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DLOC PCANAL



Panama Canal review
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00183
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Creation Date: May 1957
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00183
System ID: UF00097366:00183
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Full Text




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Protracted drought and heavy lockages were a drain on Canal Zone water supply
but there was still plenty of water for young Isthmians, and older ones, as well.


Zone Use Of Water Soars

As Lockages Set Records


Paucity and plenty have hit the Canal
Zone simultaneously within the past few
weeks, to result in a situation unparal-
leled in local history for the past decade.
The paucity was water, brought about
by the driest dry season since 1948 and
the tremendous amount of water con-
sumed by an unprecedented number of
lockages through the Panama Canal.
The plenty was ships, which totaled
more in March than in any previous
month since the Canal was opened to
commerce.
Ordinarily water in the Canal Zone
is used to generate electricity as well
as to float ships from ocean to ocean.
When water is scarce, lockages have
first call.
So when rainfall continued to be prac-
tically nonexistent and daily lockages
averaged 24.5, the stand-by Diesel elec-
tric power plants at Cocoli and Miraflores
were called on to assume a portion of the
Canal Zone's electric power generation.
Much more water is used to lock one
ship through the Panama Canal than is
used in one day for municipal purposes
in the entire Canal Zone plus the cities
of Panama and Colon. The use of the
Diesel stations for the past few weeks has
saved an average of 54I2,I4h,nHi0 gallons
each day vnu6h to lock 11 ships from

ON THE COVER
Midshipmen from the Spanish training
ship, "Juan Sebastian de Elcano," lined
the rigging for this month's cover picture
as the four-master moved up through Mir-
aflores Locks. The training ship was en
route from San Diego to Jacksonville
when she transited the Canal April 14.
Her inbound trip was marked by the res-
cue of the crew of the British freighter
"Hoperange" which caught fire at sea,
about 16 miles from the Pacific end of
the Canal. The picture was set up for
photographer C. S. LaClair by the train-
ing ship's master, Commander Don Jose
Ramon Gonzalez Lopez.


sea level to sea level, or enough to supply
the needs of the Canal Zone towns and
Panama terminal cities for almost 12 days.
J. Bartley Smith, who heads the Elec-
trical Division, and W. H. Esslinger, the
Panama Canal Company's Chief Hydrog-
rapher, explained what has happened in
the last few weeks, this way:
When there is plenty of water, electric
power is generated by the Gatun and
Madden Dam hydroelectric stations.
Water, on the old mill-wheel principle,
flows through great turbines which turn
the generators to make electric power.


Once through the turbines, the water is
spilled.
Since water passing through the
Madden Hydroelectric station goes into
the Chagres River and then to Gatun
Lake, where it can be used to lock ships
through the Canal, the water used
there was not lost. But at Gatun the
water which generates electric power
is spilled to sea and is of no further use.
During the rainy season and during a
normal dry season there is rainfall enough
to supply the water consumed from Mad-
den and Gatun Lakes for power genera-
tion. This year, however, the area above
Madden Dam was the driest since the
Dam was built during the mid-1930's.
March and the first two weeks of April
were practically rainless, except for a few
scattered showers. Of 13 rainfall stations
reporting, nine received no measurable
rain in March.
This meant that the amount left over
for electric generation, after the record
number of ships had been locked up and
down, was lower than at any time since
1948 when there was also a protracted
dry season, but without this year's heavy
lockage load.
The only answer to the water problem
was to stop hydroelectric generation
where large amounts of water are used;
that meant that the Gatun plant would
practically stop its operations. For sev-
eral weeks it has generated only a little
60-cycle power during the daytime hours
and, for the first time in its history, has
not operated between 10 p. m. and 6 a. m.
The difference in the electric power needs
has been supplied by the Diesel genera-
tors a so-called "standby" system which
has been in existence many years.
Although the water shortage has
been acute-from the point of view of
power generation and lockages-it has
not been necessary to tell Zonians to
stop watering their lawns and cut
down on their shower baths. Munici-
pal use of water is, almost literally, a
drop in the bucket compared to the
water used for lockages and power gen-
eration.


Branch chiefs L. B. Sartain, left, and'J. R. Hammond Jr., go over some work
with their boss Designing Engineer J. M. Cooke. Mr. Sartain heads the new 60-
cycle Design Branch and Mr. Hammond is Electrical-Mechanical Branch chief.


2 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


,UlX


May 3, 1957


ai
I



i






Ad Hoc Committee Makes Initial Review.

Of Capacity Problems Of Panama Canal


An initial review of the capacity
problem of the Panama Canal was
completed last month by the Ad Hoc-
or, special-Committee appointed re-
cently by the authority of the Panama
Canal Company Board of Directors.
At the conclusion of its meetings
here, the Committee instructed the
Working Committee on Canal Capac-
ity. headed by Lt. Gov. H. W. Schull,
Jr., to proceed with the preparation
of a program aimed at eliminating de-
lays to the Canal's continually in-
creasing traffic.
The program will be considered
by the Budget and Finance Commit-
tee of the Board of Directors at its
regular meeting in the Canal Zone
the end of June and by the full
Board at its July meeting.
Generally, the program will consider
improvements which may be needed
during the next decade to provide for
efficient and safe transits.
The Ad Hoc Committee is a special
group whose duties are to determine
the adequacy of the Panama Canal to


handle the increasing volume of traf-
fic and to recommend any improve-
ments that may be necessary to meet
capacity requirements.
This committee is headed by Gov-
ernor Potter, and has as its members
Maj. Gen. Julien L. Schley, former
Governor of the Canal Zone and one-
time Chief of the Corps of Engineers,
and Ralph L. Tudor, consulting engi-
neer from San Francisco. Both Gen-
eral Schley and Mr. Tudor are mem-
bers of the Canal Company's Board
of Directors.
The three-man committee spent
three days of April in meetings here,
most of their sessions being held jointly
with the local Working Committee.
They reviewed previous Canal im-
provement plans, using as part of this
study the sea-level and third-lock
models at Diablo Heights.
They also considered such special
problems as water supply and flood
control, cost estimates, and funding
procedures. Part of one day was
spent at the Pacific Locks, discuss-
ing the overhaul scheduled for these


locks during the early part of the
coming calendar year.
Prior to the April meetings, the
local Working Committee had pre-
pared a mass of information, including
a projection of traffic for the next 25
years; an analysis of the expected
traffic by types and numbers; and a
forecast of the number-which is
steadily increasing-of ships which
require clear-Cut transits. Clear-Cut
ships are those, like super tankers,
which are so large or unwieldy or
carry such hazardous cargo that they
are not permitted to meet or pass
other ships in Gaillard Cut. All clear-
Cut ships must have daylight transit.
The movements of the commodities
which make up 75 percent of the cargo
passing through the Canal were stud-
ied for their past, present, and ex-
pected performance. Officers of over
two dozen shipping companies, banks,
industries, and foreign trade associa-
tions were questioned to obtain this
information and their reports corre-
lated with past Canal movements.


Members of the Ad Hoc Committee look over the situation at Pedro Miguel Locks. Committee members are Ralph
A. Tudor, in the dark suit, Maj. Gen. Julien Schley, wearing a hat, and Governor Potter. The group met here last month.


May 18 Is Moving Day For Commissary Headquarters


The transfer of the General Manager's
Office of the Commissary Division to the
Pacific side is scheduled, as this issue of
THE REVIEW goes to press, for May 18.
The transfer is the last of the major
moves for the current fiscal year and will
complete the adjustment of supply func-
tions to the reduced volume resulting
from implementation of the 1955 Treaty.
The change will involve the physical
move of 22 U. S. and 15 local-rate em-
ployees. They will become Pacific sides
gradually, as quarters become available.
Previous moves in the consolidation of
supply functions include the transfer of
Wholesale Shoes and its merger with the
retail section at Balboa, completed last


November 13; the merger of Wholesale
Housewares with the Balboa retail house-
wares section on February 17; and the
transfer of Mount Hope cold storage
warehousing operations to Balboa, effect-
ive March 8.
The move of the Commissary office to
Balboa will make possible a merger of
the administrative, budget and fiscal, and
procurement operations of the Commis-
saries, Storehouses, and the Service Cen-
ters into one closely integrated operation.
The entire lower floor of Building 28,


the former Mechanical Division office
building now occupied by the Storehouse
Division, is being prepared for the con-
solidated office.
Integration of the office functions of
the three supply activities will result in
reduction of force for approximately 20
U. S.-rate and 16 local-rate employees of
the combined operation. Vacancies in
other Company activities have made it
possible for most of those receiving re-
duction-in-force notices to be offered
other employment.


May 3, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 3


qj I















Price Indea









What They Are


What They Mean



Residents of the Canal Zone, especially
those who handle the expenditures of
thu ir households, now have two statistical
measures by which they can compare
price changes in the Canal Zone and can
also compare Canal Zone costs with aver-
age costs in the United States.
Last month THE REVIEW reported that
these ;tatiti al measures, known as price
indexes, were being prepared. They have
now been completed and will be issued
monthly.
This month THE REVIEW tells its read-
ers exactly what these indexes are and
how they were prepared and presents the
list of 225 items on which the time-to-time
index is based.
Two price indexes have been prepared
by the Executive Planning Staff of the
Office of the Governor-President.


This is the average Canal family of four persons.


One measures price changes in Panama
Canal Commissaries, Service Centers, and
service units and is informally known as
a time-to-time index. More formally, it is
referred to as the "Canal Zone Consumer
Price Index."
The second index, which is for food
prices only, compares prices in the Canal
Zone with those compiled monthly by the
Department of Labor for food prices in
46 cities and towns in the United States.
This index is known as a place-to-place
index and is referred to in formal reports
as the "C,.mparative Food Price Index."
Consumer Price Index
The time-to-time, or Consumer Price
Index, records the average change in the
prices of goods and services purchased by


employees of the Company-Govern ment.
organizationn from the Company-Govern-
ment Commissaries, Service Centers, and
other units which supply such services as
medical care, housing, utilities, and auto-
mobile repairs.
It is simply a measure of price changes.
It does not reflect the changes in the price
of goods or services procured from other
sources. The amount which Joe Zonian
spends in the commissaries for food will
be included in this index; so will the rent
which is deducted from his paycheck.
But the cost of any vegetables which
Mrs. Zonian buys from a Chinese garden
or the amount the family spends for
movie tickets at a Panama theater will
not appear in this index.


Items Priced for the Modified Consumer Price


ALL ITEMS-


R
im
(.


Item

FOOD -


Cereals and bakery products ---
Cereals: ----
Flour, wheat--
Biscuit mix ---------
Corn flakes ----------
Rolled oats -----------
Corn meal ---
Rice ---
Bakery products:-
Bread, white --------
Soda crackers--
Vanilla cookies --------
Meats, poultry, and fish -----
Beef: --------------
Round steak---
Rib roast --
Chuck roast ------
Hamburger_ --------
Veal cutlets...
Pork: -----
Pork ( --- - -------
Smoked ham -----------
Bacon-- --
Lamb, leg --
Other meats:
Frankfurters
Canned luncheon meat -
Poultry-frying chickens dressed
and ready-to-cook----------
Fish and seafood: -
Fresh and frozen fin fish-----
Canned salnimo .-----------
Canned tuna fish ..-
Dairy Products:
Butter . -...... ---- -
Cheese, American process ----.--
.111l fresh (grocery)
'.1I1: evaporated -----
Ice cream ..-----. -
Fruits and vegetables: ---
Fresh fruit: -----
Oranges
Lemons ----------- -..


relative
portance
$100.00
36.06
3.70
1.23
.29
.23
.23
.09
.05
.34
2.47
1.66
.33
.48
6.58
2.07
.90
.17
.51
.49
.10
1.67
.45
.70
.52
.23
.95
.66
.29

1.04
.52
.24
.10
.18
5.65
.53
.54
2.69
S 1.33
.56
5.56
1.13
.10
.01


Fruits and vegetables- Cont.
Grapefruit ------ ---------
Apples -------------
Banana s-- ... ----------
Peaches--- --------- -
Grapes --------------------
Strawberries ------------- -
\Vatermelons----... ...- -
Fresh vegetables:
Potatoes----- - --------
Sweet potatoes .----.-------
Green beans --------- --
Cabbage------- --
Carrots ----------- ---.
Onions ------ --------- -
Tomatoes---------- -
Celery----- ---- --------
Lettuce --------------
Canned fruit: ----------
Orange juice, canned ..-----
Peaches, canned ----- -------
Pi.. .prple ;1.':ed, canned .
Frlit ,.ick iIl canned_
Canned vegetables: -------
Corn, canned-- -- -------
Peas, canned .-.-----------
Tomatoes, canned -----
Strained baby food .....
Frozen fruits: -- -- -
Orange juice, concentrate, froz.
Strawberries, frozen ...
Frozen vegetables:
Peas, frozen ..
Green beans, frozen- --...
Dried fruits and vegetables:
Dried prunes ....... --
Navy beans. ...... ..
Other food bought, to be pre-
pared at home. --
Partially prepared foods: ...
Tomato soup. ------------
Beans with pork---..
Condiments and sauces:
Sweet gherkins- --- .
Tomato catsup ----. - -.


Nonalcoholic beverages:
Coffee_-------
Tea ----------------
Cola drinks -.------
Fats and oils:
Margarine ---------
Lard ---------------
\Vegetable shortening.
Salad dressing ..--
Peanut butter__--
Sugar and sweets:
Sugar, white ------
Corn syrup .-----
Grape jelly_ -------
Chocolate bar ..

'I :-i.c II- i.... foods:
Flavored gelatin des
Food away from home.
Restaurant meals:
Luncheons .------...
HOUSING
Residential rents..----
Electricity -.---------
House furnishings .-
Textile iir,,i-hlrs- -
Sheets -------------
Blankets -----------
Bedspreads, cotton-_
Towels -......... ...-
T l l. 1 l..i h-. t ton.
I Ir lpl r l.ill ic, COtto
Curtains, cotton and
Floor coverings: ....
Runi-. cotton, scatter_
i'lm .i ior': ..- ..---
Bedsprings, coil .. .
M urr, --t.-, innersprin
struction-. ...-- .
Major household applian
Refrigerators, electric-
Vacuum cleaners, elec
Small household applian,
Toasters, electric- .-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


-- 1.52
1.06
-- - .13
--------- .33
.84
------ .16
.15
------- .22
.23
.08
-- 2.12
------- .52
.14
--------- .14
------- 1.32
-..---- 1.20

ssert ---- .61
..------ 6.56

.------- 6.56
-33.93
S20.50
----- - 3.17
-------- 10.26
-----.--- .73
------- .22
------- .09
.04
------- .14
.08
n. .... .12
rayon --- .04
..------ .05
..... 05
... .80
..-. -- .27
g con-
..-...- .53
ices: .94
....77
trick .--- .17
ce4. .-- .89
------ .89


May 3, 1957





Specifically, the index figure for a given
date shows the percent change in the
average cost of a list of goods and services
in comparison to the base period of the
index which is the calendar year 1956.
This base period is always equal to 100.0.
In April 1957, the index number of the
Consumer Price Index was 101.3. This
means that these goods and services cost
1.3 percent more than they did in 1956.
The base period-100.0-provides a
uniform reference point. The percent
change measures the difference between
one time and another in average prices
for the same quantities of goods and serv-
ices of the same qualities.
The time-to-time index is figured on
the prices of 225 different goods and
services. These 225 items make up a
"market basket" which is the pattern of
consumer purchases. The market basket
is based on detailed information as to the
kinds, qualities, and quantities of goods
and services bought by the employees and
how much they spent for them. It is a
more comprehensive "market basket"
than that used here for the past few years.
Comparative Food Price Index
This index, the second of the two,
measures only the difference between re-
tail food prices in the Panama Canal
Company Commissaries and the average
prices for comparable items in the United
States.
Quantity and quality is fixed. The
Canal Zone price of a can of tomatoes is
not compared with the U. S. price of
merely another can of tomatoes; it is
compared with the price of a can of toma-
toes of comparable size and quality.
Like the Consumer Price Index, the
Comparative Food Price Index is ex-
pressed in percentage terms which indi-
cate how much more or less it costs to
buy the equivalent list of food items in


INDEX NUMBER
(1956 100)


COMPARISON OF THE MOVEMENT OF
CONSUMER PRICES ON CANAL ZONE
AND IN UNITED STATES


FOOD-CANAL ZONE
---- FOOD -UNITED STATES
*-----* ALL ITEMS-CANAL ZONE
---- ALL ITEMS- UNITED STATES


J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A
1956 1957
This shows comparative movements of consumer prices in the C. Z. and in the U.S.
The heavy line is food price movements, the light line movement of all items.*


the United States than in the Panama
Canal Company Commissaries.
For example: The February 15, 1957
Comparative Food Price Index was 95.8.
Since the United States is the base and is,
therefore, always 100.0, the typical food
market basket purchased by the average


Index, and their Relative Importance.


House furn
Housewar
Dinner
Saucepa
Brooms_
Miscellane
Toilet ti
Electric
Household
Laundry s
Dry clean
Laundry s
Telephone
Postage_
Ice ---.

Men's and 1
Men's app
Suits__-
Slacks_
Shirts
Shorts,
Undersh
Pajamas
Socks--
Hats, st
Handkel
Belts-__
Ties--
Boys' apple
Jackets,
Slacks_
Dungar
Shirts, s
Ulndersh
Miscellane
Pajan
Socks
Trunk
Women's at
Women's
Coats_ _
Dresses


Item imp
ishings-Cont.
es: ---.------------.
rare, 53-piece set _.--.
ns, aluminum ........
......................
ous: ------------
ss e .... . . . .
light bulbs...... .
operation: -
oap and detergents --
ng ------ --
ervices------------
rates ----------------
---..................

APPAREL ---
boys' apparel: -
arel:



irts, knit-------------
>---------------------

raw ----------

rchiefs----------------


irel:
---------------------

rayon_--------------
ee-. blue jeans-
port, woven -
irts, knit -_- -
ous:
has _-----------------

:s, swim._ -
ad girls' apparel --- -
apparel --------
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - -


elative Skirts --------------------
ortance Blouses, rayon --.. -----
Slacks and shorts------------
1.35 Sweaters, wool--------
.20 Slips-----------------------
.74 Panties, rayon ---------
.41 Girdles -----------
1.19 Brassieres------
1.01 Nightgowns, rayon and cotton
.18 Stonkini-. n'Ion _--
4.31 Gl, .e-, -iItrr.1o and leather ---
1.59 Handbags, fabric-------
.46 Miscellaneous: --- ---
.30 Belts and billfolds -----
1.17 Handkerchiefs and scarves --
.71 Umbrellas --------
.08 Girls' apparel: ---
8.94 Coats-
Dresses, cotton-------
1.89 Skirts, cotton ..-----------.
1.30 Sweaters, cardigan, wool------
.15 Anklets -----------
.37 Pedal pushers -------
.40 Blouses-----------
.11 Slips and panties -------
.07 Raincoats ------------
.02 Footwear: -
.04 Men's:
.02 Oxfords .------------------
.04 Work shoes.--------
.02 Women's: ---
.06 Oxfords and pumps, street -
.59 Play shoes ---------
.06 Children's oxfords ------------
.10 Other apparel:
.19 Diapers-.._.---------
.12 Yard goods:
.04 Cotton -----------
.08 Rayon .-------------------
.02 Miscellaneous ---------
.03 TRANSPORTATION _
.03 Automobile -----------
4.17 Tires_-----------
3.55 Gasoline.-------------- ------
.10 Motor oil .----------------.
.88 License fee --.------ -.


.23
.25
.07
.10
.37
.16
.11
.50
.08
.19
.04
.15
.32
.14
.13
.05
.62
.01
.26
.01
.01
.04
.02
.07
.09
.11
1.86
.71
.47
.24
.63
.45
.18
.52
1.02
.24
.50
.39
.11
.28
7.69
4.84
1.32
3.08
.17
.27


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5


employee would have cost him 4.2 less
in the Canal Zone than it would have
cost him had he done his buying in the
United States.
The comparison is based on a market
basket of 80 separate food items. They
were selected to assure (See paye 19)


Freight rate.------------------- 2.85
MEDICAL CARE ---- 3.28
!'h. -. 1n --- ------------ .56
Office visit--------- .25
Home visit .---------- .25
Obstetrical care--------- .06
Su r. ..- A ppendectomy--------- .32
Stp. i ,h-i Tonsillectomy .17
Dentist: -.25
Filling_. ..----- ------- .20
Extraction----------------.--- .05
Optometrist: Eyeglasses, complete .22
Hospital rates: --------------- .41
Men's pay ward ------- .13
Private room ---..._--------- .. 28
Prescriptions and drugs----- 1:35
Prescriptions, narcotic --... .16
Prescriptions, non-narcotic-.. .32
Penicillin tablets.------ .13
Multiple vitamin concentrates .33
Asoirin ------------.--------- .31
Milk of magnesia------- .10
PERSONAL CARE -.. 2.21
Toilet soap-------------------- .38
Cl1 mIi; tissue-------- .25
I ,hpj .------------- ---- .38
Shampoo, liquid ----- .-------- .20
Shaving cream--------- .11
Home permanent refill-------- .. .07
Face powder--.. ----- ------- .23
Face cream ------- .23
Razor blades ------------..- .25
Sanitary napkins--------------- .11
READING AND RECREATION 5.25
Radio, table model-------.... -- .33
Motion picture admissions: ---- 1.96
Adult---- -------- - 1.57
Child ------------- - .39
Toys...------------ ----------- 1.71
Magazines ....-......--------- 1.25
OTHER GOODS AND SERVICES 2.64
Cigarettes------ .- -------- 1.43
Cigars------- ----------. -- .25
Beer -.. .----------.-...-.. --- .96
$100.00


May 3, 1957














Showing Off Can And Does Cause Accidents


HONOR ROLL
Bureau Award For
BEST RECORD
MARCH


ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
HEALTH BUREAU
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR
Civil Affairs-.----.---.----------... 2
Health..--.....--.--..------------. 2
Engineering and Construction --..-- 1
Marine-.--------------.------------ 1
Supply and Employee Service -.--... 1
Transportation and Terminals --..-- 0

Division Award For
NO DISABLING INJURIES
MARCH
COMMISSARY AND SERVICE CENTER
DIVISION
TERMINALS DIVISION
HOSPITALS AND CLINICS
MAINTENANCE DIVISION
HOUSING AND GROUNDS DIVISION
DREDGING DIVISION
INDUSTRIAL DIVISION
ELECTRICAL DIVISION
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION
POLICE DIVISION
FIRE DIVISION
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
SANITATION DIVISION

AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR
Aids to Navigation---..-----.-..--- 3
Electrical------...-----------.-.... 3
Fire........--------..------------.. 3
Housing and Grounds.--.--..--..-- 3
Industrial---.--..--...------....... 3
Motor Transportation --.----..-...- 3
Sanitation--.--------...-..---...-- 3
Commissary and Service Center .... 2
Dredging------.------------...---.. 2
Hospitals and Clinics-----.-------.. 2
Locks-------------...-------------..... 2
Maintenance ---------------..--.-- 2
Police --------------------------.. 2
Railroad--------.. -----...-........ 2
Storehouses ...-------------....--.. 2
Navigation --------------..............----....... 1
Terminals ..--------------------.. -- 1


MARCH 1957
BUREAU

Engineering and Construction Bureau

Health Bureau

Civil Affairs Bureau

Supply and Employee Service Bureau

Transportation and Terminals Bureau

C.Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Co. (This Month)

Marine Bureau


Number of Disabling Injuries-......-- .... 8


minded parent, who is also a motorist,
teaches his children the dangers con-
nected with streets and that they are no
place in which to play. Also, to preserve
the lives of himself and family he shows
his skill as a motorist by driving care-
fully, with consideration, and with cour-
tesy of the road for others at all time,
no matter how much his patience is tried.
He tries his best always not to become a
1957 traffic accident statistic.




SAFE BETS


FREQUENCY RATE-Disabling injuries per 1,600,000 employee-


FREQUENCY RATE--Disabling injuries per 1,600,000 employee-
| hours worked.

0 5 10 15


Employee-hours worked .-..... 2,179,323


LEGEND
Frequency Rate this month
S Accumulative Frequency Rate this Calendar Year
-I 3 1954-1955-1956 Calendar Year Average

6 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


May 3,1957


Kids like to show off. It is part of
growing up, but when you are old enough
to drive a car you are no longer a kid.
Most parents thought it was cute when
you were a kid, learning to ride a bicycle
and rode by shouting: "Mom look, no
hands!" What parent would now think
it cute for you to show off from behind
the wheel of a car like that on a busy
street or at 80 miles per hour on a coun-
try road? No! Kid stuff is not cute.
You must now take your place among
the sober and thoughtful drivers. Failure
to do so is almost sure death. Such a
sober and thoughtful driver does not cut
in and out of traffic just to get some place
in a hurry to loaf. He does not express
his opinion of slowpokes in the line by
honking his horn, or show he is a better
driver by fast driving.
He never tries to bull his way through
heavy traffic or run a pedestrian down.
He gives the other fellow a break by
watching out for his mistakes, not by
yelling "loco" at him. He always tries
to obey the traffic rules even if he does
think they are stupid, and some can be,
such as 5- and 10-mile-an-hour traffic
zones, because indifferent parents allow
their children to play in the streets, or
where a town has extended its boundaries
and its 25-mile-per-hour speed limit far
out into the country. This kind of traf-
fic regulation induces disregard and con-
tempt in the "show off" for all traffic
regulations, which are intended for their
guidance.
In this day and age, with its mounting
traffic casualties, a prudent and safety-








OF CURRENT AND FUTURE INTEREST


A new traffic control system will be in-
stalled before long on the Tivoli Avenue-J
Street corner near the former Ancon Post
Office, a corer which has been called the
worst traffic trouble-spot on the Pacific
side.
Specifications for the work are now being
prepared by the Engineering Division and
bids probably will be solicited sometime
during May.
The plans being drawn up include the
installation of traffic lights on all four cor-
ners of the intersection, the widening of
Fourth of July Avenue from J to H Streets,
the construction of three concrete refuge-
islands, and the installation of new street
lighting.

Dirt-3.085 cubic yards of it-was de-
livered during the dry season by the Hous-
ing and Grounds Division to occupants of
897 houses in U. S. and Latin American
communities on both sides of the Isthmus.
The deliveries were made free of charge in
response to advance orders made by Canal
Zone residents who had made plans for im-
proving their gardens before the rains begin
this month.
Housing and Grounds officials reported
that all advance orders were filled, and that
plans have been made to repeat the top soil
delivery service next year.

The annual Inter-Scholastic Swim Meets
of the Canal Zone schools will be held dur-
ing the month of May. Competing will be
the swim teams of the Balboa and Cristobal
high schools and the Canal Zone Junior
College.
A meet was to be held yesterday at the
Balboa Swimming Pool, and others are to
be held Friday, May to, at the Gatun Swim-
ming Pool and Friday, May 17, at the Fort
Gulick Swimming Pool.

A. E. Osborne, Supervisor of Instruction
in the Latin American elementary schools,
spent four weeks in late March and April
on a vacation trip to the United States.
After visiting in New York City, Philadel-
phia, and Chicago, Mr. Osborne returned
to the Isthmus for the opening of the Latin
American schools the first of May.

Under the supervision of Coach Paul
Moser, Physical Education Teacher, special
gymnastic exhibitions were given on May i,
in observance of Child Health Day, at the
Atlantic side elementary schools.

Want to make a phone call to the United
States or find the address of an old school-
friend who lives somewhere in San Fran-
cisco? The Canal Zone Main Library's ref-
erence section can furnish all the answers
as part of its regular library service.
The library, which keeps a selection of
telephone directories of the major cities in






Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed by the Priinig Plant, Moun Hope, Canal Zone

W. E. POTTER, Governor-President
H. W. SCHULL, JR., Lieutenant Governcr
W. G. AREY, JR., Public Information Officer

J. RUFUS HARDY, Editor
ELEANOR H. MCILHENNY, Assistant Editor

On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers,
Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publica-
tion date at 5 cents each. Subscrlprlons. $1 a year;
mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Pan-
ama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor.
THE PANAMA CANAL RgEVEw. Balboa Heights, C. Z.


-rY
.3 .s I L




..# \ )C


The steady flow ofshipping up and down through Miraflores Locks amazed famed
songstress Ella Fitzgerald when she visited the Isthmus for a few days in April


the United States, recently received the
latest editions from 41 cities all over the
country, in addition to the Manhattan and
Greater New York Area directories for the
years 1956 and 1957. The selection also in-
cludes a number of Classified directories.
Most of the books have been purchased by
the Library although a few have been
donated.


Two doctors from the Gorgas Hospital
Staff are due to leave the Isthmus soon on
completion of their tour of duty here.
First to go will be Maj. Carlos G. Llanes,
Assistant Chief of Radiology, who is end-
ing his tour of active military service. He
will be succeeded by Capt. Gordon L.
Verity, who is coming from Battle Creek,
Mich. This change will be effective this
week.
About June i, Col. Edward A. Cleve,
Chief of the Gorgas Hospital Medical Serv-
ice, will leave for his new post at the Army
Hospital, Fort Dix. He will be relieved by
Col. Joseph R. Vivas, who is coming here
from Madigan Army Hospital in Tacoma,
Wash.

A number of Company-Government em-
ployees were off the Isthmus last month for
refresher courses in their specialties.
Early in April, Joseph M. Cooke, Design-
ing Engineer, and P. Alton \ hite. Chief of
the Dredging Di'.'i4iin. flew To Ne, York to
attend an Engineering Management Forum
sponsored by the American Management
Association. Another American Manage-
ment Association course, "Reporting Finan-
cial Data to Top Management," drew James
Fulton, of the Office of the Comptroller,
and Peter DeStefano, of the New York Op-
erations.
In mid-April, A. R. Nard, Chief of the
Civil Enrineering Branch of the Engineer-
ing Di.i.i"or, ajn. Anthony P. Mann, Civil
Engineer, went to Atlanta, Ga., for a soil-
mechanics conference at the South Atlantic
Division Office of the Corps of Engineers.
And at the end of April, William G.
Are,', Jr.. Public Information Officer, was
in Philadelphia for the 13th Annual Na-
tional Conference of the American Public
Relations Association and the 8th annual
International Public Relations Institute.


CIVIL DEFENSE
NEWS


Sgt. Paul R. Walker, of Cristobal, and
Ralph Edwards, of Balboa, will conduct the
Civil Defense Volunteer Corps townsite
meetings beginning in May. Sergeant
Walker and Mr. Edwards are with the
Fire Division and are Civil Defense first
aid instructors.


Civil Defense first aid teams from Santa
Cruz walked off with two prizes in the com-
petition held during the Atlantic Safety
Field Day Program. The girls' team from
Santa Cruz won first place, while the boys'
team from the same town was awarded
second place. Paraiso's number i team
placed third.
These teams were assisted in their train-
ing by W. H. Gordon, Civil Defense first
aid instructor from Paraiso.



The Canal Zone's Civil Defense Chief,
Philip L. Dade, got his name in the papers
recently, but not in connection with Civil
Defense. On his way to the States, recently
he got together in Haiti with Kurt Fischer,
vice president of the Caribbean Archeologi-
cal Society, and compared notes on arche-
ology. The meeting was reported in the
Haiti Sun.


MAY VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS


Date Town
I Margarita and
New Cristobal
2 Balboa
8 Rainbow City
9 Gamboa
9 Santa Cruz
IS Diablo
20 Paraiso
21 Gatun


Place
Service Center
Margarita
USO-JWB
School
Civic Center
Service Center
Service Center
School
Service Center


Hour
9 a. m.

9a. m.
6:30 p. m.
8:30 a. m.
8 p.m.
9:30 a. m.
7:30 P. m.
8:30 p. m.


May 3, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


7





Waiting at Balboa Heights for the 7:15.


Once upon a time, in the year 1957 and in the month of April, a little girl, named
Charlene, took a train trip all the way across the continent and returned the same
day. She wanted to see the country from the train window, drink the water that is
always better on the train, go through the tunnel, and see the big watch which the
conductor carries. Her mother wanted to shop.
The little girl, a third generation Zonian, is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James
Bowen, of Diablo Heights, and the granddaughter of Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Bowen
and Mr. and Mrs. Donald Hendrick. Her father is a wireman with the Electrical
Division. Her grandfather Bowen was employed with the old Mechanical Division,
and Mr. Hendrick was Manager of the Tivoli Hotel.
The train which crosses the continent in 112 hours is the Panama Railroad.


Train stops, another drink of water...


.... and a look out the, back door.


A seat near the window for the best view.


Lighthouse, cranes and much interesting activity at Gatun as train rushes past.


Conductor C. B. Mcllvaine gives the time.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 3,1957


i..


SThey're Off To See Colon

On Transcontinental Trip


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


May 3, 1957














Inspecting locomotive with lead This she didn't buy, but puppy at
Foreman-Carman J. F. Dougherty. station was hard For her to resist.


Window shopping on Front St. in Colon.

A bit large perhaps, but.........


Mother's shopping will have to wait.


Maybe a stuffed lion from Germany or a................... ...

Almost home again and tugboat outside train window but too late as.....


.................. Charlene is bushed.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9


A " m


May 3, 1957












Digitized by th


n 2010 witl


Lyrasis Members






http://www.archive.org/detai


9 Internet Archive
i funding from
ind Sloan Foundation


Is/panamacanalr71019573pana






[Fourth in a Series of Five Articles on Canal Capacity]


Third Set Of Locks Or Terminal Lake

Appraised In Canal Capacity Studies


Plans for increasing the capacity of the
Panama Canal to meet the rapidly-ex-
panding needs of interoceanic commerce
range from minor modifications costing
a few hundred thousand dollars up to
conversion of the waterway to sea level
at an estimated cost of more than 3.6
billion dollars.
Many proposals have been advanced
for improving the existing Canal with the
continued use of a lock system. These
may be grouped, generally, into three
main categories as follows:
1. Minor modifications.
2. Third Locks.
3. Terminal Lake Plan.
Since the latest cost estimates on most
of these projects were prepared in the
course of the Isthmian Canal Studies of
1947, these figures will be used for com-
parative purposes unless otherwise spe-
cified.
Each of these plans has proponents
who sincerely believe that the plan
they advocate is the right answer to
the problem which has become more
acute In the postwar period with In-
creasing traffic and bigger ships using
the Canal. Certainly, the proponents
of any one can agree that the other
two have points In their favor. Each
plan also has some serious drawbacks,
particularly when pic during what Inter-
oceanic shipping may require even 50
years from now.
The 1947 study included an appraisal
of relatively inexpensive changes in the
present Canal to meet future require-
ments of commerce. This resulted in a
plan which, with some modifications, is
already being made effective.
There are many variations in both
methods and costs of plans to increase
the Canal's capacity without the so-called
major changes. The plan developed in
the 1947 Studies called for modification
of the locks; deepening the channel five
feet; electronic navigational aids; three
tie-up stations in Gaillard Cut; construc-
tion of a surge basin north of Pedro Mi-
guel Locks; and minor improvements in
channel alignment.
The plan also included replacement of
the towing locomotives, rehabilitation of
the locks electrical systems, and conver-
sion of the power system to 60 cycle.
All of these projects are now being ac-
complished or have been authorized.
The estimated cost of this plan was
$130,000,000.
The lock modifications suggested in-
cluded work similar to that now being
done to increase traffic during overhaul
plus the purchase of new gate-leaves
to eliminate outage time for either set
of locks during overhaul. Other changes
at the locks would be an extension of
the guide walls to facilitate the hand-
ling of vessels.
The deepening of the channel was sug-
gested to meet potential water shortages


during dry seasons with heavy traffic.
The use of tie-up stations in Gaillard Cut
was suggested as an expediency until
electronic navigational aids could be de-
veloped to assure safe movement of ship-
ping during the frequent heavy fogs in
that area during early morning hours.
It was estimated that this plan would
increase the dependable capacity of the
Canal to 70 ships a day, a figure higher
than the peak-period traffic requirements
projected through the present century.
The report recognized the fact that even
with all these improvements, the limita-
tion on size of vessels using the Canal
would remain the same because of the
dimensions of the Locks.
The increase in the size of ships and
the number requiring clear-Cut transit
in the Canal since 1950 has somewhat
changed the concept of what is needed
in the minor modification plan. It is
now recognized that more width is re-
quired in the Gaillard Cut section for big
ore carriers and supertankers This is one
of the pressing problems in today's oper-
ation of the waterway and it is expected
to increase in severity over the next few
decades.
A potent argument in favor of the
minor modification plan is the purely
economic aspect. If all the improve-
ments contemplated under this plan
could be made at a cost not exceeding
5200,000,000, this amount might be
added to the capital investment with-
out serious consequences to the tolls
structure, providing traffic continues
at the present uptrend during the re-
mainder of this century.
Beyond this point, the cost of pro-
jected improvement plans mount astro-
nomically and the interest burden becomes
prohibitive. Last fiscal year, the Panama
Canal Company paid some $8,590,000 in
interest to the United States Government.
With $200,000,000 added to the capital
investment, the interest burden would in-
crease by about $5,000,000; however, a
billion-dollar improvement project would
bring the interest figure to well above
$30,000,000 a year, almost as much as
annual collections in commercial tolls at
present.
When it was conceived, and even when
it was initiated in 1939, the Third Locks
Project seemed to offer the finest possible
solution to the Isthmian Canal problem.
At that time, there were no World War II
block-buster conventional bombs, no a-
tomic and hydrogen bombs, and no
guided misses with atomic warheads.
Simply stated, this project was to pro-
vide a set of locks big enough to accom-
modate all but a very few vessels afloat
or expected to be built in the Twentieth
Century, and to place the new locks at
some distance from the existing locks for
protection against destruction of all locks


by a single bomb burst. The plan also
provided for limited protection against
weapons then regarded as the most pow-
erful that would be used in attack.
The chambers of the Third Locks were
to be 140 feet wide and 1,200 feet long,
with a navigable depth of 45 feet. An
expenditure of $277,000,000 was author-
ized. Of this, about $75,000,00 was ac-
tually spent in excavation of the new
Miraflores and Gatun Locks. The Third
Locks Project was abandoned early in
1942 after the United States entered the
war because of the more pressing need
of manpower, transportation, and mater-
ials elsewhere.
The Third Locks Project was care-
fully reviewed in the Isthmian Canal
Studies of 1947 and new cost estimates
were prepared. At that time, it was
estimated that the cost of completing


the project with no change In the size
of the locks would be $435,000,000.
The cost, with the size of locks In-
creased to 200 feet in width and 1,500
feet in length, would be $1,143,000,000.
Cost estimates prepared today would
probably increase these figures by one-
and-a-half to two times.
It is interesting to note also that there
are already afloat both U. S. Navy and
commercial vessels too large to be accom-
modated by the 200-foot locks projected
just ten years ago. The aircraft carrier
Forreslal has a flight-deck too wide, and a
tanker now in service has a maximum
draft of 46 feet.
Like "minor modifications." the "Ter-
minal Lake Plan" is a generic term. The
Terminal Lake plan came close to reality
while the Canal was under construction.
The original plans for a lock canal pro-


May 3,1957


May 3, 1957


vided foq a.dim and large lake near the
Pacific entrance with one set of locks at
Pedro Miguel above the lake and two
sets at the Pacific end near Balboa.
When this was abandoned in 1907, it
was decided to move the two sets of locks
to Miraflores and work was begun there.
Additional subsurface investigations indi-
cated that all three locks might be located
at Miraflores with a terminal lake above
the locks, but the design and other work
was already so well advanced that no
change was made.
Those well acquainted with the naviga-
tional features of the Canal today readily
agree that traffic could be greatly accel-
erated by having all Pacific locks together
and a lake or mooring basin above them.
As presently situated, Pedro Miguel
Locks constitute a bottleneck for traffic
in Gaillard Cut. It is doubly troublesome
when there are southbound clear-Cut
ships since northbound traffic must halt
in Miraflores Lake until the clear-Cut
ship has cleared Pedro Miguel.
The grouping of all Pacific locks in one
flight would offer additional advantages
in speeding up traffic, since much time is
lost in the approach and clearance of ves-
sels at the locks.
There are two main variations in the
Terminal Lake Plan. The most eco-
nomical of the two would be to build
an additional flight of locks above the
existing Mlraflores Locks, raise the level
of Miraflores Lake to that of Gatun
Lake, and eliminate Pedro Miguel
Locks. This plan was studied In some
detail after suspension of work on the
Third Locks Project.
Three variations of this general plan
were investigated during the Isthmian
Canal Studies of 1947. Two were actually
refinements of the least expensive.
The plan described in the report sub-
mitted to Congress envisioned the com-
pletion of a third set of locks but elimi-
nated the flight at Pedro Miguel. The
excavation already completed for the new
Gatun and Miraflores Locks would be
used for two flights of locks with cham-
bers 1,500 feet long, 200 feet wide, and
50 feet deep. An additional chamber
would then be added at Miraflores Locks
and Pedro Miguel Locks would be aban-
doned.
The second stage development of this
plan could be accomplished whenever it
became desirable to provide two lanes of
large locks at Gatun and MIiraflores by
constructing a second set at some dis-
tance from those built in the initial de-
velopment.
After completion of the second set
of locks, the existing locks would be
abandoned and the summit level of
the Canal would be raised to 92 feet
above sea level to provide additional
water for lockages. With these im-


provements, the Canal channel would
be enlarged to a depth of 55 feet and
a 500-foot width at the 40-foot depth,
with improvement of the present align-
ment In Gaillard Gut.
Under this plan, the locks would be
designed originally to eliminate outages
for periodic overhauls with maintenance
on a continuing basis and only brief in-
terruptions in the lock service.
Several advantages of this plan over
the Third Locks Project were enumerated
in the report. Among these: A decrease
in the cost of operation and maintenance
and in accidents at the locks; a 15-minute
decrease in transit time; provision of an
anchorage basin on the Pacific side above
the locks; and elimination of the need for
a surge basin north of Pedro Miguel
Locks.
The third variation or ultimate devel-
opment of this plan would provide prin-
cipally for the addition of protective
features.
It was estimated that the initial de-
velopment of this plan could be complet-
ed within ten years at a cost of $1,126,-
000,000. The second stage development
would require an expenditure of $506,-
000,000. The total estimate cost of the
plan with the protective features recom-
mended would bring the total of $2,-
30S,000,000, approximately $175,000,000
less than the estimated cost of convert-
ing the Canal to sea level.
It was estimated that the transit time
would be cut 45 minutes. The transit
capacity was estimated at 131 ships a
day with the use of the new and existing
locks together and at a maximum of 118
ships a day with only two sets of new
locks.
The cost estimates prepared included
several features which today would be
eliminated. These include the power
conversion program and construction of
a tunnel under the Canal.
The 1947 report stated unequivocally
that minor modifications at a relatively
low cost could be made to the Canal
which would meet traffic requirements
for this century except for the limitation
on size of ships. With respect to the
Terminal Lake Plan, it stated that it
would provide ample capacity to meet
the needs of future in teroceanic commerce
and would have definite operational ad-
vantages in comparison with the present
Canal.
While agreeing that the various plans
for a lock canal meet the requirements
of interoceanic commerce, the report con-
cluded that none could meet the future
needs of national defense-and legislation
required that both commerce and defense
be considered-and said in part:
"Despite extensive protective meas-
ures, the Canal could be closed to traffic
for at least one to two years following
an intensive attack with conventional
weapons against the lock gates. An at-
tack with two atomic bombs could render
the Canal useless for four years or more."


Upper left: The hole dug for the new Gatun Locks looked like this in 1942 be-
fore it was flooded. The soft Gatun rock formation shows outline of the locks.
Upper right: Extensive model testing was done on the Third Locks project. This
model shows flow of water through rollawayy" gate in the lock chamber at right.
Lower left: This is a 400,000 pound universal testing machine used in testing
soils, concrete, steel, wood, and various materials for the Third Lock project.
Lower right: A scale model of a cargo vessel in a model of the lock chamber was
used during the hydraulic tests, an important phase of the Third Locks project.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1_






Scale Inspector

Joins Review

Singleton List


50 Years Ago
Steamshovel men, making good their
threat of the previous month, went on
strike in the Canal Zone 50 years ago
this month, t iin- up the Canal work
most effectively. The strike started when
they learned that Secretary of War Wil-
liam H. T'.ft had rejected their demands
for a pay raise. The engineers had wanted
$90 more than the $210 per month they
were earning, the cranemen an additional
$70, and the firemen were holding out for
$22 more a month.
As their crews took the first ships bound
for the States, all but 13 of the 63 shovels
working on the Canal excavation stood
silent.
The move met with little popular sym-
pathy; the steamshovel workers were al-
ready considered the best paid in the
Zone. In an editorial, the Star & Herald
commented: "The labor question seems
to furnish a difficulty greater than that
of Culebra or the Chagres in digging the
Canal . Such occurrences as a strike
of three-quarters of the steamshovel men
with a consequent enforced idleness of the
major part of the machinery and men
employed . must serve to convince
onlookers that the labor part of the busi-
ness is the part requiring ceaseless at-
tention."
In a circular dated May 9, Isthmian
Canal Commission Chairman George W.
Goethals announced that "the Hon. Jos.
C. S. Blackburn is placed in charge of the
Department of Civil Administration."
On May 21, with ex-Senator Blackburn
as the main speaker, the Culebra Club-
house opened its doors to its members.
The formal opening of the Gorgona Club-
house followed four days later and the
inauguration of the clubhouse at Empire
took place May 28. The clubhouses were
built by the ICC and operated by the
YMCA.
Another first session in .lla. 50 years
ago, was that of the Tivoli ('Clh, which gave
its inaugural ball May 18. According to
a contemporary columnist, the Club was an
offshoot of the "Various Soldiers of For-
tune."
Four men were killed and five others
badly hurt when a dynamite charge ex-
ploded prematurely near Pedro Miguel.
Other Zoniana: A new baseball park
opened "between the Tivoli Hotel and the
Ancon Aqueduct;" George M. l"lS,,,:, for-
merly Prosecuting Attorney in the Canal
Zone, was named .lt.r,r,, u on the Isthmus
for the Commission and the Panama Rail-
road; visionary Isthmians, discussing road
construction, said: "Now we are looking
forward to the time when there will be a
nice highway from Panama to Colon;"
and Colonel Goethals forbade employees to
carry on i ,: business outside of their Zone
jobs.
25 Years Ago
\lth..ui'h Zonians breathed a little
easier about the fate of the Panama
Railroad ships after the House of Repre-


sentatives voted, 298-98, to retain the
steamship line and the military transport
service, they were still not entirely san-
guine as to what would happen to the
bill in the Senate
Out of the turmoil sprang a new organi-
zation: The Canal Zone Women's League.
It was formed "to retain for Canal Zone
employees the rights granted in cnn ,inrtioin
days and to further civic spirit." Over 100
women attended the first meeting at the
Balboa YMCA.
Budget cuts, imposed by an economy-
minded Congress, threatened to halt the
Madden Dam project. Late in the month
however, Governor Burgess was author-
ized to use surplus Panama Railroad
funds to supplement Madden Dam and
other Canal appropriations during the
emergency.
Zonians also waited to see the final out-
come of a bill which would make compulsory
the discharge of one of a working married-
couple.
The U. S. Postal Department an-
nounced a new two-day air mail schedule
from New York to the Canal Zone.
This would cut 19 hours off the previous
time.
"Without ceremony, just as the Colonel
would have preferred," a painting of
George W. Goethals was hung in the rotunda
of the Balboa Heights Administration
Building. The portrait, which was painted
by ex-Governor Chester Harding, was the
gift of about 500 Canal oldtimers.

10 Years Ago
Canal Zone news, 10 years ago this
month, came mostly from the United
States.
In Portland, Oreg., former Vice Pres-
ident Henry Wallace urged the interna-
tionalization of the Panama Canal. Tes-
tifying before the Senate Civil Service
Subcommittee, Gov. J. C. Mehaffey said
that there was "an astonishing record of
no attempt of any kind of sabotage or
disloyalty in the Canal Zone" during two
world wars. Also at Washington, Rep.
Willis Bradley, of California, announced
that he opposed any enlargement of the
Canal at that time, and said that in any
case he favored a lock- rather than a sea-
level-canal.
Because of the continued rise in lumber
costs, the Canal announced, several masonry
type quarters would be included in the fiscal
year's building program.
The Canal organization imposed a sys-
tem of price control on 16 basic food
items. Any price increases on these had
to be approved by the Executive Office.

One Year Ago
Maj. Gen. William E. Potter was
sworn in as the twelfth Governor of the
Canal Zone, .u-.ei-d'ling Maj. Gen. John
S. Seybold.


Walter Guy Brown works quietly be-
hind the scenes but his work affects the
lives of Canal employees on both sides
of the Isthmus.
As Inspector of Scales and Oil Meters-
and latest in THE REVIEW'S singleton
series-his work touches the lives of all


WALTER GUY BROWN
Balance Is His Business


who shop at the commissary retail stores,
mail packages at the post offices, buy
gasoline at the service stations, or drop
pennies in public scales to check their
dieting success.
When the commissary stores are closed
to customers, Walter Brown is often at
work inside, expertly dismantling, clean-
ing, and inspecting the scales. Using
small check-weights, replicas of a master
chrome-plated set kept at the Balboa In-
strument Repair Shop, he carefully checks
and repairs each machine.
Insects, which crawl inside the scales
and are crushed by the mechanism, cause
the most trouble, according to Mr. Brown.
As one small insect can cause a variation
of as much as one-fourth of a pound, in-
secticide is liberally applied to the inside
of each of the intricate computing scales
before it is reassembled.
With fishing as a hobby, he and several
friends have spent their spare time, over
the last seven months, constructing a 15-
foot boat which they have just taken out
for a successful test run.
Born in Ancon into a family long asso-
ciated with the Canal- his father, the late
Walt.r Graham Brown, retired in 1945
with 38 years of service-Mr. Brown
completed his twenty-third year with the
Canal organization last month. He
started work when he was 15 years old,
as a machinist helper during his school va-
cations and began his continuous service
with an apprenticeship in the Industrial
Division with which he has been con-
nected ever since.


12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 3,1957


12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


May 3, 1957



















HONOR ROLL
These are the nine men, still on the rolls,
whose service began during the construc-
tion period. The names in capitals are
those of the men with continuous service.
The asterisks indicate holders oF the
Roosevelt Medal.
Can you match their early pictures with
more recent ones?
1909
Adrien M. Bouche*

1911
Bernard W. Mclntyre*

1912
Samuel J. Deavours
George Carter Orr
ARTHUR MORGAN

1913
David W. Ellis
Edward P. Walsh
EMMETT ZEMER
William Brugge
(For answers see page 18)






I q


mw-


-w
IL;


W7 _
*jrp ^ '


R4
r*








ANNIVERSARIES

Adrien M. Bouche, whose 41 years of
service put him on top of the list of anni-
versaries in April, knows the Panama Canal,
from bottom to top. He was running er-
rands, as a messenger during school vaca-
tions, around Gatun when the Locks were
great gaping holes and for the last 20 years
he has been opening gates and turning
valves from the control tower at Pedro
Miguel Locks. He is now senior of any of
the Locks Division's control-house men.
In his spare time he is an avid explorer
of the Canal Zone and Panama and has
gone as far afield as Mexico and Brazil.
He has turned up plants which he has
passed on to pharmaceutical houses, min-
erals which may be of commercial value,
and relics of the earlier peoples of the Isth-
mus which are of help in establishing its
history.
His Canal Zone service dates back to
1909; he is one of the nine American em-
ployees who have construction-day service,
and is one of two still employed who hold
the Roosevelt Medal.
The Bouches lived for many years on a
hillside in Pedro Miguel. After the town
was practically depopulated, they moved to
Madden Dam but they are back again in
the Canal Zone, this time in Diablo Heights.
35 YEARS
The ships which Mr. Bouche helps put
through the Panama Canal every day are
old stuff to the two employees who com-
pleted 35 years of government service last
month.
Carlos E. Centella, senior of the pair by
a week, watches the ships every day as they
pass his post at the Cucaracha Signal Sta-
tion, and Rexford T. Ray sees them as they
lock up or down at Gatun where he is a
sergeant in the Locks Security Force.
Mr. Centella has spent his entire adult
career with the Canal organization. Born
in Panama City, he went to work for the
Panama Canal's Accounting Division on
April 1, 1922. For the next 22 years, he
served in the Payroll Section and the Claims
Branch. In 1944 he transferred to the Mar-
ine Division as a signalman, a post he still
holds. He was stationed for a time on Sosa
Hill, overlooking Balboa Harbor and Pan-
ama Bay but has now moved inland to the
station on the banks of Gaillard Cut.
Mr. Ray, who comes from Graham, in
the Piedmont section of North Carolina,
had over a quarter of a century with the
United States Army before he joined the
Canal organization as a lock guard nine
years ago this month. Part of his military
service was at Fort Gulick with the 33d
Infantry Regiment. He lives in Gatun
where he spends his ,itt i-lit time making
color slides of the orchids and oriental and
other exotic plants he raises.
25 YEARS
Four Company-Government employees
went over the two-score-and-five mark of
Government service last month, each rep-
resenting a different Division in the organ-
ization.
Of the quartet, Cyril M. Richards, a
Signalman in ti.e N r. iL il.ri Section, is the
only one with unlir'.I t.n I'.I service. He
was born in the old construction-day town
of Gorgona in the days when it was a bust-
ling center for shops and railroads.
The other three are, alphabetically: Mrs.
Elvira L. Byrne, a native of St. Paul, Minn.,
now a head nurse at Gorgas Hospital where
she has been throughout her local nursing
career; Alcide R. Hauser, a born New
Yorker, who is a Policeman in the Cristobal
District; and Anthony G. Lynn, once of
Passaic, N. J., Plant Maintenance Lead
Foreman for the Industrial Division.
20 YEARS
It was "men only" in the 20-year group
this month with four of the nine employees
having unbroken service. They are: Thomas
V. Kelly, Orlando, W. Va., Locomotive En-
gineer, Railroad Division; Frank McGuin-
ness, Amsterdam, N. Y., Train Dispatcher,
Railroad Division; Harvey D. Smith, Mar-
ion, Kan., Lead Foreman, PiH;lii.i;, Main-
tenance, Maintenance Division; and Wil-
liam H. Will, a native Zonian born in
Ancon, Brick and Stone Mason, Mainte-
nance Division.
Another native of the Canal Zone, also


Employees who were promoted or trans-
ferred between March 15 and April 15
are listed below. Within-grade promotions
are not reported.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Mrs. Annie R. Rathgeber, from Clerk
(Typing) to Secretary (Typing), Office of
Director.
Victor H. Higgins, Jr., from Usher, Diablo
Theater, to Substitute Window Clerk,
Postal Division.
Maurice W. Sherry, from Window Clerk
to Transfer Clerk, Tocumen Airport Unit,
Postal Division.
Richard C. Hogan, from Postal Clerk,
Mail Delivery Unit to Window Clerk; Post-
al Division.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Joseph J. Saitta, from Accountant to
Auditor, General Audit Division.
Benjamin S. Chisholm, from Service Cen-
ter Manager, Balboa, to Construction Cost
Accountant, Plant Evaluation and Transfer
Branch.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Mrs. Wanda N. Middleton, from Clerk-
Stenographer, Employment and Utilization
Division, to Stenographer, Engineering Div-
ision.
Claud M. Kreger, Abe L. Lincoln, from
Rotary Drill Foreman to Foreman, Dredg-
ing Division.
Richard Swearingen, from Wireman,
Electrical Division, to Electrical Equipment
Inspector, Power Conversion Project.
Philip T. Green, from Department Head

born in Ancon, is among those whose serv-
ice is not continuous. He is George O.
Tarflinger, Foreman, Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning, Maintenance Division. Other
20-year men are: Chris C. Bennett, Inspec-
tor of Elevators and Cranes, Industrial
Division, who is a native of Brooklyn, N. Y.;
Walter G. McBride, Police Sergeant, Police
Division, another who was born in New
York City; Louis H. Schmidt, Jr., of Bal-.
timore, Md., Commissary Supervisor, Com-
missary Division; and Francis X. Moser,
of Cincinnati, Ohio, Machinist, Industrial
Division.
15 YEARS
Eight of the 15-year employees have con-
tinuous service. They are: James S. Beds-
worth, of Morehead City, N. C., Window
Clerk, Postal Division; Wilson M. Carna-
than, of Jefferson City, Ala., Lead Foreman,
Buildings and Equipment, Service Center
Division; John L. Fischer, St. Joseph, Mo.,
Engineering Aid, Hydraulic, Meteorologi-
cal, and Hydrographic Branch; Donovan I.
Geyer, Reading, Pa., Engineer, Plant Main-
tenance, Maintenance Division; Emmet T.
Harper, Fondis, Colo., Towing Locomotive
Operator, Locks Division; Exier June Hop-
kins, of Nacogdoches, Tex., Supervisory
Accounting Assistant, Gorgas Hospital;
Patrick F. McDonnell, a native of Swoyar-
villa, Pa., Policeman and Detective, Police
Division; Charles M. Nelson, Grays, Ky.,
Commissary Supervisor, Commissary Div-
ision; John M. Morrison, El Paso, Tex.
Operator (Lock Machinist), Locks Division;
Esten J. Scott, Hutchinson, Kan., Police-
man, Police Division; Reuben Seidman,
New York, N. Y., Wireman, Electrical Div-
ision; and Alice E. Suisman, Philadelphia,
Pa., Dictating Machine Transcriber, Health
Bureau, Gorgas Hospital.
Those with broken service are: Oscar O.
Brown, Jr., Tampa Fla., Marine Traffic
Controller, Navigation Division; Anna E.
Calvit, who was born in Colon Hospital,
and is a Sup r.;-.,r ..'mtininc Clerk in
the Motor Tr ,r-lr...rr i ,n ir i.,-inn, Dun-
can Laird, Glasgow, Scotland, Boatbuilder,
Industrial Division; Dr. Robert G. Mathe-
ney, Philadelphia, Pa., Chief of the Veter-
inary Medicine Division; Jack W. Rocker,
Ancon, C. Z., Machinist, Pacific Lock; and
Menzies W. Turner, Isafold, Manitoba,
Canada, Operator, Towing Locomotive.


(Vocational Sulije. t to Training Instruc-
tor(Technical Tr.in nin-General), Electrical
Division.
Willard E. Percy, from Teacher (Voca-
tional Subjects) to Training Instructor,
Electrical Division.
Mrs. Mildred N. Morrill, from Clerk-
Stenographer to Clerical Assistant (Steno-
gr. I,h'.), Electrical Division.
Arnold A. Jackson, from Powerhouse Op-
erator to Senior Powerhouse Operator, Elec-
trical Division.
James J. O'Donnell, from Senior Power-
house Operator to Powerhouse Operator-
Dispatcher, Electrical Division.
HEALTH BUREAU
Reginald M. Hayden, from Clerk to Ac-
counts Maintenance Clerk, Gorgas Hospital.
George W. Fears, from Supervisory Stew-
ard, Service Center Division, to Executive
Housekeeper, Gorgas Hospital.
MARINE BUREAU
Edward B. Frampton, from Locomotive
Crane-Rigger Operator, Industrial Division,
to Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific
Locks.
Lester H. Barrows, from Industrial Ship-
wright, Industrial Division, to Towing Lo-
comotive Operator, Pacific Locks.
Thomas L. Gregg, from Guard, Locks
Security Branch to Towing Locomotive
Operator, Atlantic Locks.
Jack W. Rocker, from Marine Inspection
Assistant, Navigation Division, to Machin-
ist, Pacific Locks.
Dean L. Dodson, Edward J. Husted,
Rexford T. Ray, from Guard to Guard Sup-
ervisor, Locks Security Branch.
John R. Bruland, Jr., from Boilermaker
to Lead Boilermaker Foreman, Industrial
Division.
Earl Cassell, from General Foreman to
Chief Foreman, Atlantic Locks.
SUPPLY AND EMPLOYEE SERVICE BUREAU
Elsie H. Smith, from Clerk-Typist to
Procurement Clerk (Typist), Division of
Storehouses.
P. Byrne Hutchings, from Clerical Assist-
ant to Realty Assistant, Housing and
Grounds Division.
Evelyn M. Molyneaux, from Clerk-Typ-
ist to File Clerk (Typing), Division of
Storehouses.
Mrs. Ruby L. Willa, from A,. olurriin
Clerk to Commissary Supervisor, Commis-
sary Division.
OTHER PROMOTIONS
Promotions which did not involve change
in title, follow:
Dr. William E. Prier, Medical Off,,er.
Orthopedics, Gorgas Hospital.
Mrs. Violette D. Allen, Clerk-Stenogra-
pher, Division of Storehouses.
Dr. Bernard L. Willett, Medical Officer
(Surgery, General), Gorgas Hospital.
Fred W. Lawrence, Sanitary Engineer,
Water and Laboratories Branch.
Warren D. Marquard, Commissary Sup-
ervisor, Comnimi-:.,r Division.
Martin S. Sawyer, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.



I MAY SAILINGS


Ancon_ _
Cristobal.
A ncon._

Cristobal.
A neon.
Cristobal.
Ancon ...


FROM CRISTOBAL



FROM NEW YORK


M 1\ 4
.M 1, 15
May 22

\1 %\ 7
M.I. 14
M1,. 24
.May 31


Southbound -1,;,.- .I,' l1 ,.. '. r r .rl, F ii.i.
are in Hllaiti h 1. II.- iie 1.. i .. .. 1 1.. -. 1, .
sailfronm New ', . r .1, .. Lh .i-rl,lJ in i- 1..
Northbound I-I. .' i [i Jl .i 1 I I 1 I'r
c lea rin g C rist( h ,i M I hid i: i ,r i h l l or. 1in
Cristobal s.I.,r.l nd Friday for those which clear
Cristobal "-. I .lI, -.]


14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


March 15 through April 15


May 3, 1957







These Are Busy Days For The Schools
May is no time to be a member of the staff of the Superintendent of the Canal
Zone schools. Since the Latin American school year was changed to coincide with
that of the Republic of Panama, the preparations for the opening of these schools
coincide with the multitudinous details which go along with the closing of the U. S.
schools. Plans for graduations have to be completed at about the same time plans
are being made for opening day. Below, THE REVIEW presents a round up of the
beginning of one school year and the end of the other.


U. S. Schools
School ends next month for approxi-
mately 7,000 boys and girls in the Canal
Zone United States schools. High school
and junior college commencement exer-
cises will be June 5, and the schools will
close officially, Thursday, June 6, when
pupils return for their report cards.
The Canal Zone Junior College will
graduate the third largest class in its his-
tory when 48 students receive their diplo-
mas at the Diablo Heights Theater the
morning of June 5. Baccalaureate serv-
ices for the graduates will be held in the
same theater on June 2.
In the high schools, 177 students
will be graduated from Balboa and 61
from Cristobal, with 28 honor students
in the Balboa class and 10 among the
Cristobal graduates.
Commencement exercises for Balboa
High at the Balboa Theater, and Cristo-
bal High at the Cristobal High School
Auditorium, will be held June 5 at 8 p. m.
Baccalaureate services for both graduat-
ing classes are scheduled for the afternoon
of June 2; Balboa baccalaureate will be
at the Diablo Heights Theater and Cris-
tobal at the high school auditorium.
The largest class in history, 330, will
participate in class day exercises at Bal-
boa Junior High School. Balboa and
Cristobal class day programs will take
place June 3; Balboa exercises will be at
the Balboa Theater and Cristobal activ-
ities will be at the high school auditorium.
Many improvements in the physical
plant were made during the 1956-57
school year. A new stadium seating
1,500 was constructed at Balboa and
the night lighting systems were reno-
vated at both the Mount Hope and
Balboa stadiums.
Additional playground (See page 18)

RETIREMENTS
Retirement certificates were presented at
the end of April to the following employees
who are listed alphabetically, together with
the birthplaces, positions, length of Canal
service, and future addresses.
Loy E. Bates, Sr., Illinois; Chief Towboat
Engineer, Dredging Division; 15 years, 10
days; Fontana, Calif.
Mrs. Evelyn S. Endicott, Indiana; Account-
ing Clerk, Accounting Division; 8 years, 8
months, 27 days; Canal Zone.
Capt. Henry G. Ferri, New York; Pilot,
Navigation Division; 21 years, 11 months
3 days; San Francisco, Calif.
James Horace Jones, Alabama; Carpen-
ter Foreman, Locks Division; 20 years, 4
months, 6 days; Gadsden, Ala.
Mary Grace McDonald, Minnesota;
Teacher, Balboa Elementary School; 31
year-, 7 months, New York.
Edgar S. Mornhiweg, New York; Guard
Supervisor, Locks Security Force; 7 years,
1 month, 23 days; Denver, Colo.
George L. Radel, Pennsylvania; Machin-
ist Foreman, Locks Divi-ion: 21 years, 26
days; Canal Zone.
Charles F. Stevens, Oklahoma; Lieuten-
ant, Fire Division; 36 years, 6 months, 13
days; Virginia Beach, Va.
Eva M. Talboy, Iowa; Clerk, Gorgas
Hospital; 12 years, 5 months, 10 days;
Royal Oak, Mich.


Latin American Schools
Canal Zone schools in Latin American
communities will open Monday, May 6,
with an enrollment of approximately 3,900
students in Kindergarten through Grade
12. This will be the second year in which
the school schedule has coincided with that
of the Republic of Panama. Schools will
close February 5, 1958.
School officials expect enrollments to be
approximately the same as when schools
closed last year., Second-day enrollment
last year was 3,912. There was a gain
of 29 students during the year, resulting
in a total enrollment when the year closed
of 3,941.
High school principals have been on
duty to accept registrations since April
15, and elementary school principals
began registration on April 29. School
busses will be provided on the same
plan as last year.
Some changes have been made in the
locations where students will attend
classes. By communities, these changes
and the facilities available to Latin Amer-
ican students are as follows:
La Boca: Grades 1 through 9 students
will attend school in the high school build-
ing. The elementary school building was
abandoned last year and the La Boca
Kindergarten has been dropped due to
lack of enrollment.
Paraiso: Kindergarten through the
ninth grade will attend school in the
junior high school building and high
school students, grades 10-12, will attend


school in the new high school building
which was opened last year.
Santa Cruz: Kindergarten through
grade 9 will be offered in Santa Cruz.
Chagres: There will be no school at
Chagres this year. Students will attend
classes at Rainbow City.
Rainbow C('i: Kindergartner, through
sixth graders will attend school in the
elementary school building and junior
and senior high school students will have
classes in the high school building. Ele-
mentary classes and certain junior high
school classes will make joint use of the
new wing of the high school building
which was built about three years ago.
New books have been added to the
school libraries and a number of new
textbooks in Spanish will be used this
year. These textbooks were published in
Mexico, Chile, Cuba, and Argentina;
Spanish dictionaries used by the schools
were published in France.
Courses of study in 34 subject areas
have been completed and will be distrib-
uted for instructional use during the
coming year.
Temistocles Cespedes, who retired re-
cently as Chief of the Panama Schools'
Technical Service Section, will continue
to serve as a consultant for the Canal
Zone's Latin American schools.
Some major physical changes in the
school plant this year are a junior high
shop and two academic classrooms be-
ing constructed at Santa Cruz, which
will permit the ninth grade to remain
there instead of going to Paraiso as in
the past.
Major changes at Paraiso are the addi-
tion of an air-conditioned music room
and the development of a new playground.
Other changes in the physical plant
include: demolition of the old Rainbow
City junior high school building; drainage
improvement at Rainbow (See page 18


Activities at Atlantic Side Safety Field Day opened with Lt. Gov. H. W. Schull
cutting ribbon. Seen above, at the Camp Bierd Grounds are, left to right: Keith
Bowen, Safety Field Day Committee member; Rex Archibold, announcer; Dave
E. White, Chairman, Safety Field Day Committee; G. 0. Kellar, Chief, Safety
Branch; Lt. Gov. Schull; Owen B. Shirley, Principal, Rainbow City High School;
Stanley Spence, Charles Davis, and Kenneth Weeks, members of the Committee.

May 3, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15









3

5


Night Schools


For Union Men
On two successive evenings several
weeks ago, 40 of the Canal Zone's skilled
craftsmen stood up one by one to receive
certificates that they had completed a
special course in the Air Conditioning.
They came from the Canal organiza-
tion, the Army, and the Navy, and each
had spent some of his evenings for the
previous two-and-a-half months in group
study to bring themselves up to date in
work which they are now doing or which
they will do when the entire Canal Zone
has 60-cycle power.
The craftsmen who had spent their
evenings in this fashion were divided into
two groups, one from the Pacific side and
the other from the Atlantic side of the
Isthmus. At the Balboa class the cer-
tificates were presented by Frank H.
Lerchen, Maintenance Engineer for the
Panama Canal Company; Lt. R. N.
Saunders, Public Works (Offier for the
15th Naval District at Rodman; and Earl
Best, Chief of the Electric Section of the
Army Engineers at Corozal.
Atlantic siders received their certifi-
cates from M. B. Nickel, Production
Superintendent of the Industrial Division,
and Charles Slater of the Army Engin-
eers. With each certificate went congrat-
ulations from representatives of the or-
ganization with which the craftsman is
employed and, a more tangible recogni-
tion of his accomplishments, letters re-
garding their course work have been in-
cluded in each craftsman's personnel file.
While the idea of evening classes for
craftsmen is not new here, the system
under which such classes are promoted
and operated has changed considerably
during the past few years.
In 1955, when the Apprentice Commit-
tee became the Industrial Training Com-
mittee, it was expanded to include a rep-
resentative of organized labor. The labor
representative since that time has been
Ray Hesch, a member of Local 811 of the
International Association of Machinists.
The committee acts as a clearing house
for ideas on craft educational programs,
decides what programs are needed and
how they can best be operated.
Sometimes organized labor has spon-


6..


Here is a group of the men who have gone back to school, evenings. They are
Pacific sides who have just finished a union-sponsored air conditioning course.


scored and organized the programs pro-
posed by the Industrial Training Com-
mittee and sometimes labor has operated
independently, but with the blessings and
assistance of 'the Industrial Training Com-
mittee. The cooperation between labor
and the Committee, THE REVIEW was
told, has brought credit to all involved.
The recently completed course in the
Theory of Air Conditioning, taught by
Willard Percy, is the third of a series orig-
inally proposed by the Industrial Train-
ing Committee and organized by Locals
811 and 699 of the International Associ-
ation of Machinists. The first course in
this series began in November 1955; since
then 168 journeymen and engineers have
completed more than 1,344 man-hours of
study.
While these courses were going on,
other unions were not idle. Locals 677
and 397 of the International Brother-
hood of Electrical Workers suggested a
series of courses in electrical subjects
and these were endorsed by the Indus-
trial Training Committee.
A total of 87 men, from a number of
different crafts, have enrolled in the first
of this seven-course series. When they
complete the present class on Mathemat-
ics and Physics, taught by Industrial
Training Coordinator Philip H. Green,


they will move on to Electricity and DC
Circuits, and such other subjects as Mag-
netism and Electromagnetic Induction.
Meanwhile the two electrical locals are
devoting the first 45 minutes of each
union meeting to a course in Electrical
Testing and Troubleshooting. These
meetings, of course, are open to union
members only.
A course in the Corrosion of Metals has
been proposed by the Plumbers Local 606
and night classes in this subject will be
organized as soon as suitable material can
be collected and prepared.
Also coming, in the night-school line,
is a two-lecture series sponsored jointly
by the Marine Engineers Beneficial Asso-
ciation Local 96 and the Division of Store-
houses. These lectures, which will be
given in June and July--the exact dates
to be announced later-will be devoted
to the designations and characteristics of
the lubricants to be stocked by the Divi-
sion of Storehouses during the coming
fiscal year.
(Left to right, above: First row: Willard Percy, Instru-
tor; Henry Dumanoir, Air Force; James Boukalis, In-
dustrial Division; M. F. Cowan, Army Engineers; W.
H. Critch, Army Engineers; Vincent Biava, Dredging
Division; E. A. Dyer, Navy Public Works, Second
row: J. H. Young, Ted Marti, Ray Hesch, all of the
Locks Division; D. C. Kaan, Electrical Division; C. E.
Duffie, W. E. Pullen, N. H. Pedersen, Navy Public
Works; Robert Thompson, Dredging Division.)


Young Zonians Have Better Teeth


The dental health of Canal Zone school
children shows an improvement over last
year, according to a survey of children
in the first, fourth, and seventh grades.
The survey, which has become a perma-
nent part of the school health program,
shows that 41.1 percent of the children
examined have no dental defects or do
not need immediate dental attention.
Last year, only 33 percent were included
in this category.
The 'y.-tem of chr. king thl first, fourth,
and seventh grades is designed to insure
three examinations for each student dur-
ing the time his teeth are developing. Of
these three grades, the fourth grade, in
gRen.ral, proved to have the best dental
h-.alth this year.
Improved dental health for all school


children, which will be reflected in the
adults of later years, is the purpose of
the program. All parents of pupils with
dental defects are notified immediately
concerning the dental problems of their
children.
An additional benefit is that informa-
tion is obtained concerning the success of
the water fluoridation program. The de-
cision to continue the present concentra-
tion of .7 parts per million was based on
the surveys conducted the last two years.
Dr. Lewis E. Fontaine, Chief of Dental
Services, Gorgas Hospital and Ancon
Dental Clinic, was in charge of the survey
on the Pacific side of the Isthmus while
Dr. Willard French, Chief of Dental Serv-
ices, Coco Solo, conducted the program
on the Atlantic side.


16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


May 3, 1957


/






STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC
For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for
the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939.


Season's Last Trip


Transit of the Cunard Line's SS Caronia today puts an unofficial end to this y
cruise season. The picture was taken during her 1953 transit of the C


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large commercial vessels (3(
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:

Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
1957 1956 19
United States Intercoastal _-------------- 121 121
East Coast of U. S. and South America ----- 498 562
East Coast of U. S. and Central America----- 127 119
East Coast of U. S. and Far East ------------------ 373 303
Europe and Far East---------- -------------. .. 69 17
Europe and West Coast of U. S.-Canada_----------- 236 194
Europe and South America--------------- 215 198
Europe and Australasia ------------- 147 97
All other routes ----------------- 396 446
Total Traffic--------------- 2,182 2,057


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
By fiscal years

Transits Tolls
Month ransi(In thousands of dollar
1957 1956 1938 1957 1956 1
July .------------- 669 727 457 $ .0(54 $3,247 $
August ---------------------- 653 676 505 2,$8$ 2,980
September ------------------- 646 686 444 2,861 3,053
October 699 709 461 3,083 3,065
November ------------ -- 654 627 435 2,876 2,705
December .- -- 751 658 439 3.4?0 2,944
January--------------------- 701 664 444 3,16 1 2,844
February------ ----- 673 681 436 3,033 3,008
March -------------.------- 808 712 506 3,603 3,069
April.--- ---- 692 487 --- 3,021
May----------------------- 703 465 3,210
June _----------------------- ---- 674 445 3,008
Totals for first 9 months
of fiscal year ...----- 6,254 6,140 4,127 $27,979 $26,915 $1
Totals for fiscal year----------- 8,209 5,524 $27,979 $36,154 $2


Canal Traffic, Tolls,

Set All-Time Record

For Nine-Month Period
Business is booming in the Panama
Canal.
For the first nine months of the current
fiscal year, a period which ended March
31, a total of 6,254 ocean-going commer-
cial vessels of 300 tons or over transited
the Canal, paying tolls which were only a
few thousand dollars short of $28,000,000.
In both transits and tolls, this is the
biggest business done by the Canal in
its history.
This year's nine-month traffic total for
commercial ships of ocean-going size ex-
ceeded by 114 the total for the similar
period during the preceding fiscal year,
and by 732 the traffic for the first nine
months of five years before.
S Taken by quarters this year, commer-
cial shipping has shown a steady increase
--1,968 large commercial ships for the
first quarter, 2,104 for the second three-
month period, and 2,182 for the trimester
S which ended March 31. But, by months,
ear s the traffic trend has fluctuated with a
anal. number of ups and downs, reflecting ship-
ping strikes and other factors.
For six of the nine-month period, large
commercial ships were numbered in the
)0 net 600's; two other months saw more than
700 large commercial craft transiting the
Canal while in March commercial as well
s_ as total shipping reached a new high.
The figure for ocean-going commercial
38 vessels (upon which most of the accom-
264 paying statistics are based) was 808,
145 the first time the 800 figure has been sur-
30 passed in the Canal's existence.
142 As this issue of "The Review" went to
271 press, it seemed doubtful that another
134 possible record was in sight. For the
65 first 23 days of April, a total of 583
327 ocean-going commercial ships had
1,386 made the ocean-to-ocean transit, and
traffic was averaging 25 ships per day.
The biggest upswing in traffic in the
past quarter, by trade routes, was for
vessels running through the Panama
Canal from the U. S. east coast to the
Far East. The trade route showed an
increase of 70 ships, or over 18 percent
from figures for the comparable period in
rs) the past fiscal year. An even larger per-
centage increase-although the number of
938 ships was much smaller-appeared in the
trade between Europe and the Far East
;2,030 via the Panama Canal. This percentage
2,195 increase was a few points below 74 per-
1,981 cent.
1,893 Other trade routes showing increased
1,845 business in the third quarter of this fiscal
1,838 year, compared to the third quarter of
1,787
2,016 fiscal year 1956, were: the East Coast of
1,961 the United States and Central America;
1,887 Europe to the U. S.-Canada West Coast;
1,801 Europe to South America and Europe to
Australia.
7,521 Intercontinental trade remained exactly
the same as for the third quarter of the
3,170 past fiscal year and there was a decline
in the U. S. East Coast-South American
business.
17 By nationalities the (See page 19)


May 3, 1957


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






HONOR ROLL
Answer to pictures on page 13
(How'd you do?)
Bouche, top center
Brugge, top right and left
Morgan, bottom center
Walsh, bottom right and left
The other old and new pictures cor-
respond down the page in this order:
Mclntyre
Orr
Zemer
Ellis
Deavours

Busy Days For Latin American Schools
(Continued from page 15) City Elemen-
tary School; the construction of covered
passageways at the Santa Cruz and Rain-
bow City schools; the addition of showers
and dressing rooms at Paraiso gymnasium
and the installation of a safety fence at
the Paraiso playground.
This is the first year the Division of
Schools has not conducted a summer in-
stitute after schools closed. Instead,
teachers were encouraged to attend the
summer session at the Univerrsity of Pan-
ama and approximately 35 did so.
A number of teachers are on leave of
absence in the United States, where they
are pursuing further studies. Included
are Miss Mabel McLean of La Boca, Mrs.
Ena Ellis of Paraiso Elementary, and
Miss Carmen Dawkins and Byron Mc-
Dougall of Santa Cruz. Mrs. Sylvia Doig
and Miss Malcolm of Paraiso High School
and Miss Leafy De Sousa of Rainbow
City High School are also studying in the
United States.
Those on the teaching staffs promoted
to new positions include Miss Ruby
Thompson, promoted to Rainbow City
High School, Miss Maiziee Headley to
Paraiso Junior High, Basil Cragwell to
Santa Cruz Junior High, and Leslie
Thomas to Rainbow City Junior High.
Miss Nidia Avila and Aston Parchment
are expected to return to duty in August
after studies in the United States.
Three new elementary teachers will
join the teaching staff of the Latin Amer-
ican schools. They are: Mrs. Vilma Ri-
vera, who will teach the third grade at
Paraiso; Miss Asuncion Atwell, who will
take over the third grade at La Boca;
and Miss Jilma Ayala, also assigned to
La Boca as fifth grade teacher. C. A.
Cragwell and Elliot Yearwood will join
the Paraiso High School staff this year.

Canal Traffic, Tolls Set All-Time Record
(Continuedfrom page 17) United States and
Great Britain continued to hold the first
and second places, respectively, they
have occupied for many years. The next
five spots were occupied by: Norway,
'224; Germany, 172; Liberia, 168; Japan,
152; and Panama, 110.
Among the flags showing with more
frequency in the Panama Canal during
the past quarter, as compared with the
third quarter of 1956, were those of Ger-
many, Japan, Liberia, and Great Britain.
None of the declines, by n.iti.ailiti.-,.
were as marked, i ith.-r by number or per-
cent, as the increases. It is worthy of
note that N:,r'..L.uin ships managed to
remain in third place this quarter-iden-
tical with its standing for the third quar-
ter of 1956 although the number of Nor-
-. ,i.,n-fl.,, ships declined from 255 in
ti-.i I 'i,". to 229 for the third quarter
of the present fiscal year.


Canal Zone Library Seeks

Data On Those Interested

In Blind Reading Material
Information as to the number of blind
or partially blind persons living in the
Canal Zone who would be interested in
reading material transcribed in Braille or
recorded "talking books" is now being
collected by the Canal Zone Library.
If sufficient such persons are living
here, the Canal Zone Library may be
designated as a distribution point for
such material from the Library of Con-
gress. The Library of Congress requires
that an area library, or distribution point
for material for the blind, must serve no
less than 750 blind persons, but its offi-
cials may be willing to make a special
arrangement which will meet the Canal
Zone's needs.
Reading materials provided by the Li-
brary of Congress for loan without charge
are available to those "whose central
visual acuity is 20-200 or less in the better
eye with correcting glasses, or whose field
of vision at its widest diameter subtends
angular distance no greater than 20 de-
grees." A person with such vision can
read the top line on a standard eye chart,
while he is wearing glasses.
Anyone knowing of persons who are
eligible and would be interested in the
Library of Congress reading material
should write or telephone to Mrs. L. B.
Burnham, Canal Zone Librarian at the
Main Libraryin the Civil Affairs Building.


Commodity

Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt).
Coal and coke ---------- ---------
Iron and steel manufactures ---
Metal, scrap _-----------
Phosphates - -- ------
Metals, various ------------- --------
Soybeans-------- -
Ores, various -----------
Sugar---- -- ---
Cotton- -------- ----------
Paper and paper products .-----
Tinplate --.. ---- .------ --
Potash---- --------. --
Machinery ------- ..--
Ammonium compounds-------- -
All others ---------------
Total --- ---------------


These Are Busy Days For U. S. Schools
(Continued from page 16) equipment was
provided for Gatun and Margarita and a
concrete playing slab of 120 feet by 60
feet was constructed at the South Mar-
garita School. At Balboa, a covered pass-
ageway and loading platform were pro-
vided for the Balboa Junior High School
and improvements were made in the girls'
dressing room at the Balboa swimming
pool. Public toilets were constructed at
Gaillard playground. Dressing rooms
were added at the Ancon gymnasium and
soundproofing was accomplished at the
Balboa Junior High School, Diablo
Heights, and North Margarita element-
ary schools.
Throughout the school year, there
was increased emphasis on physical ed-
ucation activities in all the elementary
schools in line with the expanded phys-
ical education program.
During the vacation months of June,
July, and August, the Division of Schools
will conduct a playground program for
the benefit of those boys and girls who
will not be leaving the Isthmus during
the vacation months. Gymnasiums, swim-
ming pools, and playgrounds will be open
with supervised activities. Among the
playground activities that will be avail-
able are classes in beginners' swimming
for which registration will be held at the
swimming pools between the hours of 2
and 4 p. m. from June 10 through June 21.
Schools will reopen on September 4,
1957. Enrollments are expected to in-
crease the coming year.


Third Quarter, Fiscal Years-


1957
1,206,991
877,516
775,584
507,573
377,858
174,516
167,259
160,705
117,389
104,337
99,039
95,392
93,838
90,017
86,174
1,266,073
6,200,261


1956
1,274,686
740,552
520,526
156,356
334,270
31,501
165,998
70,585
119,928
39,802
100,962
75,135
26,042
85,960
162,512
1,272,320
5,177,135


1938
236,644
27,862
362,008
134,275
67,518
104,081
493
7,800
32,587
56,323
90,274
56,451
6,485
40,735
10,409
815,709
2,049,654


PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC
SThird Quarter, Fiscal Years-


Commodity

Ores, various .. --- ------
Wheat-..-- - --- -.
Lumber ----------
Sugar ... ...---
Canned food products .....-
Bananas ----- ..
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)- - . . . --. .-
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)
Metals, various .
Nitrate of soda
Barley- .----
W ool .- ... .. . .
Coffee -
Cotton, raw --.. --... -- ---- ..
Copra ----- .
All others --- -.....
Total .-. ---


1957 1956 1938


1,688,801
908,144
696,316
414,299
175 614
146 4'<4
2 I ,2n
226,993
222,499
177,756
116,131
90,729
85,847
85,686
1,000,822
6,762,161


1,495,915
524,030
827,379
284,532
313,244
257,619
186,736
154,639
162,450
375,560
132,991
74,912
S7 .in )
78.6 V0
68,118
870,030
5 :<9 t


542,936
267,904
632,901
299,404
220,124
23,411
106,820
498.2R2
Ir 47 1
5. V).m, I
62,089
37,915
53,179
37,801
52,011
782,0312
4,313,123


18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in long tons)
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC


May 3, 1957







PRICE INDEXES

(Ciuninued frum pays 5) comparable qual-
ity and quantity.
Determining The Market Valne
The first step in preparing these indexes
was to find out how the average employee
and his family spent their money; in other
words, to determine what they bought
over a period of time.
A four-week period, between September
11 and October 8, 1955, was selected as
a sample period for review. During this
period, a complete record was kept of all
Panama Canal Company consumer sales.
The commodity spending pattern of
these employees was established by main-
taining a complete record of all issues of
goods from the various warehouses to the
retail outlets.
By grouping every item under its proper
category-flour under cereals, detergents
under household operations, for instance,
it was possible to determine the relative
importance of each item to the consumer.
These purchases were analyzed and
averaged to determine: (1) The kinds of
goods and services purchased; (2) the
quantities bought and the amount spent
for each article; and (3) the quality of
each article.
This market basket, or record of ex-
penditures, contains the following broad
classifications of goods and services:
Food, housing, apparel, transportation,
medical care, personal care, reading and
recreation, and other goods and services.
Each of these categories is broken down
into several smaller groups. Food, for
example, consists of: Cereals and bakery
products; meats; poultry and fish; dairy
products; fruits and vegetables; other
food bought to be prepared at home;
food away from home.
Not all items are equally important to
the average consumer, so each item and
group of items is given a weight which
indicates its relative importance to the
consumer. The average householder is
apt to spend more money on bread dur-
ing a month than on rice; bread, there-
fore, carries a weight of 1.66 while rice
has a weight of only .34.
Selection Of Items
It would be unnecessary and impossible
to price every item bought by an em-
ployee. Consequently, those who pre-
pared the price index selected a repre-
sentative list of 225 items.
They were chosen because of their
importance to the consumer and because,
in combination, their price movements re-
present those of all goods and services.
Each item selected for pricing is so
defined that the same item, or one of
equal quality, will be priced each period.
The prices used are those in effect on the
fifteenth of each month. The items
selected are exactly the same as those
used in compiling the U. S. Index.
Each month prices are compared with
the average prices during the base period
--calendar year 1956, for the Consumer
Price Index-or with published U. S.
prices for that month-for the Compar-
ative Index. Percentage price changes
are computed for each item and the rela-
tive importance of each item for that
month is calculated.
If flour, for instance, has increased 20
percent in price over the previous month,
the weight given flour in the month's
time-to-time index becomes 1.48 as com-
pared with the 1.23 in the base index.
In other words, a buyer is spending $1.48


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT

Th;rl1 QI,, i, r. Fi. .l ,. ir -


Commercial Vessels:
Ocean-going. ------------.-
*Small ..- ----- -... .. ...-..
Total commercial ___-.. ----
**U. S. Government vessels, ocean-
going -. ..- ---.. ...--.-
*Small ..... . .....---------. .
Total commercial and U. S.
Government_----------


1957


Atlantic
to
Pacific

1,128
125

1,253

38
49

1,340


Pacific
to
Atlantic

1,054
109.
1,163

47
71

1,281


*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1,
ships transited free.


Total


2,182
234
2,416

85
120

2,621


Total


2,057
209



63
83

2,412


1938

Total


1,386
219
1,605


1951, Government-operated


Nationality



Argentine --- ---
Belgian ---
Brazilian --------
British ----------
Chilean ---------
Chinese ---------
Colombian ------
Costa Rican -----
Cuban-----------
Danish ---------
Ecuadorean -----
Finnish ----------
French -----
German ----------
Greek ----------
Honduran ...
Israeli -
Italian ----------
Japanese --------
Latvian ---------
Liberian ---------
Mexican --------
Netherlands -----
Nicaraguan------
Norwegian -------
Panamanian -----
Peruvian --------
Philippine -------
South Korean --_
Soviet-----------
Spanish ---------
Swedish ---------
Swiss -----------
United States-----
Uruguayan ------
Yugoslavian ---
Total ------


Num-
ber of
transits

1
1
1
356
17
13
50
12
84
14
8
20
172
35
108
39
152
168
2
50
11
229
110
10
4
3
14
36
1
460
1


2,182


1957

Tons
of cargo

566
7,085
66
2,343,966
104,067
100,771
68,23-8
5,46t.

360,014
29,414
30,990
105,395
618,070
323,289
.111,772
165,926
1,115,768
1,545,708
1,650
244,042
29,892
1,603,271
495,424
50,148
24,032
10,103
63,564
196,239
1,180
3,117,665
8,642


12.962,422


to purchase the same amount of flour he
was able to buy for $1.23 during calendar
year 1956.
While considerable reliance has been
placed on the vast amount of material
published by the Bureau of Labor Statis-
tics and while the indexes have been pat-
terned to a considerable extent along the
lines of the current U. S. Consumer Price
Index, there are several major differences
between the index for the United States
and that for the Canal Zone.
The Canal Zone index is based on the
spending pattern of all U. S.-citizen em-
ployees and their dependents residing in
the Canal Zone. Living habits are diff-
erent here from those in the United States.
This has influenced, to a considerable ex-
tent, the relative importance, or weights,
of certain items.
What a family buys in the way of food,
clothing, and recreation materials are all
influenced by this geographical difference
and consequently certain items are more


Num-
ber of
transits



298
19
7
58
8
77
17
9
26
145
28
124
1
32
115
149
3
39
13
255
100
8
7
6
2
17
33
459
1
1


1956

Tons
of cargo




1,814,576
120.1 ln
37,b31
75,391
47,738

282,484
24,493
34,891
167,574
449,617
259,957
102,109
10,350
182,631
905,050
1,260,920
10,429
189,305
21,592
1,380,445
425,983
35,488
43,494
17,513
1,927
72,317
175,163

2,888,442
3,924
9,161


Num-
ber of
transits



348
3


2
56
1
26
86
19
10
12
77
1

77
174
44
3
2
2

28
413
2


1,386


1938

Tons
of cargo




1,626,625
10,012



161,735
4,021
1 is, l
312,330
96,467
3,839
31,762
495,136


179,917
848,325
56,087
4,008

4,375
187,191

2,195,344
7,300


6,362,777


important and carry a heavier weight
with the Canal Zone family than they
would with its U. S. counterpart.
The second difference is that the Zone
index takes into account only the Zone
consumer's expenditures in the Zone; the
U. S. index covers all spending.
In the third place, the Canal Zone
index is based on the buying pattern of
both married and single employees; the
U. S. index is based on families of two or
more persons.
These major differences are indicated
to prevent any erroneous conclusions
should the Canal Zone and U. S. indexes
be compared.
*There is an obvious lag in movements of
food prices in the Canal Zone because of the
time interval between purchase date and
final delivery to the C. Z. consumer. Because
of the distance from the market there will
undoubtedly be many months when the
commodity price movement here will be
inconsistent with comparative price move-
ments in the States.


May 3, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19


Canal Commercial Traffic by Nationality of Vessels

Third Quarter, Fiscal Years


I I -


2,057 11,070,963




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

SHIPS 12 SHIPPING I 48

JtiinSH IPS AND SHIPPING"9g


The Ore Prince and her sister ship, the Ore Monarch, together have carried a
total of 189,661 tons of Peruvian iron ore on five trips through the Panama Canal


Record Breaker
The record for the amount of ore hauled
through the Panama Canal in a single
shipment was broken again last month
when the 15,662-ton Ore Monarch of the
Navion Corporation was northbound with
40,594 tons of ore aboard. This is not
only the largest cargo of ore but the
largest cargo of any kind ever carried
through the Canal by a single ship.
The Ore Monarch made her record-
breaking trip on April 15. Her load ex-
ceeded by 1,401 tons the previous record
carried aboard her sister ship, Ore Prince,
on March 4. The Ore Monarch's cargo
was out of San Juan, Peru, for Morris-
ville, Pa.
The two ships gross 1 ,I),6 tons each,
have an overall length of 735 feet and a
beam of 98 feet. They are registered
under the Liberian flag, and are handled
locally by Payne & Wardlaw.
New Look
The Matson Line's 24,762-ton Mat-
sonia, which was taken through the Canal
last April as one of the largest "dead"
tows ever to make the transit, will return
to the Isthmus May 31 under her own
power with more than 700 cruise passen-
gers aboard.
The 24-y,-ar-.old vessel was recently
transformed into one of the most modern
and up-to-date luxury liners afloat. The
work, done at a Newport News hip;:rd'.,
included air conditioning thriughuut, re-
placement or overhaul of all engines, and
the complete redecoration of all public
salons and cabins.
Due in Cristobal 1 1 31 from N,-.%
York via Haiti, Nassau, and other West
Indian ports, the vessel will make the
transit the same day and sail at 2 a. m.,
June 1, for San Francisco via Acapulco,
.l,\i .. .After her coast-to-coast cruise,
she will join the M.it,-n Line fleet run-
nin., between S.n Francisco and Hawaii.
Th, Matsonia, operated during the war


as the transport Monterey, was towed
through the Canal last April with the
assistance of five Panama Canal tugs
working in relays. She will be represented
here by Norton, Lilly.
Tropical Travellers
According to an estimate made by
Atlantic side shipping men, a total of
13,383 tourists disembarked in Cristobal
from 28 ships and visited various points
of interest in Panama and the Canal Zone
during the official tourist season which
started in November. Of this number,
6,836 cruise pa>;(ngers made a partial
transit of the Panama Canal aboard the
excursion ferryboat Presidente Porras as
part of their tour of the Isthmus.
The estimated number of tourists this
year did not include those passengers who
arrived here aboard the Panama Line
vessels and other ships regularly sched-
uled to call at Canal ports.
The Cunard Line cruise ship Caronia
brought several hundred more visitors to
Balboa Thursday when she arrived here
after a 108-day round-the-world cruise.
The ship is due to make the Canal transit
today, and will sail for New York at
6 p. m.
Utopia Right Here
Eeryn\ne dreams of Utopia but the
residents of Cristobal have it-anchored

TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MARCH
1956 1957
Commercial ---............ 712 808
U. S. Government---------- 32 32
Total------------.---- 744 840
TOLLS *
Commercial ------$3,073,307 S 3(.0 71.
U. S. Government- 198,079 I 11. 11i
Total-..........3,271,396 $3,718,851
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.


at the Panama Canal Yacht Club.
The Atlantic side Utopia is a 65-foot
schooner owned and operated by Fred J.
Peterson, of Sturgeon Bay, Wis. The
skipper and a crew of six brought the
sailing vessel to Cristobal from Sturgeon
Bay by way of Chicago, New Orleans, St.
Petersburg, Fla., Havana, Cuba, and Ja-
maica. When it sails from Cristobal and
makes the Canal transit southbound, as
it is scheduled to do soon, the Utopia
will start on a round-the-world cruise
with the Galapagos Islands as her first
port of call.
Bunkering Brisk
March was the busiest month in ten
years for the Marine Bunkering Section
of the Terminals Division. During that
period, figures show that the load in terms
of barrels of petroleum products handled
was the highest since the end of the last
war.
Division officials attributed the in-
crease, in the most part, to the increase
in the number of ships being diverted
from the Suez to the Panama Canal, and
to an increase in trade to and from the
Far East.
Lots of Cargo
Cargo handling activities of the Term-
inal Division also reflected a considerable
increase over previous months on both
sides of the Isthmus. The increase in
March was more or less anticipated since
at this time of the year large shipments
of cotton and coffee are received from
Latin American countries for trans-ship-
ment to world markets. On the Pacific
side the busy period was made ever busier
by the handling of 11,500 tons of scrap-
iron and steel which was loaded aboard
the Japanese freighter Fukuzan Maru.
This was the largest single shipment of
scrap handled at a Canal Zone port.
Japanese Fishers
Five Japanese whale catchers, part of
the former Olympic whaling fleet sold last
year by the Onassis Company to the
Kyokuyo Hogei K. K., arrived in Balboa
from the South Pacific whaling grounds
during April and took on bunkers here
in preparation for the trip home to Japan.
The whaling boats, now named the Otari
Maru Nos. 6, 7, 10, 11, and 18, were under
the Panama flag until June 1956. They
were handled here by C. Fernie and Corn
pany.
Migration By Sea
A group of 358 Hungarian refugees en
route from Europe to Wellington, New
Zealand, where they will make their new
homes, made the trip through the Canal
during April aboard the Rotterdam Lloyd
ship Sibajak. Sponsored by the Intergov-
ernmental Committee for European Mi-
gration under the U. S. Esiapee Program,
the refugees included men, women, and
children. They are among the first Hun-
la.rian refugees to come through the
Panama Canal. The ship here was hand-
died by C. B. Fenton & Company.


20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


May 3, 1957