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Vol. 8, No. 7 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, FEBRUARY 7, 1958 5 cents
M. 4- 4.
South To Tierra Del Fueso
Approach allignment set,
consultant board named
Connections ; ith the hi+h-l ,.I !.rid-',
across the Canal at Balboa will be pro-
vided on the east side for both the Canal
Zone and Panama City street and high-
way systems at points of the boundary
line near the Limits.
A decision on the bridge approaches
and the appointment of a Technical
Board of Consultants to serve during
the design and construction of the
bridge were important steps taken last
month on the $20,000,000 Treaty proj-
ect, which will directly or indirectly
affect most residents of Panama and
The alignment selected for the east
approach to the 'irile,.-, subject to minor
niudifiAictin. will provide a two-way
connection for Panama tratir- with Ave-
ida de Puertos ,-sth of November Ave-
nue) near the boundary. Some means
of ingress and egress will likewise be pro-
vided to the Canal Z.n.,, although the
location for this connection has not been
finally determined. The alignment of the
bridie and nmin approaches recommended
by S'iurdruIp & Parcel, Inc., design con-
tractors, provides no important change in
the locations previously announced.
The selection of a group of five prom-
inent technical experts to serve as con-
sultants on all phases of the bridge proj-
ect from design through construction has
been approved by the Canal Company's
Board of Directors. Acceptances had
Design of the bridge over the Canal was discussed last month by officials or
the Canal and the design contractors, Sverdrup & Parcel. Left to right, around
the Governor: Lt. Gov. H. M. Arnold, E. J. Shields, project manager, H. L.
Magee, highway design engineer, and Lt. Col. R. D. Brown, E. & C. Director.
been received from all but one at the
end of last month. The Board will be
composed of two structural engineers,
a g,.l,,it. a bridge architect, and a
general highway .ngini..il. The five
Roland P. Davis, Dean Emeritus of
the University of West Virginia, n:ti in,.ily
known experton stru, fural ingintring,
Ralph A. Tudor, of the Canal's Board
of Directors, from Atherton, Calif.,
whose specialty is structural engineering
and bridge design;
Aymar Embury II, Architect of New
Edward B. Burwell, Jr., of Upper-
ville, Va., retired Chief Geologist in the
Office of the Chief of Engineers; and
William A. Bugge, of Olympia, Wash..
highway enginrer and Director of the
Department of Highways of the State
Of this group, definite word that they
will serve has been received from all
but Mr. Bugge. Both Mr. Tudor and
Mr. Burwell are well acquainted with
conditions on the Isthmus through visits
here in the past. The latter has made
several trips to the Canal Zone in past
years for consultations on problems in
The east side bridge approaches were
discussed in detail iarly last month when
two representatives (See page rI
Health agencies start drive Feb. 24
Plans are .tri;nf completion for the
..ip.l.i.ii to ,he conducted, *I irtiiiL late
this month, by health agencies operating
in the Canal Zone. This is the second
and last major ui ri[ ,i-:r, to be conducted
here this ii .II year under the \\hit,
liH use directive for fiiIl-,.1 1 I. in fed-
!ra 1 I, ,., i..
The governor'ss Council for Voluntary
(iving has 4st th six-week pt'riod from
February 21 to, April 5 for the health
I. I. campaign. February 15 is the
deadline for .1 i. iIi to apply'for inclu-
sion in this year's drive.
No over-all c:..dl is to be set for the
I ..I|.ile', (Contributions will be either
in cash or by check as no payroll deduc-
tions will be made for this drive. The
Siiii.ii~i will be conducted thr.II.h the
Keymen of the Governor's Council for
Voluntary (1; ilI.l This will gi\.- all who
desire the ..l.rliilni'. to support finan-
Discussing plans For the National
Health Agencies drive are, left to right:
R. K. Erbe, Cancer Committee;
D. P. Paolucci, Tuberculosis
R. R. Stampler, CARE.
cially those h-.:ilth agencies which could
not be a part of the 1957 United Fund
I, irllp.i.il lIcause of agrirllmlnlts ith
th, Ir ir.itii,:l organizations.
The two major health agencies in the
Canal Zone the local chapter of the
N.otln.l filir, ill.l. 1 Association and
the Canal Zone Cancer Committee
have already indicated their intention of
t.lkiiip part in the drive which starts this
ThI. chairmen, Dr. I). J. Paolucci,
of the Tuberculosis Association, and R.
K. l-.aih-, of the Cancer Committee, will
serve as j.int chairmen for the ;miilnpaign.
Each ;uii. \ will supply its own cam-
I'liin literature and will handle its own
2 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
I ~--t_ ~~c~
February 7, 1958
STEPS are already under way to imple-
ment actions taken by the Canal Com-
pany's Board of Directors at their meet-
ing here last month on the occupancy
of Coco Solo as a civilian townsite and
on the Canal capacity problem.
The two projects, which will be of con-
tinuing interest for a long time to come,
were among the major items under con-
sideration by the Board at their annual
meeting in the Canal Zone. The Direc-
tors also spent most of one morning at
Gatun Locks to see the new L-Tourne;iu
towing locomotives in action.
The first order of business for the
Board was a visit to Coco Solo for an
inspection of quarters and community
facilities transferred to the Canal by the
Navy. Following this inspection on the
morning of January 14, the Board gave
formal approval of tentative plans for
placing these facilities in service.
An important step in line with the
Board's action to expedite further stud-
ies on plans to increase the Canal ca-
pacity was taken less than two weeks
after the meeting when a contract was
signed for a study on marine traffic
control procedures. The New York en-
gineering firm of Gibbs & Hill will con-
duct this study which will cover the
degree and timeliness of control of ship
movements throughout a Canal transit.
Following approval of the contract
with Gibbs & Hill, Governor Potter said:
"This is only one of many avenues cur-
rently being explored in our endeavor to
determine what we can do with existing
facilities to expedite Canal traffic."
Funds for initiating the short-range
plan of Canal improvements, which will
cost nearly $20,000,000, are included in
the President's budget sent to Congress
early last month. An initial appropria-
tion of $1,000,000 for the coming fiscal
year has been requested.
The short-range plan of improvements
was described in detail in THE REVIEW
last August. It includes widening two
reaches of Gaillard Cut north of Pedro
Miguel Locks, installation of a lighting
system in the Cut, new lights for the
Locks, and mooring facilities north of
Pedro Miguel Locks.
Because of the continued increase in
Canal traffic and the increasing number
of "super" tankers and ore carriers being
handled, the Board believes that these
plans may be too conservative and di-
rected the Governor to expedite addi-
The occupancy of Coco Solo began
the day after the Board visited the
area. Although less than 20 families
had moved up to the end of January,
the moving schedule was to have been
speeded up this week with the assign-
ment of an additional moving van.
The rate of transfers to other quarters
(all U. S.-rate communities on the At-
lantic side are affected) was to be
stepped up this week to about four a day.
Housing Division officials expect the
"musical chairs" program to be com-
pleted the end of May.
Meanwhile, plans are going forward
for the alterations or rehabilitation of
various buildings which will be used for
Company Directors saw the new and the old in the Zone last month. The new
were the LeTourneau locomotives, the old was 350-year-old Fort San Lorenzo.
the elementary school, junior and senior
high schools, commissary, service center,
and other community facilities. One of
the first of these jobs to be started after
funds are made available will be the
alterations of the large building which
will be used for an elementary school. It
is hoped to have this building ready for
use when schools reopen next September.
Although Coco Solo is still months
away from an integrated community, its
present and future residents already are
taking the first steps to place it in the
forefront of Canal Zone towns. A Civic
Council, complete with officers, has al-
ready been formed. Approximately 100
future Coco Solons partI:ipat-d, in the
While the Board's meeting last
month was one of the shortest since
the annual Canal Zone meetings were
initiated six years ago, the Director
spent a busy two days here.
After their visit to Coco Solo the day
after their arrival, the Directors met in
February 7, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
formal session the same afternoon in the
Board Room of the Administration Build-
ing. During this session a management
review was presented and the Board con-
sidered problems of a fiscal and budget-
The Directors left the Pacific side early
the following morning by Panama Rail-
road car for Gatun Locks where much of
the morning was spent seeing the new
locomotives in action. Board members
were impressed by many features of the
new devices, which will be in the testing
stage for several months, particularly
their ability to start and stop rapidly,
and their improved maneuverability over
After inspecting the LeTourneau ma-
chines, the Directors and top officials of
the Canal organization attended a barbe-
cue at Fort San Lorenzo. As on previous
occasions, Board members were given an
opportunity to sample some of the native
dishes. Among the other meats served
at the barbecue luncheon this year were
tidbits of iguana.
Most of the Directors (See page 19)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
-Handicapped Children's Program Begins-
A Canal Zone Ir -'r.i rn which will even-
tually provide special training for more
than 200 exceptional *, llldr.-n gets under
way on a limited basis this month. Its
first two units will be a small group of
physically handicapped children who will
meet at Gorgas Hospital and a much
larger but scattered number of Atlantic
side children who will take a special course
in remedial i .itlin'.
i it or six children, between 6 and 10
years of ago, vll make up th, little
Mr..ul, of i h.i i .b11: handicapped .-,,n>-
sters who will have their classes in a room
in Section D of ..r -.I Hospital. None
of them has ever attended school before,
have been recommended for the supple-
mentary rjdling bi the classroom teach-
er. Mrs. McDIrrmitt will do additional
screening and testing on all the children
referred to her.
A series of standardized and informal
tests will be administered in order to de-
termine the cause of the diffi ult\ and the
amount of retardation. Ii-nce the type of
.i.,lln-- disability is id,.ntifi-l. a differ-
entiated program will be d.-igned for
\\ hil. these two units of the handi-
c.ilip.- children's program are gittinl
started, 13 members of the Canal Zone
schools' t,;,, hin.' staff are scattered from
a list recommended by James Wolf, Dir-
rector of the Handicapped Children's
Program. Their travel and school ex-
penses are paid from a special allotment
for this program and they are drawing
their regular salaries. Summer-school
courses, hiwiv\-r, will be at their own
Four of the teachers are working at
San Fran, Iscn State Collr-gi. This quar-
tet is: Mrs. :Elizailth IcNeinm, of the
Diablo Heights elementary school; Miss
Thelma Godwin, of the Cristobal elemen-
tary school; Miss Clara Wattley, Paraiso
high school; and Miss Maiziee Headley,
Paraiso elementary school.
Now scattered all over the United States, these teachers are training for work with handicapped children.*
:ilthiu.'h some have been '.ligt at home.
I....i i of the diversity of .i,. and
tr.iiiInl'. their classes will be run on the
old "country school system."
The children will include cerebral-
palsy and post-polio patients, children
who have heart ailments or are other-
wise handicapped in their ability to get
around. Their teacher will be Mrs.
Josephine Jones, who spent the first
semester of this school year taking spe-
cial training at Columbia University in
New York City.
'I'l location of her classroom is tem-
porary. In September the -'.. i' .' 11 be
'r.rii, i. r .. to a room in the Balboa ele-
mentary school so that they ,, ill be able
to i!.':l., as much as their physical con-
ditions permit, with children of their
Mrs. I 1l. I IMcl)ermitt, who taught
until recently at the North \11.i,, ,, i,
s hool, is in charge of the remedial read-
in il:isses i rlin,, this month on the,
Atlantic sid. I',. was transferred to the
hindiclappei children's iI ..'..iii last.
-II. II I a ', ,' Illr. t iac 'her, -'.in-,
from school t, scli.... I 1. children with
whom she i I work, in small L'I.|'
New York to California, t.il.in. special
ti.iningri to equip them for t,.:, hing and
\v...ilin' with children who are deaf,
blind, or have other physical handicaps
or with children who are mentally re-
tarded. All of them will be back on the
Isthmus next fall when the Ii cr;am will
be in full swing.
They are t.1 iie this special work at
six ,IiF, r, i> ...1.-L!. and universities.
\\kill about 1'2 I S' colleges and uni-
versities offer courses in special work with
students, only about six have triiniri; in
the whole hi I1. of special education.
Some of the colleges specialize in
what educators call sequences. "
Wayne University, for instance, has an
excellent course for teachers who will
work with blind or partially- %igli hid
children. Others offer courses in work
with the physically handicapped, and
others are noted for courses in speech-
correction, or teaching deaf or hard-of-
hearing children, while others give spe-
cial training for teachers of mentally-
The teachers who are now in the
United fI.".r selct id theIir schools from
lThr, others are at Waviyni. Uni\or-ity
in Detroit: .li-- Verona Campbell, a
visiting teacher of Spanish whose home
station is Paraiso high school; Miss Mable
M.-F.;jriuh.ir. of La Boca school; and
\li.- Lillian Haird. of Fort Kobbe school.
Miss Alva Piper, of the Santa Cruz
school, and lMi-s Mary Brennan, of thi,
North .MNrg.rita. school, are at Syracuse
I'li r-itY in New York Statr. and at
Columbia University is Mrs. Ruth Mor-
ris, of the South M.Irt;arit;: school. M1r..
Jean Karch, who is on a year's leave of
absence but who is r.riilarly )niign, l to
the Balboa Junior High school, is study-
ing at the College of William and Mary
in \\ illiinitir-L. Va.
Earl Sli.ir-lr.. of the Cristobal elemen-
tariy school, is 1.ikinr his special work at
Illinois .'r.it. Nrinal, and Mrs. Adda
Velarde, of Ih. S.ait., Cruz School, is at-
' ilii';:. the Catholic l'i1,i.rr-iti of Amer-
ica in \\.,-hlt,!i. D. C.
*Earl "hni.rk Mr-. ElF beth M1 Nlvin. Clam
Waili Ma.',rr H|-idlr". Thelma r'.'din. Mr:
Ruhi M..,rr. M,. Irnn Kn,,h. Ali Piper Vteron
Lanlphill. Mh-l MhcFafiasihnr. Mr" Adds Velarde,
Mariian Fini. n pr.rch L..r-rclfinn l for the Dvy.sion
..nf 'ch,.l. s,. p.rd F E'.~e Su,,pf nlenden! of
"c.h...., Jame. M W..II. Llrccl r ',f Special Educa-
4 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
Here's the man
Who's responsible for health
Most people see the Canal Zone for the
first time when they come here to live.
Not so Charl,-' Olin Bruce, doctor, Army
officer and, presently, Health Director of
the Canal Zone Government.
Hr was here 37 times before the Army
Medical Corps assigned him to his present
post, two-and-a-half years ago. His 37
previous peeks at the Zone convinced him
that it would be a fine place to live. He
still thinks so; he is delighted that his
original three-year tour of duty has just
been extended to July, 1959.
The first 36 times Colonel Bruce visited
the Canal Zone were when, as a brand
new lieutenant in the Medical Corps, he
was in charge of the 100-bed hospital on
the troop transport Republic, then on a
regular run through the Canal to Hawaili.
Today, as Health Director, he is re-
sponsible for four hospitals with a total
bed capacity many times more than
that of the transport "Republic," for
the sanitation of the Canal Zone, for
its preventive medicine and quarantine,
and for its veterinary services.
The 1,100 men and women under his
direction try to keep the Canal Zone
clean and healthy; its food sanitary, and
properly handled; its people from becom-
ing sick or, if they become ill, care for them
at hospitals and clinics. Of the people in
his Bureau, 64 are doctors, 30 are interns
and residents-in training, and 252 are
Colonel Bruce's tour with the Health
Bureau coincides with a time of the most
far-reaching changes since a health or-
ganization was set up by Col. W C.
Gorgas over 50 years ago. Some of these
changes will be the result of recommend-
ations by Dr. Isidore Falk, who has been
engaged for the past year in studying the
Canal Zone Health services. His prelim-
inary report has already been submitted
but the final report is not yet finished.
During Colonel Bruce's two-and-a-half
years on the job, he has concentrated on
three major programs: Providing addi-
tional training for Bureau personnel;
transferring the non-profe'ssional load
from the doctors and nurses to the ad-
ministrative and clerical staff; and put-
ting the health services on a more eco-
nomical basis, without affecting the qual-
ity of the medical care of the Canal Zone's
people. He is also interested in the health
problems of the neighboring Republic
and is studying Spanish in order to under-
stand them better.
The training program is one of the
Health Director's pet babies. As a med-
ical man, he knows the value of up-to-
date medical information Five of the
Health Bureau's professional people have
already taken refresher courses in their
specialties and several others have at-
tended medical meetings in the States.
Colonel Bruce hopes that more can do so.
The special "post graduate" training
has not been restricted to medical men.
In 1956, William Brown, Assistant to
the Health Director, spent several weeks
in \\ ashinpgt n attending the Interagency
Institute for Federal Hospital Adminis-
trators. Colonel Bruce himself served on
In line with a plan to lift the load from
professional personnel, Gorgas Hospital
has its first layman administrator. He,
in turn, is training the hospital's first ad-
ministrative resident. The job of k,,,pini
the physical end of the hospital running
has been transferred to a full-time pro-
fessional housekeeper, and a program of
training ward attendants is now under
way. When this is completed, the ward
attendants will be something like the
nurses' aides commonly used in States
hospitals. They will be able to assume
more responsibility, take temperatures,
and perform other technical duties.
The biggest headache in his job, he
says, is financial. But, he adds, "my
greatest satisfaction is that all of the
Health Bureau's people have kept on
doing superior jobs in the face of one
financial crisis after another."
The Health Bureau operates on appro-
priated funds, and any income from its
services goes into the Treasury. The bal
ance of the cost is paid to the Treasury
by the Panama Canal Company. The
Health Bureau budget is prepared, and
requested, nearly two years in advance.
Between the time Colonel Bruce and his
assistants have worked out what they
will need and the time funds become
available, all sorts of things may happen
to throw their plans out of kilter. Con-
gress may authorize a pay raise, or the
Company increase some of its service
charges for instance.
C'nslequently, a good part of his time
is spent making the Bureau's money go
as far as possible. The new bloodbank,
with volunteer donors, eliminated heavy
expenditures for blood needed by hospital
patients. A simple sounding economy,
such as requiring doctors to make their
house calls in ambulances-an ambulance
was then on hand if a patient needed hos-
pitalization-saved more money.
The Canal Zone's health offices in Pan-
ama and Colon were transferred to
Panama a few weeks after he arrived
here, but Colonel Bruce is much inter-
ested in Panama's affairs. He holds the
Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero, in
the rank of Knight Commander, for his
assistance in several of Panama's health
programs. He believes that Panama and
the Canal Zone should have a deep con-
cern for each other's problems, since dis-
ease does not recognize geographic or po-
Born in Holdrege, Neb., 49 years ago,
he started as a Liberal Arts student at
the University of Nebraska. The shop-
talk of medical student friends was so
interesting that he switched to medicine.
This was one of three chance encounters
which had important effects on his life.
The next came when, after he had re-
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Col. Charles O. Bruce
ceived his M.D., he had six months to
wait before beginning his internship at
New York City's Bellevue Hospital. He
spent most of these six months at one of
the C.C.C. camps, getting a taste of mil-
itary life. When he finished his intern-
ship, he was commissioned into the Army.
The third encounter was on the Re-
public. On his first trip back from
Hawaii, he met Edythe Ann Corbin,
homeward bound with her Army parents.
They were married three years later, after
he finished a course in mallariologv at
Water Reed Hospital in \\ashington.
Their honeymoon was, to say the
least, unusual. They were assigned to
British Guiana and got transportation
on a small boat the Army was sending
to Trinidad. The trip from Miami,
which should have taken a couple of
weeks, took a month. The boat's water
system broke down, its radio quit, its
engines faltered. They were unable to
identify themselves and a British patrol
brought them to a quick halt at the
entrance to Port-of-Spain with a shot
across their bow.
Mrs. Bruce was evacuated to the
States when the United States entered
the war but her husband stayed in British
Guiana for a year. Then, after a brief
detail in New York, he was assigned to
Gen. Mark Clark's staff, a post he held
through the North African and Italian
Back to the States in 1945, he and Mrs.
Bruce established their first real home
near Washington and their two children,
Michael, now 11, and MIurri,-y, 9, were
born there. Colonel Bruce served for a
time with headquarters of the Army
Field Forces, then had a year at Johns
Hopkins to get his Master of Public
Health degree, and served a tour in the
office of the Surgeon General. He was
Military Assistant to the Secretary of the
Army when he came to the Canal Zone in
1955 ith Secretary Robert Stevens.
That was when he saw the Canal Zone
for the 37th time. He liked it then and
he likes it even better now.
February 7, 1958
Billy Graham Will Speak
At Albrook Field Sunday
R.-:idrent. of the civilian communities
of the Canal Zone are welcome to attend
a special service to be held by famed
Evang,.lli: t Billy Graham next Sunday at
Beiam Stadium at Albrook. The service
will liber;n at 6:30 a. m.
The Rev. Dr. Graham is here at the
invitation of 26 local sponsoring organi-
zations. He is appearing tonight and to-
morrow night at the Panama Stadium.
Special arrangements have been made
by the Panama Railroad to accommodate
Atlantic siders crossing the Isthmus for
the services in Panama. A second section
is being added to the late afternoon train
from Colon today and tomorrow, provid-
ing space for 1,900 persons on the regular
train and second section. The first sec-
tion leaves Colon station at 5:10 p. m
and the second at 5:40 p m.
Two sections, one ,l-a% inc Panama at
10:10 p. m. and the other at 10:40 p. m.,
will provide return transportation to the
Preparations for the Billy Graham
crusade here have been under way for
over a month. Headquarters for the Pa-
cific side activities have been the old
Tivoli Commissary where massed choirs
have been holding regular rehearsals.
FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION
How Accident Proof Is Your Driving?
1. Is it second nature for you to lock
doors, ;idji]st ventilation, seat, and mir-
ror before starting; and to check tires,
brakes, lights, hurn, windshield wiper,
and flashlight battery?
(Of course your conduct manife't- the
habitual courtesy and friendliness which
marks a good driver; you invariably
appl' the rule that the other driver is
in the right; you are helpful and coop-
erative; you always yield the right-of-
way to pedestrians . you drive unto
others as you would have them drire unt i, ipi
2. Do you set your sights far enough
ahead-watch out for traffic hazards at
least half a block ahead in town, half a
mile ahead in the country?
(Of course you are continually on the
alert for pedestrians and animals on the
road. You realize that the "tired driver"
hazard is always present You plan your
trips and always know exactly what you
are going to do next.)
3. Do you hold to the center of the traffic
lane and steer at a spot on the center of the
driveway rather than observe side clearance?
\\ h.-n blinded by glare, you use the
right shoulder of the road as a guide ...
when following, you always allow at least
one car length for every 10 miles of speed.)
4. Do you habitually keep your eyes
ml.iing, checking ahead, to the sides,
and to the rear-vision mirror fr>equntly"
(Of course you never pass a car on a
curve, hill, or at an intersection. You
never fail to give the proper signals.
You curb that desire to speed because
you know that speed is the No. 1 killer!
You don't insist on the right-of-way be-
cause yi.u know that, if you are killed,
you'll be just as dead as if you were
*\ rinr .)
5. Do you intently and unrelentingly
follow the action of any person or car
that threatens your driving path until
dead sure of his attention and intention?
6. Do you rely too greatly on a signal
the other driver should give-but does not?
(Of course, as a good driver, you not
only do not cause accidents, but you
play it .ofre, assume that the other driver
is an amateur; and are sharp enough to
outguess him to avoid being hit by him.)
7. Have you grown over confident be-
cause you know the road so well? Are
you unconsciously developing the danger-
ous habit of driving blindly?
8. Are you master of your car? Do you
know its safe speed for all tralffi weather,
v;,ibility, road surface conditions, and
sharp curves? Do you keep your car in
In the event of an emertrgincy do you
always try to park off the roadway for
your own safety as well as other '
9. In foggy or rainy weather do you
hold down your speed, dim instrument-
panel lights, keep windshield and head-
lights clean, and use extra dri% ing cau-
10. Do you keep your mind constantly
and unrelentingly concentrated on your
driving regardless of troubles at home,
fatigue, hurry, desire to find a parking
space, or other distractions?
HOW DO YOU RATE? DO YOU
REALLY DESERVE A PASSING
Lawrence L. Jenrich
rTh. appointment of Lawrence L. Jen-
rich as Chief of the Internal Audit
Branch, succeeding George E. Girard,
was announced last month. Mr. Girard
left the middle of January for the United
Sta;t.- where he will join the staff of the
General A,i ,uintinL (Ittfi .
Mr. Jenrich was born in MI l,.iiik,
and holds a *l L'r', in *-r '.untinLi fr.nm
the Universit) --f \\% 1. n.in. lie is an
Army veteran of \\,rll \\.ir II. IHis
previous experience includes several years
v. th the \\, .i .. i-n Department of T:i,-
ation. lHe also worked with a private
i-vI.iiiinL' firm, and with the Army
Audit .\':' r~n in Anhi'hiri~'. Alaska,
where he was Deputy IH.-i'in,il Director.
HIe has been with the Canal *,r.,ni;'..,ti;nn
since November I'i' .
He is a ('.-rlfi I. Public Accountant
and a member of the American Institute
of Accountants. \lr Jenrich lives in
Gamboa with his wife and three children.
Marine Bureau (Honor Roll)
Civil Affairs Bureau (Honor Roll)
Health Bureau (Honor Roll)
Supply and Employee Service Bureau
C. Govt-Panama Canal Co. (This Month
Engineering and Construclion Bureau
Transportation and Terminals Bureau
Number ef Disabling Injuries ..........
-Disabling injuries per 1,000,000 employee-
5 10 15
Man-Hours Worked 2234.945
Frequency Rate ibthis month
i.:.:'''-::'" '';'] Accumulaine Frequency Rate this Calendar Year
. ]. 1954-1955-1956 Calendar Year Average
6 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
CIVIL DEFENSE Move Accomplished
The first copies of the new Civil Defense
Disaster Relief Plan were distributed dur-
ing the last week of January. The entire
edition will be available for distribution in :
February. This Civil Defense Manual elim-
inates the Control Point and Task Force
Manual, Volunteer Corps Manual, and
Plant Self-Protection Manual, the texts of
which have been included in this plan as
With the distribution of the Disaster Re-
lief Plan, the organizing and training of
Company-Government personnel in the
rescue services will get under way.
First-aid training for members of the
Volunteer Corps is being planned for the
next several weeks. Mrs. Charlotte Ken-
nedy will instruct the Margarita-New Cris-
tobal group. William Gordon will in-
struct the Santa Cruz and Paraiso groups.
The newly-established town of Pedro
\l B Cuel will either organize its own first-aid
class or join with the Paraiso Class. In
either case an instructor will be provided.
FEBRUARY VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS
Date Town Place Hour
5& i9 Marg.-N. Cristobal Serv. Center 5:00 p. m. The one-time Ancon Dispensary now houses the office of the Panama Canal
First Adl 60 p. m Company's Treasurer. Seated in the foreground are W. E. Lundy and A. R. Minor.
I2 Rainbow City School 6:3o p. m.
13 Santa Cruz Serv. Center 8:oo p. m.
17 Paraiso School 7:3o p. m.
(First Aid) Worth Knowing
-- Elected -
Owners of private vehicles licensed in the Canal Zone have only three more weeks
N a o to have the operating condition of their automobiles inspected. Without the
S..... windshield sticker which certifies that an automobile is in safe and sound shape,
it %ill not be allowed on Canal Zone highways after March 1. The annual in-
spection is required by the Canal Zone traffic regulations.
Employees of the Company-Government who have not already done so should
take their cars to the Motor Transportation Division for inspection before the
end of this month. Inspection hours are 8 a. m. to 5 p. m. daily, except Saturday
.' and Sunda s.
V .. vehicle inspectors check lights, turn-indicators (on cars equipped with them),
4 Zr brakes, steering mechanism, wheel alignment, horns, rear-view mirrors, safety-
Sglass, etc. Average time for an inspection is 10 minutes.
Eight new alley-beds are among the new bowling equipment soon to be installed
in the Balboa Bowling Center. Other new equipment will include semi-automatic
pin setters, automatic foul-detecting devices, and miscellaneous items.
The new alley-beds will be installed to replace eight of the 12 beds in the Balboa
Bowling Center. The other four were replaced a short time ago.
Bids for the work are now being advertised and will be opened February 10 at
Balboa Heights. Work will begin about May and only one alley at a time will
be out of service.
As part of an over-all plan to keep the main streets of Canal Zone communities
clean, green, and beautiful all during the year, a water sprinkler system has
Seen installed in the Balboa Prado. Now that the dry season is in full swing,
the sprinklers are being turned on several hours each day and residents living
along the Prado have been asked to cooperate by keeping their lawns well watered
during the next few months.
New Chairman of the Canal Zone The quarters buildings in that area were painted white with a yellow trim several
Chapter of the American Red Cross months ago and the Housing and Grounds Division has been busy replacing and
is Roger W. Adams, Superintendent planting trees and shrubs.
of the Motor Transportation Division.
Canal employees who have problems (tax problems, that is) related to the filing
of their 1957 tax returns may contact Arthur J. O'Leary, Assistant Comptroller-
Mr. O'Learv, in offering his services to Canal employees, wishes to emphasize
that even though he took a three-day tr ,lirn. course on the latest provisions of
the Internal Revenue Code in Washington, D. C., last year, and prepared or
received numerous corporation and individual tax returns during a ten year
Obiial Panama Carnal Company Publicalisn period with the international public accounting firm of Price, Waterhouse & Co.,
Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. he does not consider himself to be an expert on the subject of taxes.
Printed by the Printing Plant, MountHope, CanalZone He will, however, be most happy to assist or help any who have a special problem
still unanswered after reading explanatory booklets put out by the Internal
W. E. POTTER, Governor-President Revenue Commission and attached to the tax form itself.
HUGE M. ARNOLD, Lieutenant Governor
W. G. AREY, JR., Public Information Officer
Dr. Wayne L. Sargent, who served his internship in Gorgas Hospital in 1956,
J. RuFus HARDY, Editor returned to Gorgas last month to begin his first year residency in pathology.
ELEANOR MCILHENNY, Assistant Editor For the past year or more, Dr. Sargent has been on active duty with the U. S.
EUNICE RICHARD, Editorial Assistant Navy and recently was stationed at the Navy Base at Rodman.
Mrs. Sargent, who is also a physician, completed her internship at Gorgas Hos-
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, pital about the same time as her husband, and at present is employed in the Gorgas
Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publica- Hospital Out-Patient Clinic. The Sargents are both graduates of Rice Institute
tion dateat 5 centseach. Subscriptions, $1 a year; in Houston, Tex., and both of them completed their medical training at Baylor
mail and back copies, 10 cents each. University College of Medicine in Houston. He is a native of Middlebourne,
Postal money orders made payable to the Pan- W. Va., and she was born in Houston.
ama Canal Conmpany should be mailed to Editor,
T.s PANAMA CANAL RaBVIw. Ralboa Heights, C. Z.
Examinations, some written and some oral, test the progress of the pilot trainee.
Capt. Rainier supervises, Capts. Christian and Fetherston put it down on paper.
Capt. C. O. Barrett is one of five men
on towboats for Canal pilot training.
Ladders like this are routine for
Capt. William Gillespie, pilot trainee.
in the p
Panama Canal pilots are not made
overnight. The special training which
they need here takes many months.
Pilot training is a continuing process.
Right now, in addition to its 81 qualified
pilots, the Panama Canal has ten pro-
bationary pilots, three in tr.iniii, five
more on towboats, and two more re-
quested. All of these will be needed not
only to replace the senior pilots as th.,\
retire, but to handle the e.,r-ir.in.l-i'
volume of traffic through the Canal.
The pictures on these two pages, if
engthy training covers all
arts of Canal operations
followed-counter-clockwise from the up-
per left-hand corner, show part of what
goes into making a pilot. All pilots must
hold masters' licenses, but that doesn't
mean that 'h.y jump right into taking
vessels through th, Canal.
Before a Panama Canal pilot may
make unrestricted transits- before he is
allowed to handle ships of unlimited
size-he has accompanied a fully-quali-
fied pilot on scores of tr:init., has han-
dled, on his .w un. smaller vessels through
the waterway, has studied :i;iiiphlht.,
In the office of Assistant Port Captain E. B. Rainier, right, he joins two other
trainees, Capts. E. M. Fetherston, left, and J. Y. Christian, for a bit of chart work.
8 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
A pilot must know Canal regulations.
Capt. Fetherston catches up on the rules.
charts, and rules of navigation, has
learned the how and why, of Canal oper-
ations, and has taken examinations to
prove his knowledge.
A prospective pilot first spends some
time on a towboat, learning the Canal
harbors and its docks and piers. If he
shows h ims -lf to be qualified, he becomes
a pilot-in-training. He then learns how
the Locks operate, what the marine traf-
fic controllers do. He watches harbor
pilots at work and accompanies other
pilots on at least 66 trips through the
After'six months, and a stiff examina-
tion covering everything from ship hand-
ling to local rules of the road, he becomes
a probationary pilot, a post in which he
Looking and learning, Capt. Gillespie watches as the long bow of the ship
slides into a lock chamber at Gatun. Capt. Swain, left, is his instructor.
remains for another year. At first he is
limited to ships 385 feet long. This is
gradually increased, as the year goes on,
until at the end of 12 months he is taking
525-foot ships through the Canal. In
addition, during that year, he frequently
serves as assistant to a pilot on very large
vessels or ships of unusual design.
His mentor is the Assistant Port Cap-
tain who gives him his assignments,
checks the reports made by pilots who
watch him work, and prepares the exam-
inations he must take.
It is not until 18 months after he has
become a pilot-in-training that his name
goes up on the pilot-board for "next out"
in the Panama Canal.
In the Marine Controller's office, he learns how ships are dispatched by
Supervisory Controller T. H. Forsstrom, and foreground, Martin S. Sawyer.
Canal pilots don't have much time to
sit down. Right, Capt. R. H. Swain.
During his stint on the Locks, he and
Lockmaster Fred Newhard hitch a
ride on a locks towing locomotive.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9
February 7, 1958
Digitized by the
n 2010 with
Lyrasis Members ar
id Sloan Foundation
Canal's opening meant new trade opportunities for its southernmost user
Ore unloading dock of Cia. de Acero del Pacifico,
Chile's growing steel industry on San Vicente Bay.
Wire and blister copper from Chile is unloaded from
Grace Line ship in New York for Anaconda's mills.
Calculated on a per capital basis, Chile
uses the Panama Canal more than any
other nation on earth.
During the past fiscal year 5,936,000
long tons of freight were shipped through
the waterway to or from Chilean ports
along the west roast of South America.
This amounts roughly to SOi pounds per
inhabitant of the lung thin nation whir-h
lies between the Andes and the Pacific
Ocean and sl'r':tihes nearly halfway be-
tween the Poles. The United States,
whith built and upirates the waterway
and is it, biggest ucer in volume of traffic,
sends less than 5U pounds of commodities
a year through the Canal per capital.
The bonds which link the Canal and
Chile are of long standing and are more
pronounced than those with other great
trade areas. Aside from the commer-
cial aspects uhich may be measured in
long tons, Chilean pesos, or in dollars
and tents, there is a feeling of affilia-
lion, indefinable but nevertheless a pos-
itive factor in human and International
This "feeling" was aptly expressed by
Chile's delegate to an international meet-
ing held last year in Panama. He said,
in effect: We people of Chile look on the
Panama Canal as our oan.
The long, slender nation which is over-
shadowed by the snon-capped peaks uf
the Andes for its entire distance was one
of the first, lands settled after the discov-
ery of America.
The King of Spain bestowed on Diego
de Almagro, partner of Francisco Pizarro
in the conquest of Peru, the "land of
Chili," which the Royal grant renamed
New Toledo. The Crown failed to make
clear which of the two territories included
Cuzco, ancient Indian capital of southern
Peru, resulting in a long and bloody con-
test in which both Pizarro and Almagro
lost their lives.
The civil war broke out after a two-
year expedition into Chile in 1535 ,37 by
Almagro and his followers. His forces
were defeated and theleader was executed
as a traitor. Fuur years later, Pizarro
was killed by Almagro's followers who
surprised him in his palace in Lima.
However, a year before his death in 154 1,
Pizarro had sent his lieutenant, Pedro de
Valdivia, to Chile to establish a perm-
Despite the hostility of the Arauca-
nians, Chile's native Indian population,
Copper bars are loaded for shipment.
Most of Chilean copper sent abroad
is shipped through the Panama Canal.
Valdivia founded Santiago, the nation's
capital and today one of the world's most
beautiful cities, on February 12, 1541.
There followed 100 years of conflict
between the Spanish settlers and the
Araueanians which ended in 1641 by the
famous Pact of Quillin. Even after this
compromise there nas intermittent war-
fare until Chile achieved independence
from Spain in I818, after which the
Indians were granted equal rights of
Throughout this period Chile and her
people maintained a tenuous commercial
link with the Isthmus of Panama as it
offered the only secure trade and travel
route to Spa in and other European nations
These economic links were greatly
strengthened over 100 years ago when
one of the first regular steamship services
in the Pacific was established by the
Pacific Steam Navigation Company he-
tween Valparaiso and Panama. The serv-
ice was inaugurated in 1840 by two 800-
ton steamships, the Per andChile hir-h
were brought through the Magellan
Strait undFr their own steam.
Although the company was British,
its guiding spirit was \\illiam Wheel-
nright from Massachusetts who first
crossed the Isthmus in 1825 and became
one of the most ardent advocates for a
Panama Canal. The service flourished for
more than 25 years but was discontinued
in 1867 because of a conflict of interests
with the Panama Railroad Company.
Thereafter, until the Canal was opened
in 1914, most of Chile's foreign commerce
was routed around the Horn or through
Magellan Strait to Europe.
Within a few weeks time in 1914 two
events occurred which caused an al-
most complete realignment of world
trade. The two occurrences -the out-
break of \\orld 'ar I and the opening
of the Panama Canal--had a more pro-
found effect on Chile than almost any
other country nor directly involved in
the European conflict.
Undoubtedly, the opening of the Canal
would have brought great but gradual
changes to Chile's economy but the out-
break of war brought about an abrupt
change when trade aith Germany. Chile's
second most important customer, tas
stopped almost in a matter of days.
With the opening of the shorter trade
routes to the highly industrialized eastern
seaboard of the United States, Chile's
trade with her northern hemispheric
neighbor, which had ranked a poor third
up until then, began a steady and sus-
tained rise. Americ'an capital invested in
the South American countries bordering
the Pacific amounted to a bare trickle
before the war, with only a few pioneering
firms such as W. R. Grace and Company
The effect of the Canal's opening and
the war in Europe on Chilean commerce
was drscrihed in some detail in a 1916
report by the U. S. Department of Com-
SS Aysen, one of Chilean Line ships,
was used on route between Valpar-
aiso and Cristobal after Canal opened.
meree. That report noted that in 1915,
for the first time, the United States
ranked first both in exports from and im-
ports ito Chile. Prior to that. time, the
order of importance had been Great Brit-
ain, Germany, and the United States.
Except for the almost simultaneous
opening of the Canal, Chile's economic
structure might have been all but wreck-
ed by the outbreak of war in Europe.
Her economy at that time was almost a
"one crop" affair, with nitrates being
the principal source of its foreign trade.
Germany and Austro-Hungary bad been
taking about two-thirds of the total and
much of it was sent around the Horn in
This trade was abruptly haired by
the war but foreign purchases of this
important commodity were largely ab-
sorbed by the United States within a
relatively short time. Canal records for
1915 show that approximately half the
1,990,000 tons of nitrate exported by
Chile that year moved through the
Panama Canal. This rapid shifr In the
nitrate market helped to avert a dis-
aster to the nation's economy.
While the nitrate trade was interrupted
when the Canal was closed by slides in
September 1915, shipments were resumed
in increasing volume when the waterway
was reopened in April 191b.
During the latter stages of the war the
need for nitrate fur munitions became
such an important factor to America and
the Allies that the old Panama Railroad
steamships .Anron and Cristobal, and two
smaller German vessels interned in Canal
waters, were removed from their regular
New York-Crstobal runs to transport
the mineral. The vessels loaded coal in
Hampton Roads and New Orleans for
the Canal Zone and went from Balboa to
Chile in ballast to load nitrate
Two of these shipments were so urgently
needed in Europe that the ships were dis-
10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW February 7, 1958 February 7, 1958 11
The ore carrier Chilore was a familiar visitor to Canal waters until supplanted
by supercarriers. It made its maiden voyage carrying Chilean ore in July 1923.
Chile's nitrate desert is world's only commercial deposit of ore from which natural nitrate of soda is made.
patched directly to France for unlo
when they arrived in New York.
Aside from the need for rltri.jt
:nimiti,,ir the use ..f nitrate for ag
ture increased tremendously in the U
r.i t.I- iliin- this period. Consequ
from l', i. until the world-wide depr
of the I'l ;'s, nitrr.t shipments c
tuted one of the most important
modities moved through the water
from the I'., in.- to the Atlantic.
Great interest was aroused in
about the Canal lidurin. its constr
and her Pr. -l.,nt. Don Pedro iM
was one of th.. few Chief Execu
other than those of Panama an
United S't.t to visit the Canal
while construction was in Ijr,,r-'. .
ident Mlntr visited the Isthmus in
l'I I and, accompanied iv Col. G
Chile's biggest hydroelectric pla
Los Cipreses generates 105,000
W. Goethals, made a complete in.-p..-tin
of the big project.
A special d'elr-atin was sent to the
Zone by the Chilean Government in July
1913, in connection with plans to develop
the nation's mercantile fleet after the
opening of the Canal.
onsti- I It is easy to see today in retrospect
com- what the opening of the Canal and its
erway operation of the past 43 years has
meant to Chile and her economy.
Chtil' However, there was then a widespread
action feeling in Chile, not shared by all of
Iontt, her leaders, that the opening of the
tives, Canal would spell economic doom for
d the the country.
Zone How this feeling came to exist and
Pres- what the general feeling of Chileans
July toward the Canal is today is best ex-
eorge pressed in a brief article prepared in
Chile especially for this series of articles
nt at in THE REVIEW. This is quoted in part
"In a way it appeared that the open-
ing of the Panama Canal had done harm
to the maritime trade of Chilean ports
*- because up to that time the ships that
traveled to any country along the west
coast of South America had to go through
the M1ag ll:an Str.iit or around Cape Horn
and 4tIp .ithi r at Punta Arenas or Val-
paraiso to take on water, and at the same
time load or unload some :irgi. Upon
1ip. nirin the Canal both ports l.nliiii-h.
because they needed that important
stream of vessels ,irnii g from one or
another point of the world and it was
believed, naturally, that the Panama
Canal had meant the death of both ports
and a tremendous harm to Chile.
"This impression was given credence
by many. however, comparative eco-
nomic statistics prove just the opposite
was true. \\ ith th.- .p. Iin;, ..f the Canal
a new era was born il I'hl.. of greater
Si ifi, i., .- to its |r..' in every as ,pect
immediatelyy, Chile stopped looking
t t i Europe a:s its only center of culture,
art, finance, industry, ;and comnmrce.
nli,. i markets were opened to provide
greater *" thaI;1 than had before been
a available, and the same was true of the
purchases made abrnoad. Thus, little 1by
little, the diverse and somewhat hap-
hazard conmmrcial trade .,ith l-.ii.,i
& and the Far East decreased in importance
and was replaced 1,y commerce with the
United Stjtt -.
"It can be said that the opening of
the Panama Canal brought the United
States and Chile closer toietl-hr, not
only in the strict sense of travel-miles
at sea but, above all, in the ties and
mutual cooperation which exist be-
tween the two nations which is one of
the greatest benefits derived from the
"Thi' geographical and spiritual tie
with the United Sta;tr. was not the only
consequence of the Canal's opening and
its operation today. Europe was also
brought closer to Chile and has gi%,-n
more attention to the country situated
at the extreme end of South America-
the nation located 'at the end of the
\\ world as it was expressed before, when
tr\ in to reach it meant a stormy South
Atlantic crossing and a trip around the
Horn with its legendary tempests or
through the Strit of Magellan which
treated its visitors roughly "
The Canal had been opened only six
days when service between Valparaiso
and New York was in.iiLugi;uatd by W.
R. Grace C('rii11.niy, nii, ofl the oldest
American firms established in Latin
America. This initial trip was made by
the Santa r'latrlra. Since that date,
cGr.- Line ships have transited the
Canal more than ~.,iiii times and have
established an international reputation
for their p.,-- nri rt and freight service.
One of the more important aspects of
the 1.. iii.L. of the Canal to ih.. west
coast f .. ii Ii America was the stimula-
tion of travel. Despite its many historic
and scenic attractions, .rnl\ the hardiest
of travelers had the time or desire to
make the l.i, ',..,eI around the Horn
to 'h .
A trickle of visitors 50 years ago has
no\w -*'" 1 into a sizeable stream, greatly
:]i.II 1t1 .I in recent years by air travel.
Aside from nh l tourists' dollars, piiund-,
Iires, or francs, this travel from Europe
and the I rt .I States has been import-
ant in the cultural and economic develop-
ment by this ilt. r' b iri.- of visitors on
an international Ihass.
Today, it is no unusual -icll to see the
I.I.--.i, ships of lilh Grace Line, the
Pacific Steam N.'. i,.iti.ni Company, and
the Italian Line i,-irna locked through thr
12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
I~ii;L- YL-~LIUIILl)f_ ;~L
February 7, 1958
Canal on their way between ports of
Chile and those in the United States and
Among the first ships to use the Canal
were those serving Chile and flying thc
Chilean lag. They 'were vessels of thr.
South American Steamship Comp:ny.
better known as the Chilean Line, which
opened a run between V'alparais, and
Cristobal to connect with ships touching
the Atlantic port without transiting the
This service, discontinued in '1-24,
was begun less than four months after
the Canal was opened and represented
one of the first regularly-established trade
routes through the waterway. A fort-
nightly service was offered at first but it
was increased to weekly sailings in 1916
when slides were removed and the Canal
Undoubtedly, one of the most import-
ant aspects of Chile's economy which can
be directly related to the opening of the
Canal was the attraction of American
capital to the South American Republic.
Until the shortened trade route was made
available, there was little incentive for
American investments on a major scale,
with the result that Chile's foreign trade,
her banking, communications, transpor-
tation, and much of her mineral resources
were dominated by British, German, and
It had long been recognized that Chile
possessed vast natural mineral resources,
but her economy had been almost wholly
dependent upon nitrate and agriculture.
While nitrate shipments abroad still con-
tinue to constitute a substantial part of
the nation's foreign commerce, the value
of her copper exports today far exceeds
that of nitrates, and last year almost three
tons of iron ore was shipped through the
Canal from Chile for each ton of nitrate.
In a review of Chile's mineral re-
sources, the Encyclopedia of Latin Amer-
ica, published 40 years ago, called the
Presentation of diplomas to 198 high
school graduates and final report cards
to all students in the Canal Zone's Latin
American schools brought another school
year to an end this week for approxi-
mately 3,900 boys and girls. The schools
will reopen May 5, after the long dry-
Commencement exercises were held
Tuesday at the Paraiso and Rainbow
City high schools, and final report cards
were picked up by all of the students
Wednesday afternoon. Both the number
of graduates and the number of students
were higher than last year; in 1957 there
were 184 graduates of the two Latin
American high schools, fourteen less than
this year, and the end-of-the-year enroll-
ment of 3,942 in all schools-kindergarten
through high school-was 64 more this
year than at the end of the previous
Beginning Monday, the children of
all of the Latin American communities
will have a well-planned vacation ath-
letic program to occupy their time.
This year's vacation program, which
will run from February 10 through April
25, will provide for a softball league,
archery instruction, and volleyball in
,. I 0
Steel plant at Huachipato is evidence of Chile's growing industrialization program.
list it had compiled a "very modest" one
and continued that "we desire to empha-
size the impossibility of obtaining exact
information when mining enterprise is
still in the initial period-the period of
study and preparation."
The article called attention, however,
to a report by Chile to the first Pan
American Financial Congress held in
\ashington in May 1915 which said
"the copper output is increasing, owing
to the development of large copper prop-
erties in which North American capital
The Encyclopedia also said "iron mines
in the Coquimbo district are also being
developed by American capitalists."
From these modest beginnings both
iron and copper mining have been de-
veloped to a high state in the intervening
45 years with the result that Chile in re-
cent decades has become more famed as
one of the world's largest producers of
The development of Chile's iron min-
ing has prigr-...-id at a far slower pace
and it has only been in recent years that
sufficient capital has been invested to
bring this industry to its present high
state of development and one of the
nation's chief sources of income and eco-
nomic self reliance.
A succeeding article will discuss pres-
ent-day Chile, its industrial di-vllnpmrnht,
and the Panama Canal's part in h'-r for-
eign trade and economic welfare.
Latin American Schools end another teaching year
each community. In addition to these,
swimming classes are being arranged for
the Rainbow City children.
The school year which has just ended
marked a number of "firsts" for the Latin
American schools. Classes in English
were added for high school junior and
senior students taking the general and
commercial curriculum; a course in phi-
losophy became part of the college pre-
paratory course; and classes in Business
English and Commercial Spanish were
started in the high schools' commercial
During the year, free bus transporta-
tion was furnished for the first time to
a daily average of 294 Latin American
students whose homes were not within
walking distance of their schools. In ad-
dition to the students who rode busses,
between 150 and 160 high school pupils
made the daily round trip from Santa
Cruz to Paraiso by train, disembarking
at a new shelter built especially for them
at Paraiso. As in the case of the busses
for the others, train transportation for
these students was provided free.
During the year a new pay rate was
effective for teachers who hold Panama
University degrees, and requirements
February 7,1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
were raised so that newly-appointed
secondary school teachers must have
a degree from the University of Pan-
ama or its equivalent.
There were also some physical changes
in the Latin American schools during the
past school year. A new air-conditioned
music room was added at Paraiso High
School and an additional classroom and
woodshop to the Santa Cruz School. A
covered passageway was built between the
school building and gymnasium at Santa
There was one major change in the
schools' staff. Grafton Conliff.-. a teacher
at the La Boca Junior High School, be-
came Principal of the Santa Cruz Ele-
mentjry and Junior High Schools. He
succeeded Adolphus L. B. Migar, who
retired in September after 36 years v ith
Another continuing project, but in
another line, was the Spanish-reading
tests given to all students to measure
progress in that language since the
schools have been on an all-Spanish
teaching program. This was the fourth
year of such tests for first through sixth
graders, and the third year for students
in the upper grades.
February 7, 1958
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
December 15 through January 15
Employees who were promoted or trans-
ferred between December 15 and January
15 are listed below. Within-grade promo-
tions are not reported.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Enoch L. Hooper, from Fire Sergeant to
Fire Lieutenant, Fire Division.
Matthew J. Wilder, from Fire Sergeant II
to Fire .'r-eint I Fire Dixision.
Robert C. Heald, Robert S. Knox, fr..ii
I irr-.i t..r to Fire Sergeant 11, 1-ire I '.i..
Mrs. Ella E. Skelton, from Substitute
Teacher to Elementary School Teacher,
Division of Schools.
Mrs. Virginia C. Townsend, from Ele-
nentairy School Teacher to Substitute
Teacher, Division of Schools.
Eugene Breakfield, from Postal Clerk,
Mail I)elivery Unit. to Window Clerk,
Harry H. Corn, from Finance Branch
Superintendent to Foreman, Mailing Di-
vision, Postal Division.
Moises de la Pefia, from Relief Finance
Branch Superintendent to Finance Branch
Superintendent, Postal Division.
Donald R. Boyer, from Rel;, f Sq.ipr i .r
Cristobal. to Relief Finance l;t .I. Ih -',ti-r.
intenednt. Postal Division.
Walter T. McClure, from MNailing Divis-
ion Forentan to Assistant Postmaster, First
Class ( mr. .. Postal Division.
Francis G. Farrell, from Assistant Post-
master, First Class Office, to Postmaster,
First Class Office, Postal Division.
Thomas L. Sellers, from Finance Branich
Superintendent to Relief Supervisor, Cris-
tobal, Postal Division.
Harvey G. Rhyne, from Police Sergeant
to Police Lieutenant. Police I)ivision.
Stewart P. Trail, from Police Lieutenant
to Police Captain, Police Division.
Gaddis Wall, from Detective Captain to
District Police Commander, Police Division.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
J. Patrick Conley, from Attorney-Adviser
(Fiscal) to General Finantce Adviser, Office
of thle Comptroller.
Lawrence L. Jenrich, from Supervisory
Auditor to Chief, Internal Audit lBranch.
Donald M. Parr, from Auditor, General
Audit Division, to Systems Accountant,
Accounting Policies and Procedures Staff.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
William H. Henderson, from Apprentice
Wireiimn to Wireiina, I'.lectrical Iivision.
Murra% Klipper, from Wirenman, Electri-
cal Dixision, to ( construction Representa-
tixe, 'Power Converionm P'roject.
Wesley H. Bailey, Robert M. Turner,
from \\;ter Systeim Mainutenance M1echanic
I. to .Maintenance Machinist Foreman,
William M. Brandl, Jack G. Lenneville,
from VWaIter S lstem Pipelines Repairman
to lipefitter. Maintenance Division.
Earl V. Romith, from SlpervisorI Ac-
cou tiniI I,, , ( o- Accounts Supervi-
sor. I)red. in I vision.
Arthur W. Smith, from Supervisory Store-
keeper (ii'enerir.dl o Sup',r i-orv Clerical
\,sis, ant. MAlinti.nance tiision.
Mrs. Jacqueline C. Gilbert, from Clerk-
Di. iIting .ltchjine Train- ribier, Gorga
Hospital, to Clerk (Typing, P'ower Con-
veraion Proj(- t.
HEALT.I BIl REAL.
Margaret M. (irni, iron Sia rt Nurse
(Pl'edi~tric,1. ',,or> SIo Illospilal, o Sti l
Nurse ( .ineri l le lic.h i Ill-pi.hill, o.rg.i.
Mrs. Arline E. Mcllvaine, from StI l
\nure (n cen.ril Ml dii)l 11 ." own.i l
llo-lpui!al (o t ifl N lr-. I *u ', ,, i, Coco
,, I, io.piti l.
Mrs. Rita E. Stetz, from St.ill' Nlrse
i(cnr I MI 1 ,li.ts Inlo-pil.h t o Sltilt Nurse
( 'tilb i : t. '. Coc S ,lo Illo-pital.
MARINE Bt REAl
Walter T. Schapow, from Instrument
Maker to Machinist Foreman, Industrial
Harry E. Townsend, from Instrument
Shop Lead Foreman to Marine Machinist
General Foreman, Industrial Division.
Willie LaBrance, from First Assistant
Marine Fri.rt.,,r i ., Chif Marine Engineer,
U.S. T7,,' ,ti \ i ...... i.-nl Division.
Balbino Caldito, from Deckhand to Sig-
nalman, N ., ii. ii.n Division.
Ernest G. Mika, from Signalman, Navi-
gation Division, to Security Patrolman,
Locks Security Branch.
John M. Morrison, from Mlachinist to
.Machinist Foreman, Atlantic Locks.
Walter C. Watts, from machinist Fore-
mian to General Mechanical Locks Foreman,
Joseph H. Young, Machinist Foreman,
from Locks Overhaul to Pacific Locks.
The following employees have been trans-
ferred front their regular positions, to which
they will later return, to the Locks Over-
haul. The position indicated is that on the
Bernard J. Linden, Ralph E. Furlong, Jr.,
William H. Geoghegan, Jr., Warren E.
Carl A. Yarbro, Jack Simon, Slaughter
H. Sharpensteen, Robert E. Budreau, Yane
Leves, Dallas B. Thornton, Scaling and
Painting Lead Foremen;
Lester H. Barrows, Lamar M. Lavender,
Merrill E. Sinclair, Heavy Labor Lead
Charles J. Roth-Roffy, Jr., Walter D.
Johnston, John van der Heyden, Lead
Oliver H. Hendrickson, Rex V. Sellers,
George J. Kredell, George R. Edgington,
Robert J. Thompson, Jr., Joseph J. Zam-
Charles L. Miller, William E. Williams,
Robert T. Head, Jr., Harold R. Rodell,
Steam Locomotive Crane Engineers;
Hubert J. Donaldson, Daniel B. Rambo,
Dorman L. Fulton, Checker;
Robert C. Carter, Locomotive Crane
Steam Engineer Foreman:
Margaret P. Fessler, Time and Leave
Mrs. Henrietta G. Winklosky, Time and
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Mrs. Sherie L. Perrini, from Usher and
I)oornian, Motion Picture Unit, to Section
Slead, Commlissary Branch.
Mrs. Hilda E. Wickens, from Checker to
Cash Accountling Clerk (Teller), Commnis-
Patricia A. Myers, from Cashier to Sec-
tion IHead, Comunissary Branch.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Donald R. Brayton, from general l Yard-
lmaster to Sulpervisior R.ailroa Tlranspor-
tation Specialist, Railroad Di\vision.,
Ralph H. Walker, from Clerk (l 'ypist) to
(Clerical Assistant m l laintenance), Railro.ad
Mrs. Ethel J. Bensen, fromn Clerk (Typ'
i-t) to (Clerical As.-isiant (Transportation),
William R. Graham, from ,, .5.....
A-sistant. to Super%: .1 Adnmnistrative
S rices Assistiani, Rlilroa.l IDivision.
Robert R. Stewart, G(;lorgii, l.ngineeer-
i I Div ision.
Richard M. Conover, 'Positin ('l.assiti r,
\\.V i 'Ind Cl.t ifri action iviion.
Charles W. Brown, \dmil-nitrative A.
siin I Typing)I, IPower (Coinversion I'rroje t
Mrs. BeDcrl% A. Stirmel, Suplervtisiry
SlNe ,.Irl, Supply Division.
James C. Cullen, Mlechanic.ll Enlineer,
Retirement certificates were presented
the end of January to the fllrine: em-
ployees who are li-rc'l allph l..eii. ill'.. to-
gether with their lirihir.l i. |i ,-i'n-.
length of Canal -err ..e, .iin lultlre .l.1-
Earl Cassell, Kentri. ky; Chief Operations
Foreman, Atlantic Locks; 30 years, 3
months, 13 days; Costa Rica for present.
Ernest B. Curling, Virginia; Machinist
Foreman I, 1'... iri. Locks; 26 years, 7
months, 1 1 Fr,'.-rl r.,,f Fl
William J. Dorgan, \.L., err-y; General
Electrical 1 rienii.. I1I il. Ir,. If Division;
33 \ears, 2 months, 6 days; Gloucester, N.J.
Lily E. Lindberg, Peru'-.l' iii.i Staff
Nurse, Gorgas Hospital II.c iir- 0 months,
29 dl'-t- New York City.
Wallace T. Melanson, Massachusetts;
Chief Foreman ql,ii. I;.Al .inIl Dockmaster.
Industrial Di)i-.. ;4 C \Tir- 2 months, 4
davs; I:tl wnJ1,,' Mass.
Arthur Morgan, Indiana; |'il'l.r Dredge
(0',tr lli.r Dredging Division; 45 years, 1
month, 15 days ; Panama.
Walter Oliver, New Jer-c.. Department
Head, Division of Schools; 15 years, 16
days; here for the present.
Warren Pitman, California; Chief. Bud-
get and Rates Division, Office of the (..i'p.
troller; 31 years, 6 months, 5 days; talh-
Mrs. Helen M. Rhodes, Illinois Time,
leave, and Payroll Clerk, P. r'll li .... h,
18 years, 1 month, 15 days; I'asladena, Calif.
Capt. Albert G. Terwilliger, New York;
Pilot, Navigation Division; 33 years, 9
months, 7 days; New York City, N. Y.
Morris Weich, Austria: Locks Security
Patrolman, I.ocks Division; 18 years, 4
months, 15 days; L.eoninster, Mass.
Senior man on the January list of anni-
versaries is (CiI Charles Stuart Towns-
hend who is also senior in another .,II %
he has more service ith.; II i. P'anama t ianal
pilot. Last month lie I.iii. .1 out 35 years
of government service. almost 30 of which
have lTeen spent in ir ,lini ships from one
ocean to the other \,i I l, Pannama Canal.
Io'rn in Narrlerth. Pa., not farr from Phil-
adelphia, lie began his -, ..i career when
lhe was not nt Iih more than a stripling. In
March I122. after lie Ihad reached thie posi-
tion of Crhic Ol()titer on nlerchant ships, he
put his ie t in the I'an.aa Canal's dloor as
it landlubber |olicemani. lie ,was on dry
land for nlx a few months( however, I before
lie went o work on the Canal('s tolwhoats,
I I. pre-pilot ri Ib,. lie eran e a
Il I .,1 on A iigust 11'. I'1'. at noln, for
In 1933 when the depression cut the nunm-
her of the (anal's marine c itilimers, he
was. "let out" together with two other com-
iparatively new pilots but a ear later was
14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
back on his trans-continental run through
the Isthmian ater\ua\
In 1942, urh C.ipr George H. Boomer,
then Assistant Port Captain in Cri'tol al,
he worked up a merchant ship herthing
chart which, his superiors said, ".-ihould he
useful in 'im.,llliing ships, especially convoys,
in Limon I.1,
During his Canal career, he has handled
ship. of all sizes, kinds, and nationalities.
One of his biggest thrills came in November
1953, when ie was one of two I ilh.- .--i ,.,ld
to take iQjten Elizabeth's hip,. ihe SS
Gothic, iliri)gh the Canal. On several oc-
casions, when on leave, he has piloted large
ocean liner. ihiroii.uh the San Bias archipel-
.1a Reenil lhe handled the Statendam
in .s,n Bias.
Captain Townshend will retire in M.'.
but as of now, his friends say, isn't ituic
sure where he will g,. or what be will do. A
safe bet is that he ill be busy, wherever he is.
Two Canal Zone teachers, one from either
side of the Isthmus, shared honors for the
number two spot in January's anniversa-
ries. They are: Ruth Elizabeth Creasy,
principal of the Fort Kobbe and Cocoli ele-
mentary schools, and Rosalie Jones, third-
grade teacher at the South Margarita school.
Last month, on January 1, each completed
30 vears of government service.
Mli; Creasy, a Hoosier from Lafayette,
Ind., came here in 1925 after several years
of teaching in schools in Indiana and Ohio.
Her first Canal Zone post was at Gatun.
Three years later she returned to Indiana,
but in 1930 was back on the Isthmus, as-
signed to Balboa elementary school's sixth
grade. She became a principal in 1935, at
Pedro Miguel, and five years later was
transferred to the then new Diablo elemen-
tary school. She has been in charge of the
Kobbe and Cocoli schools since 1955.
Miss Jones, whose service has all been
on the Atlantic side, was born in Taylor,
Tex., and taught in Texas before she came
to the Canal Zone in 1927. She has been
at Margarita for the past year but except
for that, and for a year's leave in the States
during the 1930's, she had taught continu-
ously at the Cristobal school. She is an
expert gardener, with a true green thumb.
Two of the eight men who finished a
quarter of a century of government service
last month worked here when they were
lads. They are: Noble A. Phillips, now a
Planner and Estimator in the Industrial
Division, and Christian S. Skeie, Towing-
Locomotive Operator at the Pacific Locks.
Mi. Phillips was born in the Canal Zone.
the son of J. F. Phillips, a Master Machin-
ist. All of his Canal service has been with
the Industrial Division.
Mr. Skeie whose father, also named Chris-
tian, was a Shipi right for the Canal, began
his Canal career n, th summer jobs in the
Mechanical Division. He has been with the
Locks since 1955.
The other 25-year employees all began
their Canal careers as adults.
George T. Darnall, Jr., from Brandon,
Miss., and the only one of the group to have
unbroken Canal service, came here as a
Junior Civil Engineer with the Dredging
Division. He is now with the Specifications
and Estimating Branch of the Engineering
Wilmer L. Downing, who counts Bacton,
Pa., as his home, has worked for a number
of Panama Canal units. He is now a Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk. Incidentally, he
has a birthday only every four years; he was
a February 29 baby"
Richard W. Fuller, the remaining 25-year
man, comes from Gireen ille \li, h. He is
now a General ClaInm- Ex\.-.miner in the
General Audit Division. He started with
the Canal as a clerk in 1926.
Capt. William C. Hearon, who was born
in Brooklyn, is a World War I Marine Corps
veteran. He started his Canal career with
the Dredging Division and has been a Canal
pilot since 1944.
Carl W. Hoffmeyer, now a window clerk
at the Balboa post office, comes from Mor-
gantown, W. Va. He came to the Canal
Zone in 1938 with several years of U. S.
postal experience behind him.
Warren D. Marquard, Cristobal Commis-
sary Mlanavgr. was born in New York. He
Conversion experts look over plans for the Pacific area. Left to right: R. E.
Powers, Vice President of Consolidated International Electric; J. B. Smith,
Project Engineer; and L. B. Sartain, ,Chief, 60-Cycle Design Branch.
A force of 50 men, most of them con-
version craftsmen and rmechanir., will be
ready to start the Pacific Area power
conversion contract on March 3, accord-
ing to R. E. Powers, vice president and
general manager of the Consolidated In-
ternational Electric Company of New
York, who was here briefly last month.
His company holds the Pacific Area con-
tract and also the contract to convert to
60-cycle current all frequency-sensitive
equipment at the Panama Canal Locks.
At the present time Consolidated Elec-
tric has a force of seven men in the Canal
Zone. They are checking inventories of
equipment to be converted and making
an engineering analysis of the work to be
done, Mr. Powers said. The additional
43 men are due here February 26 for the
came here in 1933. Except for the war years,
he has been with the commissaries ever since.
The two-decade mark in government serv-
ice was passed in January by six Company-
Clarence L. Dimmick, a native of Dan-
ville, Pa., Navy veteran of World War II,
now a Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Mechanic for the Maintenance Division;
Roy L. Hearn, from Whynot, Mass.,
whose first Canal job was as a motion pic-
ture operator and is now a Panama Canal
Douglas Jordan, from Butler, Pa., who
took an apprenticeship, and is now a Boiler-
maker and Brick and Stone Mason for the
Ernest P. Muzzio, a native New Yorker
and World War I veteran, a Pliuml inc In-
spector for the Contract and Inspection Di-
vision; his service is unbroken:
Henry C. Simpson, from Paxton, Fla.,
now a Senior Chief Towboat Engineer in the
Ferry service; and
Ernest W. Zelnick, who comes from Chi-
cago, Ill.. and is Chief of the Water and
Laboratories Branch of the Maintenance
Five of the 11 employees who completed
15 years last month have unbroken Panama
Canal service. They are:
Leslie O. Anderson, Supervisory Con-
struction Inspector, Contract and Inspec-
tion Division; John H. Harris, \l .r..r I.l
Officer and Policeman in the Balboa Police
February 7, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
actual conversion work.
Meanwhile, the parts necessary for
the conversion of domestic and indus-
trial equipment are being collected in
New York for shipment to the Isthmus.
The first shipment of such parts was
due in New York January 15, and is to
arrive here before the end of this month
Consolidated Electric plans to keep a
two-month's reserve supply of these
parts on hand at all times until the
contract is completed.
The schedule for the Pacific Area con-
version was announced in the January
REVIEW. The conversion will start in
Ancon March 3, and will end in Los Rios
about next September. As soon as Con-
solidated Electric's forces finish the area
conversion, they will start on the Locks.
District; Mrs. Myrtle P. Hughes, Time and
Leave Clerk in the Marine Bureau; Walter
Oliver, who retired last month but who has
been reemployed as Supervisor of Spanish
for the Canal Zone schools; and Gloria
Shelton, Translator-File Clerk in the Ad-
Other 15-year employees are:
Kenneth T. Daly, Fire Lieutenant, sta-
tioned at Cristobal; Mrs. Melba M. Heintz,
Accounting Clerk, Industrial Division;
William D. McArthur, a native Zonian,
Liquid Fuels Gauger, Terminals Division;
Mrs. Marguerite Runck, Clerk-typist in the
Communications Branch; Everett White,
the second native Zonian on the 15-year
list, Guard, Locks Security Force; and Paul
H. Zimmerman, born in Las Tablas, R. de P.,
Marine Machinist in the Industrial Division.
Cristobal ----.. ..-......_ February 1
Ancon .--------- -----...- February 8
Cristobal -----.----...._._ February 19
Ancon ----- -----__------ February 26
FROM NEW YORK
Cristobal -.-----.-...-- _...- February 11
Ancon ----------. .....February 18
Cristobal- .--...._-..__-.._- February 28
Southbound ships which leave New York Friday
are in Haiti the following Tuesday. Those which sail
from New York Tuesday spend Saturday in Haiti.
Northbound, the *'.r I .1 ;i Haiti two days after
clearing Cristobal: .1 r, I .i those which sail from
Cristobal Si.,r j,. ,nd Friday for those which clear
Cristobal '. '...., ,:,
February 7, 1958
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Leaving Soon -
Lt. Col. David C. Burke, Assistant to
the IL.:,lth Director since March 1','i
has been rn...--lrirnl to the \\.ilbrr Reed
Army Medical Center and will leave the
Isthmus next week for his new post.
tHe will be succeeded here by Lt. Col.
l.fir',. E. M (.a'h.-r (pronounced Marr)
who comes from the Army Medical Serv-
ice School at Fort Sam Houston.
(Editor's Note: The following letter
throws considerable light on a period in
the Canal's history, 25 years ago, from one
who was in a position to know. The writer,
Maj. Gen. J. L. Schley, is a former Gov-
ernor and was also later Chief of Engineers.
He is the senior member of the Panama
Canal Company's Board of Directors, and
this year completes 30 years as a director
of the Company and its predecessor organ-
PAIAMAS CANAL. RIVIEV,
Balboa Heights, C. Z.
I note in your column "Pages Fromn
(Canal.'s Ifistor" in recent issues, under
"25 Years \.. ,, item about tile arrival
of the new I ...... r of Maintenance and
the new governor .
The full storv of what happened at that
time, which will never happen again, may
be ,'. r. ;,,. to your readers. It resulted
in :, l apl~piinted governor r by two
Presidents anl, in the process, the Canal
found it elf without a governor for a few
I k-s appointed Governor by President
IHIoover in August
of 1932, during a;
oscxvet awd a
K re- w1 ere clet c, l
The new Co ncres
A i- noin erledf ir
tle .. Ja il
Sri. i I lie new '
reu< i e n- c i h 1 c,
i.ir it a lns. Il n A ril, I was ,. ,;,.
I1 JULIAN 1,. SHtlI 1
50 Years Ago
As the month of February 1908 began,
Col. CG,.nr.,- W. Goethals went on record
to express the feeling of the Isthmian
Canal Commission r,-garding the Navy-
requested 10-foot increase in the t\idth
of the Panama Canal's locks. In a memo-
randum to the Secretary of \Var he
pointed out that this would not only in-
crease the cost, but that it would up the
time of filling and emptying the chambers
and would thereby reduce the ship-hand-
ling I upacitvy of the Canal, as well as
aff, ting there "'.uffi,,lnri. of the water
supply." fli. -ver. he said, the Isthmian
Canal Commission had felt that it should
be guided by the Navy's wishes for 110-
foot wide locks and had adopted a reso-
lution to that effect.
By order of President Thi.dlr, Roosevelt,
dated February 8, 1908, rnpl'..,'iii nt by the
Isthmian Canal Commission of skilled labor-
ers, clerks, and "-il others h, r. .;fir known
as'gold' employees," was restricted to Ameri-
can citizens except when American labor or
service of the character required was not
Had Washington's Birthday not been
a holiday in the Canal Zone the Canal
excavation in Fenruary l'I.i, would have
exceeded the 3,000,000 cubic yard mark.
As it was, February excavation set a new
record: 2,945,880 cubic yards of rock and
dirt removed from the Canal prism.
In answer to a proposition from a small
syndicate of local merchants, the Isthmian
Canal Commission decided that it was "in-
advisable and impracticable to entrust the
furnishing of commissary supplies for the
use of its employees to any private individ-
uals, or any combination of private indi-
A report on health conditions for the
calendar \~v.r 191.7 showed that during
the 12-month period, Il,,7,' cases of ma-
laria had been admitted to the Canal
Zone's hospitals. Pr-r' .nt.iL'., i'e. this
was half of the malaria incidence of the
previous year. Conditions continued to
improve in the new year; February 1'i1 .
made the most "f;liir:,l'l, ..h,'ini" of
"'.- since the American occupation."
In Wi .1,,iit',i,. President Roosevelt
.;:r,,.l art :'r.-n, Order providing for
trial by jury in all criminal prosecutions
where the maximum penalty was death or
life imprisonment. Another Wi.rl,;,lt,,- ac-
tion if .*-;,. Zonians was introduction of
i,. into both llouse and Senate to com-
pensate Canal iil 'i.it i'i, in the
line of duty.
25 Years Ago
Canal employees had their ups and
downs 2-' \i.r.- ago this month. They
had just L"'.I, a boost from news that
th. \ were not to lose more than a month's
leave-pay a year ihlriii F. Y. I' and
I'':I when word came that a ( 'ner' --
sional examining committee recommended
,ii .i.. .iin.i.,i i of the Panama Railroad
-rT, i.l-ll Line and the Army Transport
Service and the 1. inc down of all com-
missaries, post -c\'-h.lr.in canteens, and
Navy sales stores They also saw the
handwriting on the wall when the Senate
ordered a compulsory five percent cut in
Panama (Cnal traffic was holding its
own. The month's 368 transits werre .liihtlyh
less than the month before but ship tonnage
was up over a third of ith figure for the
prel'cdini February. Canal pilots com-
plained that they were being worked more
than the 15 days a month their agreement
Isthmians were delighted at news from
\\i'hinvrton that President Hoover ex-
pected to visit Panama as soon as his
successor was inaugurated- the plans did
not materialize- and horrified at word
that President-elect Franklin D. Roose-
velt had been the target of an assassin's
bullet in Miami. The shots missed the
President-elect but struck Mayor Anton
Cermak, of Chicag,. .-tandling near by.
10 Years Ago
The construction of a sea-level canal
at Panama as soon as possible was rec-
ommended to the House Foreign Rela-
tions Co.mmittee by Rep. Inim Sen.)
Mike Mansfield of Montana in his return
to \\.-hington from an Isthmian visit.
The Congressman declared that a lock
canal was "particularly vulnerable."
Congress, however, was still rcarting1 to
the recent rejection by the Panamanian
National Assembly of an alir,'eicnt per-
mitting the United States to occupy defense
sites outside the Canal Zone. The House
.4plipripf tin Committee's $4 million
slash in the Panama Canal's 1949 budil,'t
was passed by the House and sent to the
Senate for final action. The major cut was
in funds for housing.
Housing, 10 years ago, was a live issue
here. The Civic Councils, the Balboa
Woman's Club, and the A F'; 1- ul,mittc'd
a report on the results of a housing sur-
vey of 1,577 Canal Zone families. The
report said that "houmin facilities are
deficient, the majority of f:miiily-qtuarters
are obsolete, poorly constructed, termite
ridden, unsightly frame structures which
constitute a fire hazard." An overwhelm-
inL majority i 7.1 pIr'ri',nt of Z,.nianm.
the report added, are in favor of masonry
In W'lhhingit.l, President l'ilrru 7'rn-
man told C(inl, re.- tlbat he .l, iiitru,'-tl,
the Secretary of the Army to investigate the
status of civil rights in the Canal Zone.
Thi. shape of thing' to come was fore-
cast when Gov..hli,-.ph Mehaffey left for
W\':,hingtin to attend h>l..ii irig on the bill
IproI' iding for reincorporation if Ih,. Pan-
ama Railroad Company. Thi4 was to be
the first step in the formation of the pres-
ent Panama Canal Company.
New pay schedules for the Canal's
"silver" rniplo.i, ', were announced effective
rith the i"iip period l., ii, i.i February S9.
One Year Ago
Maj. Gen. J. L. `.'1l, y, ret., former
Governor of the Canal Zone, and Ralph
A. Tudor, San Francisco ii.in.,.r, were
named as members of ih.- ad hoc commit-
tee headed by the Governor to study
problems of the Canal's .:ai;c-ity. Both
are Directors of the Panama Canal Com-
[. l'.i v.
16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW February 7, 1958
February 7, 1958
16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
" SHIPS AND SHIPPING j.
Panama Canal records, which have
been falling xith almost monotonous
regularity, were broken again during the
first half of the current fiscal year when
more ocean-going transits were made
than in any half-year period in the
Canal's history, and more tolls were col-
lected than for any previous six months.
Cargo shipments, however, failed to set
a new record, because of the unusually
large amount of ballast traffic which is
currently running at about double its
During the first six months of the
present fiscal year, the period from July
1 through December 31, a total of 4,895
ocean-going vessels passed through the
Canal. This was 238 more than the
previous record, set during the last six
months of fiscal year 1957.
Tolls for the first six months of fiscal
year 1958 totaled $22,068,104, over $3,-
000,000 more than the $18,715,261 dur-
ing a similar period during fiscal year
1957 and over $2,000,000 more than the
previous record set during the last six
months of the past fiscal year.
Although cargo tonnage for the first
half of the current fiscal year totalled
25,067,293 tons, an increase of about
1,900,000 tons over the first half of the
past fiscal year, the 1958 figures were
below the all-time record of 26,467,000
tons set during the last half of fiscal year
The decline in cargo tonnage is believed
to reflect a general levelling off of ship-
ping. Over a year ago the demand for
ships was so heavy that many vessels
were taken out of mothballs and re-
turned to service. Trade has now levelled
off to the extent that many of these ships
are now carrying cargo in one direction
only. A ship, for instance, will carry a
load of coal to Japan but will return
Several of the main trade routes
through the Panama Canal have set new
highs during the past six months. Trade
between the east coast of the United
States and the west coast of South Amer-
ica is at a record level, largely because of
iron ore shipments from Peru and Chile.
Trade between Europe and the west
coast of the United States and Canada
was at a post war high during the first
six months of this fiscal year, following
a sharp decrease at the end of fiscal year
1957, and trade between the east coast
of the United States and Asia, which
reached a peak at the time the Suez Canal
was closed, is levelling off but is still
higher than during the pre-Suez period.
Low tanker rates were reflected in
heavy oil shipments through the Pan-
ama Canal from Venezuela (See page 18)
FIRST TRANSIT-Another new name was added to the list of the Canal's
customers last month when the 18,739-ton MV Bergensfjord made her
maiden transit with 375 passengers cbocrd. She will return here March 21.
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
September _------ -
November.----- ..- ------.
January __------------. -.
March .. .
Totals for first 6 months
of fiscal year ---
Totals for fiscal year. -
(In thousands of dollars)
I' ',; 1' 1'.,'-.. I' ; 1938
-. .. ,'' 4 '... S 4 5 ,030
S" ii i, 5'
813 699 461 3,680 3,083 1,981
779 654 435 3,522 2,876 1,893
774 751 439 3,521 .4 tI 1,845
- 701 444 ------- 3,161 1,838
- 673 436 3,033 1,787
808 506 3,603 2,016
767 487 3,430 1,961
783 465 3,551 1,887
- 775 445 3,484 1,801
4,737 4,072 2,741 $21,494 $18,182 $11,880
8.579 5.524 ----- $38.444 $23,170
AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Secon 1 Quarter, Fiscal Years
1958 1 1957 I 1938
*Small ------ --
Total commercial -.. .
**U. S. Government vessels, ocean-
*Small. ---- -- - ---
Total commercial and i. S.
I I''I I ;
1 281 1,247
225 I 23
42 34 76 51
64 62 126 117
106 96 202 1(8
S I ; 2 4'7
*Vessels under 300 net to-s or 500 displacement tons.
**Vess:el o-o which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Governmei nt-operated
ships transited free.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17
February 7, 1958
Carnival season, one of the gayest
times of the year for both tourists
and Isthmians, got under way in the
Canal Zone last week when the blue-
and-white carnival flags were raised
in Balboa and in the Tivoli Patio.
On hand to help Governor Potter
haul the flag to the top of its pole
was Miss Rita Burrell who will be
crowned "Oueen Rita I" for the
Panama Carnival next week. Also
attending the festivities were Miss
Irma Gonzalez, Union Club Queen
this year, Miss Rosalia Barraza, 1957
Carnival Queen, and Miss Analida
Alfaro, who was the International
Coffee Queen last year.
First of the flags to sail to the top
of its pole was that in front of the
Balboa elementary school. After this
flag raising, during which those on
the platform tried a few steps of the
"tamborito," the party moved on
to the Tivoli for a second flag-raising
and more dancing, this time in less
More Records Fall
(Continued from page 17) to Califor-
nia during the first half of this fiscal
year. At the present time, oil men are
finding it cheaper to ship oil by tanker
than to use oil pipelines from British
Columbia to Los Angeles.
Another indication of low tanker rates
was the shipment of oil from Lebanon to
the United States west coast via the
Shipments of coal and coke to Japan
reached a new high during the past six
month period. The rise is more than
seasonal but is not explained. Scrap ship-
ments to Japan, however, are down al-
most 50 percent from the comparable
period in the past fiscal year.
Increased shipments of bananas
through the Panama Canal during the
past six months, 283,000 tons for the
first six months of fiscal year I'es com-
pared with '17,000 tons for the like period
in the past fiscal year, indicate the ba-
nana industry's recovery from the severe
"ll.,v.,l.,wns" which crippled banana pro-
duction last year.
U. S. foreign aid is believed to be re-
sponsible for a sharp rise in corn ship-
ments through the Panama Canal. Dur-
ing the past six months, for instance,
90,000 tons of corn have been shipped
from the U. S. east coast to Japan. Last
year, Japan got 19,000 tons of corn from
Wheat shipments are lower than dur-
ini the past year when a crop failure, in
France sent tons of wheat ti.u ing from
the North Americ.n west coast to Eu-
rope, but are about normal for this time
Lumber shipments, which have been
declining steadily since the U. S. build-
ing boom came to a halt about the
middle of 1955, are taking a slight turn
upward. They are expected to increase
considerably when new home building
starts about 1960.
-.i' ir shipments are at Ih. i lowest
level for about eight years and shipments
of iron and steel manufactured products
are still lower than normal. The decline
in shipments of man ufactured products
is attributed to reaction to 1 ., ir ri,
after last year's steel and shipping strikes.
Dancing in the new Tivoli Patio' followed the raising of the Carnival flag.
Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in long tons)
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
Petroleum anld pro.l,,I. 1 .., liphi ,Ih i
Coal antd coke
Ironl ani(1 steel manufactures..-.
Corn . ..
Paper and paper products.
Automobiles and parts- ..
-. .-. I I Trh'r. 9 I I 3I r-
58 1957 1 1938
I ri iI I 1 1 ; 1
I. ; 7(.
-2 ;'. .S7
7 .si ll
: .5. l2 l0 ')
1 ,0' 11 .t 4
7. ni "
.'S; 1 7
I I ;ii
5,l', '.2' 2 2.',' 100
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC
Second Qiuarter, Fiscal Ye irs
Cannled food produhts
Nitral f 4s l da l
1Metl. s, \ario[ us
lood pro(lu ts in rtcIrigeratiio (ex'vpt fresh
Fr-hi and dried frmi-
I'( tr n .rod praodu t- (rxrhides ,i-ph>lt)(
6,154,1021 6,262.718 ; 1 Al Sl
18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW F.btuary 7, 1958
18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
Two oldtimers who have been working
for the Canal since construction days met
for the first time when they had their pic-
ture taken for THE REVIEW last month.
They are Arthur Morgan. Dipper
Dredge Operator in the Dredging Divi-
sion, and Adrien M. Bouche, Control
House Operator at Pedro Miguel Locks.
Although both started working regu-
larly for the Canal in 1912 -Mr. Bouche
had some prior service as a youngster-
their paths never crossed until they were
brought together as the two senior em-
ployees in point of service.
Mr. Morgan became the Canal's senior
American employee in July 1956, on the
retirement of George N. Engelke of the
Commissary Division. When Mr. Morgan
retired last month, after more than 45
years of continuous service, he was suc-
ceeded as senior service man by Mr.
Bouche who will have 42 years of Canal
service in May.
All of Mr. Morgan's service was with
the Dredging Division. Mr. Bouche has
been with the Locks Division for over
Two Canal veterans, Arthur Mor-
gan, left, and Adrian Bouche.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300
net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Second Quarter, Fiscal Years
1958 1957 1938
United States Intercoastal---- ---------------- 134 138 311
East Coast of U. S. and South America------- 632 521 124
East Coast of U. S. and Central America ---------- 147 80 3
East Coast of U. S. and Far East ------ 389 369 139
U. S./Canada East Coast and Australasia.------------ 47 47 42
Europe and West Coast of U. S./Canada------ 216 217 252
Europe and South America------------------------ 234 213 142
Europe and Australasia ------------------------- 88 119 38
All other routes------------ ---------------------- 479 400 284
Total traffic ------ ------- 2,366 2,104 1,335
Canal Commercial Traffic by Nationality of Vessels
Second Quarter, Fiscal Years
1958 1957 1938
Num- Tons Num- s Num- T
ber of T ber of Tons ber of Tons
transit f transit f cargo transit of cargo
Argentine-------- 1 9,055 --------------- -..
British ------ 317 1.9.38. 85 322 2,149,158 297 1,447,720
Chilean--- 23 147.2711 22 127,390 1 6,127
Chinese ........ 13 99,597 17 123,989 -- -
Colombian ------ 60 94,146 46 56,123
Costa Rican ----. 2 18,000 12 69,969
Danish---------- 92 297,397 79 324,929 56 220,973
Ecuadorean------ 9 10,872 15 Q19.O1 -
Finnish---- 7 27,451 8 44,
French ..--------. 23 125,839 19 123,327 28 163,965
German -------- 218 688,296 173 565,461 83 384,808
Greek----------- 29 271,409 28 269,496 19 82,437
Honduran ------- 77 73,427 115 94,858 1 869
Hungarian------- --------.--------._ --._ -- __ -----_--.-. 3 13,235
Irish --------- ------------ 1 9,300
Italian ---------. 49 277,475 36 213,459 13 46,192
Japanese ------- 187 1.155.184 129 889,064 72 418,523
Liberian-..-----. 241 2,1.1.8 9 172 1,493,491 --- ------
Mexican--------- -- 1
Netherlands ..-- 54 165,994 39 162,354 74 205,439
Nicarda Lian.--.. 22 32,641 10 17,115
Norwegian ------ 222 1,030,366 236 1,446,972 151 795,486
Panamanian ..... 139 783,044 101 539,006 39 94,155
Peruvian--------- 19 73,217 10 47,092 1 1,148
Philippine-------- 6 25,590 6 29,854
Soviet .. I 2 4,990
Spanish -------- 7 25,372 12 46,015
Swedish --------- 43 IS2. 42 l'.t-.62 27 180,032
Switerland ... 1 10,338 1 10,168 -----
Lnited State ..... 503 2,653,209 452 3,159,623 464 2,583,090
Venezuelan ..--- 2 7.416 .
ulgosladvian ..... . i 4 21 li5
TotaL. 2,366 12,357,017 12,104 12,229,003 1,335 6,670,241
Febuay 95 TE AN MACAALREIE61
The stvecnty-fifth anniversary of the
United Statis Civil Service Act was com-
memorated in the Canal Zone last month
by a dinner at the TiulIi I;u.,t House
and by displays of Ci\ il Service literature
on bulletin boards throughout the Zone.
The dinner, on January I'l, was at-
tended by more than 200 persons. It
was sponsored by Lodge 14 of the Amer-
ican Fedi ration of Government Emplly-
ees whose president, Rufus Lovelady,
made the main address of the evening.
Offi'rals attending the function included
Capt. W. S. Rodimun, Marine Director,
representing the Governor; E. A. Doolan,
P'-rsonnel Director; and Paul M. Run-
nestrand, Executive Secretary.
Civil Service in the Canal Zone is al-
most as old as the Canal Zone itself. On
November 15, 1904, all workers in the
Canal Zone except laborers were made
subject to United States Civil Service
rules and regulations by a Presidential
Executive Order. The first local Board
of Civil Service Examiners was estab-
lished here 50 years ago last month.
High Level Bridge
(Continued from page 2) of Sverdrup & Par-
cel came to the Canal Zone from the
home office of the firm in St. Louis, Mo.
They were E. J. Shields, Project Engineer
for the bridge design, and Horace L.
Magee, Highway Design Engineer. Also
discussed were the all-important design
criteria for the bridge, including design
loads for traffic, wind, earthquake and
The high-level bridge will cross the
Canal on a line diagonally across the
existing Thatcher Ferry route. It will
connect with Thatcher Highway on the
west side by a suitable approach.
The east-side approach will be along
a gently curving line crossing the aban-
doned townsite of La Boca north of the
elementary school building. From that
point it will follow just outside the
northern boundary of the 15th Naval
The approach will cross Amador Road
at a point near the Boy Scout hut and
will be built out over the mud flats to
Avenida de Puertos, which now ends
within a few hundred feet of the boundary
line. This section of the approach struc-
ture will probably be double-pronged for
the convenience and safety of traffic.
The connection from the bridge to the
Canal Zone will be by an overpass or
underpass whose specific location is still
The Preliminary Design Memoran-
dum, now being assembled by the Archi-
tect-Engineer, will be completed in April
after which work will be started on final
plans and specifications.
Directors Meet Here For Sixth Time
(Cmntinued from page S) left the Isthmus
by ship or plane soon after the outdoor
luncheon at the historic Spanish fort.
In addition to Governor Potter, officers
and the Board members attending the
January meeting were Assistant Secretary
of the Army George H. Roderick, Board
Chairman; Robert P. Burroughs. Ralph
H. Cake, Maj. Gen. Glen E. Edgerton,
Howard C. Petersen, Charles S. Reed,
Ogden R. Reid, Maj. Gen. Julian L
Schley, and Ralph A. Tudor, Directors;
Col. Hugh M. Arnold, Vice President;
Philip L. Steers, Jr.. Comptroller; and
W. M. Whitman, St-crctary.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
February 7, 1958
L. SHIPS ma SHIPPING _
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN DECEMBER
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08544 4668
Cmin r 'al
(., rnmm rt I
I '',vt-rnmn ilt
--- 731 774
.. .-- 761 802
*'.4-'4.'1'i2 $F "7 ''.,1111
Total $ .471. liI $i .5. -,7 104
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
CARGO (Long tons)
Commercial 4.t,10.162 4,ii".2.''
Government .. 31,384 71, .i
Total ------ 4,641.14ti 4,130,031
Governor and \Mrr. William E Potter
will be .imr.ng the passengers aboard the
Swedish American cruise liner (:'!p-hl,ii,
February 2 when the new ship makes
her first trip through the Panama Canal.
Fla- hip of the Swedish American Line
and pride of the fleet, th.- big -'-.5til-ton
liner is due in Cristobal from New York
on Washington's Birthdl:ty and will start
her trip :hr,,uvh the C'anal at 6 a. m.
the following day. After daorkin? in Bal-
boa for several hours, the G(r,'/.i.'Im will
sail earlv l-t.ruary 24 for the west coast
of South America on a cruise which will
take her around the tip of the southern
The Gripsholm made her first visit to
the Canal Zone in December while she
was on a I'hrl-tni;., cruise in the Carib-
bean. Completed last year, she was on
the North Atlantic run last summer and
is now in her first winter-cruise season.
A trip around the world on their 40-foot
yawl hin, r,' is a family affair for Mr
and Mrs. Jean Bloche and their son,
Jean, 11. Th,.y arrived in Cristobal late
last month from Set... France, via Gua-
deloupe and other West Indian islands,
and spent several weeks on the Atllanti
side while their 14-ton craft underwent
The Iln, hi- planned to transit 'h.
Canal on the yawl early this month and
sail .-h.rtl:. afterward for Tahiti via the
CGall).ipi.- Islands. Mrs. BIllhe, is a
Th.- new Royal .M.LI Line "ir rL'I-p,.--
enger ship Loch I.i,, l arrived i', I 'ri-taI.l
thi- week on her maiden .,r,;'i. from
British and European ports to the west
coast of -h. United S1t.i.- and ('.in:il.i
A new addition to the joint i ;I'.,1 1M.il
and lI I ll.a,,- \n, r a Lines' .lri,,-I r-
,.-r service to the North Paitic, the Loch
f.iril is tilr, ,I ith the most up-to-date
, .ir.',-h..llinie equipment and has space
for 575, .7' cubic feet of cargo, in, hl li I.
11- I iii cubic feet of r. friL' ri.t 'lI lace.
It also has luxurious .1n un..,l.it i..i for
12 I' r '* and a permanent open-air
tiled swimming pool situated on the for-
ward end of the bridge-deck.
I[ ship was launched in July at the
ILirland & \\,.Iff -hi. 1. in Belfast
and, prior to t.oii tl its maiden 'i .Ii''
in January, loaded in --itrh \\ I, Ant-
werp, r ),tterdam, and London. She
called at Bermuda and .amaica before
ir *' '*: st (tristobal.
The vast dimensions of the locks are never so evident as when they are emptied
for overhaul. Work in Miraflores east chamber will be finished this month.
The Japanese Daido Line, which now.
has n.-arl a dozen freighters using the
Panama Canal on its Japan to New York
and Japan-to-East Coast South America
services, will soon add another to the
super clipper fleet. The new ship is the
Kobu Maru, which will begin service in
February. It will join the Kochu Maru,
Kosoh Maru, and Kosei Maru in the
company's Japan-Callf,,rnia. and Japan-
New York service. Th.r Kosoh Maru
passed through the Canal recently on her
ni.iid n '.iiy'va' n the same run. The
(',rtinmntal Shipping C,~np.ian is agent
f,.r thi \e--. I.n th, Isthmus.
Th,. Panama Canal's perigrinating
Paraiso, the dipper dredge which is out
on loan to the Army Corps of 'ngin.eer..
has come to rest for the winter in Cleve-
Durirnl the time she is laid up she will
be overhauled preparatory to work on
the St. Lawrence -'...'.A.ty next .ul\. The
Paraiso, .,, rating to a news story from
i'l,.-,. .I.i. till be 'h.- ;ii t -t dr,.ed ,if
its kind ever operated by the Armry Crpl,
,4 l:zhi' ,.r- at Huffalo. Too large to get
*hr,,iiLh th. c.\i-tinie '; Lawrence Can-
als, she entered the Great Lakes via 'h,
When the new seaway is opened to
partial 14-foo' II.. ,.itr't In next summer,
the Paraiso M ill a. irl. near Cornwall,
Grace Line President
Louis A. l..,lh ni. President of the
Grace Line, is scheduled to arrive on tlih
I.ihIu I, litua.ry 19 from S,,uth Amer-
ica aboard the Grace liner Santa Barbara.
Accompanied by Al WVenzel, Vice Presi-
dent in charge of the West Coast South
America service, and Mike Diaz, General
Freight Sa:'s Manager for Grace Line,
Mr Lapham will spend three days here
dih;cuu.:ir with local Grace Line agents
the new services planned for the New
York to \\est Coast South America run.
At the same time it was announced
locally that the new cargo ships planned
for use on the company's west coast of
South America service will be lift-on
container vessels. On the new ships, all
cargo area, except for refrigerated space,
will be used by either 17 ir 3.5-foot
containers. The new 20-knot ships will
be from 57lr0 to 600 feet long. and plans
% ill be submitted next year for six to be
built for the South American route.
A new hite Empress. so new that she
hasn't been named yet. has been ordered
by the Canadian Pacific Line for the
Liverpool to Montreal service. Fullv air-
conditioned throughout, the new 27,500-
ton vessel will Ib designed to carry 200
first class and 850 tourist pa.vengers on
hr r'gvular run and approxinmahtly 500
tourits hen she goes on winter cruises.
The ship is expected to sail on her maid-
en \av;ii in thet spring of 1961.
The new Empr'ess will be an addition
to the fleet which includes the new and
luxurious nEmlpr, s of England which ar-
rived at Cristobal January 2.1 on her
maiden cruise to the Canal. The Empress
f Enwlld ill make three mnore calls here
ihi ,ea-,,n -Felruary 11, March 4 and
March 22. Local agent- for th,' line are
W. Andrews & Cormpany.
20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW February 7, 1953
February 7, 1958
20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW