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DLOC PCANAL



Panama Canal review
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00193
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Creation Date: June 1957
Publication Date: 1959
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00184
System ID: UF00097366:00193
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Members of the Canal Zone Civilian Personnel Policy Coordinating Board deal with Uniform Wage, Merit System.*


CANAL ZONE CENTRAL


EMPLOYMENT OFFICE


opening January 19, will handle

all hiring, carry out regulations for

uniform wage in the Canal Zone.


The opening of a Central Employment
Office in the Canal Zone, on January 19,
will culminate two years of extensive
preparation for the Uniform Wage Scale
and development of the Merit System
for the Canal Zone.
The new office is the operating agency
of the Canal Zone Civilian Policy Coordi-
nating Board. It has been established to
carry out the regulations recently issued
by the Secretary of the Army following
President Eisenhower's Executive Order
on the Uniform Wage Legislation.
These regulations completed imple-
mentation of those items of the 1955
Treaty and Memorandum of Under-
standing between the United States and
the Republic of Panama which require
legislative action by the U. S. Congress.
The new Central Employment Office
will be located in the rear section of the
Personnel Bureau Buildings in Ancon, in
space formerly occupied by the Panama
Canal Central Labor Office.
Its establishment will mark not only
the discontinuance of the Central Labor
Office, which it replaces, but also the
demise of the eligibility cards which for
more than 20 years have been a unique
feature of the Canal Zone employment
systems.
Inasmuch as all hiring for Government
agencies will be done at the new office,
and that for contractors by the contrac-
tors themselves, the eligibility cards
which had been a requisite for any posi-

Standing, from left: George F. Welsh, First
Alternate Member, Company-Government;
Otto W. Helmerichs, Chief, Central Employ-
ment Office; S. R. Davidson, First Alternate
Member, 15th Naval District. Seated, from
left: James C. Lambert, Observer, Civil Aero-
nautics Administration; Gordon M. Frick,
Executive Secretary for the Board; Lt. Col.
William A. Franks, First Alternate Member,
Caribbean Command; Edward A. Doolan,
Chairman of the Board; Commander R. A.
Sexton, Member, 15th Naval District, Rob-
ert M. Donley, First Alternate Member,
USARCARIB; Edmund S. Shaw, First Alter-
nate Member, Caribbean Air Command.


tion in the Zone will no longer be needed.
The Central Employment Office will
operate under the Coordinating Board,
of which Gordon M. Frick, Executive
Secretary is the Administrative Officer.
The office is headed by Otto W. Helme-
richs, formerly Chief of the Placement
Branch of the Employment and Utili-
zation Division. Its staff is made up of
a number of experienced personnel men
transferred from the various Govern-,
ment agencies in the Canal Zone.
Carl Waddell, formerly with the Per-
sonnel Office of USARCARIB, heads the
certification section. He is assisted by
Arden L. Bennett, a former Canal em-
ployee who was in charge of Civil
Service in the Canal Zone before World
War II.
Effective with the opening of the Cen-
tral Employment Office this month, the
Merit System will be the basis for all
hiring. At the same time, personnel offi-
cers in each of the Government agencies
in the Canal Zone will begin to certify
their employees into the Merit System.
Inasmuch as the occupant of each posi-
tion must be checked individually, and
in view of the size of the Company-
Government organization, this process
will mean at least a year's work.
The new Merit System is of major
importance to all employees of the
Company-Government. It governs the
"selection for appointment, reappoint-
ment, reinstatement, reemployment,
and retention with respect to positions,
employees, and individuals under con-
sideration for employment to positions,
regardless of whether the employees are
United States or Panamanian citizens."
In effect, it is an independent civil
service system for the Canal Zone. While
it is not part of the United States Civil
Service, it is governed by the same poli-
cies and standards as the Civil Service
System. Granting of Merit System sta-
tus-certification into the Merit System,


in other words-automatically confers
transfer rights to the United States Civil
Service on United States citizens who
may wish to leave positions here for Civil
Service positions in the United States.
In reverse, Civil Service employees have
the right of transfer to the Merit System;
this would be applicable in the case of
those coming to the Canal Zone from
Civil Service positions in the States.
The Executive Order, signed by Pres-
ident Eisenhower December 10, which
established the Canal Zone Merit System
also established an independent Canal
Zone Board of Appeals. This board will
review and determine appeals of employ-
ees from "adverse agency decisions" on
their grade or pay levels or the classifica-
tion of their positions.
The second important section of the
President's Executive Order was that
defining Uniform Wage Scale. It said:
"Employment standards, rates of
basic compensation, availability of
training facilities and programs shall
be applied uniformly among all de-
partments in the Canal Zone to all
employees, irrespective of:whether they
are citizens of the United States or of
the Republic of Panama."
This order followed legislation passed
last July by the United States Congress,
in accordance with Treaty provisions,
and means that citizens of Panama will
compete on an equal basis with citizens
of the United States for (See page 16)

ON THE COVER
A considerable lockfull of ship
was the Arabian-registered tanker
"Al Malik Saud Al Awal" which
was northbound through the Pan-
ama Canal last month. The big
ship, which was photographed from
the air as she entered Pedro Miguel
Locks, is the longest bulk carrier to
transit the Canal. For dimensions
and further details on the ship, see
page 16.


2 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW January 2, 1959


2 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


January 2, 1959







WORK COSTING $90 MILLION


SCHEDULED BY CANAL


The Canal's expenditures on new con-
struction and betterment projects during
this calendar year will be at the highest
level of any period since the early 1940's
when the Third Locks work and SIP
program were in full swing.
The entire program, consisting of sev-
eral multi-million dollar projects, will
amount in the aggregate to nearly $90,-
000,000. A relatively high percentage of
this amount will be spent this calendar
year. A considerable amount has been
spent in previous years on projects near-
ing completion while others will be only in
the beginning stages by next December.
The construction and betterment
program will extend for a period of the
next four or five years and will have a
beneficial and stabilizing effect on the
economy of the Republic of Panama.
It will provide much employment and
increase the sale of both consumer
goods and equipment over and above
the requirements of the normal oper-
ation and maintenance of the Canal.
In addition to these major capital ex-
penditures the Canal spends approxi-
mately $85,000,000 annually on normal
operation and maintenance. This pro-
vides steady employment for about 10,000
Panamanian citizens. In addition, sev-
eral thousands of others in the Republic
benefit directly or indirectly from normal
operations of the waterway and its allied
facilities.
The Canal's improvement program,
which was initiated about three years
ago with the beginning of the Power
Conversion Project, consists of a wide
variety of items. Some projects, such as
new housing, schools, and hospital facil-
ities, are of direct benefit to employees
and their families, while others, such as
widening and lighting Gaillard Cut, relate
to Canal operations, The largest single
item-the $20,000,000 high-level bridge-
is a 1955 Treaty project.
The following is a list of those projects
on which work is in progress or for which
contracts are soon to be awarded:
High-level bridge --- $20,000,000
Canal improvements-- 19,000,000
60-cycle conversion--- 13,000,000
Locks conversion------ 3,000,000
Housing------------- 8,000,000
Schools construction-- 4,000,000 plus
Administration Bldg.
work --------------- 1,000,000
Air conditioning ------ 5,000,000


Total-------


ized and for which contracts are scheduled
for award during the coming months are:
Replacement of towing lo-
comotives -------------- $6,000,000
New hospital facilities .---- 6,000,000
New tugboat------------- 1,000,000
Total- $13,000,000
This grand total of $86,000,000 exceeds
the amount of money spent on the Third
Locks work before that project was halted
by the war. It also exceeds the amount
spent on SIP (special protective) projects
during the few years just before and soon
after Pearl Harbor was bombed.
While the power conversion work is
almost completed for domestic and indus-
trial users, some of the costliest expendi-
tures are just ahead in the Locks con-
version program now getting underway,
and the remaining work of the power
plants and remote control systems.
One construction contract has been
awarded for the Balboa bridge and an-
other is to be let early this year. The
one to be awarded next is for the east
approach and this will cost in the neigh-
borhood of $1,000 000. Another bridge
contract which will amount to about


Canal's expenditure for new construction and
betterment during this calendar year, at highest
level since pre-war years and early war years, will
have beneficial effect on the economy of Panama.


$73,000,000


In addition to these, capital expendi-
tures amounting to about $13,000,000
have been definitely slated for the near
future, bringing the total amount includ-
ing lesser projects, up to almost $90,-
000,000. Principal items in this program,
some of which have already been author-


January 2, 1959


Mooring facilities for two big ships north of Pedro' MigueljLocks wouldjreduce
congestion and increase Canal capacity during Pacific Locks overhaul periods.


$3,000,000 is that for the substructure.
This contract will be advertised in April
and work is to begin next August.
The biggest single contract to be
awarded this year will be the widening
of the Paraiso and Cucaracha reaches
in Gaillard Cut. This work, a phase of
the $19,000,000 short range improve-
ment program, will cost upwards of
$12,000,000. Completion is scheduled
for 1961.
The construction of new school build-
ings in Balboa and remodeling of the Coco
Solo elementary school are already, in
progress The principal school work will
be the junior-senior high school at Coco
Solo, the contract for this work being
scheduled for award within a few weeks,
and the extension of Pacific side facilities.
The air-conditioning work planned by
the Canal is a five-year program which
has already been initiated. The modern-
ization of the Administration Building is
well advanced and is to be completed
within the next few months.
No definite dates have been set for the
purchase of new towing locomotives, but
the new tugboat is to be bought soon,
with an award for its construction to be
made this fiscal year.
Plans for the development of new hos-
pital facilities are still in the formative
stage but the 1960 budget contains a
request for money to prepare designs.


3






Air

Conditioned

Playhouse


You open windows in an air-conditioned playhouse only so little girls can stick
their heads out for the photographer as Karin Lee Foscue and Sandra Chesson
are doing, above. At left, the girls inspect the air-conditioning machinery.


Even the dolls in the Canal Zone are
living in air-conditioned comfort these
days. A playhouse completed last month
at Diablo Heights is not only portable
and equipped with running water, but
also has air conditioning.
The dolls with the air-conditioned
house belong to Sandra Chesson, 6-year-
old daughter of R. W. Chesson, of the
Police Division, who built the playhouse


during his spare time with the help of
his 11-year-old son, Pete.
The small house, which is 75 x 75 x
72 inches in size, was constructed of
scrap lumber salvaged from shipping
crates. By collecting such material,
Mr. Chesson completed the project for
less than $10. The air conditioner was
built from parts of discarded refriger-
ators.
The telephone, which will be installed
later, is an old Army field set and will
connect the playhouse with the Chessons'
home. Since the playhouse is lined with
acoustical tile and is soundproof, this
will be an added convenience for Mrs.
Chesson in staying in touch with Sandra.
Two Panama contractors who took an
interest in the project as it neared com-
pletion volunteered their services and two
small signs recently appeared on the lawn,
announcing "Wiring by Clayton Riddle,
Rogers Electric Co.", and"Tile byHoma."


Officer Chesson's real hobby is con-
ducting auctions and he is known on
both sides of the Isthmus for his abil-
ity as an auctioneer. This is his first
attempt at carpentry and he has worked
without plans of any kind. He simply
designed each part as he went along.
An unusual feature of the house is that
it is portable. The roof lifts off and the
walls and floors are bolted so that they
can be folded neatly for easy transporting.
Mr. Chesson's next project is making
furniture of Lilliputian dimensions to fit
into the small house. His wife is doing
the interior decoration but Sandra's
father plans to build everything himself,
including stove and refrigerator.
Neighborhood children were enthu-
siastic "sidewalk superintendents"
throughout the construction and were
equally enthusiastic guests at the
housewarming which took place shortly
after Christmas.


SERVICE MEDALS


"Length of Service Awards Program" approved by Governor


Within a few weeks, employees of the
Panama Canal Company-Canal Zone
Government will have some tangible
mementos of their years of work for the
organization.
Final plans for a Company-Govern-
ment "Length of Service Awards Pro-
gram" have been approved by the Gov-
ernor and the program should be in full
operation during the first quarter of this
calendar year.
It will be officially inaugurated this
month when the Board of Directors of
the Panama Canal Company present pins
and certificates to all employees who
have completed 40 or more years of
service with the Company-Government.
Under the "Length of Service Awards
Program," service pins and certificates
will be given each Company-Govern-
ment employee on the completion of
five, ten, twenty, thirty, and forty
years of service.
With the exception of the thirty and
forty year awards, the service pins and
certificates will be presented during the
month in which the employee completes


The design of the service pins will be
similar for all years, except that pins for
longer service will have an enamel bor-
der. Above: the five-year service pin.

his or her anniversary year. Awards for
the thirty- and forty-year employees will
be made once each year, at a time to be
determined later, in an appropriate group
ceremony.


Only Company-Government service
will be credited for the length-of-service
awards, with one exception. This excep-
tion is military service when the em-
ployee concerned has entered the Armed
Forces directly from his position with
the Company-Government and has been
restored to his Company-Government
post directly from the military service.
.The service pins will be identical in
design but will vary in material and
color, depending on the length of serv-
ice. The five-year service pin will be
bronze. That to be given for 10 years
of service will also be bronze but will
have a border of red enamel. The 20-
year pin will be of sterling silver and
will have a border of green enamel.
The 30-year pin and the 40-year pin
will be of 10-karat gold. The 30-year
pin will have a border of blue enamel
and the 40-year pin will have a white
enamel border and will be set with a
small diamond.


4 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


January 2, 1959






Young Zone students
work out reading prob-
lems with aid of special
teachers.

JOHNNY

CAN

READ

Why can't Johnny read?
Most Johnnies can and do read, but
in every school system- the Canal Zone
included-there are boys and girls who
are known as "disabled readers"--child-
ren who are so handicapped in their read-
ing ability that their educational careers
are endangered.
Even more important than the answer
to "Why can't Johnny read?" is the an-
swer to another question, "What can we
do to help him?"
Here in the Canal Zone, the men and
women who staff the schools are doing
something to help Johnny-and Joan, too.
The something they are doing is the
remedial reading classes which were
started for Atlantic side children last
year under the direction of Mrs. Ethel
McDermitt, as part of the overall pro-
gram of Special Education. This year
the special supplementary reading help
has been extended to the Pacific side.
At the present time, 165 elementary
and junior high school students, all aver-
age or above average in mental ability,
are attempting to solve their reading
problems under the direction of three
specially-trained remedial reading teach-
ers. Mrs. McDermitt works with the
Atlantic side children; Miss Shirley Mof-
fett is the remedial reading instructor for
Pacific side youngsters in the elementary


Mrs. Ethel McDermitt, Atlantic side remedial reading teacher, is shown here with
one of her star pupils. The blackboard and posters show some of their visual aids.


grades; and Mrs. Mary Ellen Horine
helps the disabled readers at Balboa Jun-
ior High School.
The 165 Canal Zone pupils who are
enrolled in this year's remedial reading
classes were selected from 421 boys and
girls who had been referred to the read-
ing teachers by their classroom teachers
and school principals. All were given a
series of tests; the 165 students chosen
were considered to have the greatest need
for special reading instruction.
During the testing, the instructors
found a number of reasons why these
children are disabled readers.
Some had been transferred from one
school to another many times in their
short lives. One boy, whose intelligence
quotient of 138 puts him in the "very
superior" classification, is five years be-
hind other children of his age in his abil-
ity to read. He has attended at least
eight different schools in the United
States and overseas.


FOREST OF FIRS


This isn't Sherwood Forest or Birnam Wood. It's just a lot of Christmas trees
which went on sale before the holidays, engulfing their prospective buyers.


January 2, 1959 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Others have been introduced to reading
before they were mature enough to handle
this difficult subject. A few were found
to be "reverse readers." Children with
this particular difficulty read words back-
ward; they see the word saw as was.
Some were found to be "mechanical
readers." They know the words but miss
their meanings. Some had had inade-
quate instruction, and others had ac-
quired faulty habits and confusions which
slowed them down.
In addition to these, the testing dis-
closed children with sight or hearing
problems; they were reported to the
school physician for expert help.
For some reason, possibly because
they mature later, boys are more fre-
quently disabled readers than girls. In
the Canal Zone's remedial reading
classes, boys outnumber girls about
two to one.
The help given in the remedial reading
classes varies according to each child's
particular difficulty, and a specific pro-
gram is planned for each child. Some
students receive individual help; others
are placed in a small group which, pref-
erably, is not larger than six pupils.
The remedial reading procedures vary
almost as much as the problems which
beset the disabled readers and would take
columns of type to explain. One process,
used among the younger children, ties
pronunciation, spelling, and writing into
the business of learning to read.
Pictures are clued to the sound of a
letter-a is for apple to u is for umbrella,
for instance. Before they ever see the
printed letter, the children learn its sound.
They begin with vowels, move on to con-
sonants, first putting them at the begin-
ning and later at the end of the word.
This leads to saying, then reading, such
sentences as Sam sat on the sand in the sun.
Just as the problem readers' difficulties
and methods of help vary, so does the
length of time they will need remedial
reading help.
But when these children do start read-
ing, the remedial teachers say, "You
can't stop them."
"The other day," Mrs. McDermitt
said recently, "I had one of the most
rewarding experiences of this work so far.
The mother of a child who had never
read dropped in to visit the remedial
reading class. When she saw her young-
ster with a book. in her hand, reading
away, the mother had tears in her eyes."


January 2, 1959


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





Health Director


Col. Thomas G. Faison, former Direc-
tor of Gorgas Hospital, is the Canal
Zone's new Health Director. He is
shown here, on the right, with the As-
sistant to the Director, William Brown.


Latin American Schools

Close Busy Year
The largest number of students yet to
graduate from the Canal Zone Latin
American High Schools will receive diplo-
mas February 3 at ceremonies at Rain-
bow City and Paraiso.
A total of 230 students, 34 more than
last year, will take part in the commence-
ment exercises. The last day of school is
February 4.
The end-of-the-year enrollment for
all of the Latin American schools was
3,924-18 less than last year.
The Superintendent of Canal Zone
Schools, Sigurd E. Esser, will present di-
plomas to the 84 boys and 49 girls grad-
uating at Paraiso in a ceremony at the
Paraiso Theater.
Rainbow City graduation exercises will
be held at the Camp Bierd Theater where
Charles A. Dubbs, Assistant to the Sup-
erintendent, will hand out diplomas to 58
boys and 39 girls.
A well-organized summer recreation
program will get under way in February.
This year's program will run from Feb-
ruary 9 to April 30. Athletic activities to
be offered include volleyball, table tennis,
tennis, archery, and softball. Swimming
instruction will be given at Rainbow City.
During the school year, progress was
made in the Special Education Program
which had a limited beginning last year.
The program was expanded as teachers
who had been sent to the United States
for special training returned to the Zone.
Free train or bus service was provided
for students whose homes were not within
walking distance of their schools. This
is the second year that such service has
been available. This year students living
at Camp Bierd who attend school at
Rainbow City were- also provided with
bus transportation to school.


OF MICE

and


ELEPHANTS


Most people probably assume the train usually hits the car in highway-
railroad crossing accidents.
Not necessarily so. "A third of the time," says the National Safety Coun-
cil, "it's just the reverse-the car strikes the train."
The Council says the car does the hitting in half the night-time accidents
and in about 1 out of 5 day-time car-train accidents. About 1,300 persons
are killed annually in grade-crossing motor vehicle accidents in the United
States.
The reasons? Misjudged speed, starting up too soon after a train has
passed without checking for trains from the opposite direction, ignored warn-
ing signs or signals, drinking and driving, speeding, and familiarity with fre-
quently-used crossings, according to the Council. Motorists can prevent
car-train accidents, it says, if they will:
1. Approach highway-rail intersections with their vehicle under
complete control, heed the warning signs, and be prepared to stop
if necessary.
2. Use extra precaution if they can't see far down the tracks. Be
sure the way is clear before crossing the tracks.
3. Obey traffic rules, and caution others to do the same.
4. Observe crossing signs, signals, and markings.
Preventing highway-rail traffic accidents is, in the opinion of Jack C.
Trimble, secretary of the Council's Highway-Railroad Crossing Committee,
"the job of traffic officials, the railroads, and the public."
"But it isn't a fifty-fifty proposition," he says. "The driver must bear the
biggest burden. He can stop quicker or swerve to avoid an accident, while
a train can't. His is the more maneuverable vehicle.
"It's a needless tragedy for motorists to run into the side of or in front
of trains.
"It is almost invariably the motorist's fault. It is his responsibility to be
alert for signs, to watch his speed, and to stop if necessary."
Even a second-hand car will last him a lifetime, unless he realizes this fact.


NOVEMBER 1958
BUREAU

Supply& Community Service (Honor Roll)
Engineering & Construction-...........
Civil Affairs -----....-----...(Honor Roll)
New York Operations -......(Honor Roll)
Marine ......---....--------------....
Transportation & Terminals --------
Health------------------------
Accident Pool -------------------
C.Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Company-. _


FIRST AID
CASES
'58 "57
27 33
12 21
4 9
6 6
34 59
51 56
15 12
149 199


DISABLING
INJURIES
'58 '57
0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0
1 0
2 4
2 1
0 -
5 8


F DISABLING
INJURIES
DAYS LOST YEAR
TO DATE
'58 '57 '5a '57
0 68 9 12
25 102 17 6
0 0 15 10
0 0 10 1
48 0 37 29
13 86 19 24
11 37 5 7
o I -
97 293 i114 91


6 THE PANAMA CAbNAL REVIEW


i I f


January 2,1959






@ CIVIL DEFENSE
NEWS

Elections and installation of officers
for the year 1959 and Christmas parties
marked the close of the year for four
Civil Defense Volunteer Corps Commun-
ities-Margarita, Rainbow City, Santa
Cruz and Paraiso.
At Margarita, the newly-elected offi-
cers for next year are: Zone Warden, Mrs.
Astrea Brooks; Assistant Zone Warden,
Mrs. Rita Washabaugh; First Aid War-
den, Mrs. Dorothy Nichols.
At Rainbow City: Zone Warden, Mrs.
Mabel Anderson; Assistant Zone Warden,
Mrs. Verona McDonald; Secretary, Miss
Beverly Drew; and First Aid Warden,
Mrs. Cislyn Laing.
On the Pacific side the Santa Cruz
volunteers elected: Zone Warden, Mrs.
Ruby Wilson; Assistant Zone Warden,
Mrs. Hortencia Critchlow; Secretary,
Mrs. Lillian Hinds; Treasurer, Mrs. N.
Samson, and First Aid Warden, Julian
Winter.
The Paraiso civil defense workers elec-
ted: Zone Warden, Mrs. Inez McKenzie;
Assistant Zone Warden, Mrs. L. C. Oak-
ley; Secretary, Miss Janet A. Marshall,
and First Aid Warden, Miss Claudette
Sawyers. William Gordon was installing
officer on the Pacific side, and Philip L.
Dade, Civil Defense Chief, on the Atlan-
tic side. Mr. Dade addressed the volun-
teers at all the towns, giving a resume of
the status of the organization and an
outline of plans for next year.

About the middle of this month the
educational moving picture programs for
civil defense leaders in Panama and the
Canal Zone will be resumed. The shows
will be given on Mondays as in the past.
Two, and possibly three, more programs
are being prepared.
For the general public, it is planned to
give a showing of one civil defense edu-
cational film each week after the final
show on a designated night.

JANUARY VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS
Date Town Place Hour
7 Margarita Serv. Center 9:00 a. m
8 Santa Cruz Serv. Center 8:00 p. m.
14 Rainbow City School 6:30 p. m.
x9 Paraiso School 7:30 p. m.














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',:.Poat:a.bney: i: 'de"payable to the Pan-
ama._Calz mCoi o iald be'-ailed to Editor,
re-P iTBaoa Heights: C. Z.
January 2, 1959 7


Worth knowing
Car Inspection. The annual inspection of private vehicles licensed
in the Canal Zone gets under way this week at Motor Transporta-
tion Division garages in Ancon and Cristobal. Cars owned by
Armed Forces personnel or authorized to operate on military posts
will be inspected by the respective services. The inspection lanes
at Ancon and Cristobal will be open each work-day from 7 a. m.
to 5 p. m. A fee of 50 cents will be charged. As in the past, in-
spectors will check the condition of each vehicle's brakes, lights,
glass, tires, etc. The inspection period will continue through Feb-
ruary but vehicle owners would do well to "come early and avoid
the rush."

Cold Storage Move. All operations of the Cold Storage plants
of the Supply Division were moved last month from the Balboa
Retail Store area and consolidated at Corozal. Telephone calls
relative to cold storage merchandise are now being received at the
following Canal Zone numbers: 2-2690, 2-2793, and 2-4324.


Eye Tests. Applicants for drivers' licenses in the Canal Zone are
now having their vision tested mechanically. The machine, shown in
the accompanying photograph, is a Keystone Telebinocular which


tests for color vision, visual acuity, and the perimeter of the lateral
field of vision. Vision tests and standards were established after
a study of several months by Canal Zone Police and a group of
doctors from the Health Bureau. Elbert Sasso, Consul General of
the Netherlands, is shown here in the eye-testing machine, with
driver-examiner Anthony Malagutti standing by.



Income Tax. That time of year is coming round again. Two
representatives of the Internal Revenue Service will be in the
Canal Zone during this year's filing period to give advice and
assistance to tax payers on their returns. Headquarters will be
in the Civil Affairs Building., The first representative is due Jan-
uary 12, will stay here until February 6 and then return for a
period between April 6 and 15. The second is scheduled to arrive
March 9 and remain through April 15. Because of the heavy load
on the Internal Revenue Service, plans for conducting an Income
Tax School in the Canal Zone have been abandoned. Wendell
Lindsay, who has assisted taxpayers in filing their returns for
several years, will not come here this year.

New Radiologist. Lt. Col. Vern L. Lester, of Detroit, has joined
the staff of Gorgas Hospital as a member of the Radiology Service.
He arrived on the Isthmus December 17 from New York aboard
the transport Henry Gibbons, accompanied by his wife and three
children. A diplomat of the American Board of Radiology, he
has been in private practice in Detroit for several years and was
recently recalled to active service in the Army.






* LOOKING BACI


Board of Directors meets here; asks additional capacity studies.
Overhaul begins on Pacific Locks. Bids asked for air condi-
tioning Administration Building. Contract signed for automa-
tion studies. Carnival flags raised. Income tax forms received.


Bids asked for remodeling Navy buildings into elementary school
at Coco Solo. Bridge design selected. Personnel Bureau moves
to Ancon. Latin American schools open. Pay raises OK'd
for postal workers. Budget and Finance Committee visits Zone.


Earth-moving contractors here to assist in Canal studies. Presi-
dent Eisenhower signs teachers' pay raise bill. Opening of schools
delayed by late arrival of "teachers' special." Contract awarded
for designing of new schools. New stamped envelopes issued.


Coco Solo becomes a Panama Canal town. Consultants he
on marine traffic control study. "Review" provides semi-week
news sheet during newspaper strike. Col. John D. McElheny desi
nated Lieutenant Governor-to-be. Cristobal has record hot spel


Pedro Miguel lock chamber floor buckles. Directors inspect r
pairs. House Committee reports Uniform Wage Bill. La Bo
School moves to Pedro Miguel. Senate approves money I
Canal bridge. Centennial of General Goethals' birth is observe


Disability Relief system ends as non-citizens are blanketed into Civ
Service Retirement. Tolls set new record. Governor writes Chan
ber of Commerce on Canal purchases. LeTourneau locomotive
are tested. United Fund drive begins for entire;Canal Zoni


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW January 2, 1959


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


January 2, 1959






WARD AT 1958 *


4, -h [


-- *- *- *e..*- *
. .r .* ... :"
1 -'


House Committee consultants on Canal visit Isthmus. Canal traffic
at record high. Preliminary drilling completed for bridge. Secre-
tary of Army Wilbur Brucker gives "Outward Look" talk. Zo-
nians assist victim of "bends." New employees make Canal transit.


Experimental lighting installed in Cut. Bridge consultants con-
sider technicalities at meeting. Domestic conversion begins on
Pacific side of Canal Zone. ROTC Building bids are asked.
Apprentice exams announced. Zonians swelter in record heat.


New Lieutenant Governor John D. McElheny and family arrive.
Canal traffic sets new record for fiscal year. France Field area
transfer announced. Retroactive pay raise checks are distributed.
Dr. Milton Eisenhower visits Zone and makes transit of Canal.


Bids opened for new Pacific side railroad terminals. Panama,
Zone officials discuss bridge approaches. School tuition increase
is announced. SS "Cristobal" puts into Norfolk to avoid hur-
ricane. Canal Zone policemen, firemen get salary increases.


Roosevelt family, Roosevelt medal holders join Zonians in cele- First contract awarded for bridge work. Property in New Cris-
brating Theodore Roosevelt Centennial. Company-Government tobal transferred to Panama. Dredge Mindi goes on reserve
exceeds United Fund goal. Congressmen here to inspect Canal. status for two years. Bids asked for Atlantic side junior-senior
Fleeing shark jumps into Port Captain's launch in Balboa harbor, high school. New Uniform Wage regulations are announced.


January 2, 1959


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW











WATER


[~ Something in~the order of one and a
halfbillion cubic feet of water will be
pumped, purified, and distributed to
about 400,000 consumers by the Canal's
Water and Laboratories Branch during
the present year.
This amounts to the astronomical total
of 11,500,000,000 gallons of water, or an
average of 30,000,000 gallons a day. It
is interesting to note that this is just over
one-half of the water necessary for one
ocean-to-ocean transit. Barring unforeseen
events of a catastrophic nature, the 110
individuals who man the pumps, operate
the filtering plants, and maintain over
200 miles of water mains, can handle this
task with hardly a deep breath.
it However, in just a few more years the
problem may not be so simple. If the
fastest growing customer-suburban Pan-
ama-were to continue its present growth
rate in water consumption the capacity
of existing facilities soon would be far
outstripped.
Seventeen years ago suburban Pan-
ama, the area generally north and east
of Calidonia, was using 600,000 gallons
of water a day. Last year the daily con-
sumption in the area was 6,000,000
gallons, ten times as much as in 1943.
The problem presented by this phenom-
enal increase is one which has already
caused much serious thinking and several
joint conferences between Panama and
Canal officials who must cope with it.
The problem hinges mainly on the dis-
tribution system. The area is supplied
from the two big storage tanks on Engi-
neers Hill near Los Rios which hold a
total of 3,000,000 gallons of water. Two
bottlenecks in the distribution system
were recently broken-one by Panama
and one by the Canal Company. Panama
recently completed installation of a 16-
inch main to the suburban area while the
Canal Company increased the pumping
capacity to the tanks by 1,500,000 gallons
a day by installing a booster pump station
at Los Rios to increase storage capacity
by that much.
A further investment is planned by the
Canal, budgeted for fiscal year 1961, by
the installation of a second booster pump
at the Los Rios plant with double the
capacity of the first booster pump.
When this is done, the distribution
system to Panama City and suburban
Panama will have a rated capacity of
19,000,000 gallons a day, about 3,000,000
gallons a day above the anticipated de-
mand for the coming year. This margin,
however, gives but little leeway in hand-
ling peak loads which normally come
during the dry season.
Panama and its suburban area are
now using approximately half of the
water purified and distributed by both
Panama Canal filtration plants. When
the new rated capacity of the Pacific
side distribution system is reached
after scheduled improvements are made,
the consumption by Panama and its
suburbs will be almost 70 percent of


the rated capacity of the Miraflofes
purification plant.
During the past fiscal year the total
water consumption from the Canal sys-
tem was 1,498 million cubic feet, divided
as follows: Panama and suburban Pan-
ama, 738 million; Canal Zone, including
the Armed Forces, 563 millions; Colon,
175 millions; and sales to vessels, 22 mil-
lions.
Comparative figures for 10 years ago
showed a total of 1,570 million cubic feet
distributed annually, with Panama and
its suburbs using 504 million cubic feet,
approximately 32 percent of the total.
The provision of a potable water sup-
ply to the Canal Zone and adjacent cities
of Panama and Colon was a problem of
first magnitude when the United States
began the Canal construction in 1904.
At that time Panama City had no public
water supply and Colon had only a rudi-
mentary system.
In the public's mind yellow fever was
the "bad boy" of the early Canal con-
struction period, but intestinal diseases
caused by lack of adequate water and
sewer system were potentially more
dangerous to success of the project.
Consequently, immediate efforts were
directed toward meeting this problem.
When water was turned on in Panama
City on July 4, 1905, it was a day of
great rejoicing. The Municipal Council
held a special session and adopted a res-
olution of appreciation A special Mass
of thanks was held in the Cathedral at-
tended by the President and his Cabinet
as well as many officials of the Isthmian
Canal Commission.
Since then the Canal has furnished pure
water to Panama City and Colon as well
as to all consumers in the Canal Zone.
Its importance to public health is no less
today than it was in 1904. Since local
residents have been drawing their drink-
ing water from a tap without trepidation
for 50 years, they give little thought to
its benefits. In many parts of the world
it would be considered a great privilege
to live without fear of contaminated
drinking water.
There has been no change in the purity
of the water and little change in the type
of service rendered over the half century,
except for the fluoridation process begun
a few years ago. There have been several
changes in the administrative aspects of
furnishing Panama City and Colon.
The water and sewer systems in Pan-
ama and Colon were installed under terms
of the 1903 Treaty. These provided that
the United States would bear the cost of
these systems and assess rates sufficient
to amortize the indebtedness over a 50-
year period. In 1926 a convention was
signed providing that water rentals would
also cover the cost of paving and street
maintenance in Panama.
Twenty years later, in 1946, the water
and sewer systems, as well as the street
maintenance work, were transferred to
Panama under the terms of the "General


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW January 2, 1959


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


January 2, 1959








Steady Potable Supply Provided

By Panama Canal At Low Rate


Relations Agreement." At that time the
value of the unamortized portion of the
Panama and Colon water and sewer sys-
tems amounted to $669,226.38 which was
cancelled without further obligation on
the part of the Republic of Panama, and
the system was given to the Republic.
For several years after this transfer
and the cancellation of the $669,000 in-
debtedness, the management functions
were performed under contract by the
Municipal (now Maintenance) Division
owing to lack of trained personnel to take
over the operation and management.
During this period the wholesale water
rates to Panama were on a cost basis
while retail rates to individual consumers
were set by mutual agreement at a cost
sufficient to pay for street paving, cost
of management, sewer maintenance, a
portion of garbage collection costs, and
maintenance of the water system. The
net rates to individual consumers were 30
cents per 1,000 gallons in Panama and 40
cents per 1,000 gallons in Colon. These
rates had been maintained for some 30
years prior to the transfer.
This Management Contract was term-
inated three years ago when the public
health functions in Panama were trans-
ferred from Canal Zone authorities to the
Republic. Since then water has been sup-
plied at the boundary lines in Panama
City on a wholesale basis at no change in
rate. The water rentals assessed indi-
vidual consumers are now set by the appro-
priate authorities in Panama and Colon.
While water rates have varied over
the years, they have remained consist-
ently low, particularly in comparison
with those of water systems of com-
parable size and production problems
in other parts of the world.
The present bulk rates are 8.7 cents
per 100 cubic feet for Panama; 8.9 per
100 cubic feet for suburban Panama;
and 8.3 cents per 100 cubic feet for
Colon. Rates for the Armed Forces
are on a sliding scale which ranges
from 8 to 13 cents per 100 cubic feet.
Bulk rates for Canal activities range
from 7 to 10 cents per 100 cubic feet.
Panama's annual bill from the Canal
Zone for water deliveries in Panama and
Colon last fiscal year amounted to $423,-
669 for Panama City; $227,866 for sub-
urban Panama; and $145,908 for Colon.
The rate variations arise mainly from
differences in pumping and reservoir
storage costs.
These rates compare favorably with
those in cities throughout the United
States, being less than half of rates
charged bulk users in some cities but
slightly higher in other instances. Cities
which have higher rates, according to a
survey published by the American Water
Works Association in 1953, include At-
lanta, Boston, Dallas, Jersey City, Miami,
Norfolk, New York, and San Diego, with
San Diego having the highest rate of 18
cents per 100 cubic feet. Cities on a par
or with lower rates than those of the


Canal include Chicago, Houston, Los
Angeles, Memphis, and New Orleans.
The establishment of water rentals re-
quires consideration of many highly var-
iable factors, and rates are hardly com-
parable until these are given proper
weight. Among these factors are popula-
tion and area served; raw water supply;
kind of purification treatment required;
mineral content of water; and topography
of the area served.
In a recent study completed by the
Water and Laboratories Branch, it was
found that Arlington, Va. has conditions
comparable in most respects to the local


struction period. If these facilities had to
be replaced today, the construction costs
would be so high that a major increase
in water rentals would be inevitable.
Canal authorities foresee no immediate
need for a major expansion of the water
supply system but they recognize that
when and if it becomes necessary costs
will be excessively high as compared with
original costs of existing installations.
In addition to the installation of the
new booster pump at Los Rios, the major
changes which have been scheduled in-
clude: An improved filter wash system at
Miraflores, remote control of pump sta-
tions, and installation of a new 16-inch
main from the Ancon high service system
to the boundary at the Tivoli crossing.


-II
In addition to a supply of pure potable water, the Canal Zone provides water to
fight fires in Panama. Pressure is increased automatically when an alarm sounds.


situation. The county buys its water
supply from the adjacent District of Col-
umbia which has water purification pro-
cedures very similar to those of the Zone.
Arlington County rates are $151 for
the first million gallons supplied di-
rectly from the Washington, D. C.
distribution system, and $147 per mil-
lion-gallon unit additional. These
rates compare with $116 in million-
gallon units now charged Panama City
by the Canal Zone system.
There is a major difference in the
two systems, however, in that Arling-
ton County owns its own distribution
system as well as its pumping and
storage facilities.
A major factor in keeping the Canal
water rates at their low level is the low
capitalization for the water system. The
principal installations-the Miraflores
and Agua Clara filtration plants-were
byilt near the close of the Canal con-


janvary-2rI9~9 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


As suburban Panama continues to
grow, the water supply to Panama City
and its suburbs can be increased from 19
to 25 million gallons a day by the install-
ation of an additional 30-inch water main
from Miraflores to Balboa.
Although this is not now scheduled,
its estimated cost would be $1,470,000.
An indication of the increased costs of
the past 45 years is shown by the fact
that a main of the same dimensions
installed in 1914 between Miraflores and
Balboa, when the storage tanks on Chor-
rillo Hill were built, cost only $173,000.
While the cost of additional facilities
today would be high in comparison with
the cost when the water system was built
back 45 years ago, this would not neces-
sarily involve an increase in water rentals.
The additional charges resulting from in-
creased capitalization might be absorbed
without increasing consumer charges if
the volume of consumption were sufficient
over a period of 20 to 30 years to meet
interest and depreciation costs.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Jantvary-2-1959 -












CANAL

EMPLOYEES

ATTEND

F.S.U.


Frank P. Sullivan


FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY COURSES ARE NOT FOR JUST THE ARMED
FORCES. THEY ARE OPEN TO ALL CANAL ZONE CIVILIANS WHO
SATISFY THE ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS.


When three o'clock comes around at
Gatun Locks on Monday and Wednesday
afternoons, Arthur A. Albright can be
seen hurrying toward his car. He has a
tight schedule ahead of him. First, he
heads for home where he must dress, have
dinner, drive to the Gatun station, and
catch the 5:25 train for Corozal. At Cor-
ozal he will be met by friends for a quick
trip across the Canal to Fort Kobbe.
At 6:30, with goodluck. he will be at his
desk in the Education Center in Kobbe
listening to a lecture on psychology.
Mr. Albright, the man in a hurry,
is one of the more than a dozen Canal
employees enrolled with Florida State
University and is now taking a psychol-
ogy course which is being taught at
Kobbe. Each Monday and Wednesday he
commutes across the Isthmus to class.
His Tuesday and Thursday schedules
are not as hurried since the course in
Latin American History which he is also
taking is held at Fort Gulick, a 10-minute
ride from his home.
A long-time Canal employee, Mr. Al-
bright began his service in 1934 as an
electrician and is now a general foreman
at Gatun Locks.
Since the University of Florida took


over the Canal Zone program in February
of last year, he has enrolled for 29 hours
of academic work and is now "doubling
up" and studying the Principles of Psy-
chology and Latin American History.
Not letting his failure to finish high
school discourage him, Mr. Albright
earned an equivalency diploma by tak-
ing a High School General Education
Development Test. In addition to his
work with FSU, he earned credits with
Louisiana State University when it was
represented on the Isthmus and has
also studied with the University of
Chicago.
Mr. Albright is hoping to earn his
degree in the next two years since in
some cases, the University will allow
students to complete the requirements for
a Bachelor of Arts Degree by attending
three summer sessions on campus when
they have completed over 100 credits.
Until June of this year, he worked shifts
exclusively but was able to make arrange-
ments so that he attended most of his
classes.
Another Canal employee, who has been
on the Isthmus since he was 11 months
old, is preparing for his retirement by
working toward a Bachelor of Science


Degree. He is Frank P. Sullivan, window
clerk at the Balboa Post Office.
Like Mr. Albright, Mr. Sullivan has a
busy schedule but since he lives in Balboa,
a quick trip across the Canal on Tuesdays
and Thursdays brings him to class at
Kobbe. He is presently taking a course
in the History of Western Civilization,
his eighth course with Florida State.
The Florida State University program
in the Canal Zone is sponsored by the
United States Army Caribbean but is
open to civilians who satisfy the entrance
requirements.
The Canal Zone program was taken
over by FSU in February of last year and
is presently under the direction of Dr.
Merrill A. Symonds.
Among the Canal employees taking
advantage of this opportunity to secure
a college education or do some mental
brushing up are Evelyn S. Slowick, Ma-
linda N. Nunley, Elizabeth N. Fulcher,
Edythe Glazer, Mirt Bender, Malcolm
R. Wheeler, Ralph R. Grassau, Beatrice
B. Lucas, Barry Kenealy, Edwin C. Mc-
Ilvaine, Martha W. Browder, Richard H.
Jenks, Richard W. Coy, Richard H. Les-
ter, Frank A. Robinson, Mildred Gray,
and Mildred L. Frensley.


Armed Forces Day to be Held January 10

Armed Forces Day exhibits, like this one, always draw droves of spectators.
An exhibit illustrating the services fur-
nished the Armed Forces by the Canal
organization will be a part of the Com-
pany-Government official participation
in Armed Forces Day, January 10. Par-
ticipating unofficially will be the thous-
ands of Canal employees, their wives and
children, who will flock to the Armed
Forces Day exhibitions as they have done
for the past decade.
"Power for Peace" will be the theme
for this year's observance, with the
.combined military services of the Canal
Zone on display on both sides of the
Isthmus.
S Approximately 70 Army, Navy, and
Air Force exhibits, ranging from Infantry

12 January 2, 1959


Arthur A. Albright






Panama Canal Company

Board Will Meet Here

Beginning January 26
The annual meeting of the Canal Com-
pany's Board of Directors on the Isthmus
is scheduled this year to begin January
26. This will be the eighth time the Board
has met here since its decision to meet
in the Canal Zone every January.
While routine matters, principally of a
fiscal nature, will occupy most of the
attention of the Board members at formal
sessions, the Board will take advantage
of its visit to examine several major proj-
ects in their beginning state.
Principal attention will be devoted
to the high-level bridge across the
Canal; short range plans for increasing
the capacity of the Canal; new housing
plans for La Boca; and LeTourneau
towing locomotives which have been
converted for use on both lock walls.
The bridge work will be in progress when
Board members are here, and the contrac-
tor for the west approach work is expect-
ed to be well advanced on that phase of
the $20,000,000 bridge job. The Directors
will have the opportunity to inspect the
route of the longer east approach for which
work is to begin in February.
The contract for the widening of Gail-
lard Cut in the Paraiso and Cucaracha
reaches also is to be initiated. This two-
year job is a major project of the short-
range improvement program.

weapons to weather plotting equipment,
will be set up along with displays from
the United States Information Service,
the Red Cross, and the Girl Scouts.
Parades will be held at Fort Davis and
AlbrookAirForceBase. The United States
Army Caribbean Chemical Section will
give a demonstration climaxed by a sim-
ulated atomic explosion. A drill by the
U. S. Navy Drill Team and the USAF
air show starting with a helicopter dem-
onstration have been scheduled.
The many exhibits will include such
eye-catchers as the U. S. Navy Harbor
Unit's cutting of steel underwater by
oxygen acetylene torch. A tank with
glass windows will be used so that the
public can watch the operation. A dis-
play of a cutaway jet engine will be set
up by Albrook Air Force Base which is
also scheduling a demonstration by "The
Minutemen," a flight of five jet F-86
pilots from the United States who will
perform acrobatic maneuvers.
Spectators will be able to participate
in some of the demonstrations. A
blank machine gun firing range is to
be set up for children, with trained
personnel on hand to supervise and
assist them. The Armament Section
of the U. S. Army Caribbean School
will conduct mortar firing for the
children with two 60 mm mortars
which fire suction-cup-tipped plastic
darts at forty or fifty feet range against
toy trucks and other targets.
Again this year, in conjunction with
Armed Forces Day, the Veterans of For-
eign Wars is sponsoring an essay contest
"WhatArmed Forces DayMeansTo Me,"
to determine which youngsters will serve
as "Admirals and Generals for a Day."

January 2, 1959 13


one-time homes in the West Indies of about
50 Years Ago 1,000 former employees and their families,
50 Years Ago living in the Republic.


William Howard Taft, President-elect
of the United States, and a group of
seven eminent engineers, all of whom
were authorities on dam construction and
hydraulic engineering, were Canal Zone
visitors 50 years ago this month. The
trip was in response to a request of Pres-
ident Theodore Roosevelt who had ap-
pointed the board and asked his successor
to look into the lock and dam sites in
the Canal project to settle once and for
all whether the plans were feasible.
Former Chief Engineer John F. Stevens
had his say on the controversy over the
Canal, too. In a letter to the Engineering
News, reprinted in the Canal Record, he
said: "The animus of the attack on the
canal work lies deeper than any alleged
fears as to the practicability of the proposed
dam or locks." He attributed it as part
of a scheme by backers of a Nicaraguan
Canal to discontinue the work on the Canal
across the Isthmus of Panama.
As the new year began, the CANAL
RECORD summed up the construction
progress so far. Between May, 1904,
when the United States took over the
Canal work from the French, and the
end of 1908, a total of 59,773,179 cubic
yards of rock and earth had been removed
from the Canal excavation. During 1905,
the first complete year under the Amer-
ican administration, the monthly exca-
vation average was 149,934 cubic yards;
during 1908, the monthly average exca-
vation was 3,084,724 cubic yards.
The excavation at Pedro MiguelLocks was
about two-thirds completed. AtMiraflores, an
earth dam was being built on the West side of
the lock site, closing the mouth of the Cocoli
Valley, and work on Miraflores dam and back-
fill was progressing rapidly. The excavation at
GatunLocks was more than half completed and
construction of Gatun Dam had been started.
In another summary, the CANAL RECORD
reported that since May 1904, the Isthmian
Canal Commission had expended a total
of $619,000 to protect its employees-
physically-against mosquitoes carrying
malaria or yellow fever. This money was
spent for screening and the cabinet work
necessary for its installation.




The annual report of The Panama
Canal, published January 6, 1934, rec-
ommended legislation to amend the dual
measurement system in levying Panama
Canal tolls, the pensioning of alien em-
ployees, and the appropriation of $150,-
000 to repatriate alien ex-employees. It
said that tolls were "limited by the meas-
urement of net tonnage which is not re-
lated closely to a ship's earning capacity."
The report sparked off rumors of a mass
evacuation of alien families from the Canal
Zone; Executive Secretary C. A. Mcllvaine
explained that the funds would be used to
finance the "voluntary migration" to their


For the first time in the history of the
Panama Canal, a ship capsized and sank
in its waters. The vessel was the small
Dutch freighter Brion. She developed a
leak during her northbound transit,
turned over, and foundered in 60 feet of
water half a mile south of Gatun Locks.
Her crew of 23 were rescued by launches.
Federal employees were practically as-
sured of the return of at least part of their
15 percent salary cut, according to labor
sources in the Canal Zone. The action
would depend either on Executive Order or
Act of Congress, they said.
Meanwhile, The Panama Canal was in-
formed officially byradio from Washington
that it would be allocated no additional
National Recovery Act funds. The Canal
had received approximately $1 million the
previous year for various projects.



As they were 25 years ago, Panama
Canal tolls were in the limelight 10 years
ago this month. As January 1949 ended,
the proposed increase in tolls was wait-
ing review by the 81st Congress, with a
possibility that the entire tolls question
would be investigated.
Five deaths from jungle yellow fever in
the Republic of Panama led to a wholesale
vaccination against yellow fever of residents
of the Republic and the Canal Zone. Vac-
cine was flown to the Isthmus from the
United States; in a five-day period, nearly
40,000 persons in the Canal Zone and the
terminal cities were vaccinated.
The first death from polio during a
current outbreak occurred in Gorgas Hos-
pital January 4, 1949. The victim was
a young naval officer. As the month
went on, the epidemic abated and pre-
cautionary measures, instituted the pre-
vious month, were eliminated. Polio
funds, however, were exhausted and an
appeal was made for generous donations
to the March of Dimes campaign.
Facing what was expected to be one of the
longest and driest seasons on record, theCanal
organization began stringent water conserva-
tion measures. Tandem lockages and the use
of short lock chambers were instituted and
Diesel electric plants at Cocoli, Agua
Clara, and Miraflores placed in operation.




Following its annual meeting in the Canal
Zone, the Board of Directors of the Panama
Canal Company announced that itbelieved
the short-range improvement program to
increase the Canal's capacity was too con-
servative and directed the Governor to
expedite further studies to meet the needs
of world shipping.
During their visit, the Directors also ap-
proved the utilization of quarters and certain
community facilities at Coco Solo.









ANNIVERSARIES


35 YEARS


Four well-known Zonians, three of whom have been here for many
years, share honors for service anniversaries in December.
Top spot in this month's Anniversary list-by virtue of a two-day
edge on his nearest competitor-goes to Charles Keener Cross,
much better known as "Jiggs." There is no reason for the nick-
name which someone gave him soon after he came here and which
has stuck with him ever since,
Mr. Cross, a native of Baltimore, left college in the States to
join his parents here. His father, Harry B. Cross, was a shipjoiner
with the Mechanical Division. Jiggs took a commercial course as
a post graduate at Balboa High School and, after a brief stint as
an electrical helper, joined the staff of what was then the Record
Bureau and is now the Administrative Branch. He has held a
number of posts in this unit and is now a Management Analyst in
the Record Section. A former Twilight League baseball star, he
now plays golf and is still a crack swimmer.
R. A. Sylvestre, Hospital Administrative Officer in the Office of
the Health Director, was christened Ralph Antonio when he was
born in Nashua, N. H., but no one ever calls him anything but
"Tony." His government service began 35 years ago last month
when he joined the Navy. He came to the Isthmus with the Navy
in 1925, and in November, six years later, became a clerk in the
Health Bureau at Corozal Hospital. With the exception of a brief
period when he worked on loan with the Executive Plans Section,
all of his service has been with the Health organization.
He has a fine singing voice and was one of the charter members
of the Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barber-


shop Quartet Singing In America, Inc., but says he is now a "crow"
and listens to others sing instead of singing himself.
John D. Lowe, the third 35-year employee in this month's list,
spent 26 of his 35 years of government service in the Navy. Like
Jiggs Cross, he was born in Baltimore. He joined the Navy in 1923
and at the time of his discharge in 1949 was a chief aviation ma-
chinist's mate. He had served several tours in the Canal Zone and
after his retirement worked as a civilian employee of the Armed
Forces here.
In 1951, he became a stevedore foreman with the Terminals Di-
vision and is now General Foreman for Docking and Undocking
with that Division on the Atlantic side.
Perc F.. Graham, who is also a second-generation employee, is
one of the Fire Division's four Captains and is in charge of the
Balboa Central Station. His mother named him for the son of a
friend, but didn't like "Percy" and just dropped the "y."
Captain Graham has been a Zonian since just before his sixth
birthday. His father, W. H. Graham, was a conductor for the Pan-
ama Railroad. The younger Graham held several summer vacation
jobs as a lad and when he was grown became a chauffeur in the
Transportation Division. In 1925 he transferred to what was then
the Police and Fire Division and has been a firefighter ever since.
He has held his rank of Captain since 1956.
Until recently he was an ardent golfer in his spare time. Not
long ago he bought a boat and his golf clubs now stand unused in
the garage of his Diablo Heights home.


30 YEARS
This month's 30-year employees fall nat-
urally into groups.
Three of them, Kenneth R. A. Booth,
Frank A. Dorgan, and Neil H. Wilson,
share the same service date, December 11,
1928. Three, but not the same three, have
unbroken Canal service: Mr. Booth, Mr.
Wilson, and William Black. Three of them,
Mr. Black, Mr. Dorgan, and Mr. Wilson
come from East Coast States.
Mr. Black was born in Lonsdale, R. I.,
and joined the Canal organization Decem-
ber 21, 1928, as a wireman in the Locks
Division. All of his service has been with
the Locks. He has served as a towing loco-
motive operator, control house operator,
lockmaster, electrical supervisor, and assist-
ant superintendent of the Pacific Branch
and now holds the title of Chief Locks
Maintenance Foreman II for the Pacific
Lo:ks.
Mr. Booth's birthplace was Ancon Hos-
pital. He began his Canal career as a lug-
german in the Commissary Division, with
which he later held the positions of checker,
clerk, accounting clerk, and accountant. In
1945 he was transferred to the Accounting
Division. From 1948 to 1953 he worked in
the Plans Section and Management Divi-
sion but now is back with the Comptroller's
Office as a rates analyst in the Budget and
Rates Division.
Mr. Dorgan, who comes from Moores-
town, N. J., began his Canal career as a
wireman in the Electrical Division. He re-
signed four years later but was reemployed
in 1934 as a towing locomotive operator
with the Locks Division. He has served as
junior and senior control house operator
and is now a lockmaster at Gatun Locks.
Mr. Wilson, who was born in Chandlers
Valley, Pa., came to the Canal Zone in 1928
as an instrumentman with the Municipal
Engineering Division. After service with
the now defunct Fortification Division, he
worked at Madden Dam and with the Elec-
trical Division and the Section of Surveys.
In 1937 he transferred to the Marine Di-
vision as an admeasurer. Since 1955 he has
been Director of Admeasurement for the
Marine Bureau.

25 YEARS
Only one woman was included on the list
of employees completing 25 years of service
during December. She is Beatrice H. Sim-
onis, Director of Nurses at Gorgas Hospi-
tal, who has continuous service with the
Health Bureau. Miss Simonis is a native
of Two Rivers, Wis.
Alexander Egudin, who was born in Mos-
cow, Russia, is another Gorgas Hospital
employee who passed the 25-year mark in
Canal service last month. His first job was
as Junior Dispensary Assistant and he. is
presently employed as Pharmacist.


Other employees with continuous service
whose names appear on the quarter-century
roster this month are listed in alphabetical
order:
Robert K. Hanna is an employee of the
Accounting Division presently working with
the Plant Accounting Branch as an Ac-
countant. He is a native of Mansett, Me.
Grady B. Hardison, of New Bern, N. C.,
joined the Canal Zone as a watchman with
the Locks Division in 1939. He is now a
police officer and one of the top marksmen
in the Police Division.
Harry E. Pearl's first job was as a surveys
recorder with the Section of Surveys. He
is presently employed as a civil engineer
with the Engineering Division.
Glenn L. Terrell, a shipwright in the
Locks Division, is a Mississippian, born in
the town of Prentiss. He came to the Canal
as a chauffeur with the Motor Transporta-
tion Division.
Two other employees reached the quar-
ter-century mark in December. One is a
native of Panama.
Carlos M. Badiola, of Panama City, is
a cartographic survey aid in the Engineer-
ing Division. His service dates back to
1933 when he came to work for the Canal
as a surveyor stationed at Madden Dam.
Floyd H. Baldwin, General Auditor in
charge of the General Audit Division, began
his service as a clerk with the Accounting
Department. His home is in Bardstown,
Ky. He was Comptroller for Panama for
a number of years.

20 YEARS
A husband-and-wife combination, both
school teachers, are among the employees
who passed the 20-year milestone in Canal
service during the past month.
Carl F. Maedl, of Harding County, S. D.,
and his wife Alfhild, of St. Peter, Minn.,
are elementary and secondary school teach-
ers. Mrs. Maedl, now teaching at Cristobal
Junior High School, began her service as a
substitute teacher, October 3, 1938, less
than a month after the employee it of her
husband. Mr. Maedl's service is broken
only by summer vacations. He teaches at
the Cristobal High School.
Another Schools Division employee, Anna
M. Wright, clerk-stenographer, is also on
the 20-year list. Her hometown is Bayside,
Long Island, N. Y.
The three employees whose service rec-
ords are unbroken are Ben B. Gupton, of
Epleys, Ky.; Carl N. Nix, of Pittsburg, Tex.;
and Francis Washabaugh, of Ancon.
Mr. Gupton has continuous service as a
customs guard with the Customs Division.


Also once employed by the Customs Divi-
sion, Mr. Washabaugh is now an admeasurer
in the Navigation Division. All of Mr.
Nix's service has been with the Electrical
Division where he is now working as an
operator-dispatcher with the Power Branch.
Also on the 20-year list is Albert B. Col-
lins, of Dexter, Ga., who is employed as an
electrician with the Motor Transportation
Division.

15 YEARS
Nine employees coming from the Canal
Zone, Scotland, and seven different States
chalked up their 15th year of Canal service
during December.
They are Mrs. Janet M. Bienz, of Edin-
burgh, Scotland, restaurant manager with
the Sales and Service Branch; John C.
Brown, of Chicago, Ill., automobile me-
chanic, Motor Transportation Division;
Donald J. Grimm, of Ancon, wireman,
Locks Division; Melvin F. Millard, of Pat-
erson, N. J., supervisory safety inspector,
Engineering and Construction Bureau;
Mrs. Kathyleen Miller, Glendive, Mont.,
appointment unit supervisor, Employment
and Utilization Division; Regina Thoma-
son, New York City, civil engineering drafts-
man, Engineering Division; Arnold W.
Jackson, Dobson, N. C., wireman, Locks
Division; and Joseph T. Kozlowski, Shen-
andoah, Pa., distribution clerk, Postal Di-
vision.



RETIREMENTS

Retirement certificates were presented
the end of November to the following
e nployees who are listed alphabetically,
together with their birthplaces, titles, years
of Canal service, and their future homes.
Frances C. Moomaw, Virginia; Principal,
North and South Margarita Elementary
Schools; 28 years, 1 month, 9 days; Roa-
noke, Va.
Angela F. Reilly, New York; Staff Nurse,
Coco Solo Hospital; 28 years, 9 months, 27
days; the Bronx, N. Y.
Ralph E. Robinson, Nebraska; Forge
Shop Foreman, Industrial Division; 16
years, 9 months, 18 days; Denver, Colo.
Kenneth D. Slowick, New York; Chief
Foreman Machinist, Industrial Division;
33 years, 3 months, 19 days; Panama.
Lloyd T. Yarbray, Georgia; Laundry and
Dry Cleaning Plant Superintendent, Sup-
ply Division; 18 years, 4 months, 26 days;
Miami, Fla.


14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


^^^^^^^^^^^__^^^^^^^^^^__>


January 2, 1959






PROMOTIONS

AND TRANSFERS

Nov. 15 through Dec. 15
Employees who were promoted or trans-
ferred between November 15 and December
15 are listed below. Within-grade promo-
tions are not reported.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Gerard E. Schear, from Window Clerk,
Postal Division, to File Clerk, Communica-
tions and Records Section.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Mrs. Jessie F. Salazar, from Substitute
Teacher to Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher, Division of Schools.
Mrs. Dorothy M. White and Mrs. Fran-
ces F. Fears, from Substitute Teacher to
Elementary and Secondary School Teacher,
Division of Schools.
Freddie S. Southerland, from Police Pri-
vate to Police Station Clerk, Police Di-
vision.
Paul M. Bell and Karl P. Glass, from
Police Private to Police Technician II,
Police Divisioni.
William G. Dolan, from Fire Captain to
Chief, Fire Division.
Mrs. Eleanor D. Burnham, from Super-
visory Librarian to Librarian (Administra-
tion), Library Section.
Mrs. Emily J. Price, from Librarian to
Librarian (Cataloging), Library Section.
Mrs. Beverly C. Williams, from Librarian
to Librarian (Reference), Library Section.
Mrs. Verna S. Winstead, from Library
Assistant to Librarian, Library Section.
Albert E. Hermanny, trom District De-
tective to Police Sergeant, Police Division.
Charles N. Little, from Police Private to
District Detective, Police Division.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Mrs. Bertha E. Hayes, from Clerk-typist
to Accounting Clerk, Accounting Division.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
A. Paul Jones, Jr., from Dipper Dredge
Operator to Chief Towboat or Ferry Engi-
neer, Dredging Division.
Gayle C. Hasemann, from Clerk-Typist,
Engineering Division, to Clerk-Stenogra-
pher, Office of the Engineering and Con-
struction Director.
Mrs. Barbara J. Cunningham, from File
Clerk, Administrative Branch, to Telephone
Operator, Communications Branch.
HEALTH BUREAU
Mrs. Josephine F. McDonnell, from Staff
Nurse, Coco Solo Hospital, to Public Health
Nurse, Division of Preventive Medicine and
Quarantine.
Mrs. Evelyn R. Koperski, from Staff
Nurse, Gorgas Hospital, to Public Health
Nurse, Division of Preventive Medicine and
Quarantine.
Karen J. MacKaig, Clerk-Stenographer,
from Office of the General Counsel to Office
of the Health Director.
Mrs. Josephine S. Wood, from Staff
Nurse (Tuberculosis) to Head Nurse (Med-
icine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Charles F. Abilgaard and Dr. Ronald
E. Moore, Medical Officers, from Internal
Medicine to General Medicine and Surgery,
Coco Solo Hospital.
MARINE BUREAU
John R. Smith, from Usher and Ticket-
Seller, Sales and Service Branch, to Signal-
man, Navigation Division.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
BUREAU
Mrs. Henrietta M. Alexander, from Sub-
stitute Philatelic Order Filler, Postal Divis-
ion, to Supervisor Selling Assistant, Sales
and Services Branch.
OTHER PROMOTIONS
Promotions which did not involve change
in title follow:
Marion S. Herring, Chief Towboat or
Ferry Engineer, Dredging Division.
Mrs. Eldermae A. Duff, Accounting Clerk
Accounting Division.
Mrs. Ruth E. Townsend, Librarian, Li-
brary Section.


Atlantic Side Workers Brush Up

In Courses Sponsored By Union


Capt. Geoffrey Thompson, Industrial Division Chief, presented certificates of com-
pletion to 13 employees who took an Electrical Union-sponsored after-hour course.


Certificates for successfully completing
a course in Magnetism and Electromag-
netic Induction were awarded to thirteen
employees of the Canal organization on
December 16. The course was sponsored
jointly by Local Union 677 of the Interna-
tional Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
and the Industrial Training Committee.
The classes were held at the Cristobal
Police Station with Philip Green, Indus-
trial Training Coordinator, as instructor.
The course consisted of 11 lectures which
were held each Tuesday night from Sep-'
tember 30 to December 16. Men on
shift work were given instruction at


Canal Zone Central Employment Office
(Continued from page 2) any position in
the Canal Zone except those classified as
"security jobs" which under the memo-
randum of understandings, are to be
determined by the United States.
Basic rates of pay will be uniform for
all employees in the same job level, re-
gardless of citizenship, although citizens
of the United States will continue to re-
ceive the overseas pay differential and
certain other benefits, such as home-leave
travel, and an allowance for the differ-
ence in income tax rates between the
United States and Panama.
Consolidation of the present two-roll
pay system into a single wage plan is
comparable, although not as simple, as
pulling up a zipper. A diagram carried
in last August's REvIEw explained graph-
ically this consolidation.
Beginning about the middle of this
month, each employee will receive writ-
ten notification of his designation and
pay rate under the single-wage scale.
The new designations and pay rates, if
there is a change of salary, will be effec-
tive February 22.
Approximately 7,424 employees, a


JANUARY SAILINGS


Cristobal-
Ancon __
Cristobal
Ancon --
Ancon --
Cristobal-
A nconr.-
Cristobal-


FROM CRI



FROM NEV


STOBAL
January 3
.- 4-nuary 10
January 21
January 28
V YORK
--------anuary 2
--------January 13
--------January 20
--------January 30


January 2, 1959 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


make-up classes in the afternoons.
Capt. Geoffrey Thompson, Chief of
the Industrial Division, presented the
certificates to 13 employees who com-
pleted the training course. They were:
L. L. Barfield, W. E. Brady, Rupert Chin,
R. T. Conley, R. A. Faunce, L. Hooper,
Andrew Metzgar, Harmon Smith, A. C.
Swicegood, W. J. Turner, William Wirtz,
Jr., L. D. Wood, and Carlos Cham.
A number of similar refresher courses
have been held in the past for Canal
craftsmen. Sponsors of previous courses
were the Machinists and the Electrical
Unions.


majority of the Company-Government
force, will have no salary change.
Another 2,869, of whom over 2,700 will
be Panamanian citizens, will learn that
they are to receive more money than
they are now making, and the remain-
ing 2,722 will have their salaries frozen.
There will be approximately 670 posi-
tions now on the U. S.-rate rolls in
this frozen category.
This last group will continue to draw
their present wages, under the "grand-
father" clause in the legislation, but
their successors in these positions will be
paid at a lower rate. No one will receive
less pay than he is now earning, because
of the single-wage scale.
As described in the August REvIEW,
the single-wage scale will have four main
categories. The largest of these will be
the blue-collar workers-the unskilled,
semi-skilled, and skilled employees work-
ing in trades or crafts. This group of
about 7,300 employees will be designated
as M or manual workers.
Second largest group will be the ap-
proximately 3,000 employees now in the
GS classification. The new designation
for this group will be NM, or non-manual.
Approximately 1,900 employees will be
designated as "Special." These will be
teachers, policemen, pilots, etc. In the
last, and smallest, group, will be about
1,500 employees, who will be classed as
S, for Service, employees. These will
be those working in sales and service
positions, as housekeepers, medical at-
tendants, etc.
Despite the extensive preparation which
has alreadyjbeen made for conversion to the
MeeritSyslem and the SinglV Wage System,
a great arnhfint of clerical and bookkeep-
ing work will still have to be done.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


January 2, 1959












Record for Length
An Arabian registered tanker, owned
by the Saudi Arabian Tanker Corpora-
tion, established a record last month as
the longest bulk carriers ever to pass
through the Panama Canal. The vessel
was the German built Al Malik Saud
Al Awal which, according to waterfront
linguists, means "King Saud the First."
Measuring 775.6 feet in overall length,
the tanker was not only the longest but
one of the largest tanker ever to use
the Canal, her closest rival in this class
being the Cosmic, an ore carrier of 744
feet. Her other measurements were given
as 95.8 foot beam, displacement 60,500
tons, deadweight 46,326 tons, and gross,
28,738 tons.
The only Arabian-registered ship ever
to use the Canal, the ship made the trip
in ballast en route from Los Angeles to
Buenos Aires via Curacao. She was
handled in the Canal by three Canal
pilots, and transited from Balboa to
Cristobal without incident. Fernie & Co.
acted as agents here.
South Sea Cruise
En route to the South Sea Islands on
a 97-day cruise, the Swedish American
liner Kungsholm will transit the Canal
southbound January 15 and dock in
Balboa until 1:00 o'clock the following
morning. After cruising several thousand
miles in the South Pacific, the Kungsholm
is scheduled to return to the Canal April
13, transit the same day, and dock in
Cristobal until'7 o'clock that night before
sailing for New York. The Kungsholm
has made regular visits to the Canal since
1954 when she made her first transit on
a South American cruise.
Annual Transit
Her annual transit through the Panama
Canal will be made today by the MV
Fairsea, a 11,850-ton passenger ship
which runs between European ports and
Australia via the Suez Canal. Once each
year, the ship returns to Europe and
Great Britain via the Panama Canal on
her way home from Australia. The ship


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN NOVEMBER
1957 1958
Commercial------------ 779 773
U. S. Government-------- 25 .20
Total ------- 804 793
TOLLS *
1957 1958
Commercial --. $3,526,484 $3,631,946
U. S. Government 82,993 100,571
Total -- $3,609,477 $3,732,517
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and -small.
CARGO (long tons)
Commercial- .. 3,994,320 4,071,656
U. S. Government 65,689 115,114
Total 4,060,009 4,186,770

is to make the Canal transit during the
day and dock in Cristobal until noon
January 3. Operated by the Sitmar Line,
the Fairsea was once a British escort car-
rier. She flies the Italian flag and is
represented at the Canal by Fernie & Co.
Up the Amazon
A cruise up the Amazon River is on
the itinerary of another new German
.cruise vessel which is due to call at Cris-
tobal during this year's tourist season.
The trip up the world's largest river will
be made in March by the TS (turbine
ship) Ariadne, a cruise vessel owned by
the Hamburg-American Line.
The Ariadne is also scheduled to
make several Caribbean cruises from New
Orleans and U. S. Gulf ports this year.
Calls will be made at Cristobal by the
Ariadne February 20, March 7, March
27, and May 18. Especially designed for
cruising, the ship is completely air-con-
ditioned and has accommodations for 250
passengers. The Continental Shipping
Corporation is agent for the line on
the Isthmus.
Live Stock
Three antelopes were included in the
general cargo brought through the Canal
shortly before Christmas by the North
German Lloyd freighter Blankenstein.


The vessel brought the animals from
Germany and was transporting them to
Valparaiso, Chile, presumably for a Chil-
ean zoo. The Blankenstein is one of sev-
eral German ships making regular runs
through the Canal between European
and West coast ports of South America.
Dead Tow
The 8,679-ton Chilean Line cargo ves-
sel Lebu, which was extensively damaged
by a fire which broke out in the engine
room while the ship was off the coast of
Chile, was brought through the Canal
December 21 as a dead-tow en route to
European ports for repairs. The. Lebu
was completely disabled when the fire
destroyed the ship's engines and gutted
the crews' quarters. Only three years old,
the Lebu has made frequent trips through
the Canal on her run between New York
and Valparaiso. She was brought up
from Valparaiso in tow of the Dutch tug
Rode Zee and then taken through the
Panama Canal to Cristobal by Canal
tugs. The Rode Zee resumed the tow
after the vessel left Canal waters. Fen-
ton & Co. handle all Chilean Line ships at
the Canal.
Cruise Ship
Among the several luxurious cruise
vessels scheduled to visit the Canal dur-
ing the next few months is the Hanseatic,
the largest vessel in the West German
merchant marine fleet. Formerly the
Empress of Scotland, the Hanseatic was
purchased from the Canadian Pacific Line
by the recently-organized Hamburg At-
lantic Line which is represented in the
United States by the Home Line. Mil-
lions were spent in converting the 30,029-
ton liner into a modern wholly air-con-
ditioned ship with accommodations for
about 1,000 passengers. Her first trip to
New York was made in July 1958 on the
service between Hamburg and New York.
The Hanseatic is scheduled to arrive
in Cristobal February 20 on a Caribbean
cruise. The ship will dock at 7 a. m. and
sail for New York via Kingston and Hav-
ana at 11 p.m. Fenton & Co. are agents
for the vessel here.


Scheduled for transit January 15 is the big Swedish-American cruise ship Kungsholm, shown here during a previous visit.
The liner will be en route to the South Sea islands on a 97-day cruise. She will make her return transit on April 13.


tm r





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