Panama Canal review

Material Information

Panama Canal review
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Panama Canal Commission
Creation Date:
June 1958
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

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Panama Canal review en espagñol


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GifiofthePtnLu Canal Museum Vol. 8, No. 1 1 6Al/oA HEIGHTS, CANALZONE, JUNE 6, 1958


Oh! Those Eyes! It's a bit hard to tell whether Harry Jones is shying away from matrimony or whether he is just being coy. Either way, it's hardly chivalrous to his charming bride. Harry, however, is only a firstgrader as is his bride, Patsy O'Neill. And it was all in fun. Harry was playing the part of Johnny-Jump-Up, and Patsy was Lily-of-the-Valley in an operetta, "Wedding of the Flowers," given as part of May's Music Week observance at South Margarita School Allen Cotton, a second-grader, is Jack-in-the-Pulpit, a minister. All of South Margarita's first, second, and third graders, 195 in all, took part in the operetta, costumes for which were done by the sixth grade students. An audience of several hundred attended the performance. Five-Year Overhaul Of Pacific Locks Will Be Completed Early Next Month The five-year overhaul of the Pacific Locks enters its final phase this month with the unwatering and overhaul of the centerwall culvert at Pedro Miguel being the last big job. This work is now scheduled for completion early in July. The overhaul of Pacific Locks was accomplished this year during a peak of Canal traffic. During the first four months of this year there were 3,069 transits by ocean-going vessels, many of which required clear-Cut handling. This number was considerably in excess of the predicted traffic volume. The monthly average of 767 from January through April was about 50 transits above the volume of ocean-going traffic during the 1953 Pacific Locks overhaul. Despite the heavy traffic, which was continuing through last month, there have been no delays of consequence to shipping during the overhaul period. Although there is still another month of work in the actual overhaul, and many weeks for clean-up jobs, the Locks Overhaul force has established a fine safety record both in accident frequency and severity. The Pacific Locks did not equal the exceptional safety record set during the Gatun Locks Overhaul two years ago. One of the final phases of the Pacific Locks work, the overhaul of the west chamber at Pedro Miguel, was being completed this week. The remaining work is the overhaul of the center wall culvert there. This will require about four weeks and under the present schedule all Locks will return to normal operations during the first week in July. A large number of personnel engaged for this year's overhaul will be discharged after the work in the west chamber is completed. All of the personnel from Gatun Locks will return next week to their usual assignments and the force there will return to a five-day work week. The Pacific Locks force will continue on a six-day work week until the completion of work in the Pedro Miguel center wall culvert. More work was involved in the Pacific Locks overhaul this year than ever before. Ten of the miter gates were removed for overhaul and 18 of the rising-stem valves were replaced. The replacement of the rising-stem valves, each of which weighs 15 tons, is a longrange program which was begun at Gatun during the 1956 overhaul. Four of the lock gates removed were those at the lower end of Miraflores Locks the tallest and heaviest of any in the Panama Canal. Each of these gate-leaves weighs 790 tons and stands 82 feet high. This was the first time they were removed from their pintles in 28 years. While preparatory work for the Pacific Locks overhaul was begun many weeks in advance, actual work at Miraflores Locks was begun during the first week in January. After completion of work in the lock chambers at Miraflores part of the force was moved to Pedro Miguel and overhaul of the east chamber there was begun while other workers were still engaged in the overhaul of the centerwall culvert at Miraflores. The overhaul project has been under the direct supervision of Truman H. Hoenke, Superintendent of the Pacific Branch of the Locks Division. OUR COVER The Panama Canal's official photographer, C. S. l.aClair, took to a helicopter to get tbis striking picture of Miraflores Locks during overhaul. The big ship is a snug fit in the West chamber, while the empty East flight gapes black and bare. Miraflores Bridge, at the top of the picture, is partly obscured by "The Review" title head. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW June 6, 1958


NEW LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR DESIGNATE WILL SPEND BUSY THREE WEEKS GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH JOB AWARD WINNERS Awards for "Special Acts of Public Service" were presented last month to three Panama Canal employees while four others were given certificates for Superior Service in their jobs. The awards, each of which was accompanied by a check for $100, were presented by Governor Potter May 16. Above are the Special Awards winners with the Governor: Teddy Marti, Locks Operator at Pedro Miguel; Archibald L. King, Gibman in the Marine Bunkering Section,and Alexander West, Balboa Firefighter. Below, with John D. Hollen, Chairman of the Incentive Awards Committee, left, are the Superior Service winners: Christopher Greaves and Hilton Goodridge, Housing Branch; Frederic J. Berest, Tour Leader Interpreter, Miraflores Locks,and Philip T. Green, Industrial Training Coordinator. r^ : ^ r\ June 6, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW A capsule preview of his new job will keep the Panama Canal's Lieutenant Governor-designate a busy man for the next three weeks. Col. John D. McElheny, who will succeed Col. Hugh M. Arnold in the next-tothe-top spot in the Canal's administration next month, will start Monday on a whirlwind tour which will give him an idea of the multiple operations of the Panama Canal Company and Canal Zone Government. He arrives here Sunday and will be on the Isthmus until June 28. After a brief stay in the United States he will be back in the Canal Zone on July 9 to take over the Lieutenant Governor's duties. Every minute of the 15 working days in the next three weeks has been planned to give him an opportunity to meet the people he will be working with, see what they do and how they do it, and learn some of the problems of the complex works in the Canal Zone. He starts his orientation tour Monday with a preliminary discussion in the Governor's office, followed by a general discussion and briefing by the man he will succeed. At noon Monday he will meet the Company-Government's Bureau Directors and the heads of independent units at a luncheon at the Tivoli Guest House. Monday afternoon and Tuesday morning will be spent with the Executive Planning Staff, and in calls on various offices, such as those of the Executive Secretary, General Counsel, etc., in the Administration Building. Tuesday afternoon he will visit the Balboa Port Captain's office, the Industrial Division at Balboa, and Miraflores Locks. Next Wednesday, Colonel McElheny will transit the Canal, leaving his ship at Gatun Locks where he will spend some time before making a quick tour through the Industrial Division and the Cristobal Port Captain's Office. His return trip to the Pacific side that day will be by train. On Thursday, June 12, he will be briefed on the operations of the Supply and Community Service Bureau and will accompany members of the Board of Directors' Budget and Finance Committee on a tour of quarters. The afternoon schedule is flexible, planned for either the Budget Committee review or a visit to the Health Bureau. Friday morning, June 13, will be devoted to the Civil Affairs Bureau including a tour of such Pacific side facilities as schools, police and fire stations, and customs. In the afternoon he will go to Pedro Miguel Locks to see the last phases of the overhaul work. The first three days June 16-18, of the following week, will be devoted to Engineering and Construction Bureau activities. He will visit Paraiso Curve, see the construction now under way in the Pacific terminal area, visit shops and electrical substations, see some of the work of the Mount Hope Filtration Plant and the Agua Clara Diesel Plant, visit the dredge Mindi in Cristobal Harbor, make a trip through the Cut with the Dredging Division, and inspect the (See page is)


GORGAS HOSPITAL Patients and even the staff of Gorgas Hospital will need an illustrated Who's Who within the next few weeks to keep up with the goings and comings scheduled for the hospital's professional staff. From the Hospital Director's office down to the list of interns, there will be old faces missing and new faces appearing until almost the end of the summer. As this issue of The Review appears, Col. Norman H. Wiley, who has headed Gorgas Hospital since April 1956, is aboard the Military Transport Goethals en route to the United States. He is retiring voluntarily from the Army Medical Service after 30 years' active service and will join the Pennsylvania State Department of Health. Colonel Wiley will be succeeded by Col. Thomas G. Faison, who is due about the middle of July from Fort Jackson, S. C, where he has been post surgeon and hospital commander. A native of Winston, N. C, Colonel Faison is married and has two children. He is a graduate of the North Carolina State University and took his medical training at the Medical College of the University of Virginia and a degree in Public Health work at Johns Hopkins. During World War II, he served in Europe, and during the Korean War he was with headquarters of the Eighth Army in Japan. Also en route to the United States is Maj. E. R. Hartmann, orthopedic surgeon. Major Hartmann has been at Col. Thomas G. Faison Gorgas Hospital since August 1955. His new assignment is at the U. S. Air Force Hospital, Keesler Air Force Base in Biloxi, Miss. He will be succeeded by Dr. Ben L. Hull, a one-time hospital intern here. Dr. Hull served his internship in 1925 and! 1926, when Gorgas Hospital was still known as Ancon Hospital. He is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania Medical School and has taken postgraduate work at Jefferson Temple Medical School, Massachusetts General and New York Postgraduate hospitals. Dr. Hull is one of the country's outstanding orthopedic surgeons and is a diplomate of the American Board of OrNEEDS NEW WHO'S WHO thopedics. He comes here from Altoona, Pa., where he has been in private practice. He has been a frequent visitor to the Isthmus. Due the end of next month to succeed Lt. Col. R. L. Spann as Chief of the Ear. Nose, and Throat Service at Gorgas Hospital, is Lt. Col. Carl M. Lineback, who is a diplomate of the American Board of Otorhinolaryngology. Colonel Spann left May 17 for his new post at Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio, Tex. Colonel Lineback, a native of Atlanta, Ga., is a graduate of Emory University. He has been in the Army Medical Service since 1942 and comes to the Canal Zone from Fort Chaffee, Ark. Another shift due a little later in the summer is that in the post of Assistant Chief of the Surgical Service and Urologist, now held by Lt. Col. Clarence B. Hewitt. He will be succeeded by Lt. Col. Samuel Rodriguez who is coming here from Fort Knox, Ky. A native of Puerto Rico, he is a graduate of the University of Puerto Rico and Louisville University in Kentucky. He is a diplomate in Urology. Another new face to be seen before the end of the summer at Gorgas Hospital will be that of Capt. Archibald W. McFadden who has been assigned to the Gorgas Hospital staff as Dermatologist, succeeding the late Dr. Victor R. Hirschmann. Captain McFadden was born in San Diego, holds his medical degree from the University of Maryland and is coming here from Walter Reed Hospital. Returning this summer (See page is) J. J. Barton Succeeds R. L. Sullivan As Supply ChiefA change in the top management of the Supply Division and a review of the retail operations of the division by a leading firm of consultants on merchandising are on this month's calendar. Richard L. Sullivan, who has headed the Commissary (now Supply) Division for the past 10 years is leaving the Isthmus Saturday for retirement in Colorado. He has almost 24 years of consecutive service with the Canal organization. Since the reorganization of the Supply and Community Service units in July 1957 he has held the title of Acting General Manager of the Supply Division. John J. Barton, Chief of the Procurement Division with headquarters in New York, has been appointed General Manager of the Supply Division. He is scheduled to arrive here today. With his transfer to the Isthmus several changes in personnel assignments will be made in the Procurement Division. Mr. Barton will be succeeded in his position by Joseph Mr-Hugh, now Chief of the Housewares and Dry Goods Branch. Joseph Raylson, Mr. Barton's Assistant, will be appointed Chief of the Housewares and Drygoods Branch. The study of Supply Division operations will begin early this month with the arrival of several representatives of A. T. Kearny & Co. of Chicago. The consulting firm was employed about a year ago on a preliminary study of commissary operations. The consultants will devote their special attention to the Supply Division organization, stock control, and procurement system. According to Lester A. Ferguson. Supply Richard L. Sullivan and Community Service Director, the objectives of the study are to simplify operations and to provide for an improved stock control system. The retirement of Mr. Sullivan takes one of the most popular executives from the Canal organization. Mr. Sullivan began his career with the Canal as a teacher in Cristobal High School. A native of Ridgeley, Mo., Mr. Sullivan is a graduate of Denver University with a bachelor and master's degree. He had worked on the editorial staff of the Denver Post and taught school in Colorado before coming to the Isthmus in 1935. Two years later he transferred to the Commissary Division as Director of Training to institute a comprehensive training of sales personnel. He was appointed Chief Clerk of the Division in 194_' and later served as Administrative Assistant, Executive Assistant, and Assistant General Manager. He became General Manager in March 1951. His service with the Commissary Division covered a period of several major changes. Mr. Sullivan is being succeeded by a man who has had many years of experience in big-scale merchandising. Mr. Barton, a native of Punxsutawney, Pa., owned and operated a food store for several years before joining the F. G. Shattuck & Co. as buyer of foorl products in 1928. He was with that company for 14 years before entering the U. S. Army in 1942, serving four years as an officer with the Quartermaster Corps. After leaving the Army after the close of the war, he served three years as President of the Westland Food Products firm in New York before joining the Canal organization in 1951 as Chief Food Buyer. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW June 6, 1958


Here's the man Who fits "pieces together so they match" The Chief of the Panama Canal Company's Executive Planning Staff is, in effect, a jigsaw puzzle player. He takes a number of pieces of assorted sizes and shapes and puts them together to form a picture. Suppose the Division of Schools, for instance, believes that a new elementary school will be needed in Town X in five years to accommodate the ever-growing number of youngsters in that community. Another division, however, is planning to move one of its units from Town X to Town Y, five years from now. This would reduce Town X's population, at least temporarily, just about the time the new school would be ready. Will the new school, therefore, be necessary or should the second division not make its proposed move? As Chief of the Executive Planning Staff, John Davisson Hollen takes these two seemingly disconnected pieces, puts them together with other bits which he has tucked away in his "futures file," and makes up a picture of what Town X will be like five years in the future. His completed picture and his suggestions then go to the Governor for a final decision. "We do not do the long-range planning for the Company," Mr. Hollen says, using the first person plural with which he invariably discusses the work of his office. "The operating bureaus do that. What we do here is to fit the pieces together so that they match. "We get into both the present and the future picture," he says, "especially in connection with Governor Potter's goal of having the Company-Government, as a whole, think not only in terms of the immediate future and the budget year, but five to ten years from now." A staff officer, as differentiated from the head of an operating unit, Mr. Hollen does not direct anyone's activities except those of his own staff of about 20 men and women. From the boss down, they are all specialists in economic, statistical, and planning work. One of the paradoxes of their job is that to arrive at their picture of operations five or ten years in the future, to make recommendations for the capital program six years ahead, to "project traffic" for future years, the Executive Planning Staff works with things which are both past and present. Putting it more simply, they have to know what has gone on and what is going on to know what will go on. They frequently have to look backward in order to see forward. Aside from the planning end of things, Mr. Hollen's office is also engaged in the reporting side of Canal affairs and in management. They prepare regular reports which go to the Panama Canal Company's Stockholder and Board of Directors. They also plan the annual capital budget, working several years ahead for each one. As Chief of the Executive Planning Staff, Mr. Hollen is also the Panama Canal Company's Management Engineer. Most of this part of his work is done on the basis of plans or studies already made by the various bureaus -the jigsaw puzzle type of operation. But occasionally the staff works independently, at the request of the Governor or of a particular Bureau Director, to make a study of specific operations. Sometimes these management studies lead to reorganizations or consolidation of functions. When they are working on a management job, John Hollen and his trained assistants study the unit's operating methods and procedures, see how it schedules its work, check the effectiveness of its job, and decide how well the unit under study is organized and staffed. It is this part of the Executive Planning Staff's job which has given rise to the misconception that they are the official "hatchet men." Actually, Mr. Hollen explains, he has nothing to do with hiring and firing, except within his own small organization. Awards Committee and of the Canal Zone Joint Facilities Review Board, an inter-organization body. He is a member of the Working Panel for Canal Improvement Planning, of the Management Committee, and of the Building Sites Committee. ( hitside of office hours, he serves as Chairman of the Boy Scout Troop 2 Committee, is a member of the Balboa Union Church Board of Christian Education, and is secretary of the local chapter of the American Society of Military Engineers. Each Tuesday night he spends several hours at a reserve officers meeting as a Lieutenant Commander in the Corps of Engineers in the Naval Reserve. Although he was born on a farm near Greenfield, Iowa, John Hollen had a John D. Hollen, Chief of the Executive Planning Staff The sole exception to this is that, as Chief of the Executive Planning Staff, he is assigned the responsibility of seeing that the Company-Government follows regulations on manpower control which have been set up for it, and he screens all requests for new positions. One of John Hollen's recent mornings was typical of his busy days. On the way into his office, he stopped to discuss with other members of his staff a program which was being prepared for members of the Board of Directors' Budget and Finance Committee. Once at his desk, he and his indispensable secretary, Miss Annie McDade, tackled a stack of papers which kept them busy for three hours. This paper work was followed by a budget conference with the Governor and the Comptroller which lasted for over half an hour. Then, by telephone, during the noon hour, he arranged for some MSTS cargo to be carried on Panama Line ships. As part of his official duties, Mr. Hollen serves on a number of committees. He is Chairman of the Incentive June 6, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW much greater interest in engineering than he ever did in farming. He started out to be an electrical engineer but after a year at Iowa State decided that industrial engineering was more to his liking. Between his graduation from college and the time he was called to active duty with the Navy during World War II, he spent nine years in construction cost, plant accounting, and engineering valuation work, first for the United States Treasury and later with the TVA at Wilson Dam and Chattanooga. During the war he was stationed in the Pacific area ; he was one of seven officers sent to Pearl Harbor to establish a supply base there. After the war he returned to TVA but on the outbreak of Korean hostilities found himself back in Navy uniform, this time as assistant to the director of the Engineering and Technical Services Division which prepared designs and specifications for construction at naval shore establishments. Mr. Hollen joined the Canal organization late in 1952 as Chief of the Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff, a post he held until he was promoted to his present position in December, 1953.


Potential litterbearers and rescue workers check in at a casualty station during Operation Alert 1958. Otto W. Helmerichs, writing, is the station administrator. Some of the 478 Canal employees who were lodged and fed last Monday at the old Tivoli Commissary registering with the Civil Defense Welfare Service. Portable cots provided comfortable, if not luxurious, sleeping accommodations for the "refugees." They were also used for seats for the movies that evening. Practice and A practical demonstration of what a unit of the Canal Zone's Civil Defense organization can do in an emergency was demonstrated late last month when nearly 700 Canal employees engaged in essential operations were temporarily housed and fed on a few hour's notice. The operation, required because of widespread disorder in Panama City, was conducted by the recently-organized Welfare Service of Civil Defense. The Service, headed by J. C. Randall, Chief of the Community Services Division, has a staff of approximately 1,250 and has plans which could be quickly implemented to care for several thousands if the need arose. The emergency operation on the night of May 22 was conducted after only one full-scale mobilization of the Welfare Service, held two weeks earlier when the Canal Zone participated in the national Civil Defense exercise Operation Alert 1958. In most respects this year's Civil Defense exercise was the most extensive and successful yet held. The objective of Operation Alert 1958 was to test the mobilization of the Civil Defense forces and damage control forces of the military. The problem was to recoup from an atomic missile blest from a simulated 100kiloton weapon exploded near Miraflores Locks. This was the first exercise to be held since the adoption earlier this year of the new Civil Defense and Disaster Relief Plan, under which the normal operating units of the Canal organization are integrated for civil defense and disaster relief functions. Both the Main Control Center in the Administration Building at Balboa Heights and the Alternate Control Center in Cristobal were activated at the close of the alert period. Also fully mobilized were all Civil Defense teams for emergency duties who reported to their assigned stations and were dismissed after briefing on problems involved. The Main Control Center was kept in operation throughout the morning as plans were developed by Bureau and Division heads to meet such emergency situations as the feeding and care of several thousand refugees, extensive fires, radioactive fallout, rescue and treatment of injured, and damages to municipal services on the Pacific side. An observation tour of Pacific side areas by Governor Potter during the alert was followed by visits to the control point centers in the Maintenance Division yard and the Welfare Service headquraters at the Housing Branch office, and to schools. Operations in the Main Control Center were directed by Lieutenant Governor Arnold, assisted by John D. Hollen, Operations Officer, and P. L. Dade, Chief of the Civil Defense Unit. The training received by personnel of the Welfare Service and plans for mass relief and welfare work proved a solid foundation for the actual operation on May 22 when it became apparent that several hundred Canal employees living in Panama City would be unable to return to their homes because of disruption of public transportation. After an assessment of the situation early that morning, all units of the Wel6 June 6, 1958


Performance fare Service of the Civil Defense organization were alerted for duty and headquarters were established in the office of the Chief of the Community Services Division who also heads the Welfare Service Unit. Since it was not then known how many employees would be involved, an inventory was taken of available supplies required for several hundred. Plans for the operation were made under Mr. Randall's direction, assisted by C. W. Kilbey, Assistant Director of Welfare Service, and the following Chiefs of the various activities and their assistants: Harry C. Egolf and P. B. Hutchings, Lodging; Philip S. Thornton and A. Houston, Feeding; T. G. Relihan, Emergency Supply; A. I. Bauman, Chief of the Welfare Center; and W. B. Mallory and Ellis Fawcett, Welfare Center Managers. It was decided to transform the old Tivoli Commissary into a temporary dormitory and arrange to feed the men there. After an inspection of the building, the necessary plumbing and electrical work was ordered. During the course of the day the Welfare Service was informed that approximately 500 employees would be housed and fed at the building and an additional 130 would require lodging and food later that night. Arrangements were then made to house 130 at the Quarantine Station at Corozal. Later information was received that an additional 60 employees from the Service Centers would require lodging, and it was decided to set up cots for them in the individual Service Centers and have those employees fed there. This preliminary phase of the operation closely resembled, both in the receipt of information and emergency planning, what might be expected in event of a major emergency. CIVIL DEFENSE NEWS JUNE VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS Date Town Place Hour Rainbow City Santa Cruz Paraiso School 6:30 p. Serv. Center 8:00 p. i School 7:30 P: Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed by the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone W. E. Potter, Governor-President Hugh M. Arnold, Lieutenant-Governor William G. Arey, Jr. Panama Canal Information Officer J. Rufus Hardy. Editor Eleanor McIlhenny, Assistant Editor Eunice Richard, Editorial Assistant On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights. C. Z. June 6, 1958 Worth Knowing The Balboa Teen Club is formally open. It was officially inaugurated May 16 when the Canal Zone's First Lady (see picture) snipped a red-and-white ribbon (Balboa High School colors) across the entrance of the new Teen Center on Roosevelt Avenue in Balboa. To Mrs. Potter's right is Ralph Blevins, a Balboa High School sophomore and president of the Teen Club, and behind the Governor's wife is Ann Haskell, a BHS junior and vice president of the Club. Following the dedication ceremony, at which short speches were made by the Governor and Lieutenant Governor and community and school officials who have been interested in the project, there was a short reception. James Dunn served as Master of Ceremonies. Later, between 200 and 250 young people held their first official dance in their new recreation center. During the summer the club is open daily, except Monday and Thursday, from 10 a. m. to 10 p. m. On Friday and Saturday nights, closing time will be midnight. Pacific Side dentists are moving. As part of a regular round robin Dr. W. H. Grant and Dr. Horace Foster will move within a few weeks from their present offices in a frame building opposite the former Ancon Post Office building to a frame building directly behind the one-time Balboa dispensary. The new dental clinic, Building 721X, has been used for some time as a First Aid Station. The First Aid Station has moved into the old Dispensary building, into space formerly used by the Girl Scout Office. The Scout office in turn has been transferred to the old Special Engineering Division building in Diablo Heights. Bids are to be opened about the middle of this month for the ncessary changes to be made for the new dental clinic and the round robin of moves will not be completed until later this summer. The present dental clinic which Dr. Grant and Dr. Foster now occupy will be demolished when they move to their new location. How does the Canal work? New arrivals at the United States Embassy and in the Canal Zone's Armed Forces learned this and other facts about the Panama Canal in an orientation lecture and tour of Miraflores Locks Wednesday morning. A group of about 40 was on hand for a briefing by the Lieutenant Governor in the Model Room at Diablo Heights. Later they were taken by the Marine Director on a tour of the Locks. Another oldtimer has retired. Over 41 years of service ended recently for Edward W. Higgins, Supervisory Accountant of the New York Accounting Office. Except for a brief period in the Armed Forces during World War I, Mr. Higgins' entire career was spent with the Panama Canal Company.


BOLIVIA AND THE PANAMA CANAL Land-locked nation depends on sea transportation for foreign trade Bolivia's mineral resources are its principal source of outside income. Much of its output moves north through the Canal. No land-locked nation on the globe is more dependent than Bolivia upon sea transportation for its economic well-being. Although Bolivia does a lively business with its immediate neighbors, the trade is in foodstuffs and light goods and is inconsequential in the overall picture. Most of its neighbors are rich in mineral resources, Bolivia's principal source of outside income. There are no nearby manufacturing centers which demand tin, the country's great source of wealth, and this commodity must be shipped overseas to the United States or Europe, where it is smelted. Figuratively located within a stone's throw of the Pacific, Bolivia's import and export trade reaches world markets largely through the ports of Chile and Peru. Thus, practically all of its foreign trade passes through the Panama Canal, as does that of its neighbors along the Pacific seaboard. Bolivian exports include tin, copper, lead, zinc, silver, antimony, tungsten, petroleum, and petroleum products. Of these, during 1956 Bolivia sent to the United States by way of the Panama Canal 17,177 tons of lead, 7,293 tons of zinc, 4,500 tons of copper, and 5,500,000 troy ounces of silver. In addition to these metals, 10,523 tons of tin ore went to the United States and 52,777 tons were shipped to Europe through the Panama Canal in the fiscal year ending last June. The balance of the country's mineral production, in the main, found its way to European markets principally through the Canal. Imports of Bolivia include foodstuffs, drugs, chemicals, automotive equipment, tractors and other heavy farm equipment, machinery, and manufactured products of a varied nature. Almost all of this was shipped through the Canal. Exact statistics on the amount of Bolivian commerce which passes through the Canal are unavailable. Its products and its imports are shipped in foreign bottoms through ports of neighboring countries and such shipments are not separately identified on manifests of transiting vessels. Although a small percentage of Bolivian products reaches markets outside of South America over the meager transportation links with the Atlantic seaboard, practically all of its foreign commerce is with the United States or Europe and is routed through the Canal. Except for Paraguay, the only other land-locked nation of the Western Hemisphere, Bolivia has the lowest volume of foreign trade of any American Republic on the two continents. However, the savings effected in transportation costs by use of the Canal are proportionally as great as those for Chile and Peru. One of the biggest single economic factors in Bolivia's national life in recent years has been the Point Four program. Through this, the country is receiving both technical and financial aid in its longe-range development plans. Bolivia is a potentially wealthy nation but its financial plight today is one of great concern to its own government and to the government of the United States which has given $SS million since 1953 to help support Bolivia's economy which has been all but wrecked by inflation. Bolivia is the only South American country which receives direct grants from the United States; this year the stabilization program is being underwritten to the extent of about $15 million by the United States. Surprising to many people unacquainted with the vast reaches of the South American continent, Bolivia is a big country and covers an area of 419,470 square miles. It is the fifth in size in South America and is slightly larger than the conbined area of the four (Julf Coast states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Nature fashioned this big area a terrain of most formidable character for the development of an overland transportation system. As a result, fertile valleys east of the Andes and large areas of arable land are isolated and uncultivated, necessitating the importation of foodstuffs. Although about 85 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture, the per capita production is low and it is only June 6, 1958 ANTOFAGASTA


Modern farm machinery is beginning to replace oxen in Bolivia. About 85 percent of its people work in agriculture. Klrf in recent years that oxen have been giving way to tractors and other farm implements to increase productivity. Lack of transportation has also been a serious bar to the development of mining, the country's greatest natural resource. It has hampered the petroleum industry which geologists and oilmen believe has great potentialities. The restrictions on these basic sources of wealth have virtually obviated successful manufacturing. Bolivian industry is now slowly emerging from the handicraft stage to machine manufacture, but it is still in its infancy. Generally, Bolivia is divided into three distinct regions: The altiplano or plateau region; the yungas or intermediary region on the eastern mountain slopes and valleys; and the llanos or Amazon-Chaco lowlands. Each is different in climate and vegetation, and each is distinctive in the character of its people and the density of its population. As expressed by one writer, one of the great problems of Bolivia's economy is that the mass of its population of nearly 4 million lives in the wrong place-on the fruitless altiplano and not in the fertile Oriente east of the Andes. This deprives the nation of essential agricultural productivity on which to build a self-sustaining economy. While topography in Bolivia has been a deterrent to the entrepeneur since the Spanish conquered the country four centuries ago, it provides the visitor with some of the most magnificent scenery in the New World and helps to fill encyclopedias and tourist literature with many interesting and odd facts. For example: La Paz is the highest capital in the world and with its altitude of over 12,000 feet the city needs no fire department as the rarefied atmosphere contains such a small proportion of oxygen; Lake Titicaca, an inland sea of 3,220 square miles lying partly in Bolivia and partly in Peru, is the highest body of water on earth on which steamships ply; Bolivia has the longest continuous snow range on earth even though it lies not too far from the equator. This makes for a highly varied climate and a tropical climate is not many miles from bitter winter weather. La Paz, political capital of Bolivia, was founded by the Spaniards in 1 548. It lies at an altitude of 12,130 feet. June 6, 1958 9 Archeologists are still trying to pie ce together the history of Bolivia before the advent of the Spaniards. Along the shores of Lake Titicaca are monuments of a pre-Incan civilization which probably paralleled or antedated that of the Nile River. It is presumed that the Aymara Indians were subjected to influences of people from Peru about 600 A.D. and from this emerged a civilization characterized by massive stone buildings, fine textiles, pottery, and metalwork. This phase evidently ended about three centuries later and when the area was conquered by the Incas about 1200 A.D., the Aymaras were living among ruins which they were unable to explain. Bolivia remained under Incan rule until the arrival of the Spanish under Francisco Pizarro. Six years after he landed in Peru in 1532, his forces conquered Bolivia and the following year founded the city of Sucre, which is still the legal capital although La Paz has come to be regarded as the actual capital and is the seat of the national government. Bolivia was noted throughout the colonial period for its production of silver, the mines of Potosi being among the richest ever discovered. The city of Potosi had a population of 150,000 during the 17th century and was once the largest city of the New World. Between 1630 and 1803 Bolivia exported $4 billion dollars worth of silver, of which $3 billion came from the Potosi mines. The city became almost a ghost town during the past century after the silver lodes were depleted but today it has a population of over 45,000, most of its prosperity in the past few decades coming from tin, a metal ignored by the Spanish. Revolutionary movements against Spanish rule began earlier in Bolivia than elsewhere in Latin America and as early as 1661 there was an unsuccessful revolt in La Paz. National independence was not finallv gained until 1825 when the army of General Jose Miguel Lanza entered La Paz and issued the formal declaration of independence by authority of Simon Bolivar. The new Republic was named in honor of the great South American Liberator who served for a brief time as Chief Executive. A few months after the birth of the nation he transferred his authority to General Sucre who was elected Chief Executive by the first Bolivian National Assembly. The next 100 years was a turbulent century in the nation's history, and it was during this period that Bolivia lost much of her original territory. In the War of the Pacific in 1884, with Peru as an ally, Bolivia lost to Chile her Pacific sea coast and the valuable nitrate fields. Additional territory east of the Andes was lost in border disputes with Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. Bolivia's constitution, signed November 23, 1945, was adopted after more than a decade of political turmoil which followed the settlement of the Chaco War with Paraguay in 1938. It provides for a central form of republic with popular representation and three independent but coordinated branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Bolivia's present financial plight, vividly pictured to Vice President Richard M. Nixon on his visit there last month, stems from a runaway inflation and a general deterioration of prices and world demand for metals. President Hernan Siles Zuazo made a direct plea to the S Vt-


Medal-of-Honor Holder Attends Unknown Soldier Ceremonies An honor guard of some 200 brave men, one of them a Zonian, stood stiffly at attention last Friday as the last taps were sounded over the crypts of two Unknown American Servicemen in Arlington Cemetery near Washington. They were there as honorary pallbearers for two other brave, if unknown, men. Around the neck of each hung a pale blue ribbon, starred in white, supporting a five-pointed bronze star hanging from a crosspiece bearing the word, Valor, and surmounted by an eagle. The 200 were the servicemen and forIt was this invitation .... mer servicemen who hold the Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest award their country can give. The Zonian was William G. Badders, Salvage Master and Master Diver for the Industrial Division. The medal they wore with pride brings any military man instantly to a salute, whether he be officer or in the ranks. Medal of Honor holders also have the privilege of riding in military aircraft in which took Mr. and Mrs. William Badders to Washington. the United States and are entitled to a small pension when they reach a certain age. Many of them are members of a recently-formed Congressional Medal of Honor Society of the United States. The part they played in the Memorial Day ceremonies was only one of the events planned for them in Washington. The morning of Memorial Day the medal holders had been received by the President and the following day their wives were invited to meet Mrs. Eisenhower at the White House. Mr. Badders, who is the sole Congressional Medal of Honor man in the Canal organization, was surprised to receive his invitation to the Memorial Day ceremonies, although he has had other official invitations from Washington and elsewhere in the past few years. The interment ceremonies last Friday, however, were as impressive as anything he ever expects to see. Nothing could be more fitting than the selection of Medal-of-Honor men as honorary pallbearers for such an occasion. Each of them received his award for "some voluntary act of valor, beyond the bounds of mere obedience to orders." Mr. Badders' citation is typical. He was honored for the part he played in salvage operations on the submarine Squalus which went down in 240 feet of water off Portsmouth, N. H., in May 1939, with 59 men aboard. His citation reads: "For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the USS Squalus on May 23, 1939. During the rescue operations Badders, as Senior Member of the rescue-chamber crew, made the last extremely hazardous trip of the rescue chamber to attempt to rescue any possible survivors in tha flooded after portion of the Squalus. He was fully aware of the great danger involved in that if he and his assistant became incapacitated there was no way in which either could be rescued. During the salvage operations Badders made important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions. His outstandperformance of duty contributed much to the success of the operations and characterizes conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty." Vice President for additional aid to prevent the government's stabilization program from collapsing. As reported by The New York Times: "The Vice President has heard hints and requests in all the republics he has visited thus far, Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay, but nowhere have they been so direct and couched in such urgent and dramatic terms as in Bolivia. "President Siles indicated that unless new aid were received from the United States— not only to make up for the loss of revenue caused by the plummeting prices of tin, which contributes the major part of Bolivia's foreign exchange earnings, but also to develop additional sources of income — the Government's economic stabilization program would 'risk final collapse within eight months'." Bolivia has fared far worse than other American countries from inflation in the postwar years. In a recent survey on inflation in Latin America, the Chase Manhattan Bank reported that the cost of living in Bolivia rose 1 19 times the 1946 level by the middle of last year, more than twice the increase in the cost-of-living index for any other country. While reports have indicated that the inflationary trend has been checked, economists agree that the country is still far from stable, economically. There have been many encouraging signs that Bolivia will attain economic stability by the simple and most desirable expedient of increasing its national productivity if it can weather the present storm. During the past year a number of foreign companies, particularly American petroleum companies, obtained concessions in Bolivia for the development of natural resources and for mining and manufacturing activities. It is estimated that these companies will have invested approximately $40 million in Bolivia by the end of this year. This development is having a highly salutary effect on the economy of the country. A number of oil wells are being drilled and a program of further exploration for oil has been mapped by the companies. A key factor in this program is the contraction of a pipeline for the transportation of oil to Arica. One of the most encouraging signs in Bolivia's economic outlook is the concerted effort being made to improve farming. A considerable part of Bolivia's purchases abroad in recent years has been modern farm implements. Several United Nations agencies are cooperating with the Government in a broad plan to improve farm and livestock techniques and in the important "Andean Indian Project" — to integrate some fj million Indians of Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador into the national economy of those countries. These programs take time to develop but Bolivians hope that the Government's program of austerity can counterbalance the present economic ills until the volume of trade increases. Bolivia's great natural wealth provides a sound footing for its economic future and an invitation for the continued growth in private investment which will create new industries, higher productivity in mines and on farms, and new exports to world markets. 10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW June 6, 1958


Geologist finds real old Zonian The dotted line marks the outline of the 1 5geologist Robert Stewart at Contractors Hil illion-year-old turtle uncovered by A misplaced piece is at the right. Proof positive that the voice of a turtle could be heard through this land some 15 million years ago has just been uncovered by Panama Canal geologist Robert H. Stewart. His recent discovery of the fossilized remains of a 21-inch wide fresh-water turtle on the side of Contractors Hill adds another fascinating chapter to the geological history of the Isthmus of Panama. Although the turtle is not the oldest Isthmian ever found — a giant sloth discovered several years ago near the Panamanian interior town of Pese antedates the turtle by several million years its discovery has helped Mr. Stewart and other geologists to know even more than they did before what the Isthmus of Panama was like in those remote times. The turtle dates back to the middle of the Miocene— which means "less recent"— Period, as geologists figure time. By that period North and South America, which had been separated by a wide body of water several million years before, were once more connected by a land bridge that was considerably wider than the Isthmus of Panama is today. The Contractors Hill turtle had lived in a fresh-water lake in the middle of this wide isthmus. Its fossil lay in a soft carbonaceous silty sandstone layer about six inches thick, containing a number of small fossil shells of the fresh water variety. Immediately below the turtle, Mr. Stewart found fossilized leaves of a fern so similar to ferns growing around the edges of Miraflores Lake today that, he says, "it makes you wonder." The combination of fern leaves and shellfish fossils indicates, to those who know about such things, that the climate of the Isthmus 15 million years ago was much like that of today. There were, however, in those days, active volcanoes in the neighborhood; this is evident from the fact that the material of the rock in which the fossils were embedded was derived from volcanic tuff. Immediately below the turtle and the shells was an ash flow which had been the result, Mr. Stewart says, of a tremendous volcanic eruption. This eruption buried a forest of palm trees which was uncovered millions of years later by Tecon during the work on Contractors Hill. It is now possible to see the charred stumps of the multimillion-year-old trees and their rootlets going into the ground, and to walk for a thousand feet or so on the floor of a Miocene jungle. The turtle and its shellfish companions were not the only inhabitants of this part of the world 15 million years ago. Three years ago, Mr. Stewart found what was identified as the fossilized bone of a Miocene rhinoceros, and he has also uncovered the fossils of clams which measured six inches across. But with the reluctance of the scientific man, he hesitates to predict what else can come to light around here. New stamp in the making Sometime in the next few weeks Canal Zonians will be able to buy a new fourcent postage stamp. It will be the first four-center to be included in what postal people call the "ordinary series" (as against air-mail stamps) and the first new stamp to be issued since the Gorgas Hospital commemorative stamp last November. No issue date has been selected because Canal Zone postal authorities have not yet learned how long it will take the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing to produce the new Zone issue. The new stamp will have another distinction. It will be the first multicolored stamp ever issued by the Canal Zone and, as far as oldtimers can remember, the first to have a Panama Line ship as its subject. What goes into producing a new issue? Much planning and preparation, postal officials say. It usually starts off when Earl F. Unruh, Director of Posts, sends word to the Stamp Committee, a standing group appointed by the Governor, that the Canal Zone needs a new stamp for some reason or other. Sometimes the new stamp is to commemorate some local event or anniversary; sometimes it is needed for other reasons. The new fourcent stamp is necessary because of the hike in first-class postal rates from three to four cents. When the Stamp Committee— James Marshall, Assistant to the Director of the Civil Affairs Bureau; Paul M. Runnestrand, Executive Secretary; Wells D. Wright, Assistant Designing Engineer; and Judge E. I. P. Tatelman — received Mr. Unruh's request, Mr. Marshall, as chairman, called a meeting of the committee and included with the group Hugh W. Cassibry, Rates Analyst in the Budget and Rates Division, who will succeed Judge Tatelman on the committee when the latter retires. The Committee agreed that the Canal Zone did need a new four-cent stamp and then set to work to decide on a central subject. After some discussion, they settled on the idea of a Panama Line ship, to be done in its natural colors. They asked G. A. Doyle, Jr., Chief of the Engineering Division's Architectural Branch, to submit some rough sketches. At their next meeting the committee looked over two rough drawings and chose one to be developed. Mr. Doyle and Franklin Ben, Engineering Division June 6, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 draftsman, put the design into its final sketch form -a blue background against which the ship's gray hull and buff stack stand out sharply. The next stop for the stamp-in-themaking was the Governor's Office. Sometimes changes and revisions are made here and in the case of the new four-cent stamp, Governor Potter suggested a few minor changes. Mr. Unruh then bundled up the design, which measured 4x6 inches, along with several black and white photographs and several color transparencies of the Panama Line ships and sent them to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington where the final model will be made. As a next-to-the-last step, the Bureau will return to Mr. Unruh a "model" in stamp size and one somewhat larger, both of which will be revisions by the Bureau's designers of the sketch submitted from the Canal Zone. It will not be until all of these steps have been taken that the Canal Zone post offices will know just when they are going to be able to put the new stamp on sale. Philatelic societies will be advised in advance and arrangements will be made for the sale of "date of issue" stamps for collectors.


School Nurse Keeping an eye on the health of Pacific side school children from now on will be Mrs. Henri Skeie, above. She has been on the staff at Gorgas. Industrial Division's Gas Plant To Be Closed The Gas Manufacturing Plant will be closed at the end of this month and Company-Government units will purchase their supplies of oxygen, acetylene, and hydrogen gases in cylinders from a plant in Panama. These are the three most commonly used manufactured gases. The Gas Plant, a unit of the Industrial Division, is one of the oldest operations of the Canal operations and was one of the few which was kept in operation when the Industrial Division operations were moved to Cristobal several years ago. All of the personnel now employed at the plant will be offered other jobs. There are 11 employees, seven of whom are in locality-rate positions. The amount of gas manufactured at the plant has declined considerably during the past few years and for sometime past other Government agencies have been buying their supplies in Panama. Operations were also curtailed by the recent change to the use of propane gas by the Storehouse Branch for cutting metal in its scrap operations. Although Gas Plant operations will be stopped, it is planned to maintain the plant on a stand-by basis. Accordingly, the power conversion plans for the plant will be carried out as scheduled. BUDGET COMMITTEE MEETING A review of the Canal Company's i960 budget will be made next week by the Board's Budget and Finance Committee, two members of which were here last month for a preliminary review of estimates. Directors who are members of the committee are Ralph H. Cake, Maj. Gen. Glen E. Edgerton, and Robert P. Burroughs. General Edgerton did not make the trip last month. The committee members and W. M. Whitman, Secretary of the Company, are scheduled to arrive next Thursday for the series of meetings which will continue through Sunday, if necessary. A review of the budget estimates is made annually by the committee a short time before the presentation to the Board of Directors at the July meeting. FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION For PFomen Only More boys than girls are born each year in the United States, but a recent reliable estimate has about one-and-ahalf million more women than men in adult life— 86,371,000 females to 84,858,000 males. Just why are there more women than men later on in life? Why are there less men for women to choose from when it comes time for them to marry? "One reason," says the National Safety Council, "is because males, between the ages of 15 to 24 years— the marrying ageare being killed in accidents almost five times as fast as females." The Council says they are not trying to provide more males so women will not be left as "old maids," but rather they are concerned with keeping people alive in general, and especially men. "Men" they say, "have always died faster than women." Perhaps largely because of the fact they are more willing to gamble their lives to undertake more hazardous tasks, to fight for a cause, or just to satisfy the type of curiosity that killed the "proverbial cat." Their records show that men between the ages of 15 and 24 are dying far, far too rapidly and the statistics show the following facts about this age group: 1. Accidents of all types kill five males for every female lost. 2. Eight out of ten persons killed in motor vehicle accidents are males. 3. Almost 7 out of 8 persons killed in non-motor vehicle accidents are males. 4. Young people are seven times more likely to die in an accident than from cancer, which is the number 2 killer in this group. 5. Both sexes are living longer today than their grandparents did, but the socalled weaker sex is widening the gap faster. 6. Thirty years ago the average female lived three years longer than the average male. Today, she can expect to outlive him by six years. 7. One reason women outlive men is that they have benefited more from newmedical discoveries and innovations made by some hard-working males. 8. Women appear to be more careful than men when working and playing. 9. Social and technological changes have made women's work easier, more pleasant, and safer. The National Safety Council's advice to you women, in all walks of life, is — "It's smart to keep your men alive. Don't let, or push, your boy-friend (or hubby) to overdo, whether it is to provide a life to which you have never been accustomed, or a long vacation drive." Make sure when you are on vacation this summer that he keeps a light foot on the accelerator; that you put your foot down on heavy drinking; that he is not distracted by "back seat" annoyances into a collision; or that you do not let a family spat raise his blood pressure into an accident. "Keep them alive, girls — because the supply isn't keeping up with the demand." APRIL 1958 BUREAU New York Operations Supply & Community Service ( H. Roll) Engineerings Construction Health Transportation Jr. Terminals Civil Affairs (Honor Roll).. Marine C. Z. Govt. -Panama Canal Company ( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries included in total. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW June 6, 1958


Gorgas Hospital Needs New Who's Who (Continued from page 4) to rejoin the Ciorgas Hospital staff will be Dr. Erik W. Michelsen, who was at Gorgas in 1955-57 as a resident in Pathology. He is joining the hospital staff as a pathologist. Born in New York City, he is a graduate of the University of Copenhagen. In addition to 15 medical interns, Gorgas Hospital this year will again have a resident in hospital administration. He is Ronald H. Wilson, born in Takoma Park, Md. and a graduate of the University of Miami. He succeeds John E. Bertone, Gorgas Hospital's first Administrative Resident. The new medical interns, their birthplaces and their medical schools are: Dr. Harold Paul Adolph, Laun, China (his parents were medical missionaries), University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Robert Clinton Hall, Evanston, 111., University of Michigan; Dr. Hale L. Haws, Anaheim, Calif., University of California at Los Angeles; Dr. Mike Hayes, Fort Smith Ark., University of Missouri; Dr. Joyce N. Herrold (the only woman in the group), Lancaster, Ohio, University of Cincinnati; Dr. Thomas Varien Hinkle, Houston, Tex., University of Texas at Galveston; Dr. Kenneth W. Hjortsvang, Chicago, 111., University of Oregon; Dr. Kenneth G. Korver, Marshall, Mich., University of Colorado; Dr. Robert L. Nichols, Pittsburgh, Pa., University of Chicago (he already has his Ph.D and is a fellow of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine); Dr. Patrick Louis Pierce, Fayetteville, Ark., University of Tennessee; Dr. Mason Walter Robison, Mullan, Idaho, University of Oregon; Dr. Daniel Jacob Schneider, Madison, Wis., University of California at Los Angeles; Dr. Angus B. Stewart, Klamath Falls, Oreg., University of Oregon; Dr. John Reed Ware, Muncie, Ind., Indiana University; and Dr. L. Dennis Weldon, Sacramento, Calif., University of Iowa. PAGES FROM THE mg SSnU&B HIST THIS MONTH 50 Years Ago Dirt was flying 50 years ago this month in the Canal Zone. During June 1908, Canal forces excavated 3,060,307 cubic yards of earth and rock, all but 165,310 of these from the Canal prism. This set a new record for work during the rainy season, although it fell 419,964 cubic yards short of the dry-season record set the previous March. Totting up the figures in the years of American work, "The Canal Record" found that "between May 4 1904, when the Americans took possession of the effects of the French Company, to June S0~, 1908," Excavation had totaled 1,0, 938,575 cubic yards. Just about two-thirds of it had been done during fiscal year 1908. The Record also took stock of personnel. As June 1908 began, there were 25,881 employees on the rolls of the Isthmian Canal Commission and another 7,052 working for the Panama Railroad. Of the ICC force, 20,584 employees were working in the Department of Construction and Engineering. To meet pressing needs, 21 additional quarters were to be built for ICC employees; these would accommodate 75 families, as most of the buildings were to be four-family houses. A concrete reservoir, 122 feet in diameter and 1 l-and-a-half feet deep, was to be built as reserve fire protection for Ancon, La Boca, and Panama. A teninch water main would run from the million-gallon reservoir along the Canal Zone line and La Boca Road. Old Friend Returns Canal Zonians welcomed an old friend late last month when Col. David S. Parker revisited the Isthmus as a consultant on Canal improvement projects. He served two years as Military Assistant to the Governor, 1952-54. Colonel Parker is now on duty as Chief of the Planning Studies Division in the Office of the Chief of Engineers. He was accompanied by John J. Taylor, at right with Colonel Parker, who is Project Officer of the Special Weapons Branch. 13 June 6, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 25 Years Ago With a million-dollar cut expected in Panama Canal appropriations for fiscal year 1934, department heads were asked to reduce their expenditures by some 15 percent. An appropriation of $11,106,404 had already been passed by Congress and the cut would be made in this. This meant that some Zonians were going to lose their jobs. Late in the month, Gov. J. L. Schley issued regulations on reduction in force procedure. Working married couples would be the first to feel the effects of the slash; one of them would be out of work. Next to go would be employees with 30 or more years of service. There were tentative estimates that more than 1,400 Canal employees would lose their jobs on July 1, a majority from the Municipal Engineering Division. Meanwhile the Canal received a ray of hope in word from Washington that through the efforts of the Central Labor Union and Senator Robert M. LaFollette, Jr., the Canal Zone had been included in the agencies to receive funds from a $3 billion National Recovery Bill. In the worse flare-up of malaria in many years, 114 cases were reported in one week. Of these, 23 were among Canal employees and the remainder in the Armed Forces. When the Balboa High School graduated a record class of 98 on June 15, 1933, attorney John O. Collins, the commencement speaker, made a remark which was to be repeated for many years. He told the students to go back to the States and "not become stall-fed cattle on the Canal Zone." 10 Years Ago Gov. F. K. Newcomer appointed a sixman committee to study what effects a proposed five-day work week would have on the Canal's operations and its dealings with such outside activities as shipping agencies. At that time, 10 years ago this month, the Canal's work week was five and a half days. A Selective Service Bill passed by the Senate in June, 1948, would extend the draft to the Canal Zone and require establishment of a local board and a draft quota. The bill still had to pass the House of Representatives. In Washington, Defense Secretary James Forrestal announced that Canal Zone medical services would be streamlined. Gulick and Margarita hospitals were to be closed, Coco Solo Hospital would serve all the armed forces on the Atlantic side, and Clayton Hospital on the Pacific side. Colon and Gorgas hospitals would continue to care for civilian patients. About 3,000 Zonians were slated for average pay raises of $500 each as Congress passed the Classified Pay Increase Bill. One Year Ago The Budget and Finance Committee of the Panama Canal Company's Board of Directors met here to review budget estimates for fiscal year 1959. Wilson H. Crook, Director of the Supply and Employee Service Bureau, died after a brief illness.


PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS JUNE SAILINGS April 75 through May 15 Employees who were promoted or transferred between April 15 and May 15 are listed below. Within-grade promotions are not reported. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Robert G. Hammetter, from Lithographic Pressman to Assistant Head, Press Section, Printing Plant. Frank A. Chollar, from Photolithographer II to Head. I.itho-Photographic Section, Printing Plant. Mrs. Katherine A. Lessiack, from Substitute Clerk-Stenographer, Postal Division, to Clerk-Stenographer, General Services Section. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU James S. Kraemer, James W. Morris, from Substitute Window Clerk to Window Clerk, Postal Division. Mrs. Cornelia A. Banks, from Substitute Teacher to Kindergarten Assistant, Division of Schools. William E. Affeltranger, from Policeman to Policeman and Detective, Police Division. Charles N. Little, from Motorcycle Officer and Policeman to Motorcycle Officer and Policeman and Detective, Police Division. Donald V. Howerth, from Police Lieutenant to Police Inspector, Police Division. Mrs. Elizabeth P. Daugherty, from Substitute Teacher to Elementary School Teacher, Division of Schools. Michael F. Greene, from Customs Inspector to Senior Inspector, Cristobal, Customs Division. James A. Marchuck, from Policeman to Police Sergeant, Police Division. Mrs. Frances T. Palumbo, from Substitute Teacher to Recreation Assistant, Division of Schools. Mrs. Alberta J. Geis, from Substitute Teacher, Division of Schools, to Library' Assistant, Library. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Nancy L. Jorstad, from Recreation Leader Division of Schools, to Clerk-Typist, General Audit Division. Leslie M. Spencer, from Senior Customs Inspector (Cristobal), Customs Division, to Accountant, General Audit Division. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Dean L. Kelly, from Machinist, Locks Overhaul, to Marine Machinist, Dredging Division. Arnold J. Landreth, from Electrician Foreman I to Electrician Foreman, Dredging Division. William Hannigan, Jr., Julius Cheney, from Navigation Aids Electrician I to Electrician, Dredging Division. James D. MacLean, from Dredging Electrician I to Electrician, Dredging Division. Roy R. Shuey, from Gas Navigation Aids Foreman to Machinist Foreman, Dredging Division. John C. Thompson, from Lead Foreman, General Maintenance Navigations Aids, to General Maintenance Lead Foreman, Dredging I )i\ ision. Walter J. Wilkinson, from Pumping Plant Operator II to Filtration Plant Operator III, Maintenance Division. Rene P. Trembleau, from Pumping Plant Operator, Water and Laboratories Branch, to Maintenance Machinist, Maintenance Division. Ernest C. Divine, Jr., from Heavy I abor Lead Foreman, Locks Overhaul, to Pumping Plant Operator II, Maintenance Di\ ision. HEALTH BUREAU \i result hi a i lassifii ation stud) made by the Personnel Bureau, simultaneously with a reorganizat ion oi t he nursing services, raises were received last month by approximately 115 nurses at Gorgas Hospital. Space does not permit publication of their names. MARINE BUREAU Leonard Aguirre, from Checker, Locks Overhaul, to Clerk, Office of the Chief, Locks Division. Robert L. Rankin, from Commissary Supervisor, Sales and Sen-ice Branch, to Marine Traffic Controller, Navigation Division. Robert V. Dean, from Wireman to Wireman Foreman, Locks Division. PERSONNEL BUREAU Charles A. Garcia, from Magistrate to Personnel Assistant, Employment and L'tilization Division. William D. Young, from Position Classifier. Wage and Classification Division, to Personnel Assistant, Office of the Director. Otto W. Helmerichs, from Supervisory Placement Officer to Employee Utilization Representative, Employment and LUilization Division. Mrs. Florence M. Burns, from ClerkTypist to Accounting Clerk, Office of the General Manager, Supply Division. Mrs. Carmela A. Reccia, from Accounting Clerk to Procurement Assistant. Office of General Manager, Supply Division. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Robert C. Daniel, from Road and Yard Conductor to Yardmaster, Railroad Division. OTHER PROMOTIONS Promotions which did not involve a change of title were: Joseph H. Orr, Jr., George E. Shoemaker, Joseph H. White, General Supply Assistant, Storehouse Branch. Robert N. Bowen, Auditor, General Audit Division. John F. Stephenson, Admeasurer, Navigation Division. Hugh C. Durrett, Ralph K. Skinner, Systems Accountant, Accounting Policies and Procedures Staff. Helen C. Burns, Secretary (Stenography), Executive Office, New York Operations. Ralph Roskelly, Supervisory Transportation Officer, Passenger Department, Steamship Division. Michael Portantiere, Transportation Operations Clerk, Passenger Department, Steamship Division. John Bruno, Miscellaneous Duplicating Equipment Operator, Procurement Division. Wilmer L. Downing, Thelma C. Herrington, Supervisory Accounting Assistant, Payroll Branch. Mrs. Evelyn R. Reynolds, Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll Branch. Louis H. Charles, Painting Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division. RETIREMENTS Retirement certificates were presented the end of May to the following employees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birthplaces, positions, years of Canal service, and future addresses: Fred J. Blohm, Illinois, Lead Foreman Painter, Maintenance Division; 13 years, 2 months, 8 days; Fort Smith, Ark. Raymond E. Forbes, Nebraska; Supervisory Sanitation Inspector, Sanitation Division; 34 years, 5 months, 20 days: future address undecided. Mrs. Dorothy E. Hamlin, Ohio; Accounting Clerk, Accounting Division; 17 years. 4 months, 2 days; Pasadena, Calif. Capt. Albert J. Mathon, Connecticut; Fire Captain, Fire Division; 31 years, 1 month, 14 days; Panama, R. de P. Ernest P. Muzzio, New York; Plumbing Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division: 18 years, 7 months, 25 days; Belleville, N.J. Capt. Charles S. Townshend, Pennsylvania; Pilot, Navigation Division; .^^ years, 4 months, 7 days; future address undecided. Walter A. Wieman, New York; Assistant Housing Manager, Balboa; 29 years, o months, 25 days; Florida. FROM CRISTOBAL Cristobal __ June 7 Ancon . ..June 14 Cristobal June 25 FROM NEW YORK Ancon June 6 Cristobal June 17 Ancon June 24 Southbound ships which leave New York Friday are in Haiti the following Tuesday. Those which sail from New York Tuesday spend Saturday in Haiti. Northbound, the ships stop in Haiti two days after clearing Cristobal: Monday for those whirh sail from Cristobal Saturday, and Friday for those which clear Cristobal Wednesday. ANNIVERSARIES Two well-known Zonians, one from either side of the Isthmus, share honors this month as top men on the anniversary list. Both completed 35 years of government service in May, although the Atlantic sider, Earl A. Dyer, has a week's edge on the Pacific siiler, Blanchard V. Hutchings. Mr. Dyer's service, however, has been split between the Canal Zone and Washington, D. C, while that of Mr. Hutchings has been entirely in the Canal Zone. Mr. Dyer, Superintendent of the Panama Canal Company's Printing Plant at Mount Hope, was born in Washington, D. C. He learned the printing trade there and worked for three years in the Government Printing Office in Washington before he came to the Canal Zone in 1926. The Printing Plant, known in those days as the Panama Canal Press, had a continuous job then it no longer does — printing the commissary coupons which were used instead of cash until 1952 to buy bread and beans or anything else the commissary had for sale — and a good part of Mr. Dyer's work was connected with this job. In 1928 he returned to the Government Printing Office in Washington for 12 years but in 1940 was back on the Isthmus and up to his elbows in commissary coupon books again. In 1954, he was made foreman of the monotype section of the press, and two years later succeeded Gilbert Furey as Superintendent of the Printing Plant. Although he was born in Columbus, Miss., the Canal Zone has been home to Mr. Hutchings since he was eight years old. As most young Zonians did in those days, he held a number of summer jobs during school vacations. After he was grown he worked at the Hotel Washington and with the Storehouses and Oil Handling Plants until he left the Canal Zone to spend a short time in the 1'nited States. Since he returned to the Isthmus in 1929 he has been with Customs, as a guard, Customs inspector, boarding officer, antl deputy shipping commissioner He is now on duty in the Balboa office. 30 YEARS While only one of May's 30-year employees is a native of the Canal Zone, three of the four are the second generation of their families to work for the Canal organization. Alphabetically, this quartet is: Robert L. Blaney, Supervisory Cargo Operations Assistant in the Terminals Division. He was born in Rochester, N. Y., but came to the Isthmus when he was five years old. He started an apprenticeship as a shipfitter but in 1928 decided that he was more interested in stevedoring than he was in a craft. He has been with what is now the Terminals Division ever since. John A. Everson, Wireman, Electrical Division. Born in Cristobal, he attended the Canal Zone schools and took his apprenticeship here. All of his service has been with the Electrical Division. Mrs. Jeanne C. Magnuson, Accounting Clerk, Agents Accounts Branch. She was born in New York City and came here in 1925. She has worked with the old Quartermaster's office and with the Oil Handling Plants but Has been in financial work since 1942. Roger T. Williams, Steam FZngineer in THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW June 6, 1958


the Marine Bunkering Section of the Balboa Oil Handling Plant. Born in Philadelphia, lie lias lived liere since he was 1 1 years old. He worked in a number of summer jobs and. after he was grown up, at the old Ancon corral. He has been with the Oil Handling Plant since 1934. A (rack baseball player in the old Twilight League, he now owns the trophy once won by a Supply Department team. 25 YEARS Six States are represented by that many employees, here and in New York, for whom May was Silver Anniversary Month for their Government service. They are: Robert H. Adams, who comes from Astoria, X. V.. and who has been with the Storehouses since 1948. He is now Supervisory Storage Officer. Mrs. Eleanor A. Connor, a native of Duluth. Minn., who has been in accounting work since 1939. She is an Accounting Clerk in the Agents Accounts Branch. Edward E. Lane, whose birthplace was Revere, Mass.. Night Officer on the Panama Line's Pier 64 in New York. All of Mr. Lane's career, both civilian and military, •has had to do with shipping, ashore and afloat. George H. Sanford, whose hometown is Smyrna. Tenn., and who began his Canal career in the Special Engineering Division. He is head of the Duplicating Unit, where all multiliths, mimeographs, and other such reproductions are made. Robert L. Snyder, who was born in Crestline, Ohio, and whose Canal service has all been with the post offices. His present title is Services Assistant to the Director of Posts. Howard E. Turner, through whose hands passes every Canal paycheck, a native of Dade City, Fla. He lias been in payroll work since 1937 and is now Chief of the Payroll Branch. 20 YEARS Five of the nine men and women who had twentieth anniversaries in Government service last month have unbroken service with the Panama Canal although several others have Canal service interrupted only by military duty in World War II. Those with unbroken Canal service are: Elmer H. Gardner, YVireman with the Electrical Division — all of his service has been with that Division; Walter H. Hobby, Foreman I in Transportation Equipment Operations for the Motor Transportation Division: Daile D. Keigley, Accountant on the Reports and Special Analysis Staff of the Accounting Division — his service has all been in some form of accounting work; Ethel C. Myers, Head Xurse, Gorgas Hospital where she has seen all her Canal service; and Capt. Ernest B. Rainier, Assistant Port Captain at Cristobal, one-time officer on Panama Line ships and a Canal pilot for over 15 years. Other 20-year employees are: Mrs. Lavinia R. Dahlhoff, Telephone Operator, Communications Branch; Glenn H. Burdick, Supervisory Office Services Clerk, Electrical Division; George F. Welsh, Chief of the Employment and L : tilization Division of the Personnel Bureau, with which he began as a Junior Interviewer; and Fred L. Wertz, Jr., who has been a Locomotive Engineer with the Panama Railroad since 1938. 15 YEARS Six of the 1 1 employees who completed 15 years of Government service in May have worked continuously for the Panama Canal. They are: Alfred R. Graham, Staff Xurse, Gorgas Hospital; Mrs. Lilybel Kariger, Recreation Assistant. Division of Schools; Gilbert F. Lee, Towing Locomotive Operator, Gatun Locks; Howard E. Munro, Power Dispatcher, Electrical Division; Erwin F. Ramsey, Heavy Equipment Operator, Grounds Maintenance Branch; and Joe Stabler, Sergeant, Fire Division. Other 15-year employees are: George W. Coleman, Fire Sergeant, Fire Division; Mack B. Hicks, Motorcycle Officer and Policeman, Balboa Police District; Woodrow W. Richardson, IronworkerWelder, Gatun Locks; Frederick J. Wainio, Supervisory Accountant, Terminals Division; and Leslie D. Wood, Lead Marine Electrical Foreman, Electrical Division. Personnel Bureau Move Transfer of the Central Labor Office Branch of the Personnel Bureau from Building 69 in Balboa completed the move of Personnel Bureau units to their new headquarters in Ancon about the middle of last month. While only about 60 men and women were involved in the move, George V. Daniels, of the Employment and Utilization Division, who coordinated the transfer, had to figure ways of dealing not only with the office furniture and files, but also with the staplers and punches and deskgear assigned to everyone of them. He supplied big boxes which each employee packed. When the employee reported for work the next day, he or she found them on their new : desks in Ancon. According to Mr. Daniels' figures, the Personnel Bureau move involved 175 four-drawer file cases, and between 30 and 40 sections full of index cards, in addition to desks and bookcases, and all other necessary office equipment. The first Unit to move was the Wage and Classification Division, on April 30. The same day all personnel records were transferred from the Administration Building. Two days later, Employment and Utilization Division employeesmoved from Building 69 to Ancon. The transfer of the Central Labor Office Branch began May 14 and was completed May 16. Each unit was in at least partial operation in the afternoon of its particular moving day. ^Moved Moving^ New Lieutenant Governor Designate (Continued from page s) dredge Cascadas and the Division's shops and floating equipment. Wherever possible the newLieutenant Governor will talk informally to the employees and will lunch each day with the group he is visiting. On June 19 and June 20 he will be with the Comptroller, sitting in on a general briefing of the Canal's financial and accounting policies and procedures and learning the organization of the Comptroller's Office. The last week of Colonel McElheny's orientation assignment will be divided among several Bureaus. On June 23 he will see Health Bureau facilities on the Atlantic side during the morning and spend the afternoon at the Transportation and Terminals Bureau Atlantic June 6, 1958 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW side operations. The following day he will spend the morning at operations on the Pacific side and the afternoon inspecting Pacific side facilities of the Health Bureau. The entire da.v Wednesday, June 25, will be devoted to the Personnel Bureau. The following day will be another trip to the Atlantic side, the morning to be devoted to the Supply and Community Service Bureau and the afternoon to the Civil Affairs Bureau. On his last day, June 27, Colonel McElheny will be back on the Pacific side. He will tour offices, warehouses, the scrap yard and the Balboa Commissary with the Supply and Community Service Director, and spend the remainder of the day with the Executive Planning Staff and the Lieutenant Governor, listening to a briefing on the Panama Canal's master plan and a general critique and review.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA SHIPPING 3 1262 08544 4684 TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING VESSELS IN APRIL 1957 1958 Commercial 767 734 Government 13 22 Total.. 7X0 756 TOLLS' Commercial $3,436,371 $3,367,300 Government.. 68,737 83,359 Total $3,505,108 $3,450,659 •Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small. CARGO (Long tons) Commercial 4,399,219 3,864,624 Government... 91,230 81,779 Total 4,490,449 3,946,403 New Customer The SS Cartagena de Indias, the newest addition to the Colombian Steamship Line (Flota Grancolombiana), made her first southbound and northbound transits of the Canal last month. The vessel will operate on a regular run between New York and U. S. East Coast ports, then through the Panama Canal to Buenaventura, Colombia; Guayaquil, Ecuador; and Callao and Mollendo in Peru. The 475-foot freighter, which has a cruising speed of 19 knots, is one of the five new ships to be added to the Grancolombiana fleet this year. The others are the Ciudad de Tunja and the Manuel Mejia, both of which have already been placed in service; the Ciudad de Barranquilla, due here the middle of June; and the Ciudad de Pasto, due in Cristobal the end of this month. All of the new vessels were built in Hamburg, with the exception of the Ciudad de Pasto, which is being built in Seville. Now in its twelfth year, the Grancolombiana is one of the Canal's best customers. It operates 36 ships of its own over nine routes calling at 88 ports in 20 countries. In addition to the new ships listed above, the line has five more vessels under construction. They will go into service next year. Wilford & McKay handle Flota Grancolombiana vessels at the Canal. Last Cruise Ship Two weeks behind schedule because of a shipping accident in Yokohama harbor, the luxury cruise liner Caronia arrived in Balboa May 16 and made the Canal transit the following day en route to New York. The Caronia, the last big cruise ship of this year's season, was on the last lap of a round-the-world millionaires' cruise. She had 334 passengers and a crew of 672 aboard. The ship docked in Balboa for several hours. The accident which delayed the cruise liner occurred early in April when the Caronia struck and demolished a lighthouse at the entrance of Yokohama harbor, causing damages estimated at $35,000. The ship sailed from Yokohama May 2. Meanwhile her annual spring cruise to the Mediterranean, which had Charles T. Jackson, Jr., of the Marine Bureau, right, and Capt. T. W. McGraw look over the concrete decking on the ferryboat "Presidente Porras," which won a cash award last month for Mr. Jackson who had suggested the change from wood decking. The award, one of the largest ever given by the Canal administration, will be put to good use Mr. Jackson has five children! been scheduled to start May 13, was postponed until May 24. Record Breakers Records are being broken right and left these days by the fleet new Japaneseowned freighters which ply between Far East ports, the East and West coasts of the United States, and Europe. Recently, the Havana Maru, of the OSK Line, set a new trans-Pacific speed record on its maiden voyage which brought it into Los Angeles just 10 days, 14 hours, and 35 minutes after departing from Yokohama. This is reported to be the fastest crossing for a Japanese vessel on this run. The Havana Maru passed through the Panama Canal northbound on April 27 and returned from New York May 20 on her way back to Yokohama. Earlier, the Mitsui Line motor vessel Manjusan Maru broke all records on the Los Angeles-Liverpool run when she made the trip in less than 19 days. The ship transited the Canal on that trip early in April and was on its way back from Europe early last month. Boyd Brothers handle the first ship, and the United Fruit Company is agent for the Mitsui Line. New Supertanker Another supertanker made the Canal transit on her maiden voyage out from Japan for Aruba during May. She was the huge Esso Uruguay, fifth in a series of new supertankers being built in Japan for the Esso service. The new ship measured 690 feet in length, only four feet shorter than the Crinis, the largest tanker ever to use the Panama Canal. She has a deadweight of 35,515 tons and capacity for 309,000 barrels of fuel. Flying the Panamanian flag, the tanker is owned by the Panama Transport Company and was handled locally by the Esso Shipping Company. On her first trip through the Canal, the tanker was traveling in ballast and was scheduled to go to Aruba for a cargo of oil for New York. Another of the big ships is now being built in the Nagasaki Shipyards for the same company. More New Customers Two new Hamburg America Line freighters, Saarland and Havdland, made their initial voyages through the Canal during May to join the fast-growing fleet of German-owned ships now using the Panama Canal. Both the Havelland, which made the northbound transit May 29 en route to Hamburg from the U. S. West Coast, and the Saarland, which made her first trip to the west coast in May, are on the Hamburg-Pacific Coast service. Both were built in Germany, carry general cargo, and have accommodations for 12 passengers. The Continental Shipping Company, local agents for the line, report that they now handle approximately 25 vessels of the Hamburg America and North German Lloyd Line each month. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW June 6, 1958

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