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i SI.MS N
T HIS decade in the Panama Canal's history has not been a drab one. Of
the many highlights, however, none has the importance to world com-
merce so much as the resurgence of trade and the consequent increase
in Canal traffic in the postwar period.
While the problem of increasing the Canal capacity has been studied
intermittently over a period of some 40 years, there has been a sense
of urgency added in the decade now ending. The Canal administration, alert
to conditions, is attacking the capacity problem in all its aspects.
This issue of the "Canal Review" is devoted largely to shipping, to the
operating problems, and to the solutions of the capacity problem being im-
plemented and proposed.
Our cover this month showing the super tanker "Al Malik Saud Al Awal"
about to enter Pedro Miguel Locks amid a background of ship stack in-
signia* symbolizes the welter of world shipping which is pouring through
the Canal in an ever increasing stream.
The chart on this page vividly illustrates for the statistically-minded what
Aside Trom the actions and proposals to meet the Canal capacity prob-
lem described in this issue, there are others. Among the most noteworthy
of these is the $7,360,000 Gaillard Cut widening project. This big job will
be in full swing in another few weeks and the contracting firm .of Merrit,
Chapman and Scott is now amassing a yardfull of big earth-moving equipment
on the slope of Contractors Hill to tackle the job in earnest.
*Reprinted from chart of ship stack insignia, courtesy of THE TEXAS COMPANY.
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL
00001 --- -o800 M
.959 700 R
-(AVERAGE 1951-1955) --600 0
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
W. E. POTTER, Governor-President
JOHN D. McELHENY, Lieutenant-Governor
WILLIAM G. AREY, JR.
Panama Canal Information Officer
Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly At Balboa Heights. C. Z.
Printed by the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone
J. RUFUS HARDY, Editor
ELEANOR MCILHENNY, Assistant Editor
EUNICE RICHARD and WILLIE K. FRIAR,
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
__ __ h- -- *--------
More and more "super" ships like the
751-foot tankship Ore Mercury are using
the Canal. They are a big factor in
hastening the day when additional transit
facilities will be needed
NEW COST ESTIMATES
are prepared on five different Canal plans
Since the Panama Canal was opened nearly 45 years ago it
has been recognized by those closest to its operation that the
day would come when its facilities would be inadequate to meet
the requirements of world shipping.
During the past three decades numerous studies have been
made to determine with relative accuracy when that day would
come and what should be done to meet the condition. The
most comprehensive was the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947.
These studies covered 30 possible Isthmian canal routes.
The list was later narrowed down to eight main routes on which
detailed engineering studies and cost estimates were prepared on
both lock-type and sea-level canals. An integral part of the 1947
studies was an authoritative report by Dr. Roland L. Kramer
on commercial traffic and future capacity requirements.
The decade since the 1947 Studies were completed has
brought many startling changes in capacity requirements,
both by size and numbers of ships and, the time for taking
definite measures to increase the Canal capacity has ad-
vanced more rapidly than contemplated even ten years ago.
While the problems of Canal capacity and the expeditious
handling of shipping are under a continuing study by the Canal
administration and the operating personnel, two: independent
studies of a broader scale were undertaken about a year ago
on the principal points of the Isthmian Canal problem: The
amount of traffic in the future, and the best means and cost of
meeting future traffic needs.
A study of future traffic with projections for the years 1975
and 2000 was made by the Stanford Research Institute. The
story of that report was carried in the April issue of THE REVIEW.
Meanwhile, a re-evaluation has been in progress on five plans
detailed in the 1947 report. Last April the engineering firm of
Parsons, Brickerhoff, Hall, Macdonald, of New York, was
retained by the Panama Canal Company to review and up-date
to a 1959 price level the cost estimates of three of the Panama
Canal improvement plans. A r' vie and- evaluation of the
other two plans were made by Canal personnel.
The plans studied by Parsons, Brickefhoff, Hall, Macdonrald
Plan II-Essentially the eomnpl.eti:n of the Third Lacks
project, modified to include the widening and deepening -of
Plan III-Provisions for three sets of improved locks at
Gatun and Miraflores, elimination of Pedro Miguel Locks, rais-
the Gatun Lake level, and widening and improving the entire
Plan IV-Conversion of the Canal to a sea-level waterway.
The two plans studied by the Camal personnel were:
Plan I-An improved present Canal to meet the needs of
world commerce for the remainder of this century without re-
gard to the increased size of ships; and
Plan V-A Nicaraguan lock canal.
These studies have all been completed and a report submitted
to the Company's Board of Directors. The cost estimates of
the five plans and a brief summary of the principal features
of each follow:
Plan I, major improvements to the present Canal-
This project would involve widening all sections of the chan-
nel to a minimum of 500 feet, and deepening it from a present
42-foot minimum to 47 feet. A modernized marine traffic con-
trol system would be installed, fully automated for a rapid
scheduling of transits and a system of monitoring the position
of ships in transit. This plan also entails a modification of the
Locks to reduce outage time during overhaul periods, and re-
pairs to the south wall at Gatun Locks.
Plan II, Third Locks-$733,080,000.
This would entail construction of a third set of locks parallel
to the existing Locks, and the widening of Gaillard Cut to 500
feet. The new locks would be 140 feet wide and 1,200 feet long.
The engineering firm also prepared cost estimates on two pos-
sible major channel improvements which could be adapted to
this plan and to Plan III. These were a shortening of the
Gaillard Cut section by a cutoff of La Pita bend, and a longer
cutoff at Empire Reach. These would increase the costs of the
Third Locks and Plan III approximately $90,000,000 and
Plan III, a completely modern lock canal-$1,020,920,000.
The initial development phase of this project would be essen-
tially a completion of the Third Locks but with dimensions of
200 by 1,500 feet. The channel improvements would be the
same as under Plan II. An upper chamber would be built at
Miraflores and Miraflores Lake would be raised to the level
of Gatun Lake. Under this plan Pedro Miguel Locks would
Plan IV, conversion to a sea-level canal-$2,537,000,000.
This plan is substantially the same as the Panama Canal
sea-level plan of the 1947 Studies. It involves, however, many
modifications owing to changed conditions and the engineering
firm was given wide latitude to conduct additional engineering
studies and propose alternate construction methods. The firm
proposed and prepared estimates on major changes in excava-
tion methods. The report also covered plans which would elim-
inate the necessity for additional land outside the present Canal
-Plan V, the Nicaraguan lock canal-$4,095,000,000.
This plan follows without substantial modifications that de-
veloped in the course of the 1947 Studies and the cost estimates
consist in up-dating the 1947 figures to the 1959 price level.
There were no estimates prepared in the 1947 Studies for a
sea-level canal through Nicaragua and, contrary to a wide-
spread belief, no serious thought has ever been given to such
a project by competent engineers.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 3
May 1, 1959
at Coco Solo
Above: B. I. Everson cuts the ribbon at the opening ceremonies with the assist-
ance of Peter Foster, center; John Urey, far right; and George Egger on the left.
Below: This is how the yacht basin looked during construction following a storm
which destroyed half of the breakwater that had taken many weeks to build.
George Egger's boat is the, first to be backed down the new launching ramp as
the operation is directed by Dennis Fernandez, employee of Coco Solo Hospital.
Want a yacht basin in your front yard?
The residents of Coco Solo, a large
number of them small boat enthusiasts,
felt that way about it too. So they pro-
ceeded to build one.
Last month, the Coco Solo Yacht
Basin was formally inaugurated. Flags
flew, ribbons were cut, speeches were
made, and small boats sailed in and out.
of the tidy little basin which has been
converted from the former Navy Base
swimming pool into a safe and convenient
harbor for small craft.
The Coco Solo Yacht Basin, complete
with launching ramp, breakwater, and
piers, didn't grow like Topsy. It is the
result of community effort which en-
tailed many weeks of back-breaking
labor, disappointments, and scroung-
ing for material and equipment.
It was an outgrowth of the Coco Solo
Civic Council Boat and Hobby Shop
which was started earlier through the
combined efforts of William and George
Egger, of the Electrical Division, John
Urey, of the Industrial Bureau, and
Peter Foster, President of the Coco Solo
The Boat and Hobby Shop was located
in a building at the end of former Navy
Pier No. 1 and it seemed only natural
that members should have a launching
ramp on which they could back their
boats directly into the water.
Much of the cement for the ramp was
purchased by members and the work of
during cement also was done by the mem-
bers with the help of equipment loaned
by the Dillon Construction Company.
In addition, they cleared the area around
the basin and graded it smooth.
One of the most difficult projects
was the construction of a breakwater
to form a calm-water anchorage basin
for the use of those members who
wanted to leave theirboats in the water.
After a wind storm destroyed half of
their hard-earned breakwater in one night,
heavy equipment was obtained from the
Panama Canal Company to supplement
the picks and shovels and the dump truck
in transporting material made available
by Hauke Construction Company.
At present the basin has anchorage for
deep-draft pleasure craft and a 22-foot-
deep entrance. Plans for the future in-
clude two finger piers large enough to
accommodate a 40-foot yacht, the recon-
struction of the existing pier, and the
installation of tie-up buoys in the basin.
Featured by a minimum of formality,
some 200 guests at the Breakers Club
last month had the rare opportunity to
greet and personally chat with Prince
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Represen-
tatives of community and business life
in the Canal Zone attended the reception
given by Governor and Mrs. Potter as a
climax to Prince Philip's 24-hour visit to
The Prince arrived aboard the Royal
Yacht Britannia late Sunday afternoon,
April 19. He stepped ashore about two
hours later after official calls were com-
pleted, for a reception and banquet at
the British Embassy and the Presidential
Palace. He made a transit of the Canal
on Monday aboard the Britannia. His
visit to the Atlantic side was occupied
by a trip through the Colon Free Zone
and the reception. He departed by the
Royal Launch from Pier 1 at Coco Solo
to the Britannia anchored a few hundred
Prince Philip shows his appreciation for
a gold Master Key to the Panama Canal
presented by Governor Potter. The cere-
mony took place at the reception in honor
of the Royal Visitor at the Breakers Club.
The certificate being handed to the Prince
made him holder of the Key in the grade
of Honorary and Practicing Lead Pilot of
the Panama Canal, the highest attainable
rank among the Master Key Holders and
one to which Prince Philip is entitled by
his years of nautical training. Center, Mrs.
Truman Landon, wife of the Command-
ing General, Caribbean Air Command; Mrs.
Potter is at the Governor's right.
0 Representative of the reception list at
the Breakers Club last month is this group
surrounding Prince Philip. Edward A.
Doolan, the Panama Canal's Personnel Di-
rector, is shown shaking hands with the
Royal Visitor. Mrs. Doolan is between
the Prince and her husband. Others in this
group are Mr. and Mrs. Peter Foster, of
Coco Solo; J. D. MacLean, of Gamboa;
Dave White, of Rainbow City; and C. D.
Atherley, of Paraiso; all Civic Council
leaders. In the background are Mr. and
Mrs. John D. Hollen, and at the right,
Major and Mrs. Edwin W. Emerson.
The school year will come to a close
early next month for the 7,104 boys and
girls who attend the United States schools
in the Canal Zone. The last day of school,
before the summer vacation starts, is June
2. Commencement exercises for Cristobal
and Balboa High schools and the Canal
Zone Junior College will be held June 1.
Closing Day exercises for eighth graders
in the Canal Zone Junior High schools in
Cristobal and Balboa will be held May 28.
At Balboa there are 354 and at Cristobal
120 Junior High School students who will
enter high school as Freshmen when school
starts again September 1.
During the summer months an ex-
tensive program of summer activities
sponsored by the Division of Schools
will be held in all U. S. communities.
The program begins June 8.
Several changes and improvements
were made in thel school program, school
equipment, and school plants during the
for 7,104 boys and girls
in Zone's U. S. Schools
These included the expansion of the
Special Education Program; construction
of the ROTC Building at Balboa High
School; completion of the new Coco Solo
Elementary School; the beginning of
work on the new Cristobal Junior-Senior
High School at Coco Solo, and the new
Activities Building at Balboa High
School. Both the new Junior-Senior
High School Building and the activities
building are to be ready for use when
school reopens in September.
Other school improvements were new
additions to the dressing rooms at the
Balboa Gymnasium; a fan-type venti-
lating system in the Balboa Junior High
School building; the addition of two new
classrooms at the Balboa Elementary
School; and construction of a new gym-
nasium at Ancon Elementary School.
May 1, 1959 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
In the school health field, two nurses
were added to the school staff by the
Health Bureau and it was announced
that Dr. Mary A. Morrow, the new
school psychologist, will report for duty
in May. During the past year, the
school physician and his staff con-
ducted tuberculosis and histoplasmo-
sis tests on students and teachers in
several schools. Immunization pro-
grams for smallpox, polio, and tetanus
were carried out in addition to the
annual dental survey, physical exam-
inations, and visual acuity tests.
Several of the teachers have been
granted a year's leave of absence for
study in the United States. They include
James L. Wolf and Stephen Peck of the
Balboa Junior High School; Miss Ruth
Hoke, of Balboa Elementary School;
Miss Margaret Wilson, of the Ancon
Elementary School; and Jacques Cook,
mathematics teacher at Balboa High
School, who has accepted an award from
Ohio State University to participate in the
National Science Foundation's Program.
May 1, 1959
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
New Deputy Comptroller
1 '/ I
Arthur J. O'Leary last month was ap-
pointed Deputy Comptroller succeed-
ing Stephen V. N. Powelson, who
resigned. Mr. O'Leary has been with
the Canal organization since 1951
and was Assistant Comptroller-Ac-
counting before his promotion.
The Canal Zone did not participate in
the National Civil Defense training exer-
cise in April but it is planned to hold the
exercise locally in the near future. The
principal reason for the postponement
was the desire to utilize the radio com-
munications equipment installed in the
new Civil Defense Control Center where
both could be utilized for the first time.
The Control Center was delayed and was
not turned over by the contractor until
too late to be used for the National ex-
ercise in view of the need for the installa-
tion of the communication equipment.
The exercise this year has been planned
to test the communications system, mo-
bility of forces, welfare, rescue, and de-
contamination services, command, and
volunteer forces as well as the annual
drill in the warning and action signals.
The second class in radiological defense
(RADEF) completed its two-day training
session this week at the Fort Clayton
Damage Control School. Approximately
40 persons from both sides of the Isth-
mus attended. There were 29 who com-
pleted the first course, including members
of the Fire and Police Divisions and
those who will be used in the Control
Points and Casualty Stations. Instru-
ments, which are now being checked and
calibrated, will be distributed soon.
Three Volunteer towns held gradua-
tion exercises in various phases of civil
defense preparedness training during the
month. In Paraiso, a class in Nursing
Assistants of 29 volunteers received their
VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS
Date Town Place Hour
13 Rainbow City
14 Santa Cruz
6:30 p. m
8:oo p. m.
FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION
"On The Ball" Division
The Locks Division, under Mr. Roy Stockham, has come up with
an original idea to help reduce accidents. The Division is sponsoring a
Poster Contest for the children of Locks Division employees. The contest
opened April 15, 1959, and will continue until midnight June 1, 1959.
It is open to all such children between the ages of 6 and 12 years; how-
ever, the contestants will be divided into the following age groups: 6 to 8,
8 to 10, and 10 to 12 years.
The contest is unique in that the theme of the children's posters must
deal directly with eliminating hazards encountered by their parents while
working in and around the Locks.
It is hoped that by means of this contest the children, while preparing
themselves to be safe men and women later on in life, will get their dads
to discuss with them the hazards of Locks work and how to eliminate
them. We have no doubt many fine practical ideas will emerge from such
father and son or daughter sessions, which will be of real benefit to Locks
Many prizes will be awarded to successful contestants. The child
designing the best poster of all groups will have the honor of acting as
Locks Operator for a day and will receive, in addition, a "Safety Oscar."
The winning poster will be reproduced in full color and displayed on all
Locks Division bulletin boards with full credit given to the winner. There
will also be safety trophies for group winners as well as certificates of
honorable mention. In addition, every contestant will receive a fine auto-
matic pencil bearing a safety reminder.
Complete instructions, together with the necessary entry blanks, are
available to all Locks Division employees at their Timekeepers' offices.
Typical examples of the type posters, which stress a correct safety
practice which is a requirement of the contest, are shown below.
YOU MUST BE
Civil Affairs---. ---.--..... (Honor Roll)
Supply & Community Service --...---
Engineering & Construction ........
Transportation & Terminals-----..........
New York Operations-.....- ...- .....
Accident Pool ----------------------
C. Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Company..
(1)71 (304) 353
NATO*.. .. G. Y ,, a 6.- O .i;
(1)9 (4) 14
(8)14 (74) 76
() Locks Overhaul injuries included in total.
3 Margarita Serv. Center 9:oo a. m. 6
May 1, 1959
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
After a three-month dry season vaca-
tion, the students who attend the Canal
Zone Latin American schools will return
to their classes next Monday on a sched-
ule which will coincide with the school-
year in the Republic of Panama.
School officials estimate that enroll-
ment in the Latin American schools this
year will reach 3,740 boys and girls in
kindergarten through grade 12, about
100 less than the number registered on
the second day of enrollment last year.
The school calendar will include a
mid-term vacation from September 12
for 3,740 students in the
Latin American Schools
through 20, a four-day Thanksgiving
holiday in November; and a 11-day
Christmas vacation from December 24
through January 3. Schools will close for
the year, February 3, 1960.
As has been done in the United
States schools, the special education
program is to be expanded in the Latin
American schools this year with sev-
eral new classes being added to the
schedule. A remedial reading program
will be inaugurated early in the school
year for all schools. A new special ed-
ucation room will be constructed at
Paraiso in the near future.
The facilities of the secondary schools
are being expanded by the addition of a
two-room music unit now under con-
struction at Rainbow City High School.
A study hall at Paraiso High School is
Six new teachers have been employed
to fill vacancies created by resignations
in the elementary and secondary schools.
They all hold degrees from either Pan-
ama University or schools in the States.
- The Short Happy Life of an Eskimo Pie
Ever wonder how that thin and tasty chocolate skin gets
on to an "Eskimo Pie?" In the States machines do it, but
down here, where consumption is relatively limited, it's
done by hand.
Twice a week, some of the girls who package ice cream
at Mount Hope spend two hours turning out the ice cream
The brick-hard vanilla ice cream centers for the pies
are set onto wooden paddles before dipping begins.
The dippers hold the pies for a few moments until the
coating hardens, then they put them in cellophane bags.
pies which are just about the favorite food of the younger
generation here. They can make 1,100 pies in each session.
In three of the pictures below, Cira I. Salazar and Mary
L. Meilde show how the pies are made. In the last picture,
Jimmy Thrift and "Boots," of Los Rios, have just about
disposed of the chocolate and are working down to the center.
The pies are dipped fast, by handfulls. Cocoa butter
in the sirup makes the coating harden almost at once.
One for you and one for me, says Jimmy, as he and his
dog finish samples of the Mount Hope plant's product.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
Ma 1, 1959
Molten bronze is ladeled into molds by Roy F. Armistead, Foreman Molder. He is being
assisted by Nathaniel A. Daley, foundryman, right, and W. A. Cole, furnace tender.
A white-hot steel ingot is forged into a shackle pin by
P. Kunkel, Blacksmith Foreman, and a team of assistants.
Jose E. Tunon, Babbittman with 34 years of Canal service
pouring babbitt bearings, assisted by Raymond Simpson.
G. F. Husted, Boilermaker, with J,Vegara and J. McKenzie,
assistants, shear plate for use in work on tugboat Taboga.
work together harmoniously
in one of Canal's
Teamwork and skill are two words which best describe the
kind of work being carried on day after day by the supervisors,
craftsmen, and workmen who staff the Industrial Division
shops at Cristobal.
In the various sections in the Industrial Division there can
be found groups of competent, careful, and skilled men, many
of whom have received years of rigid training in their par-
Close-knit teams, who have trust in each other's ability,
are in the blacksmith shop, the foundry, the pipe shop,
and the machine shop, to name a few of the many units
where supervisors and assistants can be found working
side by side in the close cooperation necessary when the
noise of the shop often makes speech impossible.
The value of teamwork is demonstrated vividly in the
blacksmith shop where men work together to beat a glowing
ingot of steel into a heavy-duty shackle pin-or in the foundry
where skilled workmen pour molten bronze from the oil-fired
melting furnace into a ladle and from the ladle into molds-
each step timed and executed as precisely as a dancing team.
In work like this, a single error in timing-a slip of the
hand or a moment of carelessness might cause, at worst,
serious injury or death or, at best, the loss of many hours
of preparatory labor.
Some of the shop employees have been with the Industrial
Division almost as long as the Canal has been in operation.
Their skill has been perfected during many years of service.
Others may have less service but have learned their skills
through apprentice training or its equivalent supplemented by
additional studies and special training programs. Both U. S.
citizens and non-citizens are represented in the apprentice
program and in the craft rolls.
All are justly proud of the record achieved over the years
by the Industrial Division, one of the oldest and best-
known of the Canal organization units.
The Division, formerly the Mechanical Division, was
founded nearly 55 years ago at Bas Matachin as machine
shops for Canal work. After the Canal opened, the shops
were moved to Balboa and Cristobal.
During both World Wars the shops worked at top speed
repairing thousands of ships, particularly during World War
II. In 1949 the Balboa plant was closed and all but a few
activities are now consolidated at Cristobal. Since 1954, the
Division has been a unit of the Marine Bureau.
8 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959
a passport for
"Have stenotype, will travel," might
well be the motto of Gloria Spears, the
Panama Canal's only conference reporter,
who collects countries as some people col-
lect china. She has worked in six different
parts of the world, has visited 43 countries.
Gloria, a native of Hobart, Okla., had
worked in Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia,
Okinawa, and Guam before she came to
the Canal Zone on St. Patrick's Day in
1957, as conference reporter with the
She has jogged across the desert in
Egypt on the back of a camel; had her
picture taken on a wild elephant in
Ceylon; bucked sand storms in Saudi
Arabia; braved typhoons in Okinawa;
and in between has been in on some of
the important events of history.
Her first court reporting job involved
such an event. In 1946, Gloria left Wash-
ington, where she was working with the
State Department and attending steno-
type school at night, to accept a position
at Dachau, Germany.
She worked and lived inside the notor-
ious Dachau concentration camp doing
court reporting of some of the first of the
war crimes trials. These included the
Nordhausen case, which was concerned
with the building of the V-2 bombs, and
the trial of the infamous Ilse Koch, "the
witch of Buchenwald."
From Dachau, she transferred to Nurn-
berg where she reported some of the
famous war crimes trials of high Nazi
leaders. Some of the trials she remembers
most vividly were those of the Nazi doc-
tors who used concentration camp inmates
for experimental purposes, and that of
.Alfred Krupp, of the munitions industry.
Taking advantage of every leave op-
portunity, Gloria traveled over most of
Europe. During her two years in Ger-
many, she visited Austria, Switzerland,
France, Spain, Italy, Holland, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Den-
mark, Finland, Scotland, Ireland, Tri-
este, and England. She arrived in Eng-
land just in time for the 1948 Olympics.
After a brief stay in the United States,
her next stop was Tokyo, Japan, where
she worked at General McArthur's head-
quarters. From there, she was sent to
Okinawa as a court reporter of Army
Typhoons, with winds over 150 miles
per hour, are a common occurrence in
Okinawa; Gloria remembers one which
raged for a whole day with winds over
175 miles per hour. Telephone and power
lines were disrupted and the island was
without electricity and communications
for several days. A number of quarters
and office buildings were devastated, and
the chapel and theater were blown away.
Only the marquee of the theater remained.
It was found leaning against the rubble
shortly after the storm. On it, someone
had thoughtfully spelled out, "Gone With
During her two years in Okinawa she
went on leave to the Philippines and
Gloria next took an assignment at
Bolling Air Force Base where she worked
for almost a year. Then she was off for
Guam for another two years. By saving
her leave time while there, she managed to
work in a three-weeks' vacation in Hawaii
on her return trip to the United States.
Her next overseas job came in 1954
when she worked with the Air Force in
Saudi Arabia. Her job there was the
same as on Guam and although she was
stationed in Dhahran, she was flown to
Army and Air Force installations in
neighboring countries to report trials.
The trials involved murder or other
serious offenses. One important one
for which she was flown to Eritrea at-
tracted wide attention in the United
States. It was that of an American
soldier's British wife who was being
tried by court-martial for the murder
of her three children. She was sen-
tenced to life imprisonment.
Temperatures, often running as high
as 120 degrees, and sand storms, called
"schamals" by natives, made for uncom-
fortable living conditions in Saudi Arabia
but Gloria was lucky to be working and
living in air-conditioned buildings.
King Saud paid several visits to the
Base at Dhahran and, with his elaborately
costumed aides and wives, reminded
Gloria of a scene from the "Arabian
Nights." All of the wives were heavily
veiled, as are most women in Saudi
Arabia, but she was surprised to notice
that a number of women wore high heels,
nylon stockings, and western-style cloth-
ing, under their long black veils.
While she was living in Saudi Arabia,
she visited French Morocco, Libya,
Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus, Iran,
Jordan, India, Ceylon, Turkey, and
May 1,1959 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
In Tokyo, Gloria posed for a send-
home-picture in Japanese costume.
Greece. In India, Gloria, whose hobby
is photography, took color slides of the
Taj Mahal and other tourist attractions.
In Ceylon, she was surprised to see wild
elephants roaming unmolested about the
countryside and in the village streets.
Gloria's next job was at the Walter
Reed Army Hospital Annex in Forest
Glen, Md. From there she came to the
Canal Zone. She is continuing her trav-
eling here and, as a member of the Diablo
Camera Club, has already visited Colom-
bia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Guate-
Operating a stenotype machine, says
Gloria, is very much like copying a
manuscript on the typewriter. You
listen and automatically take down
the words, not necessarily absorbing
the meaning of what is being said. To
do verbatim conference reporting,
which Gloria does at upward of 175
words a minute, there is little time for
thinking. Operation of the machine
must be automatic.
Where next for the world traveler?
Already she has circled the globe, except
for a short stretch between New Delhi
and Hong Kong but hopes to see as
many more countries as possible, partic-
ularly those in Central and South Amer-
ica, before she settles in the United States.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959
In-service training goes on
the year round for hundreds
of Canal employees
Prof. Bernard Smith, N. Y. University, teaches salesmanship tc
Every day for the past few weeks a Spanish
group of 30 to 40 young men and women better Ei
gather on the first floor of the Adminis- in first
tration Building for instruction and train- mower, c
ing on International Business Machine A surv
operations. the Perso
A large area has been partitioned off types of
for the classes which has most appear- number
ances of a normal school room, complete fiscal yeai
with blackboard and pointer, instruction to be co
books, charts, and a pretty teacher. interesting
None of the group is a job seeker. All ing progr
of the two groups forming the three-hour revealed
morning and afternoon classes are regu- ious Com
larly employed, so that the individual over 216,
and collective effort is to better them- resented
selves for the jobs they now hold or to programs
prepare for more responsible positions. trainees.
The two classes are being conducted It is
by Miss Florence Freedman, IBM Sys- survey of
teams Service representative with head- tial incre
quarters in New Orleans. These are 90- A more
hour training courses sponsored by the port is t
Office of the Comptroller. The classes this fisca
will continue until May 15 after which Civil Ser
Miss Freedman goes to Puerto Rico. Under
These training courses are neither session o
new or unusual in the Canal organiza- agencies
tion. Throughout the entire organi- ployee tr
zation the year round there are similar and to re
groups, generally somewhat smaller in A survey
number, who are learning how to do years on
their jobs better. employee,
In fact, the Company-Government General
need not tip its joint hat to any Federal ability of
Government unit and to few private in- termine
dustries in the field of in-service training. required i
These training programs have as wide ever, ma
range as the classes of work that must and will
be done to operate the Panama Canal Training
and perform governmental services. One particular
group may be learning to speak the or superv
Felix Lewis learns what goes on back of an IBM
accounting machine from Miss Florence Freedman.
language or to read and write
iglish, while others are engaged
aid, safety, operating a lawn-
ir throwing lines aboard ships.
ey is presently being made by
nnel Bureau of the number and
training being offered and the
of hours devoted to each this
r. While these statistics are still
nsolidated and analyzed, it is
g to note that a survey of train-
ams in the calendar year 1957
that formal training by the var-
pany-Government units totaled
000 man-hours. This total rep-
approximately 250 courses or
attended by more than 4,700
anticipated that the current
training will show a substan-
ase in the number of trainees.
formal employee training re-
o be compiled at the end of
Il year for the United States
the Government Employees
Act, passed during the last
)f Congress, all Government
are required to provide em-
aining on a continuing basis
port annually on such training.
* is also required every three
the overall training nei-:d of
lly speaking, it is the responsi-
the bureaus or divisions to de-
and conduct training courses
n their individual units. How-
ny training courses have been
continue to be offered by the
Office of the Personnel Bureau,
ly in such areas as management
isory work where interest is on
an organization-wide basis. The Training
Office is presently planning a special
course on Instructor Training as a part
of its Advanced Supervisory Training
The Training Office also assists other
Canal units in promoting employee.
training courses and provides the
Training Center, located in Balboa.
This Center is equipped with all the
appurtenances required to conduct
courses of a general nature. The two
large classrooms are generally booked
for several weeks in advanceF.
While many courses are for specialized
types of work and are attended only by
small groups from a given unit, the
Canal's training programs have such a
wide range that many cut across all lines,
such as divisions or units, and salary
levels of employees.
Some are of such general interest in
a particular field that the military serv-
ices or other Government agencies in the
Zone are invited to send representatives.
This is as true of the IBM courses now
underway, as it was of courses offered
earlier this fiscal year by the Office of
the Comptroller for National Cash Reg-
ister, Addressograph, and other office
machines. This system works both ways
and Canal employees frequently attend
special training courses offered by the
military for its personnel.
An outstanding example of the type
of training which cuts across agency lines
was the series of lectures on accounting
theory at the turn of the year by Pro-
fessor William T. Baxter, of the London
School of Economics. In this course,
sponsored by the Comptroller's Office,
70 of those attending were from his unit,
11 were from other Company-Govern-
IBM Special Service Representative, con
I.-r sw r w -st~
Dly Division supervisory employees.
ment organizations, and two were from
the Air Force.
This type of seminar has become an
annual affair for personnel of the Comp-
troller's Office and in previous courses
attendance by employees of other Gov-
ernment agencies was considerable.
The most recent seminar of this
kind for which a university professor
was "imported" was the Retail Mer-
chandising Institute sponsored last
month by the Supply and Community
Service Bureau. The instructor was
Professor Bernard Smith, of the New
York University School of Retail Mer-
Most of the in-service training pro-
vided for Canal employees is done locally,
but in recent years increasing numbers
have been sent to the United States to
take courses offered by the Civil Service
Commission, universities, private indus-
try, or such government agencies as state
and city fire and police organizations.
The need for employee training other
than on-the-job instruction is more acute
in some Canal units than in others. This
situation is especially true of the Police
and Fire Divisions and the Safety Branch.
Accordingly, there is rarely a week when
some form of training course is not in
progress for personnel in these units or
by them for employees of other units.
Several Company-Government units
have conducted notable employee train-
ing in recent months as revealed in re-
ports now being received by the Person-
nel Bureau in this year's survey. Among
these are the Office of the Comptroller,
the Supply and Community Service Bu-
reau, the Police, Fire, and Terminals
Divisions, the Safety Branch, and both
Gorgas and Coco Solo hospitals.
s large class in IBM operations.
.. Worth knowing
Service Awards. Length-of-Service awards will be given out in
June to 1,752 Company-Government employees who have com-
pleted 20 years or more of Panama Canal service. The presenta-
tions will be made in each Canal Division by Lt. Gov. John D.
McElheny on a schedule which will be worked out later. The
20-year service pin is of sterling silver and has a border of green
Gold thirty-year service awards were presented by Governor W.
E. Potter during this week to 694 Company-Government employees
in ceremonies arranged by the individual bureaus.
New Separate Unit. The Panama Canal Service Centers and the
Tivoli Guest House, which have been operating as part of the
Sales and Service Branch have been made into a separate Branch
of the Supply Division, it has been announced by J. J. Barton,
General Manager of the Division. The new unit, to be known as
the Service Center Branch will be responsible directly to the Gen-
eral Manager of the Supply Division with Philip S. Thornton,
formerly Supervisor of Service Centers and Guest House as Sup-
S. P. C. A. Pet Show. Social event of the month, for dogs, cats,
and other Pacific side pets anyway, will be the Pet and Horse Show
to be held next Friday night at the Balboa Stadium by the recently
organized Canal Zone Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
The San Juan Tea Club, Ancon, discusses with Mrs. George V. Daniels
plans for pet show. Seated: Tina, toy fox terrier, and Fudge, cocker
spaniel; standing: Gretchen, boxer, and Max Blanshaft, indeterminate.
Animals. Animals with pedigrees and those of uncertain ancestry
will be equally eligible to enter the pet show during which cups and
ribbons will be given to the outstanding animals. One of the high-
lights of the evening will be a display of horsemanship under the
direction of F. S. Rudesheim.
Apprenticeships. Approximately 20 apprenticeships, or double the
number available last year, are expected to be offered by Panama
Canal units this year to young United States and Panamanian
citizens in the mechanical and electrical trades. Today is the last day
for candidates to apply for admission to the competitive examina-
tion scheduled for Saturday and Sunday, May 9 and 10, at Balboa.
Sandfly Control. The results of the first large scale, planned and
controlled attack on the breeding grounds of sandflies carried out
early in April on the Atlantic side, are being checked by Canal
Zone and Army Sanitation engineers who pooled their resources
in an effort to control the sandfly nuisance on the Isthmus.
During the operation, approximately 1,800 acres of Atlantic side
mangrove swamps surrounding Mk I argarita, Rainbow City, Coco Solo,
Randolph, and Galeta Point were covered by aerial application of
pelletized dieldren which is expected to kill the sandfly larvae.
Cane juice is always tested for
sugar content before boiling.
The Mayor poses with truck under unique welcome sign.
Cane stalks are pushed into the grinder.
Juice is poured into the sirup kettle.
The cane juice bubbles away well
on its way to becoming sirup.
It was sugaring-off season in the Canal
Zone last month-at least that is what
they would call it in Vermont.
Doubtless not one in a thousand Zone
residents knew of the "sugaring-off" ac-
tivities which took place at Chiva Chiva,
the tiny Canal Zone community made up
chiefly of land-lease farmers. The com-
*munity is headed by "Mayor" Joshua B.
Clarke, one of the most colorful and enter-
prising oldtimers of the Canal construc-
The Chiva Chiva mayor owns and
operates the only cane grinding mill in
the Canal Zone as well as the necessary
kettles and other equipment for mak-
ing sirup and the dark brown sugar,
better known as "raspadura" in Pan-
ama. Last month was cane grinding
season and it would have gladdened
the heart of any residents of the lower
tier of the United States to watch the
turning of cane juice into molasses.
Power for the cane mill is furnished by
a 1928 vintage Dodge engine which chugs
away with considerable vim for all its
30 years of service.
The old fashioned method of making
sirup used for decades in making maple
sirup Down East, and molasses from
sugar cane in Louisiana, is used at the
Chiva Chiva plant. The raw cane juice
is boiled in vats for several hours for sirup
and still longer if making brown sugar.
The heavy sirup is poured into a hand-
turned mixer while boiling hot and slowly
turns to sugar as it cools.
Mr. Clarke is not only an expert
sirup and sugar maker, but also op-
erates a rice thresher and a corn mill-
all on a share basis for his neighbors
who are also land-lease farmers.
He first went into this business in 1914
after working several years on a Canal
construction job. At that time many
areas in the Zone were leased for agricul-
ture but the grand experiment didn't work
as envisioned and such land leases have
not been granted for many years.
During the years after the Canal was
opened, Mr. Clarke tilled his small farm;
raised chickens and sold eggs; became
Honorary Mayor of Chiva Chiva; sired
18 children; and organized the Farmers
Social and Civic Club of Chiva Chiva.
Members of this club, of which he is
President, hold meetings, he says, when
the "spirit moves" them.
The 71-year-old native of Barbados
shows the same stamina as his 1928
Dodge engine. After many years of
semi-retirement on his farm, he was re-
employed by the Canal at the beginning
of World War II in the Locks Division
at Miraflores. He served as Chairman
of the Safety Committee there and when
he retired in 1954, he received formal
commendation for his fine safety record
and his good work as Chairman of the
After well over a half century of hard
work he still displays the vim and en-
thusiasm for his sirup and sugar opera-
tions as he must have shown in helping
dig the Panama Canal.
Clarke's "raspadura" is one of the
favorite foods of the younger set.
12 May 1, 1959
Chunks of cocobolo, mahogany, and
cedar change, as if by magic, into snarl-
ing tigers, graceful horses, dogs, and deer
in the nimble hands of Leon S. Willa,
master wood carver and instructor for a
new class now being offered by the Canal
Zone Art League's Atlantic Chapter.
Mr. Willa heads the Supply Division's
Ice Cream Plant at Mount Hope but is
so interested in his hobby of wood carv-
ing that he usually has a half-finished
piece of sculpture tucked away in his
desk drawer at the plant to chip away at
during lunch time.
Thirteen students are now enrolled
Right: Examples of Willa's handi-
work are all from local wood. -
in the wood carving class which he
teaches at the Art League Club. He
has found that women are just as in-
terested in carving as are the men but
they usually want to learn how to
carve "bateas" or plaques rather than
figures of animals.
Often as soon as the class gets under-
way, the neighborhood children gather
around and ask to join in but he believes
that they should wait until they are at
least 14 years old before they try their
hand at carving. One of the first things
his students learn is how to handle the
A deer takes shape as Leon S. Willa uses chisel on small piece of mahogany.
knives and chisels in a safe manner.
An unusual piece of work is an ash tray
which Mr. Willa carved from a part of the
original ties laid for the Panama Railroad
in 1854. Itis of lignumvitae, a native wood
used in making the original ties.
Mr. Willa's latest project is working
with alabaster. He has just finished his
first piece, an Aztec god about three
inches tall, and was so pleased with the
material that he has bought various colors
of alabaster for future work.
In his classes he encourages his stu-
dents to use native woods and recom-
mends mahogany as the easiest to
carve. Black palm, also native to the
Isthmus, makes unusual and beautiful
carvings but it is so difficult to work
that it should not be attempted by
beginners, he says.
Although born in Chicago, Mr. Willa
spent most of his early years in Texas
and was living in Arkansas at the time
he accepted a position with the Canal
organization. He came to the Isthmus
in 1943 and has had continuous service
with the Ice Cream Plant since that time.
A permanent exhibit of his work has
been on display at the General Mac-
Arthur Memorial Home in Little Rock
for the past 18 years. All of the 30
pieces were made from the native woods
Mr. Willa became interested in wood
carving 20 years ago after seeing an ex-
hibit of wood and soap sculpture and
taught himself the art, first using only
a knife. Now he has become so skilled
with chisels and knives that he contrib-
utes his work to the Art League's exhibit
each year with the hope that others will
discover that it is not necessary to be a
talented artist to enjoy wood sculpturing.
After 100 Years a
Herald for the Railroad
After more than 100 years of service, the
Panama Railroad has acquired for the first
time its own individual herald or insigne.
The new insigne, designed by the Rail-
J. C. Stokes, of the Car Shop, points out freshly-stenciled insigne to R. E.
Pinkham, Railroad Division Manager (left), and Lt. Gov. John D. McElheny.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
road Division, is being stenciled on all loco-
motives and cars in the Railroad Division.
At the same time, each piece of Panama
Railroad rolling stock is coming in for a
general overhaul and brush-up which will
include a new coat of paint. The color
scheme will follow that now in general use
-with the boxcars being painted boxcar
red; gondolas and tank cars, black; and the
locomotives and passenger cars, dark green
with a yellow trim band.
The new herald is in the shape of a
shield with the words "Panama Railroad"
in the center to symbolize the joining
of Panama and the Canal Zone. There
are two stars at the top of the shield
and 13 stripes below.
The first piece of railroad equipment
to receive the new treatment was steel
boxcar No. 10024 which was painted
with a fresh coat of boxcar red at the
car shop in Balboa before the herald was
stenciled in white on the right hand side.
The word "Panama" was painted in
large letters on the left. It replaces the
simple "P.R.R." by which railroad cars
have always been identified.
May 1, 1959
Two of the four men who rounded out
30 years of government service in April are
second-generation Canal employees.
They are Albert A. Doyle, now Head of
the Monotype Section of the Panama
Canal's Printing Plant, and Edwin C.
Jones, Mail and File Supervisor with the
Mr. Doyle was born in Washington but
came to the Isthmus before he was a teen-
ager. His father, A. P. E. Doyle, was
Printer, a position now designated as Sup-
erintendent of the Printing Plant, and
there the younger Doyle served his ap-
prenticeship as a printer. He was away
from the Isthmus for several years but
maintained the family connection with the
Printing Plant by rejoining its force a
month after his father retired.
Mr. Jones is the son of the late George
A. Jones, for many years a clerk in the
Panama Canal's Storehouses. Edwin Jones
was born in Culebra, attended the local
schools, and held a number of summer jobs
while he was growing up. He has been
with what is now the Administrative Branch
Harry Akers is General Foreman in the
Railroad Car Shop. He was born in Lambert-
ville, N. J.,and joined the Canal organization
in 1929 as a carman in the Mechanical Di-
vision. His service is unbroken.
William H. Beck, Chief of the General
Accounting Branch of the New York Ac-
counting Office, has service broken only by
World War II. He joined the Accounting
Department April 2, 1929. From October
1942 to January 1946, he served with the
Armed Forces. Mr. Beck was born and
brought up in Brooklyn where he still
makes his home.
The Police Division was well represented
among the men who reached their 25th
anniversary in service last month; four of
the Canal's "finest'" attained this significant
point in their careers. Three of the men
have continuous service.
Morton L. LeVee is a Police Sergeant,
a rank he has held for almost nine years.
He worked a short while for the Municipal
Engineering Division before joining the
Police Division. He is a native of Balti-
Jack F. Morris, a native of Morristown,
Tenn., not only has unbroken service but
it has all been with the Police Division.
His present rank is Police Sergeant.
Thomas J. Polite has been with the same
Division for almost 19 years and, like Mr.
Morris, has continuous service and is now
a Sergeant. His home town is Baton
Floyd A. Robinson began his Canal serv-
ice as a Locks Watchman but soon trans-
ferred to the Police Division where he is
now ranked as Police Private. Mr. Robin-
son, was born in Canton, N. C.
Five other employees reached the 25-
year mark in April. Four have continuous
service and two are natives of the Isthmus.
E. M. Reinhold, Jr., was born in Ancon
and started work for the Canal with what
was then the Municipal Engineering Division
as a "boy." He is a Central Office Repair-
man with the Communications Branch.
David C. Ryan, who was born in Bocas
del Toro, is a man who knows about tel-
ephones. He began his c.:ntntIruoui service
as a telephone maintainer and has been in
telephone work throughout his career. He
is now Lead Foreman Electrician in the
Henry T. Carpenter, of Kalispell, Mont.,
has been in the same field of work through-
out his continuous service with the Canal.
His present position is Chief Foreman for
Buildings and Equipment in the Mla.it-
John W. B. Hall, whose service is un-
broken, came to work for the Canal as a
foreman with the Panama Railroad. He is
now Chief Stevedore Foreman in the Term-
inals Division. He is a native of West
Harold I. Tinnin, of Port Arthur, Tex.,
is a Supervisory Storage Specialist in the
Storehouse Branch. He began his contin-
uous service as a clerk in the old Supply
Three natives of the Isthmus are among
the eight employees who last month com-
pleted 20 years of government service.
Donald R. Brayton, who was born in
Colon, is Supervisory Railroad Transporta-
tion Specialist in the Railroad Division.
All of his service, except for the three
months he served as a Locks messenger as
a boy, has been with this Division.
Edward G. Coyle was born in Ancon.
He now holds the position of Business
Analyst (Rates) in the Budget and Rates
William Wirtz, Jr., who is a native of
Colon, has service broken by only slightly
more than a year. He is now Lead Foreman
Shipwright in the Industrial Division.
Two of the 20-year men have unbroken
Gabriel A. Riemers, Towboat or Ferry
Chief Engineer, in the Navigation Dii'ji,.
is a native of Hollaiid. Mich. Hi4 .:.:.ri-
uous service has been with the Dredging
Division, the Ferry Service, and the former.
Raoul 0. Theriault is Assistant Director
in the Office of the Director of the Supply
and Community Service Bureau. He comes
from Haverhill, Mass.
Henry C. DeRaps, a native of Palmyra,
Me., is a Police Sergeant with the Police
Division. He began his service as a Locks
Roosevelt Medal Holder
Adrien M. Bouche-43 years of
He was born in Mount Carbon, .
W. Va., came to the Isthmus when
he was only nine years old, held his
first job when he was 11.
He is now the Panama Canal's
senior U. S.-citizen employee in point
of service and the only one whose
service began during construction days.
His government service has all been I
with the Panama Canal, most of it
with the Locks Division. He is now
Foreman at the Pedro Miguel Locks
Crshba.......... .......----------------------.. May 4.:i
.4 I cn, - --. .-- .-.- ..---- M- % 16
FROM NEW YORK
Ancon ----------------------- May 8
14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 1,1959
Watchman, transferred to the Police Di-
vision, and has been there ever since.
John B. Fields was born in Gatesville,
Tex. His first job was as a "helper" in the
old Mechanical Division. He is now Hous-
ing Maintenance Supervisor in the Com-
munity Services Division.
Bob D. Maynard is Lead Foreman
Plumber in the Maintenance Division. His
first Canal job was as a plumber with the
old Construction Quartermaster. His home
town is Ellsworth, Wis.
Continuous service has been chalked up
by five of the employees who reached the
15-year mark in service in April.
Their names are listed below, together
with their places of birth and present
positions. Those with continuous service are:
James E. Bryant, Texarkana, Tex., Fire
Lieutenant, Fire Division; Mrs. Georgia J.
Gwinn, Eckland, Mo., Third Grade School
Teacher, South Margarita; Stella C. Kaz-
anowska, Staff Nurse, Gorgas Hospital;
Earl C. Kennev, Graindville, Mich., Cash
Accounting Clerk (Telle r) Treasury Branch;
and Mrs. Dorothy H. Smith, Allen County,
Ohio, English Teacher, Cristobal High
Other 15-year men and women are Robert
L. Boyer, Belline ham, \\'ash., Central Office
Repairman, Comrmunication Branch; Rob-
ert M. Bright, Valier, Ill., Supervisory Ac-
counting Clerk, Industrial Division; Mrs.
Marguerite Maphis, Hoopston, Ill., Ap-
pointment Clerk, Employment and Utiliza-
tion Division; and Donald R. Rudy,
Pleasant Hill, Ohio, Window Clerk, Postal
Retirement certificates were presented
the end of April to the following employees
who are listed alphabetically, together with
their birthplaces, titles, years of Canal
service, and their future homes.
Capt. Clinton Baverstock, Washington;
Pilot, Na\;gatin.:. Dii-ki,.,. 24 years, 10
months, 12 di',l, Baharma;.
Robert M. Blakely, Texas; Lead Foreman
Machinist, Industrial Division; 19 years,
2 months, 2 days; Florida.
Capt. William R. Calcutt, California;
Pilot, Navigation Division; 24 years, 3
months, 8 days; California.
Emerson W. Cottrell, Wisconsin; Control
House Operator, Locks Division; 17 years,
11 months, 21 days; New Mexico..
Joseph A. Rancourt, Canada; Marine
Machinist, Industrial Division; 10 years,
27 days; Maine.
Andrew A. Whitlock, New Hampshire;
General Engineer,, Industrial Division; 35
years, 22 days; Texas.
14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959 .
50 Years Ago
The last dipper load of earth was re-
moved from the Cut at Matachin, 50
years ago this month, completing excava-
tion in the center of the great gash. The
finished section wvas 500 feet wide and
approximately 2,500 feet long, with sides
averaging about 45 feet high.
In a long article, "The Canal Record"
reported the progress of the Canal work for
the first five years: Total excavation to
May 1, 1909 was 73,124,849 cubic yards,
with 101,541,746 cubic yards still to be dug;
at Gatun, the excavation of the upper locks
was almost completed, and at Pedro Mi-
guel the excavation was about half done.
The lake at Miraflores had begun to form.
Expenditure to that date totaled $98,915,657.
, Secretary of War Jacob M. Dickinson
sailed for the States in mid-May 50 years
ago, after an 18-day stay in the Zone.
25 Years Ago
In a communique issued May 25, 1934,
Panama's Foreign Office announced that
the United States and Panama were
"favorably disposed" toward a revision
of the 1903 Treaty. This, the Foreign
Office said, would "ensure, permanently,
full understanding and cooperation in
the relations between the two countries."
In Washington, Secretary of State Cor-
dell Hull said that tentative agreements
had already been reached on several
major problems between the two nations.
A trial which was to have repercussions
as long as a quarter of a century later
took place 25 years ago this month when
Cpl. Robert Osman, of Fort Sherman, was
acquitted on charges of transmitting secret
military documents to an unauthorized
person. The trial was the first court mar-
tial under the Espionage Act and the first
in the Canal Zone where a civilian counsel
represented the defendant.
Also, 25 years ago: With the end of a
restaurant concession in the Canal Zone,
the Balboa Clubhouse went into the dining-
room business and plans were announced
to remodel the former Balboa Restaurant
for a police station and Magistrate's Court;
the American Association of Junior Col-
leges accredited the seven-month-old Canal
Zone Junior College; and George Bernard
Shaw, en route from New Zealand to
England, predicted that "Japan's plans for
a Monroe Doctrine in Asia will fail."
10 Years Ago
With traffic beginning to pick up, a
Canal statistician predicted 10 years ago
this month that transits for the fiscal
year might exceed 5,000 for the first
time since 1940. May's transits included
421 ocean-going ships-less than half of
those which were to go through the Pan-
ama Canal less than 10 years later.
In a sudden shift of the Panama Canal's
second-from-top man, Col. Herbert D.
Vogel (now a Brigadier General and Head
of the Tennessee Valley Authority) was
assigned to succeed Col. Charles G. Holle
as Engineer of Maintenance.
One Year Ago
May 1958, was a busy month. A
decision was reached on the type of
bridge to be built across the Canal at
Balboa; it was to be a three-span, arch
truss type, high level bridge. Congress
authorized pay raises for postal workers.
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
Employees who were promoted or trans-
ferred between March 15 and April 15 are
listed below. Within-grade promotions are
Mrs. Carol L. McAmis, Clerical Assistant
(Stenography) from Office of Governor-
President to Administrative Branch, Gen-
eral Services Section.
Mrs. Margaret King, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher to Secretary (Stenography), General
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Mrs. Mary L. Powell, Clerk-Stenogra-
pher, from Division of Schools to Postal
Mrs. Eva M. Proctor, from Substitute
Teacher to Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher, Division of Schools.
John W. Dwyer, from Fire Sergeant,
Fire Division, to Substitute Window Clerk,
Walter H. Alves, Jr., from Police Sergeant
to Motorcycle Sergeant, Police Division.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Mrs. Irene L. Veno, from Property and
Supply Clerk to Voucher Examiner, Ac-
Miss Gertrude M. Milloy, from Account-
ing Clerk to Voucher Examiner, Account-
Mrs. Mary Livingston, Mrs. Mary J.
Yaeger, and Mrs. Shirley A. Cavanaugh,
from Accounting Clerks to Accounting
Technicians, Accounting Division.
Mrs. Mary H. Foster, from Voucher Ex-
aminer to Accounting Technician, Account-
Jack B. De Vore, from Accountant to
Supervisory Accountant, Accounting Di-
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Herbert E. Rothwell, from Pumping
Plant Operator to Water System Control-
man, Water and Laboratories Branch,
Mrs. Carol B. Cantrell, from Clerk-
March 15 through April 15
Typist to Clerk (Typing) Power Conver-
Donald W. Journeay, from Cartographic
Survey Aid, Engineering Division, to Gen-
eral Construction Inspector, Contract and
Frank A. Anderson, Jr., from Plumbing
Inspector to Public Works Inspector, Con-
tract and Inspection Division.
Emory H. Paulk and Louis E. Martin,
from Painting Inspectors to Public Works
Inspectors, Contract and Inspection Divis-
Roger M. Howe, from General Engineer
to Supervisory General Engineer, Engineer-
Mrs. Christine K. Newhouse, from Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery), Gorgas
Hospital, to Head Nurse (Psychiatry),
Mrs. Irene G. Bridges and Mrs. Barbara
Reusch, from Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse
(Tuberculosis), Gorgas Hospital.
Mrs. Jean K. Esquivel, from Staff Nurse
(Medicine and Surgery), to Head Nurse
William C. Allen, from Chauffeur to Hos-
pital Attendant, Gorgas Hospital.
Mrs. Ella F. Peterson, from Staff Nurse
to Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery),
Clarence C. Hansen, from Fire Fighter,
Fire Division, to Chauffeur, Gorgas Hos-
Dr. Robert L. Ronollo, Optometrist, from
Coco Solo Hospital to Gorgas Hospital.
Editor's Note: This month's list of pro-
motions and transfers does not include a
large number of Locks employees who were
temporarily promoted or transferred to
other work for the duration of the special
work now being done at the Locks.
Homer W. Watkins, Robert L. Austin,
and James L. Phillips, from Fire Sergeants,
Fire Division, to Guards, Locks Security
Pedro Garay, Ernest S. Glasgow, Luther
R. Fisher, Daniel A. Hernandez, Iram
May 1, 1959 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Bailey, and Alejandro Vargas, from Heavy
Laborers to Boatmen, Atlantic Locks.
Janet M. Argue, Clerk to Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, Industrial Division.
John W. Litton from Lock Operator
(Machinist), Locks Division, to Marine
Machinist, Industrial Division.
Maria R. Arbaiza, from Clerk to Card-
Punch Operator, Employment and Utiliza-
Adrian B. Howell, from Clerk to Mis-
cellaneous Office Appliance Operator, Em-
ployment and Utilization Division.
Waldaba H. Stewart, from Clerk to File
Clerk, Employment and Utilization Di-
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Corneilius J. O'Sullivan, from Retail
Stores Supply Assistant to Retail Store
Supervisor, Supply Division.
Francesco Viglietti, from Leader Heavy
Laborer to Supervisory Storekeeping Clerk,
Sales and Service Branch.
Clifford Jemmott, from Stockman to
Leader High Lift Truck Operator, Store-
Raoul 0. Theriault, Administrative Offi-
cer to Assistant Director, Office of Director.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Louis F. Beltran from Ship Worker to High
Lift Truck Operator, Terminals Division.
Cecil G. Stewart, from Dock Worker to
Leader Dock Worker, Terminals Division.
Marcelino Sanchez, from Dock Worker
to Carpenter, Terminals Division.
Promotions which did not involve change
in title follow:
Gale A. O'Connell, Structural Engineer,
Victor H. May, Jr., Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
Thomas J. Oliver, Attorney, Office of
Cornelius S. McCormack, Master Tow-
boat or Ferry, Navigation Division.
Miss Rae F. Elicker, Nurse Supervisor
(General Medical and Surgical), Coco Solo
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959
MANY CANAL RECORDS Fender system tried
SET BY SHIP TRAFFIC- ..... -
DURING PAST QUARTER -
An almost complete set of new records
for Canal traffic was written during the
Traffic reached a peak in March when
records were set in the number of
transits, tolls, and daily average tran-
sits for a one-month period. The total
quarterly figures in most categories
also were at the highest levels in the
The 4,809,543 tons of cargo shipped
through the Canal on ocean-going ships
in March was the second highest total,
being exceeded only by the 4,897,000
long tons in March 1957. The amount
of cargo for the third quarter totaled
13,522,000 long tons, as compared with
11,444,000 in the third quarter last year.
The movement of traffic over many
trade routes was higher during the past
quarter than ever before. The United
States intercoastal route and routes be-
tween the east coast of the United States
and the Far East, and Europe and the
west coast of the United States and
Canada, all showed major gains over the
comparable quarter a year ago.
The strong economic recovery from
the recession of last year was reflected
in Canal traffic during the first three
months of this calendar year and cargo
shipments have been much heavier on
several specific trade routes than ever
There has been a heavy movement of
residual oil from California to the east
coast of the United States during recent
months. Meanwhile, the tanker trade on
other routes has been high.
Especially noteworthy in the movement
of commodities during the past quarter
were scrap iron and phosphate shipments
to Japan, and banana shipments through
the Canal from the Pacific to Atlantic
ports. Banana shipments in March
totaled 105,000 tons, or 2,000 tons over
the previous record set in March last
year. Phosphate shipments from Florida
to Japan now are at record levels.
For the first time in the Canal's oper-
ating history the number of ships of all
categories in one month exceeded 1,000
in March, and tolls exceeded $4,000,000.
Figures for the first nine months of
this fiscal year are all well above those
for the comparable period in F.Y. 1958,
when annual records were set. Up to
the end of March there were 7,132
transits by ocean-going commercial
ships, 141 more than for the first nine
months of last year. Tolls for the first
three quarters of this fiscal year,
amounting to $33,409,000 are nearly
$2,000,000 over those of 1958.
The heavy surge of traffic through the
Canal during the past three months has
come during a period when the Canal
was below its normal capacity level.
During recent weeks the Pacific Locks
have been operating on a 24-hour sched-
ule with one traffic lane being closed for
power conversion work.
Work was begun last month on a test
k'r I. n
t'~t ***-** -^S aS q" ? s d*r
P A "'"' -^ I Ss- te
A pair of floating fenders like the one above was used for tests at Gatun Locks.
An experiment of an unusual nature
has been conducted at Gatun Locks dur-
ing recent weeks. It consists of the use
of two floating fenders to hold ships in
tow away from the lock wall with towing
locomotives in use only on the center wall.
Lockage tests have been made on 17
vessels, some of which were in excess of
500 feet in length. The experiments have
been suspended to permit a remodeling
of the floating fenders to improve the
design based on observations during the
The experiments are being conducted
by the Locks Division with R. C.
Stockham, Chief of the Division, in
charge. He had suggested such a pos-
sibility and plans of this general nature
had been studied on previous occasions
but no actual tests had been made.
The big rubber tires used on the
fender booms of the experimental towing
devices built for the Canal by R. G.
LeTourneau, Inc., are being used on
fenders designed by Panama Canal per-
sonnel. Two fenders, like the one shown
overhaul at Gatun Locks which necessi-
tates the closing of one set of locks. This
condition will continue for several more
weeks as conversion of equipment to 60-
cycle current is accomplished at Gatun.
above, are used, one fore and one aft,
which are attached to the vessel by
The purpose of the tests is to determine
if a satisfactory system can be developed
to eliminate the use of towing locomo-
tives on the side walls. A successful sys-
tem would mean appreciable savings since
the Canal Company is presently planning
the purchase of new replacement towing
The tests made thus far indicate
that a fender system might be de-
signed to effect such a change, the ex-
periments and engineering studies are
to be continued to determine the
feasibility of such a plan.
During his recent visit to the Canal
Zone, Thomas D. Bowes, marine archi-
tect whose firm is to design the new
Canal tug, was asked to view one of the
test lockages and submit suggestions on
the problem. In a report received since
his return to the States, several suggested
changes were made which are now being
studied. Among the suggestions made by
Mr. Bowes was the installation of a fixed
tubular rubber fender system along the
center wall of each lock chamber which
would permit a ship to rise or fall with
the change in water elevation but which
would serve to keep the vessel away from
the lock wall while under tow.
CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Third Quarter, Fiscal Years
1959 1958 1938
to to Total Total Total
Ocean-going--------------------- 1,271 1,228 2,499 2,254 1,386
Small* ------------------------ --- 138 106 244 150 219
Total commercial---------------- 1,409 1,334 2,743 2,404 1,605
U. S. Government vessels:**
Ocean-going ---------------------- 32 20 52 59 --------
Small* --------------------------. 21 35 56 90
Total commercial and U. S.
Government ------------------ 1,462 1,389 2,851 2,553 1,739
*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959
Six Times Champion. Paul S. Stewart,
License Examiner in Cristobal, this year set
a mark for his fellow police officers to shoot
at aside from the bullseye. In winning the
annual Canal Zone Police pistol shoot this
year he became the only man to win six
times. He also won championships in 1948,
1951, 1955, 1956, and 1957.
You can get
N OW proof of
If you were born in the Canal Zone
on or after February 26, 1904, and your
father or mother was an American cit-
izen, or if you were born in the Republic
of Panama after that date and your
father or mother was an American cit-
izen employed by the United States
Government, you are a citizen of the
However, if you were in the United
States and wanted a job that required
conclusive proof of citizenship, could you
This question has been a vexatious one
for such individuals born in the Canal
Zone or Panama of American parents
during the past 55 years who wanted to
travel, get jobs, vote, or do other things
in which proof of citizenship was required.
The question can now be solved with
relative ease as Certificates of Citizen-
ship may be issued by the U. S. Immi-
gration and Naturalization Service to
such persons who qualify. A limited
quantity of applications for such cer-
tificates has just been received and
may be obtained from the Administra-
tive Branch office at Balboa Heights.
The application forms may also be ob-
tained from Immigration and Natural-
ization Service offices in various parts
of the United States.
The application forms have full instruc-
tions as to the preparation of certificates
of citizenship. A fee of $5 is required
and an applicant must submit three per-
sonal photographs taken within 30 days
of the date of application. Also, appli-
cants should attach to the application
form such documents as birth, marriage,
divorce, or death certificates which sup-
port claim of citizenship.
Before a Certificate of Citizenship can
be issued, however, the applicant must
take an oath of allegiance before a mem-
ber of the Immigration and Naturaliza-
tion Service. This oath must be taken
within the continental United States.
17 May 1, 1959
Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in long tons)
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC
Third, Quarter, Fiscal Years
1959 1958 1938
Ores, various ------------------------------. 1,736,939 1,850,407 542,936
Lumber --------------------------- 857,428 820,002 632,901
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)----.. 716,347 103,509 498,282
Barley ------------------------------------ 657,731 171,731 62,089
Wheat ------------------------------------ 569,631 522,986 267,904
Sugar ----------------------- 313,552 290,212 299,404
Bananas -------------------------------- 280,158 290,084 20,076
Nitrate of soda- ----------------------- 260,899 271,131 530,861
Canned food products-------------------- 252,265 287,712 220,124
Metal, various---------------------------- 238,814 229,247 165,473
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) --------------------------------- 220,512 214,954 106,820
Oilseeds and products ----------------------- 135,677 69,415 2,765
Iron and steel manufactures ----------------- 131,458 60,589 2,263
Coffee------------------------------------ 102,878 87,212 53,179
Cotton, raw....-------------------------- 81,065 69,948 37,801
All othi-i ... ... 1,196,678 992,282 870,245
Total ----------------------------- 7,752,032 6,331,421 4,313,123
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
Third Quarter, Fiscal Years
___ommodity1959 1958 1938
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)..... 1,529,024 1,079,104 236,644
Coal and coke ----------------------------.. 784,015 795,450 27,867
Iron and steel manufactures ----------------- 407,983 416,888 362,008
Phosphates-------------------------------- 388,418 305,742 67,518
Metal, scrap ------------------------------ 307,676 81,823 134,275
Soybeans .. ------------------------- 247,803 146,507 493
Corn -------------------------------------- 150,910 82,276 8,510
Chemicals, unclassified------------------- 132,386 106,110 25,179
Ores, various ......------------------------ 117,211 116,633 7,809
Cotton .. ------------------------- 91,604 91,310 56,323
Sulphur -------------------------------- --- 85,070 108,427 44,830
Automobiles and parts ---------------------- 81,523 83,866 76,102
Paper and paper products -------------- 71,032 86,211 90,274
Machinery ------------------------------ 67,394 80,524 40,735
Sugar ------------------------------------- 65,836 131,309 32,587
All others ------------------------------ 1,042,154 1,187,167 838,500
Total --------------------------- 5,570,039 4,899,347 2,049,654
Canal Commercial Traffic by Nationality of Vessels
Third Quarter, Fiscal Years
1959 1958 1938
Nationality Num- Tons Num- Tons Num- Tons
ber of ofcargo ber of of cargons ber of of cargons
transit of cargo transit of cargo transits of cargo
transits transits transit
Belgian---------- 2 12,538 -------------------------- -----------
British 331 1,844,408 302 1,830,804 348 1,626,625
Chilean 22 101,792 25 149,011 3 10,012
Chinese --------- 15 112,538 17 118,733 -------- ---
Colombian------- 62 78,777 60 76,729 ---.---..--.. --
Cuban-..--------- 3 246 -------- ------------ 2 ------------
Danish.. 91 263900 88 249,303 56 161,735
Ecuadorean------ 18 20,478 10 13,283 ---------..--.-
Finnish 2 4,510 10 38,234 1 4,021
French 38 177,472 17 87,6S2 26 138,303
German 291 904,010 209 584,896 86 312,330
Greek ..---- -- 41 380,235 27 229,133 19 96,467
Honduran ----- 39 22,743 77 72,488 10 3,839
Irish ----- 4 45,425 1 8,558 --
Italian -48 238,405 46 277,937 12 31,762
Japanese--------- 210 1,512,366 173 1,213,793 77 495,136
Latvian---------- -------- ------------ -------- ------------ 1 ------------
Liberian --- 253 2,249,530 196 1,711,158 --------------------
Mexican--------- 3 9,850 -------- --------
Netherlands------ 97 405,742 55 255,497 77 179,917
Nicaraguan------ 17 35,277 20 40,191 ----------------
Norwegian.... 257 1,276,055 234 1,012,442 174 848,325
Panamanian -- 94 390,216 104 338,070 44 56,087
Peruvian --------- 11 58,083 13 56,147 3 4,008
Philippine------ 7 41,275 7 36,272 2 ------------
South Korean.... 2 18,601 1 ------- ------------
Soviet------------------------------- 1 7,700 2 4,375
Spanish -------- -- 9 43,700 14 56,736 -------- ---
Swedish ---------- 57 211,937 63 202,130 28 187,191
Swiss -------------------- ------ 1 10,030 -------- ------------
United States-- 473 2,860,962 483 2,533,806 413 2,195,344
i ---... 2 ------- --------------------------------------
Yugoslavian------ -------- ------------ -------- ------------ 2 7,300
Total -- 2,499 13,322,071 2,254 11,210,768 1,386 6,362,777
Is Tried In Gaillard Cut
With Tugs Astern
A series of controlled tests is being made
by the Marine Bureau to determine if the
use of tug assistance astern of a vessel is
more effective in the handling of "super"
ships in the narrow reaches of Gaillard Cut
than the long-standing practice of using
the tug ahead in a towing position.
The present tests under actual oper-
ating conditions were undertaken last
month and will be continued for some
time before determination can be made
of the most suitable and effective pro-
cedures. They are being conducted under
the immediate direction of Capt. James
A. Flenniken, Balboa Port Captain, with
a few senior pilots being given assign-
ments. Capt. Clinton Baverstock, as-
sisted by Capt. H. L. Wentworth, was
assigned to the first tests.
The tests were initiated after a pre-
liminary report was received on exten-
sive model testing performed for the
Canal Company at the Navy Depart-
ment's David Taylor Model Basin at
Carderock, Md. The overall objective
of the Carderock tests was to determine
the best means of assisting live super-
ships through the narrow Cut.
This is one of several things being pres-
ently done by the Canal Company to expe-
dite the movement and provide for the
safety of ship traffic through the waterway.
Among others are the widening of Gaillard
Cut, provision of lighting for night opera-
tions, plans to reduce the outage time dur-
ing overhaul periods, studies for improved
traffic control, and more efficient tugs
and towing locomotives.
As indicated in a special notice to ship-
ping interests issued last month by
Governor Potter, the peak traffic load of
the past fiscal year quarter is taxing ca-
pacity under present operating conditions
which will prevail until about next July.
The handling of the heavy volume of
traffic is also being complicated by the
steady increase in Canal traffic of large
bulk cargo carriers commonly called
This device was used in model tests for tug assistance to big ships in the Cut.
"super" vessels, particularly in the ore
and tanker trade. During the first three
months of this calendar year the
Canal's transit sheets listed 110 ships
in this category.
Tug assistance is regularly assigned to
all bulk cargo ships of 600 or more feet in
length during their transit of the Cut and
they are given daylight "clear-Cut" hand-
ling. Tug assistance is also required in many
other instances, depending upon the size
of the vessel, nature of its cargo, its hand-
ling characteristics, or other factors.
With an increasing number of ships
requiring "clear-Cut" handling, any
method to expedite the trip through
the eight-mile Cut or increase the
safety factor for vessels is of importance
with traffic at its present peak.
The Navy Department last year was
requested to institute model tests to de-
termine what measures might be taken
in the handling of super-ships in Gaillard
Cut to speed up traffic or improve the
safety factor. The preliminary report on
these tests has now been received and is
being used as the basis for tests in actual
For the purpose of the model testing,
the Model Basin personnel obtained the
use of a model of the 712.5-foot tanker
World Glory which has been through the
Canal and which has a displacement of
57,280 tons at a draft of 37 feet. The
model was on a linear ratio of 27.74, and
measured 25.7 feet in length.
An approximate model of a 300-foot wide
section of Gaillard Cut, built of masonry,
was then constructed to the same scale. In
conducting the actual model tests, a dyna-
mometer girder was attached in an a-
The big oreship San Juan Merchant is shown in actual test with tug at the stern.
thwartship position to the model ship. The
dynamometer arrangement was of the
three-component type so that resultant
longitudinal and lateral forces, as well as
moment (the force-and-time factor com-
bined), could be determined. Also, the
rise and fall, or sinkagee" of the model
was recorded continuously during signi-
Motive power for these tests was sup-
plied by an overhead carriage operating
along the walls of the "Cut."
In other tests, the modelwas maneuvered
under its own power with rudder action by
remote control. In these, the behavior of
the vessel using a tug astern was tested
manually by a line attached to the stern.
Test results indicate that a ship the
size of the "World Glory" needs 10 feet
of water under its keel for good steering
control when going through Gaillard
Cut, a depth formally prescribed last
month by the Marine Bureau for the
first transit of all vessels of 30,000 dead-
weight tons, with 11 feet required for
ships over 45,000 tons. The regulation
on draft provides that approval may be
given for increasing the draft after a
satisfactory initial transit.
The results of the model testing will be
furnished to the design contractor for
the new tug to be built for use in Gaillard
Cut. The test results will influence the
tug design, particularly with respect to
its power and maneuverability.
The tests under actual operating con-
ditions on the position of tugs in assist-
ing super-ships through 'the Cut are ex-
pected to provide data not possible to
obtain by model testing. While the pre-
liminary report of the results of the model
tests, still to be studied and analyzed
further before a final report by the David
Taylor Model Basin is issued, indicate
that the employment of tug assistance
astern of vessels in the Cut to be more
advantageous on the basis of the prin-
ciples of hydro-mechanics involved, the
model test report made no effort to eval-
uate results in light of practical operating
conditions, which is the purpose of the
present tests. The use of tugs astern of
transiting vessels was attempted in hand-
ling an unwieldy type of ore-carrier which
made its appearance shortly before World
War I. The use of tugs astern at that
time did not prove very effective, but
with the modifications in method sug-
gested by the Model Basin tests, better
results are anticipated.
18 May 1, 1959
NEW OVERHAUL METHOD
An experiment of an unusual and grand
scale nature is presently being conducted
at Gatun Locks.
If successful, as Canal engineers and
the operating force believe it will be, the
experiment will result in decreasing the
time required for single-lane traffic during
overhaul periods and thereby increasing
the overall transit capacity. This will mean
considerable savings in time and money to
world shipping and lowered costs in the
overhaul of the Locks.
Reduced to its simplest terms, the ex-
periment consists of a different method
of lifting the big Lock gate leaves from
their pintles for overhaul. The grand
scale nature of the trial run will be the
lifting of the mass of metal weighing
1,490,000 pounds, or 745 tons, by the
250-ton floating crane "Hercules."
The two upper gate leaves between
the middle upper chambers of the Gatun
Locks are to be lifted by the big floating
crane and no magic is involved. The
gate leaves are compartmented and are
so buoyant that the deadweight in water
to be lifted by the 250-ton crane will be
only 422,000 pounds, or 211 tons.
After being lifted the two leaves will
be moved into the upper chamber and
placed on "keel blocks" already installed
along the east wall. The lock chamber
will then be emptied and used as a dry-
dock while the overhaul work proceeds.
It is estimated that the new procedure
can reduce the time of 35 working days
required for the overhaul of the gates in the
past to an estimated 21 working days for
each lane of traffic, during which time
shipping must be handled through one
With the Canal operating at its pres-
ent high peak, this reduction in outage
time will be an important factor in
reducing delay costs to shipping during
Locks overhaul periods which occur once
every five years at each of the Locks.
The gate leaves being overhauled now
were scheduled to be removed during the
1961 overhaul of Gatun Locks. There-
fore, the present work will mean a re-
duction in the overhaul period two years
from now during which one traffic lane
would have been closed.
The preliminary work for the experi-
mental gate overhaul began April 16 at
Gatun when the upper chamber was emp-
tied for the installation of concrete blocks
and steel beams which will be used in
much the same manner as keel blocks are
used for drydocking a ship. The con-
crete blocks, all below the sill level of the
lock chamber, will be permanent instal-
lations and in the future the removable
steel beams will be placed by divers to
eliminate the necessity for unwatering
the chamber prior to moving the gates.
After this work was completed, the
Lock chamber was flooded again and
the gate leaves were scheduled to be
lifted by the floating crane this week.
After being placed in position along
the upper chamber wall, each gate leaf
will be secured by steel struts to the
top of the lock wall as an added meas-
ure of safety.
After the gate leaves are placed, the lock
of the pintles; normal overhaul work on
the sills; and some chipping and repaint-
ing of the gate leaves.
It is expected that time can be saved
by lining up all the bearing plates in the
walls and on the gate leaves at the same
time. In past overhaul work, the wall
plates were first lined up and gate plates
were then aligned to the wall plates.
All work is scheduled for completion
about May 22. The Locks will continue
with one lane out of service until com-
pletion of power conversion work there.
The method being used in lifting the
This striking view of Lock gates under overhaul gives an idea of the magnitude
of Gatun tests by which big gate leaves are lifted by floating crane Hercules.
chamber will be unwatered again and nor-
mal overhaul procedures will be followed,
except that a plan to speed up this phase
of the work will be followed. The overhaul
work includes the replacement of quoin and
miter plates on the gate leaves, and hollow
quoin plates in the lock walls; replacement
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Third Quarter, Fiscal Years
1959 1958 1938
United States Intercoastal --------------------- -- 151 130 264
East Coast of U. S. and South America ------------- 594 574 145
East Coast of U. S. and Central America ----------- 125 141 30
East Coast of U. S. and Far East ------------------ 390 337 142
U. S./Canada East Coast and Australasia----------- 48 42 39
Europe and West Coast of U. S./Canada ------------ 317 241 271
Europe and South America------------------------- 241 249 134
Europe and Australasia --------------------------- 103 109 65
All other routes----........------------------------------ 530 431 296
Total Traffic .------------------------------.. 2,499 2,254 1,386
gate leaves differs completely from that
used in Lock overhauls of the past.
When the Canal Locks were first over-
hauled in 1929, it was decided to empty
the lock chamber and lift the gates off
their pintles by big hydraulic jacks.
This method has since been used in
all Lock overhauls.
The new procedure for the overhaul of
the gates is one of the many steps being
taken to speed up the movement of Canal
traffic. The plan was evolved through
the cooperative effort of an engineering
staff of the Engineering and Construction
Bureau and the operating staff of the
Marine Bureau, principally personnel of
the Locks Division.
The operations are under the direct
supervision of William A. Van Siclen, Jr.,
Superintendent of Gatun Locks. Except
for the big job of lifting and placing the
gate leaves by the Dredging Division's
craneboat Hercules, the work is being
done principally by regular employees of
the Locks Division and some personnel
from the Industrial Division.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959
m SHIPS AND SHIPPING ,
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MARCH
Commercial-.---------- 810 882
U. S. Government -------- 20 24
Total ----------- 830 906
Commercial $3,631,137 $4,103,262
U. S. Government 90,862 107,649
Total -----$3,721,999 $4,210,911
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
CARGO (long tons)
Commercial ----- 4,055,216
U. S. Government 109,991
Two More Super Ships
Two more shipping giants used the
Canal during April. One was the Liber-
ian super-tanker World Glory, which made
its first transit in ballast through the
Canal April 14 on its way to Amsuay
Bay, Venezuela, from the Far East. The
big vessel, a sister ship to the record-
breaking World Beauty, measures 735.3
feet in overall length and has a beam of
102.4 feet. DisplIcement tonnage was
given as 58,655 tons and Panama Canal
net at 23,500 tons.
The second big ship using the Canal
the same day was the ore ship Dynamic,
which arrived in Cristobal from Balti-
more on its way to Chile to load a cargo
of ore. The Dynamic, owned by the
Windward Shipping Company, flies the
Liberian flag and is nearly the size of
the Cosmic, another well-known Canal
customer operated by the same company.
It measures 745 feet in overall length and
has a 100.4-foot beam. Displacement
tonnage is 61,245 tons. Both the World
Beauty and the Cosmic broke Canal rec-
ords for their class when they passed
through the Canal in 1957.
Danish Shipper Retires
A record of some sort was achieved by
Capt. Frederik Matzen, skipper of the
Brazilian Reefer, who made his last and
245th trip through the Canal April 8
on his way home to Denmark and retire-
ment. During his 36 years at sea with
the J. Lauritzen Line, Captain Matzen
has made so many trips through the
Canal on J. Lauritzen ships that every
turn in the Canal channel must be as
familiar to him as it is to the pilots.
A native of Denmark, he joined the line
in 1923 as a second officer, was made
chief officer in 1926, and has been a ship
master since 1933. Before the war he
made regular trips through the Canal
from the West Coast to European ports.
The Brazilian Reefer, his last command,
runs between Ecuador and Antwerp.
Cascadas Under Overhaul
The Dredging Division's dipper dredge
Cascadas is now nearing completion of its
biennial overhaul at the Industrial Di-
vision and is scheduled to return to duty
about May 19. The veteran dredge,
which has been in service with the Canal
organization since 1915, was being used
for dredging operations at the Paraiso-
Cucaracha-reach widening project before
she was taken to the Industrial Division
for engine overhaul. Following recon-
ditioning, the Cascadas will return to
dredging operations in the Cucaracha
reach. The Cascadas is the only dipper
dredge now in operation on the Panama
Canal, the sister dredge Paraiso having
been on loan to the St. Lawrence Seaway
project for the past two years.
Cruise Ships Transit
Two big luxury liners made north-
bound transits through the Canal in
April on their way back to New York
after extensive winter cruises. They were
the Norwepgian-American liner Bergens-
fjord, which arrived in Balboa April 3
on the last leg of a three-month round-
the-world cruise, and the Swedish-Amer-
ican Line's Kungsholm returning to New
York after a cruise to the South Sea
Islands, Australia, and New Zealand.
Both ships, carrying approximately 325
passengers each, were making their-last
cruise of the winter season before return-
ing to New York to enter the North
Atlantic trade for the summer. Both are
well-known Canal visitors. The Bergens-
fjord is represented here by the Pacific
Steam Navigation Company and the
Kungsholm by C. B. Fenton & Company.
The Hamburg-America Line's 7,500-
gross ton cruise ship Ariadne which takes
approximately 250 passengers on exotic
trips up the Amazon River and to lesser-
known Caribbean ports, will arrive in
Cristobal May 18 on the last cruise of
this winter season. On this trip, the
Ariadne will visit Kingston, Port of
Spain, St. Thomas, and several other
West Indian: Islands before returning to
New Orleans. During the summer months
the tidy air-conditioned vessel will make
cruises to the North Cape and Scandi-
navia and will return to Caribbean and
South American cruising in September.
Formerly the Swedish Patricia, the
Ariadne was purchased and rebuilt by
the Hamburg-America Line in 1957.
This year she made several visits to the
Canal from New Orleans and U. S. Gulf
ports. Her next to last cruise in March
and April was made up the Amazon
River. The Continental Shipping Cor-
poration acts as agent here.
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Month Transits_(In thousands of dollars)
1959 1958 1938 1959 1958 1938
July------------------------- 767 788 457 $3,681 $3,668 $2,030
August---------------------- 777 812 505 3,664 3,599 2,195
September----------------- 717 771 444 3,357 3,504 1,936
October---------------------- 806 813 461 3,718 3,680 1,981
November------------------- 773 779 435 3,628 3,522 1,893
December------------------- 793 774 439 3,682 3,521 1,845
January---------------------- 826 744 444 3,925 3,376 1,838
February-------------------- 791 700 436 3,654 3,104 1,787
March-----------------------... 882 810 506 4,100 3,628 2,016
April -------------------------------- 734 487 --------... 3,363 1,961
May-------------------------------- 752 465 -------... 3,526 1,887
June----------------------------...---. 710 445 --------.... 3,305 1,801
Totals for first 9 months
of fiscal year.....---------. 7,132 6,991 4,127 33,409 $31,602 $17,521
Totals for fiscal year ---- --------... 9,187 5,524 -------- $41,796 $23,170
Capt. Warner Scott Rodimon,
USN, who has served for the past
two years as the Canal's Marine
Director, is leaving the Isthmus
next month for a new assignment
with the Navy. His successor has
not been announced.
Captain Rodimon's service has
been during the busiest period in
the Canal's history. This applies
not only to Panama Canal traffic
but to the many plans being form-
ulated and implemented for more
and bigger ships through the water-
way. Since the Marine Bureau is
the most vitally concerned of any
unit in these matters, he has main-
tained a full schedule which was by
no means kept within office hours.
Even with this work load, how-
ever, he has taken an active role in
community affairs, one of his prin-
cipal interests being Boy Scout work.
He was born in Northampton,
Mass., and was graduated from the
U. S. Naval Academy in 1929. Be-
fore his assignment with the Canal,
he was Commander of a Destroyer
Squadron of the Atlantic Fleet.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
May 1, 1959