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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
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:IZONE, AUGUST 2, 1957
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Mooring facilities for two big ships north of Pedro Miguel Locks would reduce
congestion and increase Canal capacity during Pacific Locks overhaul periods.
For A Few Years Ahead
A short-range plan of improvements
for i,,,r.,-ir..' the transit capacity of the
Canal to meet expected requirements of
world shipping for the next one or two
decades has been approved by the Board
of Directors of the Panama Canal Com-
p.iI. for submission to -h. Bureau of the
Budl,..t and appropriate Congressional
Committees for review.
No action will be taken to implement
the report and recommendations of the
Ad Hoc Committee on the Canal capac-
ity problem and no distribution of the
report will be made until these reviews
have been completed.
The proposed improvements would in-
crease the dependable '.-pl. t: of the
Canal by about 25 percent. Dependable
.1[1'. it is rated on the number of lock-
..:-. possible in a 24-hour period at Gatun
Locks 'li ir'-' overhaul periods. The pres-
ent 1., I ,',- capacity at Gatun is ;', in
normal 'p. i itl;, periods with current
clear-cut rate, :I .I1Iuri' Pacific Locks
overhaul, and 2, in, r; 1 part of the Atlan-
tic Locks overhaul. These would be
increased to about 45, ;1., and .:;, re-
The plan adopted by the Board at its
meeting last month is the initial phase
of an exhaustive study undertaken by
hii Canal il 11.1-' n 1i. to determine what
the requirements of world shipping will
be for the remainder of this century and
what alterations to the existing waterway
are needed to meet those requirements.
A report on the study is to be sub-
mitted to the Board of Directors by the
end of next year.
The short-r ,ir-'- plan proposes five
major improvements, which are:
1. The purchase of five additional
towing locomotives. This item has al-
ready been budgeted.
2. Lighting Gaillard Cut and im-
proved lighting of the Locks for safe
3. Provision of mooring facilities for
two large vessels just north of Pedro
4. \\ idnin~ Paraiso and Cucaracha
reaches in Gaillard Cut to 500 feet and
deepening the widened part by five feet.
5. \% id.ninii Bend 1660, a curve in the
channel at the old construction town
of Empire which is considered one of the
most hazardous sections of the Canal.
The cost of these improvements, not
in.i 1ulir.: the purchase of the additional
locomotives, would be '> I'I.' *..I i. The
p1,.,.1.,n could be financed by the Com-
pany over a four-year construction per-
iod, requiring neither special appropria-
tions nor borrowing.
While the short-range plan embodies
no new features that have not been given
consideration in prior studies of the Canal
capacity problem, it attacks the problem
at the most immediately critical points.
Of importance in the long-range planning,
virtually all of the proposed improve-
ments would be beneficial in almost any
permanent improvements or changes con-
sidered probable for the Panama Canal.
The study of the Canal capacity prob-
lem is being conducted by an Ad Hoc
Committee appointed last January by
Assistant Secretary of the Army George
H. Roderick. Members are Governor
Potter, Chairman, Maj. Gen. Julian L.
Schley, and Ralph A. Tudor.
The Ad Hoc Committee's first report
was based on statistical and other data
developed by a Working Committee,
composed of a group of Canal otfiial-
intimately acquainted with operating
problems. This was headed by former Lt.
Gov. H. W. Schull, Jr., until his departure
last month. He has been succeeded as
Chairman by Lt. Gov. Hugh M. Arnold.
Efforts of the Working Committee
were warmly praised by Board membt-rs.
especially plans for illumination of the
Locks and Gaillard Cut which were de-
veloped largely thrlulh Colonel S( hull's
In effect the short-range plan will
provide for 24-hour operation of the
waterway under safe conditions; par-
tial elimination of a serious bottleneck
in traffic at Pedro Miguel Locks; and a
major decrease in the delay time now
caused by clear-cut ships.
The initial report to the Board of Di-
rectors also proposed a plan for the re-
distribution of the daily traffic pattern
when the improvements are completed.
Although -hl proposed rearrangement of
transit schedules will not increase traffic
capacity under the new conditions, it ill
mean an average saving of some three
hours in "nuitiiig-nd-trunsit" time for
ships using the Canal and effect monetary
savings for shipping which will aggregate
some $2,000,000 a year.
The widening of Paraiso and Cucaracha
reaches will bring the channel to a mini-
mum of 500 feet in more than half of
Gaillard Cut. Culebra Reach, which ad-
joins Cucaracha north of Gold Hill, has
already been widened to 500 feet.
In connection with this project, it was
recommended that the widened part of
the channel be deepened five feet since
the work can be performed economically
in connection with the other excavation.
Also, all future improvement plan, con-
sidered include a d,.-pini;nz of the Canal
The widening and d.c.pening project
would cost an estimated $1 l.hti)..nol0 and
would require the removal of approxi-
nm;ith lv .200,000 cubic yards of material.
Thi ,.aril~.; is exclusive of material ex-
cavated in A idL.nin.' of Bend I ;. located
in the Paraiso Reach, on which work is
now l, in;i started. All of the material
in both reaches \ ill be removed from the
west bank of the channel.
The section of the channel to be
widened has been the scene of many
accidents and is considered partic ularly
hazardous because of its narrow, rocky
banks and by the surges of water there
9 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 2, 1957
from lockagos at Pedro Miguel. When
the project is completed, it will permit
large ships, and others requiring clear-cut
transit, to meet and pass for more than
half the distance of the Cut section, mate-
rially decreasing loss of time in handling
The report to the Board said that full
advantages of the two lighting projects
could be realized only by the c.-mplrtinn
of both. Of the expected results of these,
the report said in part:
"These projects would, in addition to
improving safety of Canal operations,
greatly increase the capacity of the Ca-
nal by reducing the number of daylight
clear-cut ships and by permitting two-
way traffic in Gaillard Cut during dark-
ness. While it is impossible mathemati-
cally to predict the reduction in daylight
clear-cut ships, an analysis of expected
increases in sizes and types of ships and
expected traffic seems to indicate that,
with this improved lighting, daylight
clear-cuts will probably not exceed four
a day in the foreseeable future."
The estimated cost of the two lighting
And- A Forecast
For Many Years Ahead
A long-range forecast of the cargo ton-
nage and ship transits which the Panama
Canal may expect from now until the
year 2000 will be in the hands of Canal
authorities by the end of the calendar
The report is being prepared by the
Stanford Research Institute, of Menlo
Park, Calif., which has been retained
by the Panama Canal Company for this
purpose. The study is part of the pro-
gram toward solving the Canal capacity
problem which has occupied the time
of a special, or Ad Hoc, committee,
and a Working Committee for several
In charge of the studies for the Stan-
ford Institute is Dr. Neil T. Houston, a
senior economist and head of the program m
in regional economics of the Institute's
Economics Research Division.
Dr. Houston spent the first two weeks
of July on the Isthmus and is returning
here in September or October for further
work. During his July visit, he reviewed
commodity and statistical data, saw how
the Canal obtained its information on the
origin and destination of cargoes, and got
statistical data on cargo movements in
He also transited the Canal, rode in a
helicopter over Gaillard Cut, and visited
the locks and docks, to get an idea of
Canal transit operations.
Although several forecasts of Canal
traffic have been made in the past decade,
these must now be brought up to date.
The Stanford report will be confined
to commercial freight traffic through the
Canal and will not include military cargo.
The study will include a prediction for
the movement of the major commodities
which make up approximately 75 percent
of the Canal's cargo tonnage.
Dr. Houston is well-known in the field
of economics. He is a graduate of Wash-
ington and Lee University and did grad-
uate work at Fletcher School of Law and
Diplomacy and at Harvard University.
He has had both business and educational
experience and has been with the Stan-
ford Research Institute since 1953.
projects is $1,550,000. While it is planned
to install lights along a 3,400-foot section
of the Cut between Culebra and Enlpir,-
reaches on an experimental basis this
fiscal year, the work approved by the
Board would not start until th. begin-
ning of next fiscal year and would require
about 20 months for completion. The
experimental lighting system to be in-
stalled will give engineers and Canal
operating personnel an opportunity to
study the effectiveness of the mild illu-
mination '\'sti-m and to make changes
in the permanent installations if found
The provision of a mooring station on
the east bank of the Canal just north of
Pedro Miguel Locks would cost $1,359,-
000, and it is estimated the project could
be completed in a year's time. Since this
will greatly facilitate the handling of ships
at Pedro Miguel and in the Cut, this
work would be scheduled to start and be
completed during the coming fiscal year.
The area will become a part of the 500-
foot widening project.
The proposal to widen Bend 1660,
under the short-range plan, is considered
essential as a safety factor in view of the
pr.--..nt type of Canal tr.f ii T'l- change
in direction of the channel at this point
is more than 37 d(-:r, ... and the bend has
a record of more I,.I1,--ti i in, and col-
lisions than any other in the Canal.
Deeply-laden vessels and "S.i|ri" ships
are difficult to maneuver at the bend
because of bank suction. \\ itl the chan-
nel widened at that point more space
will be available in which to maneuver
ships lenhirinr or leaving the bend.
This project, including deepening the
channel, would cost an estimated $4,-
438,000, and would require the removal
of 2,377,000 cubic yards of earth and
Most of the work to be done under the
five-point, short-range plan would be ac-
complished by contract. The wet exca-
vation would be done by Canal forces,
but the dry excavation, the lighting proj-
ects, and construction of the mooring
station would be offered for contract.
Ships will hove a 500-foot channel for about half the distance of Gaillard Cut
after widening projects are completed on two reaches just north of Pedro Miguel.
Master Key For Panama Canal Locks
Now Ready For Prominent Visitors
Mezzo-Soprano Blanche Thebom took
time out from her music in July to see
the Panama Canal locks in operation.
The key to a city is a traditional mark
of respect and welcome given to visiting
dignitaries. The Canal Zone has many
cities but it has, also, massive locks
which no city in the world can duplicate.
So, instead of being presented with a
key to the city, eminent visitors to the
Canal Zone will be given a Master Key
to the Panama Canal Locks. With it
will go a handsome certificate which
attests that the recipient is a member of
the Esteemed Order of the Bearers of the
Master Key to the Panama Canal.
The Order will be bestowed in three
grades, without rank. They are: Hon-
orary Pilot, Honorary Lockmaster, and
Honorary Aide to the Governor.
First to receive the keys and mem-
bership in the new Order were Assistant
Secretary of the Army George H. Rod-
erick, Chairman of the Board of Direc-
tors of the Panama Canal Company,
and members of the Board of Directors.
Gov. W. E. Potter made the formal
presentation of the Master Keys and
certificates last month at the quarterly
meeting of the Board in Washington.
Since the Panama Canal is a mecca for
distinguished visitors from all points of
the globe, the new Order is expected ulti-
mately to have representatives in prac-
tically every part of the world. And from
Timbuktu to Oslo, members of the Order
will be able to show their friends the
golden key and the certificate which says,
"The Esteemed Order of Bearers of the
Master Key of the Panama Canal has
been established to join together all Pan-
ama Canal advisors in a favored fellow-
ship of perigrinating potentates who have
viewed the marvels of American enter-
prise and Panamanian geography at the
Crossroads of the Earth, shared the trop-
ical delights of the Canal Zone, observed
the fiesta and the siesta, seen the sun rise
in the Pacific and set in the Atlantic,
angled in the bay of abundant fish, and
drunk deep of the waters of the Chagres
which assures their return."
Pacific Area Bid Opening, Lock Advertisement
Start Conversion Project Toward Final Stages
With the opening of bids for the Pacific
area conversion this week and the adver-
tisement last week of conversion of the
Locks, the 60-cycle power conversion
program moved into its last stages.
It will still, however, be between two
and three years before all frequency-sen-
sitive electrical equipment in the Canal
Zone will have been converted to operate
on 60-cycle current.
The Pacific area contract, on which
bids were opened this week, too late for
this issue of THE REVIEW to include the
amounts bid, includes the entire Pacific
side south of Pedro Miguel, with the ex-
ception of the TW-.t Bank and Miraflores.
Bids on the West Bank-Miraflores con-
version are to be opened September 13.
The contract for conversion of the
Locks covers all frequency sensitive
equipment for all of the Panama Canal
locks, from the equipment in the con-
trol towers to the little motors which
open and close the huge lock gates.
The process of conversion of the locks
will take about two years after the suc-
cessful contractor is given notice to
Still to be advertised is a contract for
the installation of remote control and
relays of the power stations. At the
ON THE COVER
Try as they might, these young
Texans could think of nothing in
their home State to equal the Pan-
ama Canal Locks. The boys were
part of a group of 17 Texas high
school Junior Ambassadors on a
goodwill tour of Latin America
under the sponsorship of the East
Texas Chamber of Commerce. The
picture was taken for "The Review"
by George F. Nadeau, L tin Official
Photographer at the time.
present time this contract is scheduled
to be advertised September 1. Also sched-
uled for the future, probably next sum-
mer, is a contract for rebuilding one of
the Gatur hydro-electric generators.
At the present time, Atlantic area con-
version is about 60 percent complete.
The residential areas of Margarita, Gatun
and Rainbow City have been converted
and the contractor is working in the In-
dustrial Area. In the Central Area, all
household equipment in Gamboa has
been converted and that in the town of
Santa Cruz is about half finished.
Merge Into Supply Division
The consolidation of the Commissary-
Service Center Division and the Store-
house Division into a new unit, known
as the Supply Division, was (Tff,-tiu- last
month. The Division is headed by R. L.
Sullivan as Acting General Manager.
The new Supply Division is composed
of two branches, the Commissary Branch
and the Storehouse Branch.
The former includes all commissary,
service center, laundry, and theater oper-
ations. T. G. Relihan is Superintendent
of this branch. The Storehouse Branch,
headed by H. E. May, includes all former
Division activities, such as warehousing,
scrap and salvage, and the furniture pools.
In a Budget Bureau-Canal conference last month were left to right: Percy Rap-
paport, F. A. Baldwin, Philip L. Steers, Jr., Earl J. bonnelly, Arthur Focke,
and Carl H. Schwartz. Mr. Rappaport is Assistant Director of the Bureau.
4 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 2, 1957
They're Wishing For Rain
A couple of dozen lithe and limber young Isthmians wish
it would rain, and they have a special reason for their wish.
They are the members of the Panama Ski Club, one of the
newest local hobby groups, currently a club without a home.
And it's all because of the unseasonable drought.
Out at Madden Lake, where they'd like to be zipping
along on their skis in the wake of a skiilfully-handled fast-
moving boat, the water is so low that their brand new
launching float is stranded high and dry and their boats
cannot maneuver among the newly-uncovered hill tops and
Although water skiing has been a sport of a handful of young
people here for some time, there had not been an organized
ski club until about a year ago when a group of the more
ardent aficionados got together and decided that they could
have more fun, more easily and less expensively, if they pooled
their skills and resources. That way, the more expert could
teach the novices and they could share their boats.
Today there are 29 dues-paying members and a handful of
youngsters who are classed as junior members. The youngest
in the group is about 10, the oldest pushing 40.
Several of them are exceptionally good, like the Club's
President, Frank E. Hirt, of Balboa, and Beth Little, of
Diablo Heights. They appear in the accompanying picture.
Another skilled skier is Stephen Powelson, Deputy Comp-
troller, who did a lot of water skiing in Europe but who is
currently beached because of a bad back.
Margie Daniels, a 14-year-old, not only can stage a most
creditable performance on skis, but is quite frequently the
"high girl on the totem pole"-the totem pole in this case
being Mr. Hirt-when they try some of their fancy one-skier-
Billy Benny, who is only 10, is becoming an expert on the
slalom skis and another 10-year-old, Bobby Daniel, is going to
be giving his elders a run for their money in a few more months.
Books on water skiing say that anyone who can swim
can water ski, but there's a great deal more to it than that.
Beginners practice on land the tricky process of standing
up on the thin slats of wood, and it is not until they are
familiar with this that they try to repeat it on water. As
they become more skillful they learn to steer by leaning
their bodies in the direction they want to go, just as snow
skiers do. The proper shift and the correct bank can bring
about anything from a gentle curve to a sharp twist.
After the simple banks and turns come the more intricate
tricks, the jumps, the skiing backwards, the one-foot skiing
and all of the other stunts familiar to viewers of Florida-made
Of course, they have the help of the long tow-rope which
connects them to the speeding boat but a novice has to learn
to let go of the rope, fast, when he takes a spill. Otherwise,
be'll be dragged along under the water until his breath gives
As soon as the level of Madden Lake returns to normal, the
club expects to build an informal, bohio-type shelter on a point
of land near Madden Dam. Several floats will dot the surface
of the lake. Meantime, they are keeping their skis crossed
and hoping for rain.
August 2,1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5
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FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION
TrETW I U, 1
Pictured above is what one housewife
discovered when she went into the kitchen
to prepare breakfast one morning. The
automatic electric toaster was plugged in
but not turned on. Yet the filament on
the side nearest the stove was glowing.
When she took hold of the handle of the
toaster to see if the switch was somehow
Bureau Award For
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR
Health --------------------------- 5
Civil Affairs ------------------------... 4
Engineering and Construction----- 3
Supply and Employee Service.---- 2
Marine -------------------------- 1
Transportation and Terminals ----- 0
Division Award For
NO DISABLING INJURIES
HOSPITALS AND CLINICS
HOUSING AND GROUNDS DIVISION
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR
Aids to Navigation ---------......---- 6
Electrical. ------------------------- 6
Housing and Grounds ---..-----.. 6
Sanitation ------------------------ 6
Dredging ------. ------------------- 5
Hospitals and Clinics -----------. 5
Maintenance -----. ...-----.... 5
Motor Transportation .... ........ 5
Railroad -----------.----------.......... 5
Storehouse ..--. .............--- 5
Industrial ----------..- ...-...-- 4
Police --.. ---..-- . ..- .. ---.... 4
Commissary and Service Center ...---- 3
Locks ....---------...---...... 2
Navigation---- - .-- .--. 2
Terminals. ------ ...... -. -.... 1
stuck, she moved the toaster slightly and
noticed a spark where the aluminum pan
handle was touching the side of the
toaster. The filament ceased glowing im-
An investigation proved that the fila-
ment on that side had broken and was
touching the case. The pan handle com-
pleted the electrical circuit from the stove
which is grounded. Had the handle not
been touching the toaster, and had the
housewife touched both the toaster and
the stove simultaneously she would have
received a severe shock which could have
killed her. All electrical appliances should
be kept in good repair. The very first
time that any electrical appliance "bites"
you, take it out of service and have it
That little white piece in the pull-chain
in the picture above is called a pull-chain
insulating link. They would be highly
desirable in all similar chains used to op-
erate electric light switches but a "must"
when the light is located over a sink or
near any object which offers a "ground"
for electric current.
In many ways electricity is like water-
if there is a place for it to leak, it will
leak provided there is a "pipe" for it to
travel in. Frequently light socket switches
develop "leaks" and the electricity is in
the chain looking for some way to get to
the "ground." If you happen to be bare-
foot on a tile floor-or worse yet-holding
onto a water faucet or pipe and at the
same time touch a "leaky" chain, you
become that "pipe" and receive a shock
that could kill you.
IN CASE OF ELECTRICAL TROUBLE
CALL YOUR DISTRICT WIREMAN
FREQUENCY RATE-Disabling injuries per 1,000,000 employee-
Engineering and Construction Bureau
Civil Affairs Bureau
Transportation and Terminals Bureau
Supply and Employee Service Bureau
C.Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Co. (This Month)
Number of Disabling Injuries .....-------... 1
Employee Hours of Exposure ......2,112,363
Frequency Rate this month
I -:-- Accumulaine Frequenry Rale this Calendar Year
S1954-1955-1956 Calendar Year Average
6 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
OF CURRENT AND FUTURE INTEREST
On the receiving end of the polio shots are Kay Hummer, Norman Davison, and
Alice Roche. Dispensers are Dr. Eric Osterberg, Joan Astrid, and Erma Forbes.
More than 19,ooo inoculations against
poliomyelitis were given to Canal Zone
children during the past fiscal year, accord-
ing to Canal Zone Health Bureau figures.
In addition, 3,680 injections were given to
Canal Zone adults between December and
Figuring that there were still a large
number of adult Canal employees and their
dependents who had not yet received the
vaccine injection series, the Health Bureau
last month set up vaccination stations in
central locations for the convenience of the
In one day a total of 424 employees and
their dependents took advantage of a sta-
tion situated in the rotunda of the Admin-
istration Building at Balboa Heights. A
large number also received their polio vac-
cinations July 24 at a station set up in the
Industrial Division for the convenience of
Maintenance and Commissary Division
Mrs. Erma Forbes, Canal Zone school
nurse, is in charge of the stations, and ad-
ministers the injections. Earlier in the
year she vaccinated 202 teachers and Civil
Affairs Bureau employees by making a
tour of the schools and the Civil Affairs
The vaccinations for adults are being
provided free of charge through the Canal
Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly Al Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed by the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone
W. E. POTTER, Governor-President
HUGH M. ARNOLD, Lieutenant Governor
W. G. AREY, JR., Public Information Officer
J. RUFUS HARDY, Editor
ELEANOR MCILHENNY, Assistant Editor
EUNICE RICHARD, Editorial Assistant
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers,
Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publica-
tion date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year;
mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Pan-
ama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor,
Tax PANAMA CANAL REVIEW. Balboa Heights. C. Z.
Zone Chapter of the National Foundation
for Infantile Paralysis. The children under
19 years of age are vaccinated free by pro-
vision of the Poliomyelitis Vaccination
Assistance Act of 1955.
The new Maintenance Division shops,
now located in Building 8 in the Balboa
Industrial Division, will soon be the best-
lighted shops in the Canal Zone. Work was
started in July on the complete alteration
to the lighting system. The improvements
planned include the installation of a new
type of mercury-vapor lamp with a built-in
reflector which will give a nonglare shadow-
less light in all parts of the work areas.
Fluorescent lighting, which has been used
successfully in other Canal Zone buildings,
will be installed in the office section of the
Bids on the project were opened July 15;
the contract for the work was given to the
Electric Service Company, a Panama firm,
which made a low offer of $12,730. Accord-
ing to the specifications, the work will be
completed in approximately eight months.
Capt. Peter Grosz, above, is the new
Military Asisstant to the Governor.
Auus 1, I-PAAA AA RVE
Books in Braille, for sightless readers, can
be made available immediately on request
to the Canal Zone Library through the
courtesy of the Library for the Illinl f the
New York Public Library. Residents of the
Canal Zone may make their selections from
lists available in the Main Library at Ancon.
Books may be borrowed for one iimlh.
with the privilege of renewal. The itle- in
Braille include biographies of famous per-
sons, mysteries, and many current titles.
The Library for the Blind is a branch of
the New York Public Library and provides
city-wide service through New York's five
boroughs, Long Island, Connecticut, Puerto
Rico, the Virgin Islands, and in the Canal
Zone, if requested.
Before a crowd of about 300, certificates
that they had completed the Civil Defense
First Aid Course were presented last month
to 36 residents of the Canal Zone's Latin
American communities. The program was
sponsored by the La Boca Civic Council.
Several in the group of 36 were Girl Scouts;
they received, in addition to their diplomas,
First Aid Merit Badges to be worn with
The diplomas were presented by Philip
L. Dade, Chief of the Civil Defense Unit.
The group had been trained by First Aid
Instructor William Gordon of Paraiso, who
was given a sport shirt and overnight bag
by the graduates. The program was ar-
ranged by Chris E. Haywood, President of
the La Boca Civic Council.
The list of graduates follows:
Lois Alleyne, Elvira Bailey, Melva Bai-
ley, Virginia Brathwaite, Magdrie Callender,
Patricia Callender, Loretta Chong, Priscilla
Chong, Vilma Chong, Sarah Clark, Shirley
Clark, Wilma Daniels, Gloria Davis, Wol-
sey Dickens, and Eleanor Dickens.
Mavis Donowa, Glenda Farrell, Miriam
Farrell, Pearl Farrell, Clarence Fenton,
Lester Ferraro, Emilia Flemmings, Alexan-
der James, Winifred James, Paulina King,
James Kennedy, Wilhelmina Layne, and
Doris Livingston, Ilene Pilgrim, Iris Pil-
grim, Gladys Sandiford, Sadie Sinclair,
Carrie Turner, Marcelina Wilson, and
Identification cards for all members of
the Civil Defense Corps have been ordered
and will be distributed soon, P. L. Dade,
Chief of Civil Defense announced. The
cards will be given to all official and volun-
teer members of the Corps.
Mrs. Charlotte Kennedy, Coordinator of
Volunteer Womens Activities, will handle
the volunteer town-meetings during the ab-
sence on leave of Ralph Edwards who has
been assisting in the work on the Pacific
Two Canal Zone towns, Santa Cruz and
La Boca, arranged special civil defense
functions during the latter part of July.
Over 500 persons attended the Santa Cruz
party given at the Service Center under the
direction of Mrs. Ruby Wilson. The pro-
gram of songs, recitations, and addresses
contained something of interest to those of
all age groups. At La Boca, a graduation
exercise for 36 persons who received cards
and diplomas for first-aid training, drew a
crowd of nearly 300 persons.
AUGUST VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS
Date Town Place Hour
I Balboa USO-JWB 9 a. m.
7 Margarita and Service Center 9 a. m.
New Cristobal Margarita
8 Gamboa Civic Center 8:30 a. m.
8 Santa Cruz Service Center 8 p. m.
14 Rainbow City School 6:30 p.m.
19 Paraiso School 7:30 p. m.
20 Gatun Service Center 9 a. m.
21 Diablo Service Center 9:30 a. m.
August 2, 1957
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
J. Rufus Hardy and Philip L. Dade brief
newsmen on what's going on in the alert.
In the board room, acting Gov. W. S. Rodimon and members of
his staff discuss the extent of the damage and what must be done.
J. J. Pearce and Herschel Gandy man-
ned one of the telephones in the field.
The afternoon of July 12 was bright
and sunny, and it was no sort of day for
trouble. But at 1:30 p. m. an enemy
submarine lobbed a guided missile with
an atomic warhead, powerful as 100,000
tons of TNT, toward the Canal Zone. It
burst on the West Bank near Miraflores
In a matter of seconds, the locks were
breached, water was spilling from the sham-
bles of Miraflores Dam, the control house
and the power station were reduced to
rubble. Miraflores bridge disappeared.
In Miraflores Locks, the Inui San Maru
and the Balao became twisted smoking
masses of steel. Other ships in the area,
the P&T Leader, the Portunus, and the
Edgar Luckenbach, were less severely dam-
aged. Lethal radiological fallout blew
toward Empire in an almost elliptical
pattern, 17 miles long.
The events which occurred that sunny
afternoon were all on paper. They were
part of a nation-wide civil defense exer-
cise, the fourth in which the Canal Zone
has participated. They set in motion the
wheels within wheels of the local organ-
ization, halted all motor traffic, and sent
Zonians scurrying for shelter. A few of
the events are shown in the pictures on
The local Civil Defense Corps has a
ready-made nucleus. The Canal Zone's
experts in communications, housing, food
and such things, which would become
even more important in time of disaster
than they are in every-day living, are
integrated into Civil Defense in exactly
the same jobs they do ci.-ry day.
The Canal Zone plan utilizes all of
these experts, and the skilled care of
trained personnel will be supplemented by
volunteers who have been specially
trained. Nurses and doctors, for instance,
will be assisted by trained First Aid
workers; Zonians who have no professions
which will be needed uor nrtli in time of
trouble will be trained for such duties as
litter-bearers or members of decontami-
For the July alert, Civil Defense forces
were mobilized, but for a nose-count only.
Except for those who staff the control-
centers and man communications, they
did not go into action. But whether they
were at home or at work, Zoniaps every-
where took shelter and remained "under
cover" until the second blast of the sirens
told them to return to business as usual.
Warden John Hammond checks to be sure that everyone in the Engineering Division had taken cover.
Lester A. Ferguson, a restless young
man with a crew haircut and a perpetu-
ally-askew bow tie, is the Panama Canal's
His official title is Manager, New York
Operations, and his status is that of a
Bureau Director. But his job consists in
great part of seeing to it that the shoes
you wear, the bed you sleep in, and the
canned tomatoes you eat are purchased
and delivered to the Canal Zone.
Since he also is responsible for the buy-
ing of items for Company-Government
use, such as new automobilesfor the Mo-
tor Transportation Division and steel for
locksoverhaul, the purchasing job is a big
one. It runs to almost $20 million a year.
He does his buying either competi-
tively, through open bidding, or propri-
etarialy. The latter is the case when the
Company-Government organization buys
from a specific company which is the only
source for the particular item needed.
The purchases range in size from pen-
nies to over half a million dollars, which
is the case when a contract is let for a
tanker-load of gasoline. At the present
time some of the largest purchases being
made are for nickel steel for locks overhaul.
Food represents an important part of
the New York Operation buying, as it
involves not only selection and ordering,
but also methods of packing. Consider-
able experimental work has been done by
the New York Office in cooperation with
shippers, he said, to ensure that mer-
chandise for the Canal Zone makes the
long humid trip from the United States
in good condition.
This part of his job is known as pro-
curement and is handled by three "Com-
modity Branches" and one administrative
branch. The commodity branches are
split into the food section which pur-
chases all food items plus paper products,
medical and school supplies, deck and
engine ship supplies, etc.; the industrial
materials branch which buys the electri-
cal and mechanical equipment for the
Canal, both finished and unfinished; the ap-
parel and home furnishing branch which
handles such buying as drygoods, shoes,
and housewares and notions. And theydo
this in such quantity that during the past
Here's The Man
Who Does The Buying
He'd be lost without a telephone in his tremendous buying job.
calendar year the New York Office
essed 6,640 requisitions, and issued
purchase orders covering 75,029
Mr. Ferguson likes to use potato
an illustration of quantity buying.
24 million potatoes which his outfit
each year would, laid end to end, s
from New York to Cristobal.
Some of his purchases are emer
ones, and he is justifiably proud
dispatch with which the office has
able to handle them. A year or sc
for instance, he got a radio telephoi
at 4 p. m. that two rocking polio
were needed urgently at Gorgas Ho!
It took several airlines, the Coast C
and police departments in New Yor
Massachusetts to do it, but 12 hour
the two rocking-beds had been
This is what happens when air-borne fruit and vegetables are put on sa
the Commissaries each week. The new program has been a great suc
from a factory in Massachusetts to Tocu-
men Airport in Panama.
All of the things which Mr. Ferguson's
outfit buys in the United States have to
be transported to the Canal Zone, of
course. By far the largest amount is
shipped on the two Panama Line ships,
which also come under his direction. He
is ultimately responsible for the physical
operation and maintenance of the SS
Ancon and the SS Cristobal, the Panama
Line's 500-foot pier on New York's North
River, and the Haiti Office, with its 11-
man staff, in the heart of Port-au-Prince's
.k and During the past fiscal year, the two
s later present ships of the line and the SS
flown "Panama," prior to its sale in Decem-
ber, carried a total of over 9,000 passen-
gers and some 175,000 tons of cargo
between New York and Cristobal.
As head of the New York Operations,
Mr. Ferguson is the Governor's business
representative in the United States. This
means not only that he is the Company's
contracting officer in the United States,
but that he is also the "go-between" when
it comes to retaining consultants and ob-
taining information needed in such stud-
ies as the current capacity program, and
also the individual who is the recipient
S of suits in legal matters such as cargo
S claims or personal injuries connected with
the Panama Line.
Another part of being the business rep-
resentative is paying bills. Through the
Accounting Division of his office, he
writes over 40,000 checks a year.
The biggest headache in his job, he
says, is finding time to do it all. The
4.. most enjoyable part is the diversifica-
tion. "You never know what's going
to happen, when or where."
He was born in Cleveland, Ohio, 39
years ago, which makes him one of the
youngest of the Canal's top personnel.
le in He studied business administration at
cesss. Western Reserve University and has be-
hind him 16 years as an ex ( ut .e with
9 such well-known retail (See page 12)
August 2, 1957
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
ical improvements, although it wil also
see the beginning of a program for han-
dicapped children. The largest project
of the year will be the start of con-
struction of two buildings which will be .
adjuncts to Balboa High School and thb
Junior College but will also serve the
One building will be located on the
triangular plot of ground between
Roosevelt and Morgan Avenues. This
will contain a 600-seat auditorium, a
stage with dressing rooms, and lighting
facilities for stage presentation, and a
soundproofed music room. The other building, to be located at
the corner of Lawrence Johnson Place and O'Connor Road, will
house ROTC classrooms and armory, and an audio-visual room
where educational films can be shown.
The main Library in the Civil AfAairs Building is now being
completely air conditioned. The system is being installed by
Distribuidora Electrcis. S. A., of Panama, and should be oper-
ating before the end of this month.
get will approve the vaJle placed on the
properthie taken over by the Company
at the time o[ its reonRanizatorn in 1951
This will make it possible finally to e-
tablish the amount of the 11. S Gov-
ernment's investment in the Panama
Canal Company oni which the Company
has to pa interest. We shall the con.
centrate on ;mphli.ing our procedure
in accounting for the Company prop-
ertj. and on effecting economies where-
: ever possible
All rates presently beinic charged b\
the Companiy and Government to the
various divisions wlthli the organization.
to employees, and to outsider-, will be reviewed to determine
whether any revisions are trdirlted.
\e shall continue to cooperate in the long-range program of
the Federal Government to bring aliourt operating ecoinomie-
and improved accounting in all agencie- of the Government.
W hcii thhi- fiscal veri r e-iind iL .t willl
h t t been made cn the firsi :igrlicanillt
change. in operating procedures of the
PaCial a Canal lrlce it was plant ed arid
lh iisrriicrcd rieareI 5t c. ar- agO-- Ti-w '
risc 1 11p1 rn% iI. I de-ices for uLIe i the
loclk- I'he' Icu device, hae beenrt de.
si gn l l hand are beinii m tinifacti.ried bi
R4 C l.el'ourieaui. I ic. under a con.
tract rl Iinl sered b\ the E-nein eriigr
3a1nl Conlltr i ction I Lareal Ihe i results
of the-. t-c c .- will tall alifet plan.
i1ttg for the operalioii of the wa crw.I
Ior nirIVm derach to come
'li- ii ils ri.in, fo c onf iet eral iirej ti
%thl.h hie problem 1i, hanidhlii the
sita Iil.iirrra.liripc fl, oif -hip. i lihroiiqh the Candl1 %cll lie ap-
proichur liv ni priir tJt.i -ini and i.Oistrilctiiiti procritm thil
vt it I we ai hers are i Ioiig.rainae program of wrldn.iilg Caillard
Cutrt to a intimnrrn uf 511) fe't aud lighting the Cut aiid Locl-
lfr intprrr c I rirhit-oper 11irg crh.,rldlrirrl le.
\\e e\p'. ii h1.1i deill ili Iher high-le.vel bridge at Balboa will
lite i iari-l hi. reir. hi. rwll lie done b,. Ih architecr-eratieter
I1111 Li IL Il. Cr t ,i I Cnlnltki lO ut o0 the bridge will take about
4 11 e crr ,itlr ihlidil f.,(ili, arc. approprilied Ifor the deign
Pr.--..lri- art the rlii-0 I I-f rC,I] year 1058 promltie one of the
h-I si ) rr- for he rEninelering artil CoIisiructiion Bureau since
cli-iiri inn i ,.,- C1r1rinlU.H n(r.rr if the puwer conversion projl
lIl. JI-CL:pt.-iiu1 of Cri-ilhid ItuChJrsat cotia riicillo n ol the LIe%
,AI .n. r IIBlu.. i 1 illinci H igh Se hiniil 1re -cre oi the m ore
ImpniLartlt irIve ph,-.- (if the Bulrt'e'- work which. -hnri
liit ri llm in .I. v r.all ilnpr-wentlit priogra n, will deternline h,)e
the P.11.inu C Ihal %,till iip rait .rid his, the C.inal Zone will
lnk ol. r p r'r i1- the i I hI alf c itt r.'
I hla i. ,il '' c ar s:lr I -.tarI -in tt 1 d r thet
Hr-.alh Burreau but bi ncirt intre we
shouldd be well lt c. thl e luni -rea'ire plan-
Iiu ti-.acld on i Dr I S FIlk. i tiled
I ir\e\' of Canal .Zo er healh active iesl
I hi- -turd,', %N hih w-. clarteI la-t Feb-
riarv a dlit] hich ;Ihou ld bc ill j4 1'nal
Ifrnm thi- fall i- the .:id.\ comprehern.
.ite Siiity on miti-lhc.il darillie sirtce the
Carli] \twa beR IIl Ir recomntlntlid.i oriu
".." .ill uninflelu e. ni I- ree part. int only
ah11t %kill blie dione for the remainder oc
iii hii suir\-..-. D)r Falk is placing
p rticular emnpha-t., oin 4tatistral iruld-
re- the irlequlat' I ho pital fachilirie.,
'iiiattli~in l iii e Inrial a l eicr.nuars er,. ice..- i nd the develop.
min i .1 liu. r ,lli Ii .r h.. i -pital rn aiujr a.il riedical care.
Alm -lan I for Ihi-. I-icl yelr are: The appoinitnenr of a tnew
Superllricitlu. Ill Ili CoctI Solo Hu-pital to succeed Dr I NI.
%\tlksr-uni. thu, retired d 1.1-1 n-i lith, conirplir-it rl uo a year'- train.
In program fr 21 nuir-ing a--qlairit at the tint hu,'pital;, and
thi i IIr of training ,ir .ecnlrir group, and comn pletion of tihe
nc,. parking lot at GCirea- Ho-prial
In Fiscal '58
To me, Fiscal Year 1958 could well be titled THE YEAR
OF THE FUTURE for the Canal organization and personnel.
The past year has been the YEAR
OF THE TREATY. A large part of
the effort of the administration has
been in preparing the plans to imple-
ment property transfer and the Single
Wage Plan required under the 1955
Treaty, in addition to commitments im-
plemented last Jan uary. Testimony has
been given on implementing legisla-
tion before the Congress. I feel con-
fident this legislation will be passed
before Congress adjourns or soon after
it reconvenes next January.
In any event, we here are ready to put into effect the
requirements of the Treaty. This has been a difficult, time-
consuming task, involving as it did coordination with the
agencies of the Department of Defense and the Congress-
ional Committees whose interest in this legislation has been
So many things will happen in the fiscal year just begin-
ning, not only with respect to Treaty items but also with
respect to the Canal capacity studies and master-plan items,
that a start into a better future will really be made by the
end of next June.
The land transfer legislation will permit the start of con-
struction of housing and service facilities at Margarita and,
while very few, if any, new houses will be completed, our
plans will be ready for consolidating our important Atlantic
side forces in Gatun and Margarita. The future of these two
areas will then be clearly definable by the individual and
by the admioistratiin. The job of the Civic Councils on the
Atlantic side will be uf overriding importance in the develop-
ment of the best e.:mmuniti,-s possible.
The capacity studies which are now nearing completion
and which are a monument to Colonel Schull's engineering
ability will be carried forward under the leadership of our
new Lieutenant Governor. The two most obvious accom-
plishments we can list this year will be the testing of the
new towing devices at Gatun and the initiation of experi-
mental lighting in the Cut and on the locks. Completion of
these will open entirely new possibilities in assuring a more
rapid transit and cheaper costs for the shipping industry
which, again I repeat, is our major customer and the one
we must steadily strive to satisfy as to the adequacy of our
Next June will s.e the last phases of the power conversion
program under way, foreshadowing a day not too distant
when all housing areas will be completed. When that day
arrives you can once more buy the best of modern electrical
appliances. No longer will we have to read, with a sense of
frustration, about air conditioners, dehumidifiers, modern re-
frigerators or fans. Our way of life can become that of a
normal citizen in the United States.
Dr. Falk's studies of our hospitals and medical services
will give us clear goals as to the future of these important
community facilities. It seems obvious at this time that his
studies will provide for better service by both Coco Solo and
The new high school at Margarita, to be started within
the year, and the new activities building at the Balboa school
will permit much better utilization of the fine teaching staff
that has always been available.
For most. of us the year of the future will be the year of
continuing hard work. All forces will be bent to the task
of taking care of the steadily-rising number (f Caral transits.
The locks force, the pilots, the police and the firemen will
find themselves faced with the same necessity for dedication
to their tasks that has always characterized their organ-
Too much may not be completed but, in my book, fiscal
year 1958 is the opening of a new way of life and a new
scale of activity in the most remarkable area under the con-
trol ,o the United States.
This is one of the new LeTourneau towing devices
for the Locks which will be tried here this year.
mental projects leaamg to improve
operations of the Panama Canal. These
will be test lighting to improve night-
transit conditions, and tests on new
This will be tried out at Pedro Miguel
The budget also contains the sum of $70,000 for experimental
lighting of a portion of Gaillard Cut. If successful, this project
will be completed for the entire Cut. We hope that by having
the Cut adequately lighted, two-way traffic can be handled at
night instead of the present one-way only. In this connection.
six pilots, now on States leave, have been detailed to inspect
lighting of Cape Cod and Chesapeake and Delaware Canals.
Tests with the new towing devices, a radical change from
present equipment, will begin during the second quarter of the
Three major developments are in sight
this fiscal year for the Personnel Bu-
reau, provided present plans material-
ire and treaty legislation is passed by
the Congress These are: Implementa-
tion of the Single Wage Plan: the
phy-icjl move of the Employment and
Utilization and Wage and Classification
Di i-.ions to new office space in Ancon.
and an expanded Management and
Emplo.,ee Development program.
Plans are e uell under way to put he
Single Wage Plan into effect if the
nece~.ary legislation i. passed bh Con-
gres this- iscal year.
In the physical move the W\age asid
Cla ,frcatlor, Division will transfer from the Administration
Building at Balboa Heights to office space in the former Ancon
Commi-sary The Employment and Utilization Division. which
include- the Central Labor Office, will moe from Building 69
on Rooseselt Avenue in Balboa to the remodeled Commisary
and it. annex.
In Iire with long-raiige plan. to make ITT:
the heart of Balboa into a hnodert shop-
ping center, a starr will be made this
tear to moderrice the Balboa rerail
commissarv. This will include detailed
planning for expanded sellirlg pace
Meantime, duriti the comrig lear.
both the comrrlnsarlc arlid service cerut
ters t,,ll continue to broaden their mer-
chandi,- as-orlr meil In the commis-
.arie-, the i tcre \t.;iIll keep pace wiih]
the oun\mermlort to 60'l.ccli ctlrrel b-,
i\lsking md r i a il 1more houSreholud ap.
plrahliC e thaih opt.rate un r he Icu' cLr-
Other retail outlet .Jevrelu.pnient, iur-
ii.g the iamine -ear icllirde plan' i-ir adt aiIcedjtraim inrg cli--.e
for tnle lpernple ot the order I-i thi- tduht Ii t. ipt-date depart-
nilit storie IlI the I'ir ted State,. and the rOriti uel d air-hlu 'ing
uf ire.h fLilr n uid %egetabli- frorn Mi.mi which tsill P.,a on a
long a. there i1 L iN irali' ti-po iuahuitP rr,-uhucu which Ie dt-
;tcrerl in garde-i-Ire-h coirditunil Shipi'teilr- it date hire ptr, ed
fIcuilii nt, h Rail r oi-ii i sm- I hilrh
ti Ille orei zwheInipru tll lc -r e.r i
l .,p j da ring rin] il 1958. tht- Si c-rehiil. tJ p.i t[L ) in l -i ill it. rap
paell- -,hi h .illn i he pre- -t..ing it -.l nicih t.l er.
th eir lirni il. tiur' l tilCe I diil TIier i the
c nIItiig i-c.ri \i-ar. aiist.iii will hc
'ocusiw- oni thi Ralro i-I Iri tr it, %t which
uhaugr s. I'he Di, ;.iui j i u ioit hetrt'i
Ii', its -ew mraliager. CeUrge NI. Smith.
former Irciii-Dortrti,, Officer tor the l
S irre ti, the priplil[. urnder ronsid-
er tiii h 'i ret.\ t [il I. the ,.nalma. R ltl-
rmos are Re i-II.iJ (i the r.ulroad oper.
Jting table to impri,,e freight dehtler-
ier anl al gmeLnrllt p,-.rlng er- rali -.ericee
for greater pa.scling r tu.li,.'eir lelur. in-
--tIh _l(uiiii, I the ii L I r Iurui re- Ii nl.'-:hllln,:.ll refriterirll CL LuitS
capable iI hairlling all fru.'e i cuminuid. ttr-.. til the il -itrnuwnli
-f frie.chi-rtrie sirti1iurs- Ioi l, r ii e re LattrIi tist rate-
Legi.lttcotoi rl nplpienriti th,: 195 're.5 s L ith I aor .tin.a r V-
inure, the lRailror.idl m.it 11ot .u t itQ iu 1) -r e e un -r. i ht
f.icili ii t he iRepurblic l'l.n- c -ll ifor the- inuldrt ui f freucht
houe antld pat:e-cu eer -tai tl il Ill i sa, i.tr l',taui ii Cil ,aind
a pa-.ergecr -t.ilui, ili CristlI..l. Tlhe.t .art I,. L%, ad.tr i it im
all rec pCni- toI h1,-lIc the prc -eru iruthue .i I thi Irr'rt',-t1l rat.
lic s\hich is e-pected bitcaulle itf the greater CtI\ selIIt'II s ,1IIt
ser~;ce of the pr.,pueill ni.t sihedhrl-rl
50 Years Ago
Panama City's venerable Star & Her-
ald-it was already over half a century
old-was concerned 50 years ago this
month with dangers of a lock-type Pan-
ama Canal. In an editorial, the paper
declared that the danger to which the
terminal cities would be exposed from
"vast quantities of impounded water at
either end errapin- and sweeping every-
thing before it in its rush to the sea" had
been pointed out in the United States by
Lindon W. Bates of sea-level fame.
In August 1907, the Isthmus was alive
with rumors that at least 50 percent of the
Canal working force would be laid off, be-
c it si appr,,pritlin.s fr th fival lyia r. whr jh
began July 1, were not as large as before.
Two appointments were announced for
the Canal force. Maj. H. F. Hodges of
the Army Engineer Corps was put in
charge of the Isthmian Canal Commis-
sion's Washington office. His chief duties
were to be supervision of material and
supply purchases. And on the Isthmus,
Charles A. Merritt, who had had hotel
experience in Jamaica and New York, was
appointed manager of the Tivoli Hotel.
Bids were opened in Washington for 500
12-cubic-yard steel dump cars-the low bid
was $55,000--and 115 four-cubic-yard
steel cars, for which the low bid was $19,515.
Also from the States came word that the
"Ancon," one of two 288-foot suction
dredges, was en route to the Canal Zone
from Sparrows Point, Md.; the second, the
"Culebra", would get underway in about
three months but would have to go through
the Straits of Magellan en route to Balboa.
Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary for
the ICC, arrived on the Isthmus, accom-
panied by several thousand books for the
first public libraries on the Isthmus. The
libraries were to be installed in the four
YMCA's, at Cristobal, Gorgona, Empire,
and Culebra, and in the University Club
in Panama City. The fiction would rotate
among the libraries, non-fiction stay put.
25 Years Ago
Canal traffic, slipping steadily since the
beginning of the depression, continued to
decrease. July's commercial transits
totaled 326, those for August were 314,
the lowest for any month since Decem-
Meanwhile, employees continued to feel
the impact of the Eronomy Bill which, the
"Star & lilrll" rn.oir'-nted, dealt em-
ployee morale "the hardest jolt it has yet
been called on to absorb." Panama Rail-
road personnel learned ,fTiI'illy, that they
would be affected just as employees of the
Panama Canal were, although unlike the
others, they could get cash t/',"'. ,,il of their
accumulated leaves if the leave were served
during fiscal ii i; At the end of the month
three married women, employed in the Re-
ceiving and Forwarding .1i ,i .. i. were noti-
fied that they were to be 'li, ,l,'..1 for six
months, under the one-.' I,, .;-",,ni d., r of a
married couple provision.
Word came from \\ .hrllit.'rt. di(r iir
August ', :', that Lt. Col. Clarence 1).
Ridley was to be the Canal's next Enl,'i-
neer of Maintenance, ii.,. i]li;r Col. J.
L. Schbly. Colonel .- hi "'s appointment
as Governor was not announced simul-
taneously, although it was generally ex-
Thatcher Highway was practically com- i
pleted and trial runs were made by the
ferry, preparatory to inauguration of opera-
tions September 1. At the request of Pan-
ama, the Canal Administration considered
a 24-hour operating schedule. Formal cere-
monies for inauguration of highway and
ferry were postponed because Representa-
tive Maurice Thatcher was unable to be
present at the time.
On August 23, 1932, the windows and
terrace of the Balboa Heights Adminis-
tration Building overflowed with specta-
tors as five men from the Army Air Corps
gave a parachute jumping demonstration
at Albrook Field. Since there were only
three "jumping parachutes" on the Isth-
mus, they had to be collected and flown
back to France Field for repacking before I--'e c. -
the last two men could jump.
As a contraband control measure, offi-
cials from Panama suggested to their Canal From the gang
Zone colleagues that all Panama Canal redia, Lt. Gov.
employees carry identification cards. This Jr., said goodb
came on the heels of a Canal announcement last month. Co
that the organization would take no steps to engineering coa
prevent nonemployees from attending mov-
ies in the Zone but would raise admission
prices for all except employees. Here's The
Also in August 1932: Dr. W. C. Todd (Continuedfrom page
was named the Canal Zone's first Public outfits as the H
Defender; Panama Line ships were no in Washington,
longer to carry mail because the eight- branch in Arling
day trip between New York and Cristo- During World
bal was considered too slow; work on the lieutenant in the
New Cristobal High School reached the both Atlantic an
place where it was possible for school If pressed, he wi
officials to announce that the building decorated twice
would be ready for use in January; the two cases of sabo
first concrete was poured at Madden the war on am
Dam; the Canal was considering plans to York harbor.
replace all construction-day quarters in In 1951, he I
Gatun; and an alligator bit through the enter the govern
insulation on a cable crossing Santa Cruz sultant for the (
Island in Gatun Lake, killing himself and tion and stayed
shorting the circuit. Consumer Good
10 Years Ago later he joined t
Construction of the new $1 million pany as Adminisi
obstetrical building for Gorgas Hospital Division.
became a certainty as the President He lives with h
signed the appropriation bill containing Sandy, 14, and
Panama Canal funds. house they have
Canal Zone speed limits were raised. the north shore
Motorists could now legally do all of 40 Huntington. Foi
miles an hour on the open road and 25 in family has been
town, except where otherwise pi cifid. their first look a
The worst outbreak of infantilh paral- which he has b
ysis in m:nyv years caused one death dur- over four years.
ing August 1947; by mid-August, there
were s-ven polio patients in Gorgas Hos- New Orleans, t
pital and four others in military hospitals ,.hallgu.1 to life.
in the Canal Zone.
The Central Labor Union endorsed plans One
to close four Panama Canal commissaries Assistant Sec
during the noon hour as an economy mea- (G-orge Roderick
sure. These were the stores at Ancon, Balboa, of the Panama (
Cristobal, and La Boca, then open all day. confer on treaty
A sentence of death by hanging was on the line in a pi
handed out in the District Court at the tr.,:ity nor p
Cristobal against Edward J. Kemp, tion, he said, pro
.h.jrg.-dl with murdering a shipmate in all :\i.. increase;
May. Appealed to the Circuit Court in would be no i.a]
12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
plank of the SS He-
and Mrs. H. W. Schull,
ye to the Canal Zone
I. Schull is joining an
npany in Miami, Fla.
echt Department Store
and the E. A. Filene
War II he served as a
U. S. Coast Guard, in
d Pacific theaters of war.
11 admit to having been
for uncovering the only
tage to be found during
munition ships in New
eft private business to
iment service as a con-
)ffice of Price Stabiliza-
on as Director of the
s Program. Two years
he Panama Canal Com-
trator of its Procurement
is wife and two children,
Judy Ann, 4, in a new
just built in Syosset on
of Long Island near
r the past few weeks his
on the Isthmus, taking
it the Canal Zone with
een doing business for
he sentence was later
retary of the Army,
, Chairman of the Board
'anal Company, here to
provisions, laid things
public statement. Neither
lans for its implementa-
vides for a gnnrajl over-
; on the other hand there
g~t r luti 2, 5n.
Director Is Employed
For Program To Assist
An educational program for the Canal
Zone's handicapped children is gradually
nim )in toward reality.
within n the next few weeks a Director
of Special Education and a teacher for
speech therapy will arrive in the Canal
Zone and before many more weeks reme-
dial reading classes should be under way
for children who need that help.
The new Director of Special Educa-
tion is James Merle Wolf, who has been
Coordinator of Special Education in
McLean County, Ill. His particular
area is known as Unit District Five
.^ ^ "^
James Merle Wolf
which has a school population of
about 3,000. He has been liaison officer
between that area and the Illinois State
University Special Education School.
Teaching speech therapy will be a for-
mer Canal Zone girl, Marilynn Flynn.
Daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Peter G. Flynn,
she grew up here and is a graduate of Bal-
boa High School and the Canal Zone Junior
College. She was graduated in speech
therapy at Bradley University and has
been serving as speech therapist in the
Orlando, Fla. schools.
The remedial reading classes, which
will be the first step in the program for
handicapped children will be in charge of
a qualified elementary school teacher who
will be transferred to this work.
Mr. Wolf will spend most of the coming
school yenr studying the potential student
body of about _'ill I.hildren and s( refning
them to see which children need which
special education. He will also decide on
the school buildings where the special
classes should be located and the type of
equipment which must be purchased.
Plans for a program for handicapped
Canal Zone children have been studied
for several months. Early this year, Dr.
Ray Graham, of Illinois, spent several
months here looking into the local situa-
tion and making his recommendations.
An appropriation to establish some of the
special education facilities is included in
the budget for the present fiscal year.
Mr. Wolf, who will head the program,
was highly recommended by Dr. Graham.
A native of St rl ng. Ill., he was gradu-
ated from the Illinois State Normal Uni-
versity in 1950 and holds a Master's De-
gree in Education from the same school.
Back to School
The war-babies are growing up.
This year, according to the best-edu-
cated guess of the Canal Zone School
officials, there will be more students in
Balboa and Cristobal High Schools and
in the junior college, than ever before in
the history of the local school system.
As a matter of fact, the officials, whose
predictions have a way of being un-
cannily accurate, have stuck their necks
out again this year to forecast a record
enrollment of 7,044 students when the
United States schools open here Septem-
ber 4. The figure includes enrollments
from kindergarten through junior college,
but does not include CZJC's extension
division, and represents an increase of 81
over last year's school population of 6,963.
The expected enrollments are: Kinder-
garten, 603; elementary, 4,022; junior
high schools, 938; senior high schools,
1,286; and the junior college, 175. This
is a slight decrease in kindergarten
through eighth grade but an increase of
13 percent in senior high school enroll-
ment, and 12 percent in the number of
junior college students.
The major construction project for
the Schools Division this year will be
at Balboa High School. Work will begin
on the two new activities buildings,
one near the Balboa Fire Station and
the other behind and to one side of the
High School building.
These will provide space for musical
organizations, dramatic activities, ROTC
classes and the armory and for a 600-seat
auditorium. If funds are available, there
will also be space for a cafeteria.
In number, the teaching staff of the
regular schools will remain the same this
school year as last. A number of new
teachers have been recruited in the United
States and a Director of Special Education
and a speech therapisthave been employed.
In the kindergarten, 10 full-time teach-
ers will replace a number of part-time
assistants as a first step in a plan to staff
the kindergartens with teachers who hold
college degrees. In the larger schools,
kindergarten assistants will work with the
There are two major changes in the
supervisory staff. Miss E. Frances Fan-
ning who has been principal at Gam-
boa, will replace Mrs. Gladys Light,
Supervisor of Instruction, who is on a
year's leave of absence in the United
States. Miss Fanning, in turn, will be
replaced by William Garber, who has
been on the teaching staff of the Cris-
tobal Junior-Senior High School.
A few changes are planned in school
districting. Because of expected crowded
conditions in the Balboa and Diablo
Heights elementary schools, students
from the Ancon district who attended
these schools last year will be returned
to the Ancon school this year. First and
second grade students from Los Rios will
be assigned to the Balboa school instead
of to Diablo Heights. Kindergarteners
from Coco Solito will continue at the
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Cristobal elementary school but first
through sixth graders will go to North
Margarita this year.
In addition to the major construction
at Balboa High School, many improve-
ments will be made in the ph\:i-' al plant
of the schools this year. N.-. toilet
facilities are b.inv installed at the
Balboa stadium, and the rifle ranges at
the two United States high schools have
been improved as a safety measure. A
new covered [as:j,.,A.;y has been built
at the Gatun school.
Also scheduled for this year is consid-
erable work at the Balboa gymnasium.
A concrete pla\.ing slab will be laid and
the dressing rooms will be enlarged. Pro-
tective hoods will be installed to keep the
rain from blowing into the gymnasium.
A code of behavior has been drawn
up for appririmately 900 Canal Zone
students for whom free bus service has
been or will be provided this year, accord-
ing to an announcement from the Divi-
sion of Schools.
When the United States schools open
September 4, free bus service will be
provided for approximately 530 boys
and girls who live in districts which do
not have appropriate school facilities.
Another 80 pupils living a considerable
distance from the schools will also be
transported without charge. Kindergar-
ten children in areas where trattfi hazards
are considerable will also receive the free
In the Latin American communities,
free school bus service has been pro-
vided since July 1 to 264 pupils. A ma-
jority of these are boys and girls from
Santa Cruz who are attending high
school at Paraiso. Other communities
having the bus service are La Boca,
Chiva Chiva, and Cocoli, from which
students are driven back and forth to
Paraiso; and Mindi, whose boys and
girls attend school in Rainbow City.
A change will be necessary September
3 in the hours at the Paraiso schools, so
that sufficient busses will be available for
both U. S. and Latin American school
service. Etfe( ti.r on that date the Par-
aiso school day will be 9 a. m. to 4 p. m.
instead of 8 a. m. to 3 p. m. This will
free a number of busses to aid in trans-
porting children in the U. S. communities.
When they accept the free transporta-
tion, each student agrees to the following:
Each pupil riding the school busses
will be expected to obey the bus drivers
promptly and must be on time at the
designated bus stops. Pupils are not to
crossbehind a bu ivh-, ir. .: ini a high n, y.
In the busss, th, buy- indl girl- must
keep their hands and heads inside the
vehicles, remain in their seats, and must
not cause trouble by teasing, pullirw hair,
scuffling, or using unfit language.
Pupils who disfigure or mutilate a bus
will be required to pay for the damage.
Bus privileges will be denied those who
do not comply with the regulations.
August 2, 1957
Fr,.I.I.r r.: who were prorrot.d or trans-
ferred between June 15 and July 15 are
listed below. \ I trhi, r i-le promotions are
Mrs. Elvera N. Breakfield, front Account-
ing Clerk, Commissary Branch, to Super-
visory Accounting Clerk, Printing Plant.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
J. D. Barnes, from Patrolman, Locks Se-
curity Branch, to Window Clerk, Postal
Richard D. Brown, from Chauffeur and
Truck Driver, Motor Transportation Divi-
sion, to Substitute Window Clerk, Postal
Carroll E. Kocher, from Finance Branch
Superintendent to Air Mail Tour Foreman,
John W. Hare, from Real Property Ana-
Ivst, Office of the Director, to Chief, License
Mrs. Annie R. Rathgeber, Secretary
(Typing), from Office of the Director to
Wordie W. Burrow, James E. Haas, from
Patrolman, Locks Security Branch to Po-
liceman, Police Division.
Mrs. Veva S. Folsom, front Substitute
Teacher to Senior High School Teacher,
Division of Schools.
Leslie M. Spencer, from Customs Inspec-
tor to Senior Inspector, Cristobal, Customs
Bruce G. Sanders, Jr., from Senior In-
spector to Chief Inspector, Cristobal, Cus-
Mrs. Sally R. Hudson, from Elementary
School Teacher to Substitute Teacher, Di-
vision of Schools.
Mrs. Frances M. Ackerman, from Substi-
tute Teacher to Junior High School Teacher,
Division of Schools.
Mrs. Jean C. Morden, from Senior High
School Teacher to Substitute Teacher, Di-
vision of Schools.
William H. Munyon, from Police Captain
to Warden, Police Division.
Mrs. Marion B. Taylor, from Clerk-Typ-
ist to Clerk-Stenographer, Division of
Bertha E. Moya, Clerk-Typist, from Ac-
counting Division to Division of Schools.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
John E. Fisher, from Assistant Chief.
Accounting Diviskn, to Assistant Chief
Accountant and Chief, Rc Lr i..r,i and Spe-
cial Analysis Staff, Office .I t 1irl, Account-
Miguel Corco, from Chief, Reporting and
Special Analysis Staff, to Staff Assistant,
Office of the Comptroller.
Mrs. Mary H. Foster, Property and Sup-
ply Clerk, from Division of Storehouses to
Gertrude M. Milloy, Supervisory Ac-
counting Clerk, from Division of Store-
houses toN, - .. i.. i r ii -D i-. -n.
Mrs. Mar,, G. Liilngsion, Accounting
Clerk, from Commissary Branch to Ac-
Mrs. Lucille M. Flenniken, Mrs. Ruth E.
Clement, Accounting Clerk, from Commis-
sarv Branch to A...V. .,ic.L Division.
Winston P. Abernmih), Voucher Exam-
iner, from Commissary Branch to Account-
Mrs. Elizabeth S. Coleman, Accounting
Clerk, from Service Center Branch to Ac-
Johnny Vaucher, Accounting Supervisor,
from Commissary Branch to Accounting
Gilberto Young, Accountant, from Meth-
ods and Relief Staff to General Ledger and
I',-... .... ,. ',anch.
Mri. Ruth H. Elich, from A. .....-.I
Clerk to General Accounting l,- i, \
Louis C. Caldwell, Preston G. Gau, Tab-
,il r .. I'., ..... .it Operation Supervisor,
Ir .1.. l. i, ve lBranch to Accounting
Alfredo Lombana, Mrs. Mercedes A.
Borrell, Mrs. Helen M. Cicero, Tabulating
-.j -i ...... Operator, from Admini.-trative
Branch to Accounting Division.
James McKeown, Jr., Student Assistant
(Tabulation), from Administrative Branch
to Accounting Division.
George A. Black, Jr., Tabulation Project
Planner, from Administrative Branch to
Mrs. Margaret M. Janssen, from Clerk-
Stenographer to Clerk (Stenography), Bud-
get and Rates Division.
Mrs. Bertha E. Hayes, Clerk-Typist,
from General Office Division to Accounting
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Mirt Bender, from Pumping Plant Oper-
ator, Maintenance Division, to Pipeline Suc-
tion Dredge Foreman, Dredging Division.
Victor D. Young, from Supervisory Elec-
trical Equipment Inspector to Construction
Representative, Power Conversion Project.
Frederick A. Ebdon, from Electrical
Equipment Inspector to Construction Rep-
resentative, Power Conversion Project.
Mrs. Margaret L. Elder, from Clerk-
Typist to Clerk (Typing), Power Conver-
George T. McLintock, from Electroplater
I to Electroplater II, Electrical Division.
Edmund T. Bleakley, from Foreman to
Operator, Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredg-
Walter W. Woodruff, from Plant Electri-
cian, Maintenance Division, to Wireman,
Paul D. Gibbs, from Substitute Window
Clerk, Postal Division, to Apprentice Power
house Operator, Electrical Division.
Mrs. Kathryn S. Gregory, from DT i.t in -
Machine Transcriber to Clerk I T: i.,-ii
Mrs. Rose L. Thomas, from Typist to
Dictating Machine Transcriber, Engineer-
John R. Hammond, Jr., from Supervisory
Mechanical Engineer to Chief, Electrical-
Mechanical Branch, Engineering Division.
Rubelio D. Quintero, from Electrical En-
gineer to Supervisory Electrical Engineer,
John L. Dougan, from Industrial Repair
Equipment Foreman II to Maintenance
Machinist II, Maintenance Division.
Rialto M. Christensen, from First Assist-
ant Engineer to Chief Engineer, Pipeline
Suction Dredge, Dredging Division.
George F. Reichel, from Engineer to First
Assistant Engineer, Pipeline Suction Dredge
John T. Dillon, from Engineer to Chief
Engineer, Dipper Dredge, Dredging Division.
Robert E. L. Brown, from Supervisory
Electrical Engineer. Eneineerine Division to
Supervisory ( lzI'.-ur rti, I l ,,acii ,r En-
gineer, Power Conversion Project.
John P. Bidwell, from Fleet Machinist
to Motor Boat Maintenance Mechanic,
J. Bartley Smith, from Assistant to Proj-
ect Engineer to Project Engineer, Power
Leslie D. Wood, from Wireman to Lead
Marine Electrical Foreman, Electrical Di-
George W. Wertz, from Lead Marine
Electrical Foreman to Lead Marine Elec-
trical Foreman II, Electrical Division.
Richard Swearingen, from Electrical
Equipment Inspector (Public Works) to
Construction Representative(General, Pow-
er Conversion Project.
Willard W. Huffman, from Power and
Communications Cablesplicer to Automatic
Telephone Communication Equipment
Maintainer I, Electrical Division.
Walter E. Marek, front Pipefitter, Indus-
trial Division to Quarters Maintenance
Lead Foreman, Maintenance Division.
William J. Stevenson, from Power Plant
Electrician Ito Wireman, Electrical Iivision.
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT
Col. Hugh M. Arnold, from IF.IinL;I ri,.
Snd Construction I)irector to Lieutenant
Warren H. Smith, from Supervising
Safety Engineer to Cnief, Safety Branch.
Dr. Jose A. Filos-Diaz, Medical (O,. cr
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
June 15 through July 15
14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
from General Medicine and Surgery to
Internal Medicine, Gor.j Hospital.
Dr. Benjamin P. Kietzman, Dr. Robert
H. Buker, Dr. Clifford S. Reusch, Dr. Floyd
L. Pollard, Jr., from Intern to Hospital Res-
ident, Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Rogelio Arosemena, Dr. Roderick L.
Esquivel, from Hospital Resident to Med-
ical Officer (Surgery, General), Gorgas Hos-
Dr. Gabriel Kourany, from Hospital Res-
ident to Medical Officer (General Medicine
and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. G. Josephine Garner, from Intern to
Medical Officer (General Medicine and Sur-
gery), Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Charles H. Glines, from Hospital
Resident to Medical Officer (General Med-
icine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital.
Capt. Gordon L. Verity, from Chief, Radi-
ology Service, Coco Solo Hospital, to Assist
ant Chief, Radiology Service, Gorgas Hosp-
Mrs. Jacqueline C. Gilbert, from Clerk-
Typist, Office of Health Director, to Clerk-
Dictating Machine Transcriber, Gorgas
Dr. Julien C. Kennedy, from Chief,
Neuro-Psychiatric Section to Chief, Psy-
chiatric Service, Gorgas Hospital.
Mrs. Marcia H. Van Home, from Secre-
tary (General) to Administrative Assistant,
Donald L. Gifford, from Towing Locomo-
tive Operator to Machinist, Locks Division.
George A. Harter, from Patrolman, Locks
Security Branch to Towing Locomotive Op-
erator, Locks Overhaul.
Hugh C. Christie, from Machinist to
Machinist Foreman, Locks Division.
Milton L. Nash, from Machinist Foreman
to Lockmaster, Locks Division.
Charles H. Colburn, from Motorboat
Maintenance Mechanic, Dredging Division,
to Machinist, Industrial Division.
Roger J. Rios, from Patrolman to Ser-
geant, Locks Security Branch.
William F. Mornhinweg, Jr., from Gen-
eral Electrical Foreman III to Chief Fore-
man Locks Operations, Locks Division.
Kennth L. Middleton, from Control House
Operator to Lockmaster, Pacific Locks.
William C. Keepers, from Lockmaster to
General Electrical Foreman III, Pacific
Elmer J. Moolchan, from Electric Welder,
Drc.l.;ic Division, to Signalman, Naviga-
II.,l' [ 11 '1... l
Robert G. Stern, from Apprentice to
Sheetmetal Worker, Industrial Division.
Robert J. Byrne, from Commissary Sup-
ervisor, Commissary Branch, to Patrolman,
Locks Security Branch.
Ollin P. Strickland, from Planing Mill
Lead Foreman to Lead Joiner Foreman,
Joseph H. Kueter, Glenn C. Dough,
John Van der Heyden, William Wirtz, Jr.,
from Industrial Shipwright to Shipwright,
Alexander McKeown, William E. Stan-
ford, from Planing Mill Hand to Ship-
wright, Industrial Division.
Vincent Canamas, Ralph H. Kirkpatrick,
from Cabinetmaker to Joiner, Industrial
Wiltz J. Schexnayder, from Shipjoiner to
Joiner, Industrial Division.
Roland C. Casanova, from Planing Mill
Hand to Joiner, Industrial Division.
Mrs. Beatrice L. Hanlen, from Clerk-
Typist to Appointment Clerk (Typing),
i,,,i.I ., 11.n- I and Utilization Division.
St PPL Y \1D EMPLOYEE SERVICE BUREAU
Mrs. Hilda E. Wickens, from .\. ,c-.unriir
Clerk, Accounting Division, to Clih ker,
Mrs. Norma E. Hamilton, from Clerk
(Typing), Division of Schools, to Secretary
(Stenography), Office of the Director.
Mrs. Gertrude A. Connard, from Super-
visory Steward, Service Center Branch,
to Commissary Supervisor, Commissary
Mrs. Margaret M. Nash, Accounting
Clerk, from Accounting Division to Com-
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Mrs. Glendora A. Dorsey, from Clerk-
Stenographer, Commissary Branch, to
Cargo Clerk, Terminals Division.
James H. Rheney, Repair Shop Foreman
I, from Terminals Division to Motor Trans-
Harry M. Witt, Repair Shop Lead Fore-
man II, from Terminals Di,. i-on to Motor
Mrs. Mildred L. Randall, from Account-
ing Clerk, Division of Storehouses, to Cash
Accounting Clerk, Motor Transportation
James A. Dorsey, from Construction and
Maintenance Superintendent to Lead Track
ForemanII, Railroad Division.
Promotions which did not involve change
in title follow:
Daile D. Keigley, Accountant, Reporting
and Special Analysis Staff, Accounting Di-
Donald M. Luke, Chief, General Ledger
and Processing Branch, Accounting Divi-
Richard M. Conover, Position Classifier,
Wage and Classification Division.
Mrs. Martha W. Keller, Supervisory
Steward, Service Center Branch.
Dr. Walter H. Maloney, Hospital Resi-
dent, Gorgas Hospital.
William L. Brooks, Administrative Assist-
ant (Typing), Power Conversion Project.
Dr. Frank P. Smith, Assistant Chief,
Medical Service, Gorgas Hospital.
Mrs. N. May Stokes, Supervisory Ac-
counting Clerk, Printing Plant, Adminis-
Dr. Richard Ostenso, Medical Officer,
Ear, Nose, and Throat, Gorgas Hospital.
Norbert H. McCauley, Stuart Wallace,
William B. Lloyd, Ralph R. Grassau,
Budget Analyst, Budget and Rates Division.
Mrs. Hamner C. Cook, Accounting Clerk
Mack F. Bailey, Supervisory Sanitation
Inspector, Sanitation Division.
Retirement certificates were presented at
the end of July to the following employees
who are listed alphabetically, together with
their birthplaces, positions, length of Canal
service, and future addresses.
Hazel A. Alsing, California; (Gen.) Head
Nurse, Gorgas Hospital; 30 years, 7 months,
23 days; San Francisco, Calif.
Mrs. Marione Campbell, New York;
Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Office of
Comptroller; 31 years, 6 months, 21 days;
Samuel J. Deavours, Georgia; Locomc-
tive Engineer, Railroad Division; 22 years,
5 months, 24 days; Florida.
Paul M. Disharoon, \Vircir; ,. Chief En-
gineer (Floating Crane) Dredging Division;
33 years, 6 months, 15 days; Cape Charles,
Wallace E. Gibson, Wisconsin; Supervis-
ory Cargo Clerk, Terminals Division; 14
years, 8 months, 11 days; Port Arthur, Tex.
Francis X. Moser, Ohio, Machinist; In-
dustrial Division; 15 years, 3 days; Cali-
Otis M. Ramey, Mississippi; Lead Yard
Foreman, Railroad Division; 23 years, 4
months, 21 days; California.
Kathryn P. Stapf, New York; Supervi-
sory Accounting Clerk, Terminals Division;
20 years, 6 months, 8 days; Sunland, Calif.
Dr. John M. Wilkerson, Oklahoma; Sup-
erintendent, Coco Solo Hospital; 7 years,
4 months, 23 days; St. Petersburg, Fla.
FROM NEW YC
Ancon ---- -----
--- -August 27
Southbound ships which leave New York Friday
are in Haiti the following Tuesday. Those which
sailfrom \Ve,% Y.:rkj To,: :da: ipendl iair] in Haiti.
Northt...,n.il re ;ip,' a -rp H" r'' I.J -. after
clearing C ri-t.: r l. M .r 1 I Ii, .. ,-r,: h, ,, from
Cristobal Saturday, and Friday for those which clear
Paul M. Disharoon
Over 33 of his 40 years of Gc
service were at the Dredging
To three Atlantic siders goes
of sharing the top spot on the
anniversaries. The trio has mu
mon. They share the same ser
July 1, 1927; have 30 years of Ca
and, as adults, continuous service
unit where they still work; are r
Isthmians; and were born the
They are, alphabetically: Josep
rigan, Jr., Supervisory Cargo 0
minals Division; Herbert K. Pete
of the Planning Section of the
Division; and Anastasio Sogandi
ner and Estimator for the Indus
Mr. Corrigan was born in wl
Gorgas Hospital, the son of Jose
rigan, who came to the Canal Zo
as a carpenter.
He was graduated from Crist
School in 1927, one of a class
first job was as a checker with t
ing and Forwarding Agency, now
inals Division in Cristobal. He
promoted through the ranks o
checker, stevedore foreman, s
traffic clerk, supervisory traffic
supervisory freight traffic officer 1
Mr. Peterson is another second
Zone employee; his father, Walte
son, was a boilermaker in the
Shops. Born in Cristobal, he
Cristobal High School. His fir
that of a helper in the Cristoba
the Motor Transportation Divisi
months later he transferred to
Mechanical Division and began
ticeship as a welder. He work
trade at the Cristobal shops un
promoted to shipfitter. Success
tions led to his present position
has held since September 1953.
Mr. Sogandares was born c
Island but is a naturalized Uni
citizen. He started his Canal c
messenger and helper in the
Division at Balboa and in 1927
apprenticeship as a boilermaker
been assigned at times, during t
years, to the Locks and Dredginl
and to Madden Dam, on a loan
has remained on the rolls of the
Division, now the Industrial Di
1954, he was promoted from b
leadingman to planner and esti
position be now holds.
Both he and Mr. Peterson
commended for several special
commendation which they share
work on a damaged Colombian
Ciudad de Quibdo, in 1956.
July's remaining 30-year empli
August 2, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
from all parts of the country. They are: C
F. Bertoncini, General Engineer, Surveys
Branch, Panama; Nolan A. Bissell, Fore-
...' iltn M iil Handling Unit, Postal Division,
S~llI--,i.ppi; Lyman Jackson, Locomotive
Machinist, Railroad Li'... i-.i, Indiana;
Jacques K. Lally, Clerk-in-charge, City
Division, Cristobal Post Office, Missouri;
Lew W. McIlvaine, Assistant Supply Offi-
cer for Housewares for the commissaries,
Ohio; and Wells D. Wright, Assistant De-
S. signing Engineer, Engineering Division,
All but Mr. Lally have continuous Canal
service although in some cases the total
years include government service elsewhere.
One woman and four men celebrated
their silver anniversaries in government
service in July.
On the distaff side of the rolls is Caroline
Hunt, who hails from North Carolina and
who is the Nurse Supervisor at the E. N. T.
Clinic and the E. N. T. operating room at
Others who completed 25 years of service
.It wi. last month are : Oliver C. Culp, a native of
Mammoth Springs, Ark., Lead Plumbing
Foreman II in the Maintenance Division;
Leon V. Helm, from York, Pa., Customs
Inspector in Cristobal; Donald H. Spencer,
from Colorado Springs, Colo., Lead Fore-
man Painter and Diver, Pacific Locks; and
.veinment John R. Szima, who comes from Dayton,
Division. Ohio, and is an Electrician in the Motor
IS Five of the nine employees who celebrated
twentieth anniversaries last month have
the honor unbroken service with the Canal organiza-
July list of tion.
cul list of These five-the town following each name
ice date, is his birthplace-are: Errett R. Albritton,
nal service Train Dispatcher, Railroad Division, Car-
e with the terville, Mo.; Philip T. Green, Industrial
native-born Training Coordinator, Electrical Division,
same year. Kalamazoo, Mich.; Teddy A. Marti, Lock
h A. Cor- Operator, Pedro Miguel Locks, Detroit,
officer, Ter- Mich.; William J. Stevenson, Power Plant
rson, Chief Electrician, Electrical Division, Harrison,
Industrial N. J.; and R. H. McConaughey, Pipefitter,
areas, Plan- Pedro Miguel Locks, Balboa, C. Z. Mr.
trial Divi- McConaughey is a second generation Canal
hat is now Two of the other four employees, Robert
ph A. Cor- B. Grier and John A. McLain, Jr., are also
ne in 1905 second generation Canal employees. Both
were born in Ancon. Mr. Grier is a Ma-
tobal High chinist at Pedro Miguel Locks. Mr. McLain,
of 16. His Jr., is a Marine Bunkering Steam Engineer,
he Receiv- Terminals Division.
the Term- The other two employees are: Oather T.
has been Brownlee, Lead Foreman, Heavy Labor,
f foreman Maintenance Division, Calhoun, La.; and
torekeeper, Dorothy W. Webb, Personnel Clerk in the
clerk, and Central Labor Office Division, Pasquo Tank
to his pres- County, N. C.
generation Of the 23 employees who completed 15
r D. Peter- years of government service last month,
Cristobal 19 have continuous service with the Canal
st job was These 19 are: Reginald R. Colby, Window
I garage of Clerk, Civil Affairs Bureau, Postal Division;
on. A few Joel L. Cook, Policeman; Xenia de Bermu-
the then dez, Clerk-typist in the Railroad Division;
an appren- Cyril D. DeLapp, Policeman; Joseph F.
ed at this Dolan, Fire Sergeant; William G. Dolan,
itil he was Fire Marshal; Willard F. French, Chief,
ive promo- Dental Service, Coco Solo Hospital; James
which he D. Herblin, Accounting Assistant, Account-
ing Division; Donald V. Howerth, Police
in Taboga Lieutenant; Jessie O. Lindsay, Procure-
ited States ment Clerk, Division of Schools; John F.
areer as a McDowell, Police and .Mo,-,r. l..le Officer;
Mechanical R. B. McIlvaine, Jr., Customs Guard; Wil-
tegan an liam J. Monzon, Customs Inspector; Horace
r. He has J. Orgeron, Jr., Special Operator for Auto-
he past 30 motive Equipment, Motor Transportation
g Divisions Division; Joseph J. Pustis, Supervisory
basis, but Steward for Service Center Division; George
Mechanical J. Roth, Police Sergeant; John B. Spivey,
vision. In Foreman for Navigation Aids, Marine Bu-
oilermaker reau; Herbert F. Taake, Plant Electrician,
mator, the Maintenance Division; and Hilda C. Vigli-
etti, Clerk-typist, Employment and Utiliza-
have been tion Division.
jobs; one Others who completed 15 years of govern-
re was for ment service are: Michael J. Burza, Mach-
ship, the inist, Industrial Division; Gene E. Clinch-
ard, Lead Foreman, Grounds Maintenance,
oyees come Housing and Grounds Division; Ruth S.
Dunscombe, Position Classifier, Wage and
Classification Division; and Arthur L. Smith
15 Machinist, Miraflores Locks.
August 2, 1957
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
I No Tenderfoot, He
The boa and the marmoset, above, were only part of the menagerie which accom-
panied Canal Zone Boy Scouts to the National Jamboree at Valley Forge.
After swapping ideas and souvenirs
with 60,000 other Boy Scouts from all
over the United States, the 31 Canal
Zone Scouts who attended the Fourth
National Jamboree in Valley Forge
last month are due to return to the
Isthmus the second week in August.
According to plans made before
their departure last month, the boys
expected that the highlight of the trip
for them, anyhow, would be the con-
struction of a native hut with mate-
rials brought from the Canal Zone and
the display of several native animals
and a pet boa constrictor. In addition
they were to be taken on sight-seeing
trips to historic spots in Philadelphia,
hike into nearby mountains, and at-
tend huge area shows.
Following the Jamboree, the m-m-
hers of the local troops were to make
a 116-mile hike in the Appalachian
Mij.untir.n where they were expected
to encounter several non-tropical sit-
nations such as a cool mountain night
and, perhaps, poison ivy.
Accompanied by three adult scout
leaders led by William H. Taylor of
Balboa, the boys will complete their
trip in New York early in August and
are expected to sail for the Canal Zone
August 6 on a transport.
The boys making the trip are shown
in the picture above. In the front row
are Jay Bialkowski, Jorge Arias,
David Dunlap, Peter Richard, Frank
Townsend, Jan Dykhuis, Federico Fer-
nandez, Leo Trujillo, and Vito Trujillo.
In the second row are Frank McLeod,
Lloyd Brown, Patrick Trujillo, Peter
Denton, Dougie Major, and Walter
Dryja. And in the back row are Clair
Walizer, Ronald Nessler, Frank Mc-
Leod, Randy Gangle, Michael Mc-
Bride, Peter Thibodeaux, Rudolph
Burda, Robert Arthur, and Rusty
Has A Party
You don't nece'sFarily have to have an
excuse for a party, but employees of Sec-
tion B of the Stre-hou.,-s had an espe-
cially good reason to stage one last month.
They had just completed a complete in-
terior red-( rating program for their sec-
tion and a relocation of their stock in a
manner unique in the Canal organization n.
Today, the interior of Sictin B1's
stock-bins is a bright buff, trimmed in
light green; this replaces the drab old
black and white and gray color scheme.
The walls r., light rr-en,. instead of white,
ard are trimmed in a darker green. The
color scheme is known to the Storehouse
personnel as the Demada Color Code (for
J. L. H. Demers and Robert H. Adams).
The actual painting was done by Store-
house personnel, urder supervision, in
their spare time.
While the new colors make all the dif-
ference in the world in the appearance
of the building, the stock location system
is even more revolutionary.
Until a few months ago, there was no
location given on the cards which list the
thousands of items carried by Section B.
A new stock-clerk, looking for stationery
supplies or automobile parts, might have
a bit of trouble finding them until he
learned his way around.
Today, the cards listing the stationery
supplies are stamped, in large letters,
that these may be found in Massachu-
setts on Shettlewood's Plarv. The large
areas, known as bays, have been named
for States, and the individual rows of bins
in them have been named for Storehouse
personnel. This simplifies the location of
any given item, to a terrific degree.
The naming of the various little alley-
ways has had another effect. The men
for whom they are named take pride in
seeing to it that their particular areas
are kept spotless.
When the redecoration and location
was complete, the Section B people gave
a party. In addition to their own group,
they invited Commissary and Service Cen-
ter personnel from the building next door.
Twelve lucky Canal Zone Isaac Wal-
tons will take part in the Fifth Inter-
national Marlin and Sailfish Tournament
this month aboard a Panama Canal Com-
The boat which is being entered by
the Company in the tournament this
year, is scheduled to make two trips of
four days each and will carry six Com-
pany-Government employees on each
The first trip will be from Au-u-t 3
through .\LAu.t 6 and the second trip
from Ai._'ut 10 through August 13
with the boat r, rurr'in-, to Balboa on the
afternoon of th, ,l.urth day.
The Canal contestants were selected
1, the Bureau heads from among appli-
cants on the basis of the number of em-
1'1,.. in each unit.
Each participant will pay $15 which
will include entrance fee and subsistence
for himself and share foi the crew.
To Mrs. Wilma Siler went the honor of opening the redecorated storehouse.
16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 2, 1957
a SHIPS AND SHIPPING r
CANAL RECORDS FALL FOR SIXTH CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Another first for the Canal last month was the transit of the guided missile ship
USS "Boston". She was part of the detachment on the midshipmen's cruise.
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
July -... -----------
September ..------.. ...--.--.
December ---.- ----
Total for fiscal year -----
(In thousands of dollars)
Total commercial --------
U. S. Government vessels, ocean-
Total commercial and U. S.
1957 1956 1938
to to Total Total Total
4,495 4,084 8,579 8,209 5,524
475 433 908 896 931
4,970 4,517 9,487 9,105 6,455
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Cargo, Traffic, Tolls
Figures Are New High
In Waterway's History
With its sixth record-breaking year
just concluded, the Panama Canal is now
on its way into another fiscal year which
will be marked by a historic event in the
When the past fiscal year ended, a
grand total of 197,547 large commercial
ships had transited the Panama Canal
since August 15, 1914, when the SS Ancon
made the first commercial ocean-to-ocean
passage. Transits of all classes of ships
since the Canal's opening exceeds 260,000.
Before the end of October, the 200,-
000th ocean-going commercial ship
will have been put through the Pan-
This will happen just about 18 years
after the 100,000th transit-the Canal
had been opened for a little over 25 years
before that figure was reached-and less
than eight years after the SS Nevadan
of the American Hawaiian Line was hon-
ored, on April 26, 1951, as the 150,000th
vessel to make the Canal transit.
Not only did last year's figures set
new highs in traffic, tolls, and cargo but
they also provided some interesting com-
parisons for those statistically inclined.
Cargo tonnage carried through the
Panama Canal in fiscal year 1957 ex-
ceeded the 50,000,000 mark for the first
time in the Canal's history. The record-
breaking 50,624,373 tons were 4,355,210
tons higher than the previous year's 46,-
269,163 tons, over twice the tonnage
carried through the Canal either in 1946
and 1947 when shipping was beginning its
post-war upward swing, and 20,000,000
tons higher than the peak shipping year of
1929 and 1930 in the pre-depression period.
The fiscal year's total of 8,579 large
commercial ships was not only 370 more
than the total for the previous fiscal year,
it was also 55 percent higher than the
total for fiscal year 1938, the last normal
pre-war year. It was 101 percent more
than fiscal year 1947, just a decade ago.
The table below shows the steady in-
crease of traffic in this postwar decade.
In addition to the large commercial ships
there are, of course, the small commercial
vessels and the large and small govern-
ment ships which go to make up the
amazing total of ship transits each year.
These figures, however, are for large com-
mercial ships only.
1948 ---------- 4,678
1949 _--- 4,793
1953 -- -------7,410
1954 -..---.---.-- 7,784
1957 --- _8,579
Tolls, likel~ns'e, have risen in the past
decade. This year's figure of $39,653,712
CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
August 2, 1957
C' lI I i diT '
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt).
Coal and coke--------------------...
Iron and steel manufactures-------------
.11M .I scrap-.. -------------------.. -. -
Sugar--- .-- - - -- ... .----- ---. -
Various metals-- --..- ..---------------_
S'..1, 1c..I- -- -.
Ores, various -..----- .. ..--- --------
Paper and paper products ------------.
Cotton, raw.-- --------
Sulphur- .. ---.. --- _- --- -- -----
Machinery -------- -.------------- -
Ammonium compounds --_.---. --.
Chemicals, unclassified ----- ------...
All others. ---------- -----------
Total .. ..-. .
Runner-up to the record-holding Portun-
us as the Canal's most frequent custom-
er is the banana carrier, Vanda, above.
She made 49 transits during FY 1957.
for tolls and tolls credits is over twice
the $17,634,361 collected in fiscal year
1947, only ten years ago, and over $2,-
200,000 more than tolls and tolls credits
for the fiscal year 1956.
Figures on the leading commodities
carried through the Panama Canal reveal
interesting trends. Petroleum and petro-
leum products continued to occupy the
top spot-which they have held for a
number of years- in the list of the 15
leading commodities in the Atlantic to
Pacific trade. In the past year, 5,242
thousands of long tons of petroleum were
carried through the Canal, 68,000 long
tons less than the previous fiscal year but
over five times as much as was transport-
ed in the Atlantic to Pacific trade in 1938.
The largest percentage increase in the
Atlantic to Pacific list was in various
metals; 752 thousands of long tons went
from Atlantic to Pacific last year com-
pared with 122 thousands of long tons
the pr'.'i'iLN year. Scrap metal also
showed a great increase, 1,497 thousands
of long tons for the past year as compared
with 498 thousands of long tons for the
Raw cotton shipments and ship-
ments of various ores were almost
double in fiscal 1957 the tonnage carried
in fiscal 1956, and there were also in-
crease, in coal and coke, and in iron
and steel manufactures. Some decline
appeared in fiscal year figures for am-
monia, sulphur, and soybeans.
In the Pacific to Atlantic trade, ores
and lumber continued to hold the two
top places in that order, although lumber
shipments were down about a fifth from
the previous year's figures. Ore ship-
ments, in this trade, i,.il,.ntitll.., were
triple those of the pre-war years.
Other Pacific to Atlantic commodities
hl',Anm increases from fiscal year 1956
were: Petroleum and petroleum products,
wheat, -IL'.r. canned food products, met-
als, refrigerated food, wool, and copra.
Noith,.r wool nor copra had appeared
last year in the list of the 15 1 ,lir.-
In the same trade, in addition to the
decrease in lumber tonnage, other com-
mni, liti, h ..H I' a decrease were: N itr.it.
of soda, barley, bananas, r.tI ,-. and raw
1957 1956 1938
5.242 5,310 907
3; 4 2,996 137
2,835 2,131 1,859
1,523 1,257 328
1,497 498 999
896 787 57
752 122 647
698 746 3
612 317 104
463 433 423
402 212 142
370 469 297
342 301 168
322 464 71
316 271 109
5,355 4,972 3,438
25,430 21,286 9,689
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC
1957 1956 1938
Ores, various----- --------------.. -.... ... 6,401 5,137 2,127
Lumber --.- ---------- -- ---.-..--. --- -..-- 2,900 3,549 2,851
Wheat----- ..--------.- - -.. ------.--------... 2,688 1,478 706
Sugar - -----.-. -------.-------- -..--.--. 1,446 1,425 1,487
Canned food products------- ... ..-.------- 1,311 1,301 991
Metals, various ...--. ....---.-- ---------. 935 742 698
Bananas ---_--- -- .------------.----- ---.. _870 936 53
Nitrate of soda .--... -.--------. ...- _.. --867 1,167 1,401
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh fruit)_. 800 618 335
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ----__. 752 1,875 2,875
Barley ..-- .. ..--------._ .--.--..--..-- .. 444 1,083 237
Wool ----------- ---------------- ._ 315 234 123
Copra ------..--------------------------.-.. 302 258 164
Coffee---- --------. - --------- - ----- 289 315 175
Cotton, raw --------------------.... ----. --.. 262 290 127
All others --. ..---..-...- .. ..--. .---- 3,690 3,425 3,347
Total -.. -------------------- ..--- 24,272 23,833 17,697
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the cargo shipments in thousands of long tons segregated into
eight main trade routes:
United States Intcrcoastal--- -.----
East Coast of 1'. S. and South America
East Coast South America-West Coast U. S./
Vl. S./Canada East Coast and Far East
U. S./Canada East Coast and Australasia .
Europe and West Coast of U. S./Canada.
Europe and South America
Europe and Australasia ----.-. ..
All other routes- -------..
Total traffic -------
Ships flying the flags of 37 dilffrr.nt
nations, an increase of three over last
at ;r. transited the Panama Canal during
the fiscal year 1957. Of the 8,579 transits
made by commercial i.,rr.i.-,,iu.i vessels
ldr in- the 12-month I'n i il. United States
flag ships led all other nations with a
total of 1,919 transits, and British vessels
came in second with a total of I, ill'
transits. This represented a decrease of
I transits for U. S. flag ships and an
increase of 26;7 transits for the British.
Third place was held by ships of Nor-
wegian registry with a total of 11 ; transits,
while Liberian and German vessels ran
close behind with 690 and It tr:, iiit
i, i ti ,' 1I.. Seven Canal Ip. .-;w:'.- were
made Iv\ Soviet ships as compared to two
last year, and there were five transits by
Swiss-registered ships. Irish ships, the
first to appear at Canal ports since 1954,
made five triai-it during the fiscal year.
Propane gas is being delivered to the
Isthmus these days by the SS Marian R.
Billups, the first of a fleet of new gas-
tankers built t.l-'i;illy for the transpor-
tation of this type of fuel. The vessel
makes a round trip through the Canal
each month on its delivery voyage be-
tween Houston, Tex., Carihl_-.;an ports,
and the west coast of Central America.
It stops in Balboa on the return trip
from San Jose de Guatemala, and dis-
ci.ii.u a load of propane gas into the
storage tank located in Balboa.
The tanker was placed in service during
December and alrn.aly has nm,id eight trips
thrnii'h the Canal. Frd Crmpan.y In.,
are -i,.rnt- for the ship in the Canal Zone.
18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in thousands of long tons)
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
August 2, 1957
A REVIEW Preview
Officials atop new towing device give it serious thought. L. to r.: Go
R. G. LeTourneau, R.C. Stockham, R. L. LeTourneau, and Lt. Gov. H. M
Above right: Canal officials watch operation of fender car on towing
Canal Commercial Traffic by Nationality of Vessels
C, sta Rican .---
D nish -------
rDom. Republic -
E -tonian_ -
H ungarian ------
Irish -- -------
Latvian -- ----
N caraguan -.
P ,namanian - -
P, irtuguese -- -
L united States .
U ruguayan ----
N' igoslavian -.__
12 72 ,1 1,
ber of of cargo
-- --- ------- --
- -- ----- -
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
SIL3 Another few months will see two
strange new devices on the towing tracks
of Gatun Locks.
SThe new machines being manufactured
for the Canal by R. G. LeTourneau, Inc.,
of Longview, Tex., were inspected last
month by a group of Canal officials
headed by Governor Potter. Accompany-
ing him were Lt. Gov. Hugh M. Arnold,
v. Potter, R. C. Stockham, Chief of the Locks Divi-
Arnold. sion, and John R. Hammond, Chief of
devices. the Electrical-Mechanical Branch of the
They found one of the locomotives
ready for track testing and made the
first, but unscheduled, trip up the steep
incline which exactly duplicates the in-
cline the locomotives must climb and
8 descend when they go into service at
Gatun. They also saw the operation of
Tons the fender-car which is fitted with big
Spneumatic tires to hold off ships from
the lock walls.
The locomotive most nearly advanced
-------- in construction had not been fitted with
6,417,016 the tall line-boom which will be used for
13,113 passing messenger lines to connect the
ship with the locomotive. At present,
messenger lines are passed from the locks
to ship by hand from rowboats.
865,235 The new towing plan calls for cnly two
locomotives to be used for each ncrmal-
4,695 size ship, one fore and one aft. Each
4,021 would have towing and braking power.
1.i s., Since they would both be on the same
525,351 lock wall, the vessels would be held off
8,478 the wall by a fender-car pictured on this
24,411 page in a lowered position.
The Canal officials were accompanied
153,417 on their inspection by R. G. LeTcurneau,
1,877,502 President, and other officers of the firm,
- who came to the Isthmus to make a first-
4,900 hand study of the ship-towing problem
.. before the new locomotives were de-
749,642 signed. Both locomotives are scheduled,
--,43--357 under the contract, for delivery early
415,561 next year and their manufacture is ahead
7,151 of schedule. They will be given extensive
8,441 tests at the factory before being delivered.
10,419 New Grace Liners
763,049 The Grace Line, which recently started
S a new weekly service from New York to
Canal ports, has also announced the
9,892,619 addition of two more C-2 type freighters
- - i to their West Coast of the United States-
73,413 West Coast of South America service.
SThey are the SS Utah and SS Oregon,
27,385,924 former States Steamship line freighters
which, like other Grace Line ships on this
19 run, will stop at Central American ports.
August 2, 1957
Before The Rains Came
Sights like this are seldom visible, fortunately for Canal traffic. This year's protracted drought, which dropped the
level of Madden Lake to the lowest maik since it was formed, exposed hilltops and hillsides which had not been seen
for years. The photograph above shows the junction of the Boqueron and Pequeni rivers, above the dam. Normally
at this time of the year the entire foreground of this area would be a sheet of water.
Below, left is an aerial view of Madden Lake, looking toward the dam. The white line shows the 30 feet which
the water had receded from its normal level. The picture below, right, shows the water level in Gaillard Cut before
the rains came.
+. 7- =.-:r ~ ~i r
From his rowboat a Canal seaman can
barely reach the normal water level.
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-
VESSELS IN JUN
U. S. Government ...-------
U. S. Government 70,817
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-go
TOTAL CARGO TC
UCoinmercrl --- 1.116,1 .14
U. S. Government 56,745
GOING Cruise Preview
E Although the cruise season is still al-
1956 i9; most half a year away, Isthmians who
read travel magazines are already getting
674 775 a preview of things to come.
21 2, A, Iording to recent issues of Hlliday,
--- two Swedish-American liners will be
695 803 among early Isthmian visitors this sea-
son. Th,. MS Kui tt hIl,,lnu is scheduled to
stop in Cristobal on a "Thanksnlving
$3,490,051 Cruise," on which she leav.ts Ne'w Yo'rk
148,053 November 16 with an itinerary of St.
'Thin.i-. Port-au-Prince, Cristobal, and
ing and small. On December 21, the new 2'.')50-tron
631-foot MS Gripsholm, is scheduled to
NS leave N.-.'. York on a 14-day Christmas
4,523,432 cruise which will take her to Port-au-
f767qi Prince, Kinu.-tim. Cristobal, and Havana.
Both the Kungsholm and the Gripshoim
are due for Canal transits this season,
the furni'r in January on a cruise to the
South Seas and the Far East, and the
Gripsholm about a month later on a cruise
around South America.
A new Cunard liner, the Sylrania, is
scheduled to make her maiden cruise in
December arriving in Cristobal Decem-
ber 28. The 22,000-ton vessel recently
joined four other sister ships on the Liv-
erpool-to-Quebec run. She is partially air
r.onditioned and on her regular runs can
carry 900 passengers.
Another Cunard liner, the Maurciania,
is also scheduled for cruises which will
take her to the Canal Zone next winter.
For this cruise season the big ship has
been (umipltcly air conditioned.
20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08544 4775
3 1262 08544 4775
Total -..-..... .,73,J14 4,600,311