owner of Copenhagen, Denmark,
and Gordon MacDonald, President of
the West Coast Line. Both were on their
way from South America to New York
accompanied by Bent Jensen, vice pres-
ident of J. Lauritzen, of New York.
While they were here they conferred
whth C. Fernie & Co., their agents on
Last Cruise Shin
THE 1959-60 cruise season, during
which scores of luxury cruise liners and
hundreds of tourists visited Canal ports,
came to a close this week with the
arrival of the Cunard liner Caronia on
the last lap of; her annual round-the-
world cruise. The ship was scheduled
to dock in Balboa on arrival and make
the Canal transit the following day. The
Caronia is used exclusively for cruising
and will be transferred to North Atlan-
tic cruises upon her return to New York.
On her last cruise this year, the Caronia
visited east coast of South America ports
and South Africa '
Ancon.. .. ... .. . .. ... .. May 4
Cristobal.. ....... May 14
Ancon. .. .. .. . ... .. .. . May 21
FROM NEW YORK
Cristobal. ... . .. ..... .. May 6
Ancon.. ........ .May 13
Cristobal.. . .... .. . .. ... Ma 24
THE F.-kNAMAS CANAL. REVIEW
MORE NEw records for transits, tonnage,
tolls, and the size of the ships using the
Canal were set during the past three
months as Canal business continued to
boom for the third consecutive quarter
of the fiscal year, official fIigures re-
Traffc through the Canal remained
at an all-time high with a new record
for the number of ocean-going transits
being set at the end of each month.
IDrig March, transits by ships of 3(0
^Panama Canal net tons or more passed
the 1,000 mark for the first time in
history. At the same time there was an
unusually large number of so-called
super-ships and a record amount of
During the month of March alone,
shipments of iron ore, coal, and bananas
reached an all-time record level. Bana-
nas, carried northbound through the
Canal from South and Central Amer-
ican: ports aboard a fleet of swift new
.refrigerated ships, totalled 118,000 tons,
the highest monthly total in history for
this commodity. The~increase was at-
-tributed to the heavy demand for ba-
nanas by the European market and to
the continued development of .Ecua-
Iron ore through the Canal during
March totalled 978,000 long tons, while
coal came to 541,000 long tous,- both of
which ivere records for a nionth.
The movement of iron or~e from mines
in Chile~ and Peru to the East Coast of
the United States accounted for a large
.amount of the cargo tonnage moving
north through the Canal during Jan-
unry, February, and March.
The iron ore shipments, usually car-
ried in bulk, were the continuation of a
shipping trend started late last year as
major U.S. steel companies began build-
ing up their winter stockpiles at the end -
of the steel strike. This trend, shipping
experts: believe, will continue to be more
and more pronounced as iron ore is pur-
chased in even greater quantities from
the rich iron mines of South America.
Total iron ore shipments for the first
nine months of this fiscal year already
have surpassed the total ore tonnage
carried through the Canal for the entire
fiscal year of 1959.
Also reflected in: Panama Canal cargo
~figures is ~the steady improvement .of
Japanese economy. This hasl~ taken the
form of increased shipments of scrap
iron from U.S. East Coast ports to Japan
which so far this year have reached an
all .time high. During .the first nine
months of this fiscal year, the total ton-
nage of scrap sent through the Canal
is highi-r thanl that .during the.entire
previous record year of 1937 when
Japan was building up its wartime fleet.
Coal and coke movements through the
Canal to Japan, also took an upward
swing during the last quarter.
During the third quarter of the fiscal
year there was a marked recovery in the
number of shipments of iron and steel
manufactured products from the east to
the west coast of the United Stakes.
Shipments of these products, whick-now
account for 7.5 percent of the total
cargo tonnage moving through the Can-
al toward the West Coast, have~ been
depressed for several years, due partly
to the 1958 recession and recently to
tihe steel strike. ~As business continues
to expand, this percentage ,probibly
As the result of United States restric-
tions -on oil imports ~into the United
'States' from foreign countries, there haj
`been a brisk movement -of both crude
oil and oil products in both directions;
through the Panama Canal during the
past three months. The quarter saw the
finall heavy ~moverheits of' residual oil
:fromn stockls on the West Coast as well
as a pronrounceid increase in'the nuniberl
of tankers car~ryirg oil from ~the Ven-
ezuelan fields to the West Coast.l1These
shipments during the past nine months.
have already passed the record level set
during fiscal year 1959.
During the coming suri~mer months.
shipping experts predict the -axinual
movement of heavy asphalt base crude-
oil from Californta to East Coast po~rt
This type of oil, uised during the sum-
mer for highway construction and re;-
pair, usually moves through the Canai
from May through October.
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL
-(AVERAGE 195-95) CC )- 600 N
JL AG EP CTNOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
MAY, 6, 1960