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DLOC PCANAL



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Panama Canal review
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00201
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Creation Date: June 1957
Publication Date: 1959
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00184
System ID: UF00097366:00201
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Full Text






I


Iri,
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L~P~;----


PIANA~h~A C~NAL


-c~
t~


Madden Lake attracts
cruisers anzd cayucos





1914


~f

~t~IgBI~


THE Panama Canal is now within shouting distance of its first half century
of service to world shipping.
Last month it observed the 45th anniversary of the date, August 15,
1914, when the old Panama Railroad Company steamer "Ancon," above,
made its way through the raw cut across the Isthmus of Panama to lead a
procession of shipping that has now swelled to almost 300,000 vessels of
almost all known types and sizes.
The facts about the Canal's operations today and its transit capabilities
for the remainder of this century do not support the use of the term "ob-
solescent" which has been freely used in recent years as the volume of ship-
ping increased. Well before the Panama Canal reaches its 50th birthday
the waterway will have the transit capacity for all shipping until the year
2000-at a cost of less than $20,000,000 for improvements and alterations
to the facility planned and built a half century ago.
Not all the ships afloat today can go through the Locks-the percentage
is still small, although in this percentage are vecssels in the commercial oil
and ore trade and in defense. This fact does not make the Panama Canal
obsolescent. A footbridge is not obsolescent because it can't support an
elephant. There are other ship canals, restricted waterways, and ports which
cannot accommodate many of the vessels which daily transit the Panama
Canal.
With the amount of world shipping now going through the Canal, there
are vexing problems in its operations. Some are described on the opposite
page. Most of these will, be eliminated with the completion of the short
range improvement program tw~o years hence.
No one questions the fact that a shiny new set of locks big enough to
handle the aircraft carrier "Forrestal" or a 100,000-ton tanker would be
fine, or that a sea-level canal would eliminate all transit capability problems
in the foreseeable future.
But, the 14,000 men and women who operate the Panama Canal and
see more than one big ship an hour go through on a day-and-night schedule
do not agree that the Canal is obsolescent.


POTTER, Governor-President h PVE~. IJ. RUFus HARDY, Edito
MIcELHENY, Lieutenant Governor ELEANOR MCTLHENNY, Assistar
WILLIAM G. AREY, JR. Official Panama Canal Company Publication ]EUNIrCE RICHARD, Editorial A
na Canal Information Officer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C~anal Zone
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Reviewt Dalboa Heights. C. Z.


W. E.
JoHN D. ~

Panar


)r
nt Editor
assistant


2 THIE PANAM\A CANAL REVIEW


1959





TIhe "Transeastern" is the largest tanker under U.S. registry. For details, see page 24.


ONE DAY EARLY in August 40 ocean-going ships ar-
rived at the Canal's portals for transit. Of these, 30 were
locked through and 10 were held over for the following
day's schedule.
The number of arrivals was no record but the number
of holdovers set a new high for normal peacetime opera-
tions.
Just two days later 32 ocean-going ships made the Can-
al transit with no vessels held over. And on August 15
only 27 ships were accommodated and three were held
over. .
Such figures are confusing to any but those closest to
the problem of preparing schedules for transits. The
cause for such variations lies, of course, in the ever-
changing pattern of traffic which presents itself day by
day, plus many other factors such~ as weather, arrival
time of vessels, maneuverability of individual ships, and
even type of cargo handled.
The biggest single factor in cutting the Canal's rated
daily capacity of 35 ship transits in a day under present
operating conditions is the arrival of an unusual number
of daylight transits or clear-Cut ships. The accompanying
table of arrivals, transits, and holdovers for the ~five-day
period in which the record number of holdovers occurred
indicates how transit capacity may be cut and schedules
disrupted by the arrival of several super carriers at one
time.
On August 7, the day 40 ships arrived, there were five
which were clear-Cuts, including two-super carriers
which had to make the complete transit during daylight
hours. Since Gaillard Cut was a one-way street during
the complete eight-mile trip for each of the five ships,


all vessels moving in the opposite direction were delayed.
On August 15 when only 27 ships were locked through
and three were held until the following day, there were
seven clear-Cut vessels. Six of the seven required full
daylight transits.
Transit schedules are further complicated by the di-
rection in which the clear-Cuts are traveling and their
time of arrival.
It is a combination of all of these factors which causes
the Canal's marine traffic controllers to spend sleepless
nights. Some have even paraphrased Gertrude Stein's
famous quotation to read "a ship is not a ship is not a
ship."
Since last March when the present surge of traffic
began, the number of transits have averaged slightly over
29 a day. With traffic at such a high level, each day's
traffic becomes a jigsaw puzzle in which often all pieces
do not fit.
The variations in number' of transits not only cause
trouble to those who dispatch the vessels and those who
handle them, but they also require amendments to the
term "capacity" because of the daily arrival patterns and
other factors.
For planning purposes, the Canal administration has
adopted the rule of gearing for approximately 125 percent
of the daily average number of transits. At present the
number of Locks operating crews,~ pilots, and hours of
operations are geared to h~andle 35 ~regular ships transits
a day.
This "rated capacity" requires optimum operating con-
ditions and near perfect scheduling for a given day. The
actual capacity depends on the many factors involved in


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


i... .

r~sri


Major Canal problem:




SCHEDULING SHIPS





YCIUQCi- Y~YVr)V~ SY~PI~Y~UY~~CPP-~(rl


-----------~---- -~~---" ------_~~~-........__....._


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24r



2 .
'


Aug, 5

27


2T i

Q


Aug. 6


iAug.f 7.. Ll 8


30

,$* X
100


26


29

3;

is6 9


* Includedi three daylight.4. par-Ct d" trapsid ~..
'* Indudegd twor c~learCu ts which co1Uld not be Sjtted Info the~ da~y'i traff~c pitttlern without
additlonal hold overs,


a, da~l! tradet~c pa.ttern andlc thle nulmbeir of transrtj dectlrlnes

Thle Cin.Il ;tdmlinistra~tioni is clonistanith! staklJing the
\< hlcle problem o~f traffiic whlich presents ,in eter-mounI~g
ka~lcid-,ospl P1C ture. It ima l\ es thel day\-to-da.1 problem

menCltS of shlipping, alnd eiconomic of operatingl thle water-
\\-a1. This \ipllance is indlicaited b\ thle day -tl-day aldjlst-

For tile first timle in the Canaf's history, except under
overhaul. orI emelr'l. ncli( C nd i tionsll. C.;tonl Locks are being
operaL~te'd onl aI rouInd-thec-clok basis. If the volume of
tradic con~ltlnu~es .It about its present level of 29 ships a
day, the Cal~linasmrint offic~ials belies< thalt thes:,lptrating
cionditionj no\\ in e~ect are suffcicint to. maintainl jcen ict
writhoult excejsi\e dlayr~s w\ithl overtime authorized to
mneet thle :ccasionail daily peaks.
Thle prcsent na~rrow band which separates the daily
tlransit ;r\ erage~ and the transit capacity will be widened
faml a minimullm of three to a maximum of 23 by the end
of 19)61 \\-ben the short-range improvement progrctm is
completed.
Thle th-re~e pro~jte ts \\ blich will give this increase are new
towing locomotives, lighting for the Cut and Locks, and
widening of Paraiso-Cloc ;Ilachai~ reach. Work on the latter
P"l-'iject i""" n\well advanced, and bids were opened last
Friday\ for the other two.
SpeC'ifk-a.t io~ns call for the installation of the lghting
s! jtemI1S to: ber comllpleItc( d next September. When that is
doni- the Canal can go on a full 2-1-hourl o-peratio~n. which

w\ill break a bottleneck ini GMillalrd Cut for nighttime


operttl~tons and permit full adila;ntage; to> be taiken of' thec~
Drli\ ets\ of thle near\\ locc~nrati t es to bein~i~ in Decemn-b<--
1960l:, wrIll br~inlg thet normal captc~it. w\ith foul~r c~lear-Cul~t
transits including two "sup.-rl sh~ips. to 1j tlransits a day.
With thenear\lig~htsandloC CCcomoliti\ esi.the number of tran-
sits possible under ovecrhal~ul conldtionis will be increased
fromll thei presen:.t 33 a day to 37 a day at Gatun Locks.
w\ithr the delivery of sufic~ient~ Ilcol.mo.tires to permit
re;lla\ In-cha~Ses aind the \i widening of Calllard Cut for its
all11 length. thel capacity will rise to 58 transits a day
dluring~ nolrmall con~lditions and to 42 a day under overhaxil

This ;lddll-ld capac;it however, w\ill not be .ma~ilable;
during the l9610overhaul of Catuh.n Locks a.nd some traffic
delays dre exlpcted again d(luing that period. The over-
hlaul that year will lIe rconside~rabll sho-rltened- by the
adoption of the new plan for ovetrhaluling the lock gates
and the amount of time in which oli~- ,-1 one traffic lane will
be available will be fatr less thanil in alw! prev\iousll overhaul.
With the new lighlting and locomotives four more shiips
a day can be aIccommoda~tled thantl du~ring~ prev\ious overl-
hauls. The rated capacity of 29 lock;ages aInd .33; sh-ips of
previous years will be 33 locka;ges and :37 ships after the
1I;61 overhaul. With relay lockages the Ca;pac'ity w ill be
37 lockages and -i' transjits.
While no increase in transit c~pac~it is ex\ptcte- d to
result from the installation of the modern trllfic control
\jteml nlow~ being designed, the new control system and
the la idening of Gaillard Cut to 500 feet for its full dis-
tancen a\ ll prol. idte far greater tiexibilit inr o-perati-ns andc
assure new capacity levels.
After all the current improvement projects are com-
pleted. no further troubles about transit ca~pacit- are ex-
pected to occur even during o\ellrhul perio-ds f or another
10 years.
Trl~ltic projections for the .fu~tu~rez preprled b\ the Stan-
ford Research Institute set the daily average transllit rate
at 32.3 by 1975 and 43 by year 2000. Peioi.dic ;nd daily
peaks can push these figures up to 46.5 a~nd 61.'j. respec-
tively.
Using these predictions as a base, some holdovers for
ships may be expected on peak days when the Locks are
~verha-1uled in 1971. These delays will constantly increase
during subsequent overhaul periods for the remainder of
the century, although there will be ample capacity for
all shipping under normal operating conditions except
for those vessels too large to go through the waterway.


4 TH-E PANAMIA CANAL REVIEW


j


Ship arrivasls _

Ship trimsits ,,

Clear Cuts_ _,,

H-ofld Overs ___










Bridge project
the construction of the rock fill across
the tidal swamp east of Amador Road.
Construction on the bridge~substruc-
ture is scheduled to begin this month.
The first work to be tackled wi~llbe the
construction of the six land piers
through the Balboa tank farm. These
piers will rest on 36-inch caissonswhich
will be sunk to bedrock foundations,
the deepest of which will be 60 feet
below sea level.
Arrangements have already been
made by Fruin-Colnon for the Panama
firm, Concreto, S. A., to establish a con-
crete mixing plant near Doc~k 7 in Bal-
boa to furnish ready-mixed concrete for
the bridge piers. It is estimated that
36,000 cubic yards of concrete wil be
required for the bridge foundations.
The watching plant to be set up by
Concrete will have a capacity of fur-
nishing 60 cubic yards an hour.
Concrete aggregate is to be processed
and supplied by Framorco, Inc., a Pan-
ama finn which has done extensive
construction work in the Canal Zone
under contract with the Canal and other
(See page 20)




were manufactured and furnished by
Clay Products Company, of Panama.
The cement and reinforcing steel were
also produced in Panama.
The model wvas designed by the
Structural Branch of the Engineering
Division and constructed and tested by
the Maintenance Division.


SE1ERAL Panlama ~firms will participate
mr the construction contract for the Can-
.Il b idge substructure as suppliers of
material ;Ind as subcontractors.
ThIs infol ration has been furnished
Cajna1rl authorities by Fruin-Colnon In-
ternaltionall. SA\., and LeBoeuf & Dough-
clt, Inc., lime contractors for the
thrlet--million~ dollar job. The substruc-
ture contracctors have announced that
Panamllla-manul.f act ur~ed cement will be
ur~~lsed ad thact subcontracts have been
pla3ce loc ally for' mixing concrete for
the foundaJ~tions and processing con-
elete aggrega-St?.
Thel Cannal bridge project will take
onl the aspects of a major construction
lolb b! the enld of this year as con-
tlractors fot th-e substructure, and Bil-
don-, Inlc., conltractor for the east ap-
ploacb. speed up work to take advan-
taCe o~f favorable weather conditions
cilus agl th-e dlr! season.
Twoc key men in the bridge work
a~llltrat in the~ Canal Zone last month.
T~he\ are Bal~mond A. Flint, a Fruin-
.Colnion r ic.e president and secretary,
anl R~iihar~d H. Hebenstreit, of Sved-


Tile beams
M~ PIRE t.-H1RRICTED clay tile beams, to be
madetl inl thr C~anal Zone from material
proldulced inl Panama, may be incor-
-P'.'Late into, the new La Boca housing
.as the result o~f unique tests carried out
bi tll-he rlantcnance and Engineering
Di\ isl:r~ion lst month.
Clay1 tile blocks, 12 inches long, were
laid end to endit in a line on a level sur-
f.ace. Smatll steetl rods were then placed
itin Lsomes~ lin the blocks and grouted
\o th conese~ctet. The line of blocks was
pri''"tted to s~et" for seven days. At
thei c-ndt of thils period the test unit, held
togelthiel b! the steel and concrete,
rroukic be p~icked- up in a single piece,
Jus~t .15 a wroodl beam can be handled.
A~ te~st section~, which duplicated the
span Ilengths of two of the houses to be
built rro La Boca, was tested by loading
it Fir st a !lth 130 bags of cement and
tlthen~ a sch pigs of lead. The prefabri-
cate~d beamn showed no evidence of
failue u~ndeir the test load of cement,
w hich hwe-Sighd 12,300 pounds, or 430
pounds to a sqluare foot.
The iecondl te~st, made with pig lead,
showedrc that thle beams could stand a
stre~ss of aboutl 20,000 pounds.
Both loads were several times the

;THE' P.LN-ur.\ CQNAL REVIEW 5


rup & Parcel, Inc., the design con~trac-
ting ~firm.
Mr. Flint came to the Isthmus to
make local arrangements to initiate the
substructure work.
Mr. Hebenstreit has been appointed
resident engineer for the design con-
tractor. He will work closely with the
Canal Company's resident engineer,
Elmer B. Stevens, and will act in a
liaison capacity for Svedrup & Parcel
with the Canal Company and contrac-
ting firms. He has been assigned on a
peranent basis until the bridge is
completed in 1962. He will be joined
by other personnel from' the design
contractor's organization for inspection
and other work after the contract for
the bridge superstructure is awarded
next December.
The work on the east approach is
proceeding according to schedule. The
contractor has concentrated most of
the activities on this contract on the
road work along Fourth of July Avenue
and at the street junctions from Pan-
ama and the Canal Zone near the Limit.
Other major work now under way is




design requirements, but extra loading
was used because the test beam was a
"custom-built model."
Beams of this sort could be placed
side by side to make a continuous deck,
onto which concrete would then be
poured.
The clay tile blocks used in the test


About construction







WOOD


ROSES


THE I5THhIfi' Or P.4N.Ofl~ ad11 thet 51:th Staitr ofI th-e- Unilted

fa~it is O .1tIllta H\ai inds hatelrl aj! un l '''iqu host lulura


C'II II 1 Zol IIIIf = U 1f LI-ltr~ ti f i~ ~rll t~ : IL* \l 1100 !i-ll 1 r aln-



asrrr the :uiid wo r.. f on ittnli ch~to<. Onesna~llsrd f;lrom Hl ail
the ~ri~ oudIs thre i. fies intl P(-d tnam i ca.tlti\ra~l


,a

The pretty! girl iis Pat D~emlpce>.of Balboo. Hier c~orisge is of~ woodroses.


11'oodrose \inei. like this one, catered \er~andas of earl! Zone houses. The seed pods of the wroodroies are usuall! dr! b! Christmai.


6 THE: P.INLIAr~ C .11'..L REVIEll'







Native of Hawaii

is favorite of Zllone ladies

for corsages

and table decorations



The during process usually is completely b! the~ second
week~l in Decemn-ber.
~-The woodlose colsage m~de Its de~but here~t abtout sexen E1
!eless1' \go heni Alij. Pat Morigani of: blonan's Calde-ns
cast aboul~t for "somnething ditlelenlt'' to, gie eai h mlemnbcr
of ojne of helr grad~uatinlg flowesl arrangemllent c~larsse.
Woo-,cdlose \ines grjrowing in a near~lb! field aIthtrctd h~er
atte~tlon n ;Ind sher begai cuittinr, and~ rspcrrimenting w~ith
,I few dlie~d see~d pods. On- glall~dutllon night e-ach memnber
o~f thait class pllou~dl!\ worIe a wood)ioSe~ coISage, anld a~ niew
tlre~nd \\as s~tarted Alas Mo~-rgan also pioneere~id inl th~e
wioodlose assanli emeint fitck I here. whlen sjhe- rlallzed their
iinterlesting~ possibilitltes The seed po-dsj, prope~trl! drled
and- Fiteshl picked,. are stuid! canI be sprosecl. and 'can
take a; lot o~f abul~se.
Wo~~odio,, es canl be your.'~ fr~oml seetd. Each? pool holds
about fo@u seeds. TI he.\.l flu ~te produc~ledl jlbout care
seatsl af terl the seeds at e plante~d. Mu~c~h of then-~ jtur~diness s
de~pendj onl the weactherll for woo:,cdlioses likec ;I glrt amo-unt
of Iainl. The\! \\ but onlce the rains c.ome-l w ill take over\-l an entile albor.
Be~sldes its use in cI~ orsageqs .lndc for de~colratire- ef~c~ts,
little boss hrnd Ipomocai(( TubL.OIOs poptS m-ost satijtac~to:rily
andit th1e.;l\ alu a r~l ss to: knIo\w w\hen it sw \oodlose pop.


The skilled hands of Pat Mlorgan ar~range wroodroses lik~e thil.


TimPANAMA CANAL REVIEW


WOff DnOWing ,

Approximately $400,000 worth of painting contracts
will be awarded for work in the Canal Zone within the
next few weeks. The painting involves interior and
exterior work on Panama Canal quarters and some
public buildings. Some of the bids were asked last
month, others are scheduled for this month. The con-
tracts are being awarded early so that painters can
obtain material and be ready to start work when the
dry season arrives.


Another long-standing Canal Zone tradition has gone
by the boards. This year there will be no toy sale --or,
rather, none in the Oklahoma land-rush style of
previous years. Toy sections in the major retail stores
are now open on a year-round basis. Those at Balboa
and Coco Solo already have unusually large selections
and new arrivals will be coming along from now until
Christmas. After the holidays the stock will taper off
to a steady supply until it is built up again for the
following Christmas.


A pilot program in instructor training for supervisors
in the Company-Government organization will be
started in the near future by the Training Office of
the Personnel Bureau. The program is the result of
findings in a recent organization-wide survey of train-
ing needs. Responsibility for employee training rests
ultimately on the supervisors; the survey showed that
supervisory personnel realized this.

Two ten-ton fork-lift trucks have been ordered for the
Terminals Division for handling container cargo which
is arriving in Canal Zone ports with increasing fre-
quency. The initial order of the two large trucks will
be followed by others. One of the fork-lifts will be
assigned to Cristobal docks and the other to Balboa.


A slide protection fence which will automatically wiarn
railroad engineers if a rock falls onto the railroad right
of wvay is to be installed along the Panama Railroad in
a slide area roughly opposite the Diving School at
Gatun. The fence is to be similar to those used in hilly
or mountainous areas in the United States. The fence
will catch small rocks and prevent them from going
onto the track. Larger rocks will activate an electric
system which will set off a signal on the railroad line.

The Coco Solo Post Office, which has been closed since
November 30, 1957, will be reestablished this month.
The opening date will be announced later. The post
office will be located in the former Navy) Administra-
tion Building where the elementary school was lo-
cated temporarily last year. It will be a branch of the
Cristabal Post Office and will offer full postal service
except for postal savings.





"LPF" JOINS T~HE THREE "6R'S"


~--~SCHOOL'S OPEN


r** rri *
~'* *.1(,~** r**;* "..
~*r*2 f. *^-12*~I *:;;r 1'A~.,
7t*iTi**'r**"*'*
::** lr. U1 'iL
riClrr*l~~r
...l~ru*r;,~?tP~ilLr~:~ r-,*, xr-?r~-~*i*m~-~


The newu Cristobal High School is rapidly taking orml.


tht ausp'i~ces of thel~ Am-sic:~! .in AssCi3-
tronl for I-ealth. Ph s~iial Ednltaltlron and

mlll(on Americ.-an; 1 rischool ch-ildiern. il-
c~luclinge th..lsr ir,~ theC Canail Zonle.
The Program~' cons'i't' of Se\tel "
itemls~, such~ as Sit-upilS. L)uIll-pS. SIoft-bdll
throw5\1 and \.ariatllolS. tandinn g b-rod
lunip. andlrunn~il Du~rring the first Iait

\;ill bi tested Incldiik:lualll\ dTd thel ret-
sults \\ill be comllpalrcc \ith ther Stattes
rcrnorms. testablishe-lld s the; re~su~lts o-f Na-
tlronall You~i~th Fltness Tc-ts adminilstt eed
durinl-g ther past three lealrr. Speciial ef-


fosts w~ill be ma1de to: orlecome w~eak-
netsses rsca\~ledc inl Canal Zon~c \ou~th,
The Di\ision- of~ Schcls; esulmatt e
thait an aleag cl ass~~j Of' -10 stuldenltS Can
be testctd in atpproximartel! three dass~
Per Iods:l. At the endj of the jchlool lear a
secondlii exam~nina~tionl- \\ ill be gat enl to: de-
telrmule the amnou~nt of imnprovement- l
ma~lle dluring~ the \ear.
Befo.re the ojpining~ of sichools. Ph\-

\sIonIl of S1hool:))S receci~ted special in-
jtru~ctionls onI the tcstinf. program.n
"AllI-alo~und physical conditioningp is
oulr idcal." said G. C. Lockriclge. Su-
p~enisor of~ Phylsical Edrc~ation anld
A-th~letr..s inl the Dlilsionl- of Schools.
- The ty plel A~merican sport is a leg
;port. anld doe)Sn ~t 3l.wais develoihp other
pals ,ts o the bodyl\. hkle the~ arml-s ald
bou~I~ ldrlS. The ob ect at the tests is to
find!t th? wea-~k aleaiS and COIIreCt themn.'

schoo~ls~~ thiis \ear. of ai diclthrent sort. The
program'''t of spc~ial achie\ emernt courses
will1 be etpanided ini thle; U. S. Slchool
sistem1 to included~ thie tenlth gr~ade inl
Bailboa3 High Sc~hool,. Intensji\e courses
inl Planle Geometr!. andi Enoglishi 10) w ill
beI utffered to pupils w\ith special apti-
tu~de~s inl these fie~lds. Last lea~r. acitan-
ced ach~ictement sections wecre started
inl grldes 11 and 12.
The adr ainced courses for sup~erio~r
students this !tar nl ill be inl English 10.
Planle Geomelntry. Eng~lish 11 and 12.
Unl~itedl States Histo~ry, Chemristry-. Ph\-
sics, Iiirntrmdiate Algbrar. Solid Ce-
o met ry, ardl Tr igoom Iet ry.

The modern Actia ities Building. at left.
is Balbon Hligh School's latest addition.

5 THE PNAMor4 C.1NAL. RE\.IE11'


II Z~lin.- c~hldrenl whlo tall~cpe back to
si~chooil this week~l found that jlomethd-ing
llc:\ h-as been~l added. The~i thzer "R's
hatc b:ee-n ijoinat~l b\- a --PF.'' whlich
stands forT Ph\sical Fhitness
Du~r inge the sc~hool: l lear, \\ hic h opined
3.prem'lbir 1. boy!s anid gils from the

thle hI-gh schoolls w\ill be participating I
ini the~ bTigget. molst in-tenivj\e physical


Plcreidenit E!;tlnhowe\\ r 5 Natlon1l Youth
Ficlness PT:Srogram whlch 1; desicin~l to

me!licain !-outh growing soft?



























This is the second of a ser~ies of three
articles on the Tulrbulent Fifties, the
decade bracketed between fiscal years
1950 and 1960. This month's install-
ment tells, mostly in pictures, some of
the changed living conditions which
have come about during this per~iod.

THOUGH the Turbulent Fifties brought
confusion, change, and temporary un-
rest to the Canal Zone, they also
brought-ultimately-a better standard
of living to the employees of the Pan-
ama Canal organization.
During the past decade, in a massive
program of replacement of construc-
tion-day facilities, more than $45- mil-
lion was spent by the Company-Govern-
ment on housing, power conversion,
schools, shopping centers, and hospi
tals, all of which have meant a better
life for the families which call the Can-
al Zone home.
By far the biggest chunk of this $45
million went into shelter and the things
connected with it. New towns were
laid out; some of them were specially
designed by t-own planners from the
United States along lines which would
have been revolutionary a decade ago.
Old towns were revamped. Modern,
attractive housing for the Canal Zone's
working force sprang up like mush-
rooms, although not quite overnight.
These new or rebuilt neighborhoods
and the houses in them accounted for
a little over $27 million of that $45
million. And within the next five years,
another $9 million is to be spent to
replace the remaining obsolete housing.
At the beginning of the Turbulent
Fifties, most of the Canal Zone's towns
were collections of dilapidated, multi
ple-family dwellings, monotonous in ap-
pearance and inl color. Today's houses


are eye-pleasing and family-pleasing
one- and two-family quarters, painted
in pastel colors like a toned-down rain-
bow. Along with pride of house has
come pride of yard. Today, there are
more amateur horticulturists around
here than ever before.
Of all the money spent in the past
10 years to better living conditions in
the Canal Zone, possibly none has
brought about more change than the
$13 million conversion of the electric
power system from 25- to 60-cycle
power.
A good bit of that $13 million went
into the conversion or replacement of
household equipment such as refriger-
ators, record players, fans, clocks, hobby
shop equipment, etc. Except for what
they chose to spend for new equip-
ment, conversion did not cost the house-
holders a cent.
Several hundred thousand dollars has
been spent for new householdapl-
cances, many of which haveben
bought in Panama. The maintenance of
this equipment will be a large new
business for suppliers in Panama.
Power conversion meant t-hat: deep
freezers, automatic slide projectors and
many other electrical items were no
longer pictures in magazines to be
dreamed over. Power conversion also
brought about a great change in day-
to-day living, and working-air condi-
tioning. Today several large office buil-
dings ai-e air conditioned and others
soon will be. And a great many Zonians
are enjoying the comfort of air condi-
tioning at home.
Since 60-cycle power began to be
available in 1956, approximately 750
air conditioning units for home use
have been sold in the retail stores;
scores of others have been purchased in
Panama or by mail order.


Even today, when most Canal Zone
towns have been on 60-cycle current
for more than a year, the Electrical
Division is still receiving requests for
the installation of special outlets for air
conditioners, at the rate of 60 or more
a month.
Another good sized chunk of the $45
million--close to $4 million--was ex-
pended for schools. The Cristobal H-igh
School at Coco Solo and the Activities
Building at Balboa High School will
open their doors this year for the first
time. The ROTC building at Balboa
High School was new this year.
On the Atlantic side, the Margarita
Elementary School, the elementary
school at Coco Solo, the Rainbow City
High School and Junior H-igh School
have all been built in the past ten years.
The Paraiso Elementary School, com-
pleted in 1953, embodied a completely
new style of school architecture, and
the Paraiso High School was remodeled
in 1956S from a warehouse into an out-
standing school plant.
And, like housing, school construction
is not yet done with. This month bids
will be opened on three school build-
ings: elementary schools for Diablo
Heights and Los Rios and a Pacific Side
junior high school at Diablo H-eights.
Shopping centers for Zonians and
their families have been expanded or
constructed in these past 10 years.
The Paraiso community center, which
houses a retail store, service center, and
Birst aid station and Post O~ffice, was a
departure in town planning when it
was built in 1955. The latest of the
new stores is the two-story building at
Coco Solo, and other retail stores have
been modernized and brought up to
date-all this at a cost of about half a
million dollars.
The Balboa retail store has been ex-


THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


THIE





TURBUL v EN~T





FIFTI1ES







p"nnq stnad..a hrtth4 c.,f l~o j1~
.1 modernll- Pacifibc s de comllplex tha~t will1

sto~l t;.
.\ndt a conjlderalbic sumi has I.licen
pouled into thie rehabilitation of thle
CoIco, SoloJ Hojprtal alnd jomenr muckscl-I
!!uzanus.J .t C;OI aSS H1SPltal. Thei itl...a

nlo\\ being plannelld.



bule~nt Fittlcs prot ilcle sl.mel~ inltretlinjlg
statistics f~r thet mai.thrn maticaI\ llmn-
thitcl. 1 '1 aaaCn


Af .I I.ll ifO 1, fi ~l ue-! 1 11411.th i ll~l itil 30(.t,~t

chldrentl li~llng inl thcm A~t the- end ort



June, this figu~re- had d~ro.ppcr ed, to 0677.

O these al ni ll bt btc~l F.:11,00 altfrd

t i il- le 111115< 3 tOL 'ol. ) il d d
The~ silchol tpoptulation (, on the: o:thenl

thle pa~st dccadd-. In 19-19. thet~re were

Zone rs wchools. ounlting kellde'rgan terS~IIT
throughpl col.llege jtuldents. This le-ar
t[ltT Iere Sre somewhat mer.c 11.0110i. Last

;in the Unlitedi Stctes Cirtlzeni schools
-7.2.3b-as the 7;.913 inl the e~lemen-l-tal
andt se~rconldar\ schol:s~l in thet twol- sis-


th.?i.cl libs~ries in the school,. libe this
at Paraiiso. sen~e student, anid towni folks.


r***l~rly'r'* I






Cookouts. barbecues*.o whate'Ver* sou cal thm a1ll~iir fasoite c~ pastimesForFdaP Znan.


THE TURBULENIT FIFTIES


r- ;I?*5*;*ri
L~ ''"
Irr.ii ? .*
*117
**







population, there are more telephones,
by almost 28 percent, than there were
at the beginning of the decade. In fiscal
year 1950, the Communications Branch
was serving 6,112 telephones; at the
end of last June this figure had jumped
to 7,803 and there are still a number of
applicants waiting.

THERE are more churches in the Can-
al Zone, too, despite the decreased
number of residents. The Canal Zone
telephone 'directory for 1949 listed 37
churches; this year's directory gives tel-
ephone numbers for 53.
Although the proportion of auto-
mobiles to residents is higher now than
it was 10 years ago, there are over 2,000
less motor vehicles licensed in the Can-
al Zone than there were at the begin-
ning of the 1950's. Anyone who has
ever tried to find a parking place-and
that is everyone--is going to ~find -this
hard to believe. In fiscal year 1951,
licenses were issued for 16,045 motor
vehicles. In June this year, licenses had
been issued for 12,836.
There are other "fewers," too. Ten
years ago, there were commissaries at
Balboa, Coco Solo, Diablo Heights,
Gatun, Gamboa, Margarita, Paraiso,
Rainbow City, Tivoli, Summit, Rio
Grande, Red Tank, Pedro Miguel, Mad-
den Dam, La Boca, Ancon, Curundu,
Cristobal, Coco Solito, Chagres, and
Camp Bierd. Only the first eight of these
21 are still operating today; they are
now called retail stores.
There was a similar decline in the
num~ber of what used to be known as
clubhouses and are now called service
centers. In 1949, there were 20; today
there are only 12.
It's hard to believe, but there are fewer
automiobiles than there iwere ten \sers ago.


- - r .


Pedro Miguel Clubhouse, once located in Gorgona, was torn down during the early 50's.


F'orty-eicht families once lived in this huge old building in Red Tank. It was built in 1907.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEWS 11




TEN YEA~RS~ AsGO

YO


COUL T,












.ocotibue hrug heUnte Fn or~ shlop at~Selfserv sci on, ik-tis

1, w or buy any eekctricail euipent you









~LAL


























lr II JYi"~**1* ~ii~irl
C-*?r*C
I;**t*l-~-~^
-C ; *L?
li'utii~Yi*r nl'*~*'~il~Jl'ii
**~.V*`x~ll'LI*.*I.1) riii~rrrI.- *Y ~I*"1*
*C r-
i~RT*iWStt-;r II r r. rt rv Ir ,~'f : *'. *I L ~' r i ~? *
r *~*IIr**~i:*l** rr.!. I:"' I*
1*:.~ r r. r I ri 61*X*~ kl~ul F I *~I* *'*t~i~l*'*'"\
r Ilj~JWI~I~P~d
r ~*wl*"~re

Thr Pdr~ijo Ci\ic Cnltrr.. built in 1959. \r~s the hiit to be "uiider oiie loot" Pntioi ieparete iti threc mdin iectioiii.


A~SIDE from housing. somile ot` the Cirteatrst clian~ices in
th~e Cana~l Zonedur~ing~thetTu~:llrbulet Fltie~s c~cucried in
thie plitces-thle re~tail jtorres and sen~ici c~enters-n\here
th~e Zone ~s families do: their busi in4.
Credit for man\~! olf thet impro\eme nts in~ the retail oul~t-
lets g~oes to sulgiestions p~resentedl inr the qua~l~rter(\! cu~s-
to:mers' forums, inlr'~uaugurt e in 19J56. NotI .I1\ nll hs tie
jtc:ck be~come be~tter in qual~liti aind qualntit thancl it o-nce
w adS. it iS not- bcinS dlisplay ed better andl cold In be~ttter
surro~undingss bi salesjpeoplle \\1-I ho hae been specially
strained in theiir jo~bs..-!t And o the book:,ls. there i?. a concept
o-f al singlel. e~entralizedl sh-oppiing center o~n elc~h \idet of ~
thie Canlld Z~ne-.


To:dac\ thec tag t-nds o~f thesejt aret Co.llectonll Ittems toJ bet

ulnderlst ndlt that casll \\a~s nlot alIals~\ thc medtiumln o~f

Sinice 1915.3. one retail store in ea~ch~ oft thie to\\ns hias
been opent~ o~ne night a \r-eek Thisj has pres,\idled wcrk~ing
w\i\es is ithl a( ChanI. ce to: do1 their househo~irlld bu1 ing$ o-r fo:r
tdamiliS e, to rsho toLgelther. Andl inl re.Cen't !.ears~ nos.t sto~res
ar1e open- I aIt niight forl thet w\eekl us-lt beFor thle: ChrTijtma~S
hioliday \s.
Therei \\ls ,1 time during~ the Tuirbu~le~nt Fdtic-s wh en
stock~s-andl cus~lto mers. tempe~j-r -ere \Ihort. But ma~n! o~f
theser prolble~ms hate brrn sol\ed and o~therls ,re osn thre
\i as toward;rt so~lution.


Todas onle can nrarch mlories in air c~onditionled comlfort.
abo\ e. or bu\ gtift in special shops in the retail stores. at r~ight.


14 THE P.AN.1xt-1 C.wN.11. R\'EVI'W


e' r 3-
1


se lba a shtes a Ii 5Ir
wt k f W a* WisMa d

LA 1tm natat' l~lpidfu if.
5 n ea **8*W**11r asrt*Ia4s









~ESE ARE ALL NEW

BUYlh~ppr
C~QH1ER UfFlyt\
~RMLD FOgrEsEs j~Whb
Llaaoh ,,,cE~'IP~


.hospital consolidation


.anti-rabies inoculations


...insect control by fog machines


THERE have been major changes, too, on the Canal
Zone Government side of things in the Turbulent Fifties,
Although health services are now almost all on a fee
basis, rather than free as they were 10 years a~go, many
of them have been increased or improved. The two gen-
eral hospitals, rambling Gorgas and Coco Salo--which
replaced Colon Hospital in 1954--are fully accredited by
the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals and
their services are headed by men wh~o are certified in
their fields.
A major change has been consolidation. Since 1954,
the Canal Zone Health Bureau has been providing hos-
pital care not only for its own people but for all military
personnel in this area.
These are all new in the past decade: Fluoridation of
water, dental surveys in the schools, chest X-rays for all
employees and their families, blood banks, polio inocula-
tions, compulsory rabies immunization for dogs, histo-
plasmosin and tuberculin tests and a poison information

The establishment of the Latin American
schools in 1955, and the transition
twi Spanish as the basic langusige
of these schools meant hours
of hard work and study. .,~-r~
This photograph, taken in May 1954,
shows a group of Latin American teachers
working with Spanish newspapers
to develop fluency in the language
in which they are now teaching.
The transition to Spanish and lsL I1~
to a curriculum and school year
similar to that of the Panama schools
was one of the most important
changes of the past decade. $ 1 8


center. And, for the direct benefit of employees, there
is comprehensive hospital insurance coverage.
In the schools, there have been two major changes:
Establishment in the mid-fifties of what are practically
two school systems, one for United States citizens and
the other for boys. and girls of Latin American back-
ground, and a program for handicapped children.
Since 1956 the graduates of the Latin American high
schools have been bilingual and, with increased emphasis
On Spanish in the United States schools, the American
children will soon be.
Under the special education program, several hundred
Children who are physically or mentally handicapped or
who need special help in reading or speaking are now
getting a normal education which, only three years ago,
would not have been possible in the Canal Zone.
Courses for the hard of hearing, those with sight dif-
ficulties, and slow readers are now a part of the routine.
Special training in U. S. universities for members of the


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15


TH~E TURBULENT7 FIFTIES





























lbote. Ci~il Defense has bteen intensihed..
*3Town meretings;. at Icll. are frequencrt esentsi.


communiiity. ,ti\ ities, mee~tings, 1lubs~ o~r hobbs~ grou~ps.
a~nd chlurchl w -ork;.
.lnoustndngexamnple ot: this is thie thlree-icar-o~ld
tow\n meettingS. Therse~llt are ti open cfrt ences bzt\t ten the~
Gove.rll nTr .nd ther mten aInd wom~len ojf thle Cana~l Zonei
w\here aln! president can.;lr and dec. e\p~rss his; oplinion.lS
Thecse ton\ n me-eting~s w\ere2 cxpanddc bi\ Cov,\ernor Po~tter
fromjl~ thZ "Shirtjlleeve~ Conferencesl(t'3 wh.liChI wer~Le starlte~d

Ch ic Counrcils hat\e becn fo~rmed inr the Latin Amnri-


telc~her~s corps has pro-du~ced-t th~is ha~rdl-to-fin-d ca~tegor! of
dedtica~ted edtucaltor~s .

.4\LONG; w\ith ther phs!ical chan~lges of the~ Tulbule-nt Fif-
ties hras cojme a~ return to thle commun~it' spirit which
char~ractleriz ed thle conlstru.ction-dc~a! perio~d.
Duiring the~ troubledl times of ther earl. part. of thet p1St

and w\halt amou~ntedl to chht l\ion,. Todg!. a ri~~resulrgenc of
comnmunit1 Feeling is e\.identr in thle grow \ing number of


New~ emnplo!ees. abore. nlow home a chance to see howr the Canlal
w\orki. .11 right. the Balboar Credit Uinionl. onle of ieseral inl the Zonec.


18i THr P.\Num~ Carat Ra\Irw\


THE TURBULEN\T FIFTIE~S


*. n
3 : ,.1 ..;,. *I
.."i l'i -.,
r;t?;~ ~5~11~1.

~~ Jwh








































Balboa Flats, above, is typical of the Zone's new housing.
Below, more people are going to more churches these days.


ican communities and the older councils have regained
their importance. Today, on a Tuesday in November, just
as they would in the United States, the people of the Can-
al Zone go to the polls to select their representatives for
the coming year.
Parent-Teacher groups are again becoming active. The
United Fund, started in 1957, is the modern counterpart
of the Community Chest program. It now handles con-
tributions for most of the community, welfare, and health
agencies in the Canal Zone.
There are, probably, more hobby or common interest
groups in the Canal Zone than during any previous
period. During the past nine years, the Panama Canal
Review has carried stories on between 30 and 40 such.
groups, ranging from the dean of them all, th~e 50-year-old
Cristobal W~oman's Club, to societies organized. within
the past year or so.
The Turbulent Fifties are over. Whether or not they
will be followed by th~e Sedate Sixties is anyone's guess,
but let's hope not! Sedatives are not a part of living on the
Canal Zone. The worst of the troubled times seem to be
over, and while the Canal Zone is not, and probably never
will be, a perfect place to live, there is still a lot to be
said in its favor.
(The Panama Canal Review expresses its appreciation to the
many persons who appear in the pictures in this section. Special
mention goes to the family of Maurice McCullough, who are
shown cooking outdoors, looking at television, and in various
shopping pictures; to Sidney Squires, in the Paraiso Library; to
Rick~ie Brogie, Ronnie Farnsworth, and Jane Ann Catanzaro,
Little Leaguers; to Clarence and David Swanson, Paul Robinson,
and Don McCullough, at the movies; and James N. Howell and
his associates at the Balboa Credit Union.)


THIE PANAMA CANAL REVI[EW












TR ANSFERS


July 75 th~rough, August 75

Victor L. Brown, to Hospital Laborer,
Gorgas Hlospital.
Mrs. Margaret M. Gallardo. to Mesdical
Clerk IT!CIpanL'` Gorg:l Hospitall.
Julio Gonzalez, t.: E.tc!-l~in ~init. Di-
vision of Sanitation.
RIARINE. BU'RE~lty
John L. Five~hel. from EIImine rring .1iti-


GeorgeSt R. Dounlirl. to Admeasurer,

Howard G;. Anderloon, to General Fre-

lunan Sanchez. Mlanuel Cobo, to Boat-
men. Locks~ DrI? I.-n
Celrlo E. Rodr~iguer. Fromll Hclpetr Laurl h
Fuels 11hslrlfllnto Tclrnamalsl Dis urer, t"

Glassiord I. Claike. tr..n.i O~ll.- Elei-


N loy D hSmithtoErs ri. Viea Hor.
Locks Dli 11.!...
Joseph T. Cope. to7 CIontrol House Lead

Samuel L. It ilionl, i~llachan~ilt, from Rail-
r.....l D.1:-r..n to LockS Division.


Locks Division.
Henrs\H. Shir;. to Lead Foreman, Locks
Di\ !n .
Arturo E. Agard, to Launch Dispatcher,

Industrial Division
Luis A. Fong, to Supervisory Accounting
Cle~rk.
Eghert E. Crourch to- C~l. rk (Typist).
Leonl C. G~reenidae. to Oill...
Raul A. Swalm. tr..mn Dlstrib~l...n*,n Clak, .
P...cal1 Division, t1l. AppFreitice Sh~ipilrter
Domingo H. Hin~d\. t.. aieM-
chinist.
William A. Woods, Benito E. Sykes,
Emanluel Burton. to Leader Painters.
PERSO)RNNEL BUREAU
Gordon M. Frick, from Executive Se-
cretary, Canal Zone Civilian Policy Co-
Ill.rt!'.1rtn Rl.'trd, to Chi.-1i Employment

Mrs. Tevia P. de l aiquez. Mrs. ~Eliza-
beth G. Washburn, Itc. CI. rk-Duit.aiH!,
Machine Transcribers. Empile menn-!t aInd
Utilization Division.
SUPPLY AND COhlIMliNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Monica I. Alvarado, to Clerk (Typist),
Office of General Manager, Supply Di-

Cecil R. Inniss, to Leader Laborer
(Heavy), St..rlehouse;~ Branch.
Fr~ancis 11'. Hickeyr, to Leader Engine.
man, Hoisting and Portable, Storehouse
Branch.
~a~te E. White, to Lead Foreman Stock-
main. Stl..rclhouse~ Branch.


EITril:01EE5j bi1I:, \1ile promoted or
tr ansifl_ rlel benrri re:.l Julyl 15 and Au ust
pr


CI1IL A\FFllHS BURE.~'
MI. D~oloths B. Onl. rt E~lementary


M Ai. Catherrinet H. Brown, to LIl:.r:,rllu,

CGilbelt Normi. from Hclp..r B..illr-


Geore Carrinstonn t.:. Z:n~inmig Pool
O~Pentr.I. Do! ius...o ..t sel.....l.
Benlam~llin E. Favorite. fr..Iln Substitute
11 !!. ..-..1 cI. rk. Post ail D!o I!..:. to Customs

1inhn1 II. Dutcer, b. \\!lll,.i .\ lcrk. Pos-

OFFICE OF THE CO~IlTROLLER

.. b rt F oche jli slpr I/! .n el


ENG;INEERiNGC AND CONSTRUCTION
BLiRE ~lt
Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., to Supervisory Ar-
chitect, E scan~....!in- DI.!-sco..


IRudolph R. Johnson, to Carpenter,

dome1se I. tlrai is 1 Subst tte Win

Edward A. Gajlkin, t.. Clerk (Typist),
E~lect ri~...l Division.
Inohn 1. Dukall.11 b.s Lrader Electrician,

O\, I. 110sley!. Leilic O. Anderson, to
5...11F'. !\-.r;, Con-tirilan..nl Representatives,

Tuhni E. Da\i-. F.:. silp.l Is ...s C m al
Enzar!; .-! E!!Ina ..I ns!! Da)I\ 1..r,
11arolld J. Chall1e, t.: tl. l P I 1.. .l.r IL. mards~l .

flrlntii N. AnlderTSOn, to Fireman, Main.

Paull R. Fllrr. tc~4..i s...p s:>.: ETr-.trical

vision.
Si~llercedesl. Palomeras.. Cl. rk t nee:~-

Division t.. R.-lII...:.x Brutel, PI..act .
HEALTH BL'RE.lti
Carmen~l Ho. 1.. CLI.rk\ 14istenagr sp~l. .

..zRii it 1. Ede~ban. tl. rt~.!.n..1art. Co-


4. .!1. H ..-! al.
Mllin I. Quarlet b tc .\rl.:1ntt ng Service

D~r. .rAlle Jack orl. to~ hl..Jr.:3 Officer,


Gor~don F. Burgess, to Maintenanceman,

hi. Ersu~i n Mza. to: 1t....km.0,ll Com-

Sale\ an1d SerTice Branc~h
Oli e R. Lord. t... \\ilC.hoIIensldm
Elwrood G. Bine~tt. tol Supprl. ()thl..er.
Jamier H. Pa\Ine, to Rucpe!!ris.r Bilkr
Theimla 11. Krennie. to Sales Clerk.
TRA~NSPORT.ATION .I\ND TERMlINALS
BUiRE.\li
Mloto~r Transpor(tadtion Division
John11 II. loiner, t.: General Foreman

Sydney? 5. Flanci, idolphus L. Os-
borne, Juliul Josejtph. Track:l Driers, trans-
ferrr-d fr.:nm SuplCi~ D.; .....n
Julieta .1roleniena. t.. Clcrk (Stenog-
raher).
rJohn M. Herill. C~lerk. From Employ-
ment and Uitll.lllhn~l D!\ Irs on
OTHER PROMOTIONS
Promotions which did not involve changes
of title follow:
Alvis B. Carr, Jr., H..eparall Administra-
tive Assistant, Gorgas Hospital.
Robert L. Allen, Clerk, Terminals Di-
vision.
George L. Edghill, Clerk, Navigation
Division.
Vincent C. Lashley, Clerk, Industrial
Division.
Kenneth A. MlcC1;elarn B...:.~lkeeping Ma-
chine Operator, Induslltrl sl Dl~l is-an
Maria A. Compafiy, Louise E. Goldson,
George B. Palmer, Harold G. Boreland,
Fred A. Howell, Clerks, Gorgas Hospital.
Vernon F. Ke~plord. Jr.. Supen l~is.=u!
General Supply C-tlerk 4tlorehll...u.. Blanch.ll
George G. Graffma~n, Passenger Traflic
CL~. rk, .-\.:jim nastratol ..- Branch.
John W. Muller, General Engineer, En-
gineering Division.
Evert H. Ohman. Supe-n~~rvi~r begual-1

Ric~hard 4. Pinlcur. Streacltura~l Engineer,

Edecar R. Mc~.rthur. TIme.i Leve., and

cot t. ElaineE Heyd, Ci. lk-Tx past Coco
Solo Ho pital.
William E. Davis, Graduate Intern, Of-
fice of the En.~-;rneemiine and Construction
Director.
Ovid A. Laurie, Clerk, Community
Servio Hutd Civil Engineer, En-
gmneermng Division.
Russell H. Brubaker, Supervisory Bikcr
Specialist, Sales and Service Branch.
Mrs. Betty L. Marshall, Clerk, Com-
munity Services Division.
Roscoe M. Collins, Ramllond R'. Will,
Harbormasters, Navigation Division.

18 'THE PA~N.1151.1 CANAL REE 1LE it


PROMOTIONS


AND





MIEN
OF THE: MONTH

The 40-year mark for service in the Can-
al organization was reached by two men
last month. For one of the pair this is a
double an rsary year. centuet ry
ago this ear as a ch~i of four, rwas
broug1 ~t ~t Isthm w e ss-
ided rc< Both re &en of the 0'
car te W st Indies. Theyar:
g as Mill pipefitter w l
7 L rat rieBranch,Mn-


Mr. Mill uas born in owls wl
Bay, Barbados, B.W.I., and arrived on the
Isthmus in 1909.
Mr. Didier came to the Isthmus from
Soufriere, St. Lucia, B.W7.I., in 1919.


Marine Bureau
William Burgess
Air Compressor Plant Attendant
Erick I. Raphael
Clerk
Supply and Community
Service Bureau
SKennet H. Weeks
Arthur L. Dale
Clerk
George Kirton

Ervin D. Hicks
Guard Supervisor
Carmen K. Armstrong
Sales Section Head


ilAffrsueu
Mark. nn,.
General Fo m n, yat Handling U'



E onG. D. Bruce
Psychiatric Nursing Assistant
Engineering and Construction
Bureau


Civil Affairs Bureau
Ethel P. McDermitt
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Dick R. Brandom
Clerk-in-Charge, City Division, Balboa
Jesse Y. Bunker
Police Private
George A. Tully, Jr.
Police Private
Richard P. Patton
Police Private .
O~ffce of the Comptroller
B. D. Licorish
Clerk
Marine Bureau
Ralph Curles
Towboat or Ferry Master
B. S. Favorite, Jr.
Welder
Bartolome Ramos

JOihn A. Bowen
Clerk
Edward W. Millspaugh

Pip ne E. Hamlin, .
Admeasurer
Gabriel C.Adn
Oiler
John L. Miller
Machinist
Chester A. Luhr
Blacksmith
Lackland A. Manning
Oiler
Alfred L. Springer
Toolroom Attendant
Victor Hardy
Helper Rigger
Agustin C. Gibbs
Leader Seaman

Supply and Community
Service Bureau
Alfred A. Barnett

Co orge F. Earle
Laborer
Olganon Clarke
Laborer
Cecil G. Springer
Cook
TedrO. Gill

Administrative Branch
Prichard A. Aubert
Photocopying Equipment Operator
Health Bureau
Leslie A. Panther
Nursing Assistant
Cecilia S. Jeannette
Extractor and Tumblerman


Engineering and Construction
Bureau
Luke J. Snavely
General Specifications Engineer
Elmer Kanz
Supervisory Hydraulic
Engineering Technician
Monrad J. Gruener
Senior Operator-Hydro Dispatcher
R. Demetrio Olmedo
Oiler
Hilario L. Campo
Clerk
David Tait
Maintenanceman
Ignacio Betancourt
Carpenter
Nathaniel Litvin
Mechanical Engineer
a .Scott
Tr ~tor Operator
nA.S gs
Quarters Ma rte nele Lead Foreman
Charles B.ols
Power Sys sace




Benjamin J. Waterman
Automotive Equipment Serviceman
Fred L. Stewart
Foreman Lineman
Darnley Griffith
Fireman
Cliff Beaty
Mate, Dipper Dredge
Meyer S. Slotkin
Supervisory General Engineer

Transportation and Terminals
Bureau
Benjamin P. Soley
.Truck Driver
Percival U. Johnson
Flagman
William K. Marks
Electrician
Marus Aird
Felton L. Gill
Guard
Carlu Jordan
Alexander Melbourne
Chauffeur
Herman G. Edwrards
Clerk
Rupert G. Lindsay
Chauffeur
Ivanhoe Moffatt
Railroad Station Watchman
Conrad A. Williams
General Helper


Sixto C. Moreno
Heavy Laborer
Ismael Fuentes
Heavy Laborer
Office of the
Jerome E. Steiner
Supervisory t'ashier


Comp~troller


Transportation and Terminals
Bureau
Lincoln E. Tomlinson
Clerk
Administrative Branch
Donald P. Peart
Bookbinder

THE PANAMAA CANAL REVIEW


ANNIVERSARIES









(RETIREMENTS
Retirement certificates were presented at
the end of August to the following em-
ployees who are listed below, alphabetical-
ly, together with their birthplaces, job titles,
length of Canal service and their future
addresses:
Li a tboc.C'hurchill,Fi)assac usetts;
years, 29 days; future address undecided.
william Coffy, Virginia; Signalman, Na-
vigation Division; 32 years, 6 months, 17
days; Florida.

Ste ora he, Crlzwe eospia 1 3;mear
9 months, 21 days; remaining on Isthmus.
Eric A. Fagerberg, Massachusetts; Ma-
rine Machinist, Industrial Divisfon, Cris-
tobal; 18 years, 1 month, I day; future
address undecided.
Mrs. Marion F. French, New York; Tel-
ephone Operator, Communications Branch,
Electrical Division; 18 years, 2 months, 27
days; Hawthorne, Calif. .
John B. Morton, Iowa; Locomotive Ma-
chinist, Railroad Division; 36 years, 11
months, 19 days; future address undecided.
Robert E. Rogers, Virginia; Locomotive
Engineer, Railroad Division; 17 years, 4
mh ,F3Sdh a ,ini s oi; Lead Fore-
man Public Works, Maintenance Division;
18 years, 4 months, 15 days; remaining on
Iseillmus temporarily; future address un-
Albert L. Taylor, New York, Chief Tow-
boat Engineer, Navigation Division; 9
years, 6 months, 22 days; Florida.

(Continued from page 5)
agencies. The aggregate will be taken
from the Canal's stockpiles of Chagres
River sand and gravel at Gamboa.
Framorco will set up a processing plant
and the Railroad will take the aggregate
to the watching plant at Dock 7.
Cement manufactured at the Ce-
mento Panama plant on the Boyd-
Roosevelt Highway will be used for the
bridge foundations. Canal authorities
had furnished Cemento Panama with
full information on the type of cement
to be required for the foundations well
in advance of the award of the sub-
structure contract and the firm made
special arrangements to manufacture
and supply cement to meet specifica-
tions in the quantities required.
Since the substructure U~~ntrac t \i es
awarded, negotiations for tilm pandowl~l
of local cement have been completed
and the type of cement required is al-
ready being manufactured. Tests were
made during August by the Water and
Laboratories Branch
In addition to these, many other sup-
plies of a varying nature are to be pur-
chased locally and some other smaller
subcontracts may be awarded.

20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


,


1


50 YEARS AGO
A record number of employees-to that
date-were at work for the Isthmian
Canal Commission and the Panama Rail-
road Compan 50 years ago this month.
On September 29, 1909, there were
00.210, men and women in the Canal
organization. Included in this figure
were ~1,500 laborers from Barbados who
had arrived September 2, the largest
single group imported for the Canal
project
A sudden slide at the site of the Pe-
dro Miguel locks halted work on that
section of the Canal on September 1,
1909. A wall of shattered rock pushed
out into the east chamber, midway bet-
ween the locations for the lock gates.
The slide broke only four feet from a
cottage, <0r, ming~ away a fence, chicken
house, and shade trees.

25 YEARS AGO
When six sluice gates in the lower part
of Madden Dam were closed for the first
time 25 years ago this month, the Cha-
gres River began to back up above the
dam to form what is now Madden Lake.
By midnight, September 15, the lake
level had risen to 160 feet. Canal offcials
hoped the lake would reach elevation
232 by mid-December.
Tragic through the Canal continued
to pick up slowly. The 435 ocean-going
~c-orinics, ial vessels which transited in
September, 1934 were 97 more than


those of the previous September. With
shipping on the rise, the Panama Canal
advertised for new applications from
would-be lhlts and towboat masters.

10 YEARS AGO
Albrook Field, now Albrook Air Force
Base, was tlIn at- to commercial air-
plane traffic in September 1949, with
the transfer of all airlines operations to
Tocumen Airport. A special Panamer-
ican Airways Convair flew from Albrook
to Tocumen, carrying the Governor of
the Canal Zone and the President of
Panama to inaugurate the new airport.
A drop in the number of Canal transits
for British-flag ships was in sight 10
years ago this month as Great' Britain
devalued the pound from $4.03 to $2.80.

ONE YEAR AGO
Representatives of some of the world's
major earth-moving concerns gathered
here a year ago this month to help bring
up to date estimates of the cost of long-
range plans to increase the Panama Can-
al's capacity. They came in two groups;
one was made up of specialists in dry
excavation, the other of dredging ex-
perts.
With the signature by President Ei-
senhower of a pay raise bill for teachers,
almost $2 million had been legislated
into the Canal payroll by the 85th Con-
gress.


ESID S
'se 'ss
4 8
29 16
28 20
18(28)90
30 39
30 48

214 (28)231


I$AU IESG
'se 'sa
0 0
1 2
1 0
2 3
2 1
4 2
O 1
11 10


TO DATE
'se 'sa
5 12
11 14
10 3
165(1) (12)29
5 5
25 9
1 1
78(1)(12)80


Civil Affairs---_~~___~~I,, (H nol)
Engineering & Construction_ .,
Health--- __~~__~~~~___~
ae in k Oprto s_; _____~_
Supply & Community Service... ____
Transportation & Terminals__. ~~~
Accident Pool--- ~ __~___~_~~
C. Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Company. ...
() Locks Overhaul injuries included in total,


iCANAL


i-L 1 S7c3RY


]RECORD
FOR
JUL;Y



BUREAU


DAYS LOST
'ss 'sa
0 0
2 28
5 0
2+ 26
46+ 6
28+ 29
0 6000
135+ 6094







"Presidente Porras"

retirement means

end of Canal's








Tourist




Ferry


Scenes like this-tourists flocking toward the ferry-will end next spring.


THE ferryboat Presidente Porras which
has ferried passengers, cars, and sight-
seers across and through the Canal for
the past 17 years is slated for retire.
ment at the end of this tourist season.
Both of the other Thatcher ferryboats,
the President Roosevelt and Presidente
Amador, are to continue in service until
the completion of the: bridge, although
neither will be available for tourist trips
through Gaillard Cut. .
The Porras needs new engines and
extensive repairs which would cost up-
wards of $750,000 if the vesse~ll is con-
tinued in service much longer. There-
fore, it was decided that the Porras


res Bridge had been opened, and the
demand for ferry service was consider-
ably lighltened although Thatcher Ferry
traffic continued h-igh dlua ing the war.
'Ihe Porras was built in Ca mdt n,
N.J., in 1927; Its car-carrying capacity
it ah rtohmatl 2o oecn gea- tha
which were built by the Industrial Di-
vision in 1931. The Porras can also carry
500 passengers in addition to a full load
of vehicles. It is a diesel-electric fecrry-
boat with an overall length of 155 feet.

tItuwas frt usd l aL bih-ri ina 1r
thogh t Cn o ar By 15
when it made an e~xcus sion trip from
Gatun to' Pedro Miiduel for several
hundred: construction era employees
under the spo~nsoshlip of the local union
of the CIO.
During recent years, n ithl the con-
side-lablel decr~ease in demandlir for Canal
ferry senrice, it has been ma~dez :I ilablel
for large tourist parties for trips through
Gaillard Cut. During the past fiscal >--ar
the Porras made 53 trips through the
Cutllt adcanied sol e 11.0011~passenlgers.
Many of these were on~a non-fee basis
for Panama and Canal Zone schools.
Over I,000 school ch ildrecn fr~om Pan-
ama were given a free trip through the
Ca~ldlad Cut aboard the Porras onthree
trips last January. ,Two trips were made
a usin g last school term for about. 500
:students of the Latin A mer ican and
Unrite-d States schools of thie Zonec.


should be retired aIt thec end of this fiscal
year. No replacement is planned.
After the retirement of the Porras,
sight-seeing, trips through the Cut will
be limited to small parties when launch
and tug service is available.

recallefor mosm rsdnt et iryn aties o
the Wrorld War II period on the Isthmus
when transportation across the Canal
was a problem of no small consequence.
The opening of the.Third Locks town n
of Cocoli and the big expansion of Army
and Navy installations on the west side:
of the Canal in the early 1940's over-
crowded all available trans-Canal trans-
portation facilities. For a while a ferry
service was operated across Miraflores
Lake to supplement Thatcher Ferry.
The peak demand was reached in the
fiscal year 1941 when 990,000 cars and~:
5,590,000 passengers crossed the Canal
at Thatcher Ferry and 422,000 other
vehicles and 1,500,000 passengers were
transported across Mirafores Lake.
During the past few years the volume
of Thatcher Ferry traffic has averaged
about 600,000 cars a year.
It was during thiik period that two
large ferryboats jin scr evice in New York
harbor were bought. One of these, the
Governor Moore, was lost at sea while
being towed to ths Isthmus. The o~ther,
the Nassau, reached Cristobal safely in
November 19)-12 and went, into service
in February 19-1:3. .
By that time, however,, the Miraflo-


FROM CRISTOBAL
Cristobal....... .......... September 9
Ancon. ... .. .. .. ... .. September 16
Cristobal..... .. .. .. .. .September 26

FROM NEW YORK
Cristobal. .. .. .. .. .. ... .September 1
Ancon. ... .. ... .. .. .. September 9
Cristobal. .. ... .. .. .. ..September 18
Ancon. .................. September 25


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


*J r~













TIDES, SHARKS, AND BARRACUDA are all things of no
consequence to the Canal Zone's small-boating fans who
spend their free time cavorting up and down the Chagres
hiver, from Madden Dam to Gatun. Which is why water
skiing is about as important as boating to this g n n IpI
They do have river currents to contend with, and sudden.
squalls, but they are never more than a few hundred feet
from shore in most places and their boating can be more
Relaxed than that of their deep-sea brethren.
Wh1t ~-lnc some f the river boatmen are not affiliated with any
group, a good many do belong to three clubs: The Gatun
Yacht Club, the Gamboa Golf and Country Club, and the
Panama Ski Club.
Most of the Gatun boats are outboards which must be
launched on the opposite side of the lake, as the club does
not yet have its own ramp. Two members own sailing craft
-~Dr. W. H. Wynne and Capjt. W. A. Reinheimer. Capt. Rein-
heimer's boat is a racer, once owned by Tucker McClure.
Outboards, like Julian Hearne's Thunderbird and Pete
Cooper's Aristocrat, are in the majiorityl for the Gamboaites.
They are launched from a ramp below the Gamboa club.
There are, however, a few mboar,.ld craft. Outstanding among
these is Bill Tillman's Correctoraft, a sleek job of the type
used at Cypress Gardens in Florida.
At Madden Dam, where the Panama Ski Club meets un-
officially every weekend and holiday, outboards also predomi-
nate. Frank Hirt, the club president, has a Fairlaine. H. O.
Frederick's Thunderbird, Wrilliam de la Mater's Thunderbird
Warrior, and Charles Bradl's Vanguard are also regular lake
visitors.
Headquarte~rs for the! Gatun Yacht Club are a remodeled Quonset hut.



























2 TH AAACAA VE


On weekends, he ri or boaters gah es it de nk Dan, a ,


,~,,

';c";;
:;
rl
"*'~B g k~i
,I, r
i~:L.CISr 7
* n '


r.,r
,i
~
: .I


Madden Lake provides plenty of space for four boats abreast.


Chagres is paradise for
















































In the Chagres, off Gamboa, Bill Tillman and Jack Campbell clear a ski jump with ease,
and Joyce Herring and Judy and Jane Hearne, below, team up behind a speeding boat.


Some skiers go on one ski, like Frank Hirt,
above, or backward, like Beth Little, below,


~3~R:.` ''
.... .h- ,,
1,.

.l~c~"3~~
: ."~Cr7.~.: -
7~.
:,.,,
r, rr` ..i
~l.ii; '':b

and Bill Tillman, below, skis "na-handed."


Few water skiers can do this trick, which Bill Tillman learned at C~press Caldens. Fla.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23


boating


K. I~I
f ~ .-VU~I-- '1
L-~-. h*
=..~"'T.'
-.*i

...
_'.-""~i~i~j
5
--C- ~:-'"~"~~
*.
"ICi~l
rl~lr,*l~~ "
~~~~ ;c~M~,,*c*
~ .a
.. ~-
17~ ~,,,
;i st.- ~Cf"EQlllgUFL c.*- ~
L -I.L'.
~- .---~-IYi:
~e~ F'- ZI i*









SH

Giantl U. S. Tanker
TI-n Ilatest tanke-r under Unlited States
rlgistr! mladei her m~alden calgo \colage
throughl- thr- Pana~ma Canall Iin August.
Tht new\ shilpping giant \less thle -16,000
o usedct b! the Transe-aste~rn Shlipp~ing
Corporal on" of Nei\l or k. The \i-sel
\o!me cl~tjcr etC'n unde hltar! in e-
Tlran!sportationi Se-rticei with a carg~o of
31.IU~~~1t.It ~l.0)brrds o~f alialtion gasoline
from- Houslton. Tex.. to military bises in
the Far East.
She madelc the- asouthbound transit in
better than~ uISull time w\ith the assis-
tanlce of one tugl in the Cut anld two at
ittal to a .3'3-fotlil draftt inl thei Panama
C3anltl she prlotceded to Longp Beach,
Calit.. whellre her CargI w\as to be to~p-
ped. Inltendi-d pos3tS of dischage2 are
Pteirl Halbor. Cuamll. Alanila, andi Yo-
ko~hamal. Agents at the Canal werer C.
Bi. Fclntl.nl & Company. .
Mliamli Ser\-ice
A~ iusc\- t~te dit ren\iice betw een Cristobal
andlt Miamri is brrinq operatedc ol a
mnlrthll\ basil b\ the~ Jaipanese~ OSK
linre ships which aIrri~t at Canal ports
ho~:m thei Far1 East en! loulte to Ner ~
Yonklh. Accordrcu.42 to Bad\t Brothe~rs, a-
genlts fol:r ther line~ herle. the ships \\ill
mcept cargoI at the Canal for dleli\ery

The Mliamli stop wasj rnadelt last rnolth
bi the- Chiicaro Alaturl. Inltest additionl to
the OSK: Line 11leet. on he~r m~ideni \ol-
aige imm thle Falr East. The runl bet-
\\teen- Csristabail andi Mlirlmi \\ai m~ade
in less thanrl thle da\ s. Thet next \tessel
toi make~l thec call w\ill be the Phiilippinc
Alaru~. dlutr hre~i Septcnber 11.
Bo:cld Brolthersj also~ annol-unlcte that
(18-- OSK: Linet hadl inaugurattd a
monthly Pacific~ Coas~t to Cub3 senice.
Thet first ship) to~ mlake the call at Clban

Lto~ppedl at Culracao anld La Cllaira after
h..-at ing~ Cristabal.
Canadian Port Call
'THE \\\tSt CoaSE Line. whlich opera~tes
ma~in! Iof ther bright red ships see~n in
thet Canal;1 others da\s. has annlounlced
thiat it w'ill adjd Mlonrtrral andi Cana~dian
St. La\rtnice Riterl poslts to thre itin-
the.oftecati East Coastofthe Uinited States to


Ecua~dor to Uniitedt State~s C~ull p''ts.

p~ing Compan-l'" anid is o~pelated b.1 Ilth rt
AlhcJ~-1 Shippeis for the Conitinenital 4
Transport Ilc.. of~ Pal~naa. L. Ki. Coler I,
is agernt aIt Canall pos tS.
New\ Netherland Ships

aIre now\~ being colmpleted in- Hollanrd
fo~r thle Hota~l Netherlandt s Strramslhlp
Company3'~ \\ll soonl Ilin the line's Eire.--
pcein-\\~cjt Coast o~f Soul~thl Ameiti a
serr acec~. Tlihe ~~ In tl theAr~iLs. is sched.cl
uled~c to) depar;t fromn Amnsterdaml- Oi-

tober 14 0n- her mal~iden to\age to parrts

Filer others aill slater shiipsc. re thi A-chlil-
les. sailing~ Noumn-berl I14; the Croes,
December~ l IC: thel Diclgecsrc. March 5-.

As~ Fdiscl- ne-w lessels jo thec Scrltic.

thr\t will gradua~ll\ rep~lace st.\ char-
tened~ c.ilrgo sh~iPS non\ Operating o~ thliS
rul -r!. on a irtnicht! sc~hedule.
The\ ase 7.11) deadwe\ight ton shiips.
11\lvn a1 hethit of` -12 fee~t. a beam fc)
5-' feet. a serv ice sadt~ of 16 k~nojts. and
aIccommodations~ion for 12pasngr
Cruise Season
Assloni the crulise~ ships schefdulerd to,

visic~!~t thPnmaLnl tisj \r~l;;ar isth

jc -Ireduledl~ for -19-day\ roundl-Soulth

age. Th-is crulise w\ill bring the b~ig Iie\\
ship into Crijtabah~l Decemnber 16i. She
0\ill t~ranit thle follow\ing day.
Si\- clises are schet-dul~ld fo-r thle

Canal \isitolr. Thle ship, \\ill begSin thet
season w\ith a1 Chriistmasd CIuise whlich
tltaks he- o~Ut o-f New\\ Yonkll Decembe--rl
22 and bringqs htr inlto Cr istob~al Decem-
ber ES.
Onl Jan~uary 26. another Cunairdl linler
the Carronia. wrill arri\e htice oni a 13-
da\ Caribbea~n crluise. This luaxur\ 1s-
sels is also- scherduled for a 95-dal1 '\\rarlt
andc retu~lrninq \ia the Palnama C~inatl
dulrincL lat. The Pacifie Steam Natiga7-
tioni Comnpani is agent here for all these
\essels

-1TI-u P.mN~um C.W.r.. REllElV'


ther Canlal Zone. Colombia, Ecuad~tor,
Peru, Bolitia, anld Chiile-.
The first ship to rnake the~ Canada
call \r al bet thet Tennira Dan,r due to lea'e
Mlontrea~l Se~ptembetr 24 for the Canal
ZonE \ia Ph-iladeclphia3 andc Baltllmore.
The senrice w\ill b~e hanldledt onl a sc~hed-
talec of: one shiip sailing ete\try four \\ eeks,
C Fcli cih C~o spanl 1:,c 1 agenlts FOr
thrr lilit;. I~d~i' t).Cl d Ii.
Iouing Tourists
A-N enlthusiaStiC tour1 of poiints of i~ttrest
in th~e- Cdnal Zone and~t Panlama was

hecre as meimbersj of thei crew~~ ofth ilc
mol-to~r slupl Sally Fourrthr fromn Nt\\ Or-
Itanis. Thle !ioungl \isltlors wecre Crl
Ruthesfordl, : hiis sister Chiristine. 14;
Ronald Hutft. 17: and G~ilbert P-att.
25. They\ wetre accomnpa nying C~arl
Ruthielforld. Sr.. wrho was;1 takinq the
ion~\~ teted -lr-157-grossto harb.Lor tugl to ,
SanI FranICiSCO. .

Zo~ne tak~uig on iuel anct stores,. thle Sally I
F,,urthl sailrd fo~r ther \\est Coast \ia

sl-chedledlcc to coinc~idet w~ith the openiing
Igt school. Thij wa~s thei First \ijit to the -
Lanalr Zo-ne for any\ o~f the~ \olon crew ~
memllbtlS although thr father or' Ruinld
Hutt~t \er\-rl wiith the~ Li. S. Alrmy\ in- the

Israeli Ship
ONE of thle few\ C`anal lisitorls to, fl the
Israeli flag is the Tsefrt. a 6:32-ton; ba.-
niana carrie-r which makes~. anI average '
of` fou~r trip eachl mnon-th thruc ghl the


PP I


N\


G* ii