Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

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Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 5, 1957 Flying High ^•^i-^-JKites and kids belong together in the dry season. Here a handful of young Diablans tangle strings and legs in a favorite pastime of the local younger set. First Employees Receive Benefits From Group Health Insurance Plan Company-Government employees who have enrolled in the Group Health Insurance Plan have already begun to receive benefits from their insurance. Within a week after group insurance became a reality, Mutual of Omaha began to pay hospital bills of those enrolled. The first insurance payment was made to Dr. Maurice B. Winstead, of Ancon. Under a simplified procedure worked out by the Group Health Insurance Board," representatives of the Insurance Company and the Health Bureau, and the Company-Government Liaison Representative, employee-members now sign only one form when they are admitted to the hospital. The signature authorizes the insuring association to pay hospital bills directly and to be given necessary information regardless of illness. One other short form, typed and signed by the admitting clerk, identifies the patient, and provides information necessary for hospital and insurance records. The required 50 percent enrollment necessary to make the insurance plan effective on a non-selective basis that is, regardless of physical condition was reached on March 13. By agreement with John P. Boler, special representative of Mutual's home office, the enrollment period was extended to March 25 and when all applications were tabulated, a total of 7,91)7 Company-Government employees had signed up for the plan. Employees may still enroll for the group insurance but, except for two classes, these late enrollees may be subject to the selective clause, i. e., they may find riders on their policies barring payments in cases of certain ailments. The only two exceptions to this rule are new employees, who may sign up for the group insurance on a non-selective basis, provided they do so within 30 clays after they join the Company-Government force, and employees on leave who may also obtain the insurance non-selectively, if they enroll in the group plan within 30 days after thev return to work. Specifications Issued For Power Conversion Of Pacific Side Area Flans and specifications for the Pacific Area power conversion were issued last week. Bids will be opened the end of June. It will be several weeks before they can be evaluated and at least two years before the last of the frequency-sensitive equipment will have been changed to 60-cycle operation. The work consists of conversion or replacement of all frequency sensitive appliances, machines, and equipment and ether related additions and modifications to electrical equipment and facilities in the Pacific Terminal Area of the Canal Zone which includes the towns of Ancon, Balboa, Balboa Heights, La Boca, Diablo Heights, and Los Rios. It also includes Corozal Hospital and Immigration, the West Ferry slip, the West Side lighthouse line, and the Balboa Gun Club. Some idea of the magnitude of the Pacific Area job is seen in this list of some of the domestic equipment which will have to be converted or replaced: 2,661 clocks; 1,512 fans; 1,064 recordplayers; 1,133 washing machines and dryers; 2,283 refrigerators; 861 pieces of equipment for hobby shops. And beside these there are deep freezers, air-conditioning units, and many other less common pieces of electrical equipment. The Pacific Area is the last of the three large conversion areas. The others are the Atlantic Area and the Central Area. In the Atlantic Area, domestic equipment in Margarita and Rainbow City has been converted and work is underway on domestic equipment in Gatun and on industrial equipment elsewhere. In Gamboa, the work of domestic conversion began last month. AWARD WINNERS ON THE COVER This month "THE REVIEW" has a cover girl: The MV "Fairsea." The 1 1 ,850-ton ship, once a British escort carrier, made her first trip north through the Canal in March, en route to Europe from Australia where she had dropped a load of Hungarian Freedom Fighters. Owned by the Alvion Steamship Corporation, she flies the Panama Rag. Her local agents are Fernie and Co. The handsome picture of the "Fairsea" in Miraflorc-s Lake was taken by the official photographer, C.S. LaClair. A Distinguished Service Award and three Superior Service Awards were presented in March by Gov. Potter to this group of employees. Left to right: S. D.Callendar, W. H. Gordon, Mrs. Mildred Kopf, Kenneth V. Griffith.

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April 5, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
PAGE 4

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 5, 1957 Program For Canal Zone Handicapped Children Suggested By Dr. Ray Graham After Visit Here "Every child is entitled to an educational opportunity. If the child has handicapping conditions making it impossible for him to profitably and efficiently participate in the regular school programs, then he is denied his full educational opportunity if placed in such a class." With these words, Dr. Ray Graham, Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction and Director of Special Education of Exceptional Children for the State of Illinois, begins a 17-page report on his findings and recommendations for a Canal Zone program for handicapped children. Dr. Graham spent a week in the Canal Zone recently as a special consultant to the Division of Schools in connection with plans to provide special facilities for handicapped Canal Zone children. His report was considered by the Schools Division to have such value that copies of it were provided for all teachers and principals in the Division. Special education for the handicapped child, he says, is not a partial process. It must be designed to meet various age and grade levels. It may, in some cases, merge into training of handicapped adults. It must also include education of all people to understand and accept the handicapped. Special education, Dr. Graham continues, must be a part of and not apart from the regular school program. Segregation must be limited only to situations where it is essential "to build readiness" for an integrated program (e. g., separate classes for the deaf may be necessary while developing basic skills in language, speech, lip reading, etc., so that the child can begin to participate in part with hearing children.) This point is basic to such administrative procedures as locating a room for handicapped in a regular building and not having a special building housing only special classes for the handicapped. According to the report, a preliminary screening shows 243 Canal Zone children who are physically handicapped, deaf, or hard of hearing, blind or partially-seeing, speech defective, and mentally retarded. The largest percentage of the handicaps are mental, with speech as the second most frequent defect. Dr. Graham believes that more handicapped children will be found as the program develops and projects the figures, on the basis of population and cither factors, into the number which may need special attention. The Canal Zone program, Dr. Graham says, may take a year to two years to get underway. On the basis of the preliminary survey, programs for two types, children with speech defects and the mentally handicapped, should be the first attempted. It is generally advisable, Dr. Graham says, to start programs of this sort with younger children and children in the lower grades. Another plan would be to arrange most of the services, in the beginning, in the elementary schools, but allow time in the schedule for work with the more severely handicapped children in the Junior or Senior High Schools. lie recommends that a competent director, one or two qualified educational psychologists, and one or two speech correctionists be employed for the program. Although he believes that classes for mentally retarded children should be among the first planned, he adds that these should not be started until after a director has been employed and has sized up the Canal Zone's problems, which include such matters as selecting a teacher, choosing and equipping rooms, and developing the standard for the operation. One of the most important aspects of the whole program, Dr. Graham indicates, is the use of properly-qualified psychologists. Their service, he says, is a "must" in cases of mentally handicapped children, while better educational programs for deaf, blind, crippled, and other handicapped will result from their careful diagnosis of each child in the program. Dr. Graham considers (5fe page 16) F. G. Dunsmoor has been promoted to the new post of Deputy Executive Secretary. He remains Administrative Assistant to the Governor-President. Canal Zone Shocked At Sudden Death This Week Of John T. Ridgely, Panama Railroad Consultant The Canal Zone this week was shocked at the sudden death of John T. Ridgely, only five days after he had arrived on the Isthmus to assist in implementing plans for improvement of the Panama Railroad. Mr. Ridgely died last Tuesday morning in Gorgas Hospital where he had been a patient less than 24 hours. He had not felt well during the day, Monday, and was unable to go to the office which had been provided for him at the Administration Building at Balboa Heights. Mr. Ridgely, who spent several weeks here last year making a study of the railroad for the Panama Canal subcommittee of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, was here as a special consultant for the Panama Canal Company. To Have Begun Consultations On Monday he was to have begun a series of meetings with representatives of the Panama Canal Company and the Armed Forces to solve problems involved in returning freight and passenger business to the Panama Railroad. Because of his many years of operating experience with Hie Pennsylvania Hailroad, of which he was a retired vice president, he was to have had more responsibility than is normally given a consultant as he was not only to have made a further study of improved railroad operations but was also to assist in carrying out the recommendations of the Congressional Subcommittee. Since one of the major problems of the railroad is the return of business from various l'. S. Government agencies here, including the military services, Mr. Ridgely was working with the Joint Transportation I loordinating Hoard which was established recently by Governor Potter and the Commanding General of the Caribbean Command to study local transportation problems. The Board is headed by B. I. Everson, Director of the Transportation and Terminals Bureau, of which the Railroad Division is a part. Other members are: Richard Erbe, of the Panama Canal Company's Executive Planning Staff; Comdr. W. R. May, Supply and Services Officer for the Caribbean Command; Col. D. A. King, Transportation Officer for USARCARIB; Capt. Elmer Moore, Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics for the loth Naval District; and Col. D. T. Jones Deputy Chief of Staff for Materiel for the Caribbean Air Command. They will attempt to work out schedules to meet the needs of the railroad's present customers and to attract additional ones. If possible, service will be expanded to the maximum possible with equipment now available. This could mean that railroad "motor cars" would replace school busses to can)' junior and senior high school students to and from Gamboa and Balboa and, even. that the motor cars would be used to supplement or replace trains on trans[sthmiarj runs. Meanwhile the railroad has proceeded with some changes which are in line with Mr. Ridgely 's previous studies and report. Bids will be opened April 1 1 for the purchase of mechanical refrigeration units for six refrigerated cars which are now ice-cooled. This change will permit transportation of frosted f Is by rail. Industrial Division shops are manufacturing an experimental support for semitrailers used in the so-called "piggy back" operation. This support, or brace, will be installed on Hat cars to hold the front end of the trailer in place. Other measures to expand service or reduce costs are being studied and will be instituted.

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April 5, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW "Sign right here" says Chief Deputy Clerk of the Court Sara de la Pefia as she issues a marriage license to Sharen Lea Hammond and Ricardo M. Lomedico. Marriage Licenses From District Court Set Canal Zone Wedding Chimes Ringing Love is still love, but sordid finance is beginning to enter the picture in the Canal Zone's Romance Department the clerk's offices in the United States District Courts at Ancon and Cristobal where all Canal Zone marriage licenses are issued. June, which still rhymes with moon and croon, has for years been the most popular month for Canal Zone weddings. But since income tax came along, more and more marriage licenses are being issued in December, just in time for the new husband to claim his bride as a yearlong dependent. Recently, when Sara de la Pefia and Lois Harrison totted up the number of marriage licenses they had issued during 1956 at the District Court in Ancon — 321 for them while the Cristobal office issued 175 — they discovered that December is giving June a close run with its brides. Only six fewer couples had applied for licenses in December than in June, and 10 of December's licenses had been issued between Christmas and the end of the year. When they look back over their old marriage statistics, they discount one December. That was the December of 1941, long before Zonians had to pay income tax. It was Pearl Harbor month and here, like everywhere else, young people got married, well, just in case. The 83 licenses issued at Ancon that month still stand as a local record. The Canal Zone Code provides that any one who wants to be married in the Canal Zone must first get a license from the Office of the Clerk of the District Court. Any Zonian, regardless of nationality, may obtain a marriage license, provided he qualifies as to age, marital status, etc. Any American citizen, regardless of where he lives, may get a Canal Zone marriage license. Any transients may be married in the Canal Zone, so long as they do not intend to reside in the Republic of Panama, and so may citizens of Panama, living in Panama, provided that they have first been issued a mariage license in their own country. According to the Code, the Governor of the Canal Zone prescribes the forms of the application to marry and of the marriage certificate which accompanies the license and which is filled out by the officiating minister or magistrate. Since these forms haven't been changed for at least two generations, it's a safe bet that no Governor for the past 20 years has thought much about this part of his duties, one way or another. In the Canal Zone there is no waiting period between the time the license is issued and the ceremony performed, as there is in many parts of the United States, nor are blood tests required. A boy may marry at 21 and a girl at 18 without their parents' consent; if the parents approve, licenses may be issued to boys as young as 17 and girls of 14. First cousins may not marry and neither may lepers, unless the latter have the written approval of the Health Director. Mexican proxy divorces are not honored in the Canal Zone and those divorced in this fashion may not be married here. The job of issuing marriage licenses is usually a happy one. In most cases the about-to-be married are delighted to be in that state and often pass their happiness on, in strange ways. One couple was so pleased when Mrs. Harrison stayed overtime to issue their marriage license that they promised to name after her all of the six children they were sure they were going to have. Not long ago a couple came to the Ancon Court to find out whether a license issued to them 15 years earlier was still valid. They explained that they had been trying to make up their minds whether they were suited for each other. They apparently had decided, for they were married. Sometimes marriage licenses are issued just in time to beat the stork and once in a while the stork wins the race. Not long ago Mrs. Harrison was called to Gorgas Hospital to issue a marriage license. When she and a minister arrived simultaneously, the about-to-be newlyweds were already parents. By far the greatest percentage of marriage licenses are issued over the counters of the District Court's offices in Ancon and Cristobal, although the court clerks may go anywhere necessary in case of an emergency. They have made trips to the Palo Seco Leprosarium to issue licenses and to both Canal Zone hospitals. Marriage licenses are usually issued to couples who apply singly for them, although once in a while two couples who are close friends or relatives and who are going to be married in a double ceremony, or within a few days of each other, will apply at the same time. In April 194P, however, after much of Colon was destroyed by fire, there was a run on the Cristobal office for marriage licenses since couples who wanted to move into the Canal Zone could not do so unless they were legally married. Eighteen of these couples were married in a mass ceremony at the Cristobal Magistrate's Court. Sometimes the matter of issuing marraiges licenses is like reading the middle of a book without knowing how it began or how it ends. One day a pretty youDg girl applied at the court in Ancon for a license to marry a man much older than herself. Four days later she was back, looking a bit embarrassed, with a different, much younger man in tow. She didn't explain what had happened to prospective bridegroom No. 1. Another time a woman well over 60 applied for a license to wed a man in his twenties. She was proud as punch of her future husband, whom she'd outfitted in splendid wedding finery. They were married, but a few days later the disconsolate bride was back to report that her husband had "flown away," taking all of her savings with him. Miss de la Pefia, Chief Deputy Clerk of the District Court in Ancon, is a child of the first marriage performed on the Atlantic side of the Canal Zone. Her parents were Luis de la Pefia, of Brooklyn, N. Y. and Emilia Maulini, of Cuba. Mr. De la Pefia and his bride had met in Cuba while he was working there with Col. W. C. Gorgas on yellow fever. They were married February 8, 1905, by Municipal Judge M. C. Rerdell, of Cristobal. The first American citizen to be issued a marriage license in Ancon was Dr. Emmet Ireland Vaughn, who had come from Kentucky to serve an internship here. His bride, with whom he appeared for a license on April 30, 1906, was Emma L. Kennedy, a Canadian. Witnesses for their wedding were Colonel Gorgas and Edward J. Carter, United States Counsul.

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 5, 1957 FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE i-MM. LJL !<& CCIDENT PREVENTION SAFETY FIELD DAY DON'T JAYWALK HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD FEBRUARY MARINE BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Civil Affairs 1 Health 1 Marine 1 Supply and Employee Service 1 Engineering and Construction Transportation and Terminals Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES FEBRUARY NAVIGATION DIVISION LOCKS DIVISION DREDGING DIVISION HOUSING AND GROUNDS DIVISION INDUSTRIAL DIVISION ELECTRICAL DIVISION MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION RAILROAD DIVISION STOREHOUSE DIVISION FIRE DIVISION AIDS TO NAVIGATION SANITATION DIVISION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Aids to Navigation 2 Electrical 2 Fire. 2 Housing and Grounds 2 Industrial 2 Locks 2 Motor Transportation 2 Railroad 2 Sanitation 2 Storehouses 2 Commissary and Service Center Dredging Hospitals and Clinics Maintenance Navigation Police Terminals In the States many industries set aside! a date each year for a "field day" in' which the theme is Safety. If the time] of the year is right, it is often held in an] outdoor area and put on in the spirit ofj a carnival or picnic. When the weather. is cold and stormy, a large building is selected, where safety exhibits can be set up and safety education demonstrated. We are fortunate, here on the Isthmus, to have ideal weather during the "dry season" for just such events as an outdoor "Safety Field Day." This year meetings were called by the Rainbow City Civic Council and plans were laid for them to sponsor a SAFETY FIELD DAY in building 1922, Cristobal, formerly the Camp Bierd Commissary, on Saturday, April 13, 1957. However, in spite of the promise of good weather by the Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch, the members of the Safety Field Day Committee, who know the weather on the "Gold Coast" from long experience, thought it best to have the exhibits in a building should the dry season decide to end on that day. The plans, at the time of writing this article, call for the opening ceremonies to commence at 9 a. m. after the morning train has arrived from the Pacific side, with flag raising and music by the Rainbow City High School Band and possibly by an Army band, who have been invited. The principal speakers will be introduced by the master of ceremonies in the Camp Bierd Theater, after which they will proceed to the Exhibit Hall, building 1922, where Lt. Gov. H. W. SchullJr., as principal speaker will officially open the exhibits. During the morning several demonstrations and contests will be held. The Fire Division is planning a demonstration of their rescue equipment and fire appaiatus. The Police Division plans to demonstrate safe driving in traffic by showing the braking distance required to stop an automobile at various speeds. The Motor Transportation Division will have a wrecked car by which they will demonstrate the folly of mixing excessive speed with alcohol. The Navigation Division seamen have challenged the winning team of the Lock's Line-Throwing Contest, to see which can throw a hand-line, weighted at one end with a "monkey fist," the most accurately at a distance comparable to tossing a line aboard a ship approaching the Locks. The main event will be a First Aid Contest in which many units will enter a team. The Pacific side, which sponsored the "Safety Field Day" last year in Paraiso, is preparing to send over their First Aid teams to challenge the Atlantic side teams. If there are enough Civil Defense teams from both sides of the Isthmus entered, the plans now call for a special Civil Defense First Aid Contest in addition to the regular industrial teams First Aid Contest. All in all, it will be a great day for everybody both young and old. The public is invited and there will be hot dogs, sandwiches, and soft drinks for sale. COME PREPARED TO HAVE A GOOD TIME SAFELY FREQUENCY RATE Disabling injuries per 1,1 hours worked. I employeeFEBRUARY 1957 BUREAU Marine Bureau Supply and Employee Service Bureau C. Z. Govl. Panama Canal Co. This Month Engineering and Construction Bureau Transportation and Terminals Bureau Health Bureau Civil Affairs Bureau Number of Disabling Injuries 6 Employee-hours worked LEGEND Frequency Rate this month Accumulative Frequency Rale this Calendar Year 3 1954-1955-1956 Calendar Year Average

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April 5, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Diane Jacobs Marcia Lewis Efe Melinda Marshall Carol Perantie These five young people should have no trouble entering any college of their choice. They hold letters from the Merit Scholarship Corporation signifying that they are among the top group of those who took the Scholarship Qualification Test which was given October 24, in high schools all over the United States and in some overseas areas where there are United States high schools. The quintet above, all seniors at Balboa High School, are the first Canal Zone students to hold this honor. Diane Jacobs, far left, also qualified for the National Honor Society Tests, as one of 1,309 National Honor Society members out of 40,166 who took the Scholarship Qualification Test. The results of the National Honor Society Test, given March 19, have not yet been received. New safety regulations, covering the motor transportation of Company-Government personnel to and from their jobs on the Isthmus were issued recently at Balboa Heights. All pickup, dump, and stake-body trucks used for this purpose are to be equipped with securely anchored seats, a rear-end gate, a strap or rail, and guard rails along either side. The men are to enter and leave the trucks by steps or ladders. Tools, equipment, and cargo are to be stowed securely when they are transported in the same vehicle with the men. Vehicles are not to be loaded beyond their capacity either for transporting personnel or towing equipment. Supervisory personnel for employees so transported shall be responsible for compliance with these requirements, the memorandum to all Bureau Directors said. Gerald A. Doyle Jr. has been appointed Chief of the Architectural Branch of the Engineering Division. The appointment was announced by Col. Hugh M. Arnold, Engineering and Construction Director. Air. Doyle, a native of Cleveland, Ohio, studied architecture at Western Reserve University in Cleveland, L'Ecole Americaine des Beaux Arts in Paris, and holds a Master's Degree from Harvard University. He has been with the Canal organization since 1948. In his spare time, he is an amateur archaeologist and has made a number of trips into the less-frequently explored Indian regions of the Republic. A map of Culebra, with photographs of t'ae several officials' houses once located there, is now on display in the Canal Zone Library Museum in the lobby of the Civil Affairs Building. The map was prepared for the January meeting of the Board of Directors who spent part of one day at the old construction-day headquarters town, watching the flow of traffic through the Cut below. The map is mounted in a mahogany frame and is approximately five by eight feet. A short history of Culebra and a map locating it in relation with the waterway, are posted in the lower right-hand corner of the map. Registrations will be accepted next Thursday and Friday, April 11 and 12, for spring term classes given here by the Florida State University's Canal Zone program. Classes begin April 15. The spring session will end June 6. The classes are open to all U. S. citizens, civilian or military, who are high school graduates or who hold a high school equivalency certificate. Courses are given two evenings a week, Tuesday and Thursday, for some classes and Monday and Wednesday for others. Subjects scheduled include: Elementary Spanish, Commercial Spanish, and a course in the Introduction to Hispanic Civilization, Basic Mathematics, College Algebra, Political Science, History of the United States, General Psychology, Principles of Economics, Business Law, and Latin American History. Some of the classes will meet at Fort Clayton, others at Albrook AFB, Fort Kobbe. or Fort Davis. Three members of the Canal Zone Library Staff turned their talents to judging last month. Serving as a committee to judge entries to the fifth Army-wide Library publicity committee were: Mrs. Eleanor Burnham, as chairman, Mrs. Ruth Miller, and Mrs. Alice Turner. The prize-winning scrapbook is to be sent to Washington this month. There it will be entered in the Army-wide publicity contest sponsored by the Adjutant General. W CIVIL DEFENSE NEWS Jwigk. a -fej^fc. Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. Printed by the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone W. E. Potter, Governor-President H. W. Schull, Jr., Lieutenant Governor W. G. Arey, Jr., Public Information Officer J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny, Assistant Editor On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights. C. Z. Twenty-five Canal Zone men and women from both sides of the Isthmus recently attended a briefing on radiological warfare and monitoring at the Damage Control School at Fort Clayton. The briefing was under the direction of Col. J. P. Appel and was arranged by E. C. Browder. Jr., Radiological Officer of the Company-Government Civil Defense Corps. Those attending the session were: Mrs. Lucille Flenniken, Mrs. Bertha E. Haves, Mrs. Maud I. Lynch, Mrs. Ethel Jofiffe, Mrs. Evelyn R. Condon, Mrs. Ceale G. Marceau, Mrs. Patricia A. Abbel, Mrs. N. May Stokes, Mrs. H. G. Appel, Roy Burr, Harold Tinnin, Richard Cox, Earl Orr, Christian Wirtz, W. L. Ney, M. E. Stone, R. G. Turner, D. R. Boyer. Sherman Brooks L. A. Kaufer, E. J. Friedrich, J. L. Hickey, W. E. Garner, Howard Engelke, and Roger Howe. Philip L. Dade, Chief of Civil Defense, is attending the Civil Defense Staff College at Battle Creek, Mich. Mr. Dade left the Isthmus March 23 and will be away about two months. During his absence, James Barrett will supervise the Volunteer Corps Program. First aid equipment, radiological equipment, and "Grandma's Pantry'' — or what each family should have as an emergency food supply — were demonstrated by the Civil Defense in the Armed Forces Day display at Albrook Air Force Base List month. Visitors to the exhibit were also given instructive pamphlets. APRIL VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS Rubelio D. Ouiniero, Engineering Division, is in Cleveland, Ohio, attending General Electric's Advanced Lighting Application Conference. Margarita Service Center 9 a. m. Balboa USO-JWB 9 a. m. Rainbow City School 6:30 p. m Gam boa Civic Center 8:30 a. m Santa Cruz Service Center 8 p. m. Paraiso School Gatun Service Center 8:30 a. m Diablo Service Center 9 a. m.

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Up and Down Go The Ships Tour begins as visitor arriving at Miraflores Locks has bag inspected by Lt. E. J. Shepherd, Security Commander. Fred Berest, Tour Leader-Interpreter, explains guide booklet to young tourist who flew down from New York for her first look at the Panama Canal. Lock Tour Guides Explain To Visitors How It's Done "Do they let all the water out of the locks before they remove the ship?" a wide-eyed tourist asked one of the Panama Canal's Tour Leader-Interpreters the other day. Without a change of ex pression, he answered her question with the same seriousness with which he carefully answers the other hundreds of questions he hears every day. The necessity for some kind of orientation program became apparent during the meeting of American Presidents last year. The first step was the visitors' stand at Miraflores. Since then, the flow of tourists to the Miraflores Locks has been increasing monthly. In February, they totaled 5,468 compared to 3,709 in January. With this continuous increase it has become necessary to assign two men to the special duty of orientation of visitors. E. J. Michaelis and Fred Berest, of the Lock Security Force, who speak both English and Spanish, were selected to explain the operation of the locks, the history of the Canal and its significance in relation to world commerce— and to answer questions like that above. The continuing increase in visitors may be seen in the statistics for 1953 through 1956. The figures for these years are as follows: 1953 17,641 1955 24,163 1954 19,738 1956 28,473 E. J. Michaelis, Tour Leader-Interpreter, explains construction of Locks to a large contingent of visitors. The flow of visitors to the Locks includes not only tourists but also families and friends of servicemen stationed on the Isthmus, with various clubs from the Republic of Panama frequently taking the tour.

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Tourists seated in the visitors stand watch a double lockage while E. J. Michaelis explains the operation. From this vantage point, visitors have a good view of ships entering or leaving the Locks at Miraflores. Map orientation is an important part of the tour as visitors are often confused concerning directions on the Isthmus. Above, E. J. Michaelis traces the route of the Canal on a map in the visitors stand for a photographer. Tourists find the towing locomotives, which are called "mules," of particular interest. Above, E. J. Michaelis explains how they are used for moving ships into the Locks and how operators receive signals from tower. The Tour Leaders must see to it that tourists obey safety regulations. Above, E. J. Michaelis points out the yellow safety line painted along the edge of the lock chamber to a lady who had crossed it for a better look. Below, tourists, accompanied by Fred Berest, get a close-up look at a ship in the lock chamber. While explaining the locking process, the Tour Leader keeps watch to see that no one enters a danger zone. When the group is small, they are taken on a tour of the control tower. Below, E. J. Michaelis points out the miniature gates on the control panel and explains how the large gates are controlled from this point.

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10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Apiil 5, 1957 Nicaragua, Atrato River Closely Rivaled Panama As Route For Interoceanic Canal EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third of a series of five articles on the Isthmian Canal problem. Some 50,000 residents of the Isthmus of Panama might well have been residing in Nicaragua tod ly, exc spt for a few relatively minor but fac?ful turns in history 55 years ago. The construction of a Nicaragua!] Canal instead of a Panama Canal came within a politician's breath of being an actuality in 1902. Although the United State's Government decided by an overwhelming vote in both the Senate and House of Representatives to build the Panama Canal, the House had previously approved the Nicaragua route. The Panama project might well have lost had it not been for the all-out backing of Senator Mark Hanna, of Ohio, one of the most powei'ful political influences of his generation in United States' affairs. Of the eight principal canal routes through the American Isthmus, two Nicaragua and Atrato have rivaled the Panama route in popularity, in entertaining history, and in the number of surveys. Also, they are the closest Panama rivals in construction costs, differing only by about one billion dollars Nicaragua as a lock canal, and Atrato as a sea-level waterway. Therefore, neither today is completely out of consideration as an interoceanic canal possibility although, undoubtedly, more than economic considerations would be needed for their construction. The long bitter fight in the United States over the canal routes at the turn of this century had its roots in more than 50 years of history. It flared brilliantly about 1850 in rivalry for the possession of an overland or a canal route to California between groups of financiers, which resulted in the construction of the Panama Railroad. Students of Panama and Nicaragua history are entranced by the colorful story of the fight of the routes. It is told in great detail in Gerstle Mack's The Land Divided and in Miles P. Duval's And The Mountains Will Move. The history of the Atrato route is also colorful but without evidences of the rancor the other main rivals developed. About 100 years before the Panama Canal was opened to ship traffic, cartographers showed an Atrato Canal on their maps of the New World. The Canal, supposedly, had been in existence since 1788. It was then called the Raspadura Canal and joined the San Juan and Atrato rivers. A claim to the first announcement to the outside world of the existence of the Raspadura Canal was made by the noted German scientist and geographer, Baron Alexander von Humboldt. The following note appeared in the early ISOO's in his voluminous writings about his explorations in the New World: "In the interior of the province of Choco, the small ravine, de la Raspadura, unites the neighboring sources of the Rio San Juan and the small river Quito (a tributary of the Atrato). A monk of great activity, cure of the village of Novita, employed his parishioners to dig a small canal in the ravine de la Raspadura, by means of which, when the rains are abundant, canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea. This interior communication has existed since 1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal unites, on the coasts of the two oceans, two points 75 leagues distant from one another." Despite its unimportance commercially and despite doubt even as to its existence, the publicity achieved aroused great en thusiasm and even resulted in the organization of the Atrato and San Juan Canal and Transportation Company in 1851. It was one of two canal concessions granted by the Government of New Granada at the same time, the other being for a canal using the Atrato and Napipi rivers. Promoters of the latter called it the Humboldt Line to lend a more authentic air to their prospectus and encourage the investment of capital. Promoters of both routes painted glowing pictures of their plans but included few facts. Capital, needing more than high promises, was not attracted and the charters were later annulled. It is interesting to note that Humboldt suggested both the Napipi and San Juan routes as among the five possible canal locations. Others mentioned were Tehauntepec, Nicaragua, and Panama. He indicated his preference for Nicaragua, with the Atrato-Napipi as second, and Panama third. Oddly, Humboldt was never within a hundred miles of any one of the canal routes he suggested, but his writings, based on information then available, were sound. They attracted worldwide attention and undoubtedly constituted a great contribution to investigations and surveys which later followed. The Atrato region had lain dormant so far as world attention was concerned for more than 200 years when Humboldt recommended it as a canal possibility. It was one of the first areas to be explored and settled after visits by Columbus in 1498 and 1502. Some of the earliest proposals for a canal Darned the route between the Gulf of Darien and San Miguel Hay as one of the four most advantageous These are (he consultants on the 1 947 Canal studies. Left to right, they are: Joel D. Justin, H. H. Hill, Gen. Hans Kramer, Gen. J. H. Stiatton, Gov. J. C. Mehaffey, W. H. McAlpine, Adm. Ben Moreel, Prof. N. A. Bakhmeteff.

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All Nicaragua routes studied in 1947 end at Greytown. Three use Lake Managua; the others go on to Lake Nicaragua. of the American isthmus. This selection, however, probably came from inaccurate maps of the day for apparently no serious effort was made for an on-the-ground investigation such as those on the Tehauntepec, Nicaragua, and Panama routes. When Philip II ascended the Spanish throne in 1555, the policy on transit rights across the isthmus was reversed. Since the Atrato offered the best transit possibilities, Philip forbade navigation on the river under penalty of death, thus effectively sealing it for more than 200 years. Most of the canal surveys and explorations in the region, both actual and claimed, have been made within the past century. Many of these resulted in fraudulent claims. None cast any doubt about the practicability of an Atrato Canal, but most of the more thorough surveys resulted in recommendations for another location when comparisons were made. Because of its width, depth, length, and route, the Atrato River lends itself favorably to consideration as a canal channel. It is more than 1,000 feet wide and 50 feet deep as far as 60 miles upstream. It rises near the Pacific coast and flows approximately 150 miles on a course nearly parallel to the coast, where it turns and flows 60 miles more into the Gulf of Darien. The San Juan River, to which the Atrato has mostly been linked as a canal route and with which it was supposedly linked in actuality by the Raspadura Canal, rises only a short distance from the headwaters of the Atrato and flows southward for 150 miles. It is one of the largest rivers in northern South America. Six Atrato routes were studied in the 1947 investigations, with the AtratoTruando being selected as the best route. The others are named from small rivers rising near the continental divide just opposite the Atrato and flowing into the Pacific. In the rash of canal investigations and plans which came after Humboldt's writings, cursorv investigations were made in 1824, 1827," and 1847 by officers of the British Navy. The earliest of these resulted in the lowest estimate ever made for an isthmian canal $500,000 as compared with over $4,000,000,000 estimated in 1947. The first instrument survey and thorough exploration was undertaken in 1852 by John C. Trautwine, one of the surveyors and builders of the Panama Railroad. His report was exceedingly gloomy and he expressed the opinion that none of the routes was worthy of further attention. He lightened his report somewhat by expressing the opinion that a canal might be cut from the Atrato to Cupica Bay, slightly off the Atrato Napipi route for §325,000,000, a staggering sum in those days. Many other surveys followed Trautwine's exploration, several under the official sponsorship of the United States Government under agreement with New Granada and later Colombia. These continued sporadically until shortly before the Panama Canal was opened and each is an interesting story alone. The last of these was in 1912 by two U. S. Army officers, one of whom was Capt. (later Gen.) Frank R. McCoy, who investigated two plans, advocated a few years before, which proposed Cupica Bay as the Pacific terminal. The two officers found nothing new in the two plans, one being only a slight variation of the Napipi River route, which the officers described as "the traditional salt trail or portage from river to sea in the time it takes to smoke a cigar." This ended all consideration of an Atrato canal until the 1947 Studies were authorized. Most of the material used by the Special Engineering Division in evaluating the relative merits of the various Atrato routes was taken from these earlier surveys, supplemented by additional material obtained from the Tropical Oil Company. This had been gathered in its extensive explorations for oil and mineral deposits. The last survey was jointly made by the United States and Colombia in early 1949 under the direction of Lt. Col. David McCoach III, at the request of Secretary of the Army Kenneth C. Royall. This two-month field survey, aided by aerial reconnaisance, added little of value to what was already known. The report was submitted as an addendum to the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947 report. While the special report stated that either a sea-level or lock canal was practical, it indicated that the cost of the former would be $5,261,000,000, nearly a billion dollars more than the original report. The cost of a lock canal, not estimated in the 1947 Studies because of the obvious high cost, was estimated at $4,147,000,000. While actual field surveys were needed at Atrato to establish reasonably accurate estimates on excavation and costs, such was not needed on the Nicaraguan route. Enough surveyors and would be canal builders have tramped across Nicaragua to wear tow-paths along the banks of the proposed canal. When the big lakes in Nicaragua were discovered in the early 1500's, they aroused immediate interest in their usefulness for a canal. Although scant material is available, a canal was suggested for Nicaragua after a route was explored in 1529. Interest was revived 25 years later by the publication of two books, one of which, according to Gerstle Mack in The Land Divided, described the route In Nicaragua, young Lt. "Joe" Potter made a pet of a tropical coati mundi.

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12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 5, 1957 "through Xaquator, a river of Nicaragua, which springeth out of a lake three or four leagues from the South Sea, and falleth into the North Sea; whereupon doe saile great barks and erayers (small trading vessels)." From that time until this very day, interest in the Nicaragua route has been nearly incessant and, most times, violent. The international complications over the route have perhaps been the most complex of any of the eight main routes. Serious studies of Nicaragua, with the objective of constructing a canal, began in 1837 under the sponsorship of the ten confederated states which today include Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. This was not completed because of a dissolution of the federation. Nicaragua granted a canal concession in L850 to the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company but this lapsed without any actual construction. Extensive surveys were made in 1872-73, 1885-93, and between 1S97 and 1901 by the Nicaragua Canal Commission, and the first Isthmian Canal Commission which first recommended the Nicaragua route and later changed its recommendation in favor of Panama after the French Canal Company agreed to sell its rights and concessions for $40,000,000. A comprehensive study of the Nicaragua route was made in 1929-31 by a provisional Engineer Survey Battalion of the U. S. Army under the direction of Lt. Col. Daniel I. Sultan. An active participant in that survey was a young lieutenant called "Joe" Potter who was destined nearly 30 years later to head the Panama Canal enterprise. This survey incorporated data from previous studies and obtained sufficient additional data to fix the best alignment; establish lock locations and designs; and determine hydraulic requirements. The United States Army interoceanic Canal Board reviewed the Sultan report and agreed that a Nicaraguan lock canal was practicable but concluded that construction of a third set of locks for the Panama Canal and subsequent conversion of the Panama Canal to sea level was the nmst feasible method of increasing the facilities fur interoceanic traffic. Seven Nicaraguan routes were investigated by the Special Engineering Division in the 1947 Studies. These ranged in length from 167 miles to 300 miles. All of these had a eommon alignment from the Atlantic through the Deseado and San Juan rivers to Lake Nicaragua. Three of these mutes exited across the continental divide from Lake Nicaragua and followed Separate alignments to the Pacific, while the other three turned north across Lake Nicaragua, to cross Lake Managua and the divide and reach the Pacific Ocean over different routes. The seventh was one skirting Lake Nicaragua and was itudied primarily as a possible route for level canal. The wealth of data available on the Nicaragua routes made the selection a comparatively simple matter. The choice was the selection of the Greytown-BritO route, the same made nearly 20 years earlier by Sultan. The following brief summary in the I'iIT report describe tieroute and the canal plans, in part, as developed for e tibial mu r purposes: "A lock canal on any route through Lake Nicaragua would be entirely feasShortages in stock and deficiencies in service were discussed at length at a recent commissary forum for representatives of the Canal Zone's Latin American communities and organizations. While there was some criticism of poor service in practically all commissaries, the customers' representatives were inclined to be somewhat more lenient about this than representatives of the Commissary itself. "Service isn't what it was," one representative said, "but we have to take into account that in the grocery section of our store we have practically a new stock of girls and they have to work themselves into their new situation." W. H. Crook, Supply and Employee Service Director, pointed out, however, that because of the bumping procedures in the large force reduction in December, many employees had been assigned to new duties, and it is possible that some of them had not yet become familiar with their new duties. He added that by now the employees should be becoming competent in the new sections in which they are assigned and that where it is seen that employees have failed to become competent in their new duties they will have to be replaced. As usual, the forum began with a report on suggestions made at previous meetings. As the result of such suggestions, Mr. Crook said, the commissaries are now stocking several new shades of face powder. A four-item checkout stand has been installed at the Santa Cruz Commissary. Several new items of women's lingerie, including shadow-proof cotton slips, have been ordered and a new stock of gloves will be here in time for Easter. Boys' shirts in larger sizes are now stocked regularly and others are on order; size 20, however, is not available. The Rainbow City Commissary is being rearranged, Mr. Crook told the forum, and a men's fitting room will be provided. Prepackaged meat, such as steaks and ible, but the Greytown-Brito Route is the most favorable. The plan adopted for a lock canal on the Greytown-Brito alignment is similar to that proposed by Lt. Col. Sultan, modified to include locks and other facilities adequate for future needs. Lake Nicaragua would be regulated between the limits of 105 and 110 feet above sea level to furnish water for lockages. The lake channel would be extended westward by a cut through the continental divide to locks on the Pacific slope. Dropping through the Pacific locks, the canal would extend at sea level through an artificial entrance and improved harbor to deep water in the Pacific Ocean near Brito. Last of Lake Nicaragua, the canal would continue at summit level to the Atlantic Locks on the eastern slope of the east divide, within 17 miles of the Atlantic I Icean." A sea-level route except at most exorbitant costs was manifestly unfeasible due to the necessity of draining the 1(10 x 1(1 mile lake. The changes this would bring tn Nicaraguan life and economy are too drastic to permit consideration. chops, was provided for some commissaries during pay-week, but the sale of these was less than had been expected. Arrangements have been made for earlier deliveries of fruit and vegetables and, barring unforseen circumstances, these should be on hand when the retail stores open. David White, of Rainbow City, asked about deliveries of ice cream when it is purchased in considerable quantity. Mr. Crook agreed that delivery of special ice cream orders of $2 or over, placed the day before delivery was desired, would be made in the larger Latin American communities on a special order basis. Delivery will be limited to 2:00 p. m. at Paraiso, Santa Cruz, and Rainbow City, and 3:30 p. m. at La Boca. This solution was acceptable to civic council representatives. Several customers reported that they have been unable to get such staple items as khaki pants, hosiery, neckties, stretchsocks, sport shirts of a name-brand, and men's work trousers. In all cases, they learned that these items were ordered and should be on sale soon. Residents of Paraiso reported no improvements in the situation there, in which bread and some cold storage items were frequently not available in the store before 11 a. m. Commissary representatives said that both bread and cold storage were shipped in time to be on hand well before the commissary opened, but Hamilton Lavalas of Paraiso pointed out the possibility that there was no personnel to unload these. Mr. Crook said that this matter would be studied and the situation corrected. In connection with safety shoes, the customers' representatives were told that the commissaries plan to continue the same styles that they have handled for some time. The heavy buying just before the end of December cut into these stocks, but a new shipment arrived just before the forum was held. In connection with shoes, Commissary representatives said that display racks in shoe sections will be provided and that measuring machines will be located so that more customers will see and use them. Those attending the forum were: Jefferson Joseph, Mrs. Rita Anderson, Mrs. Doris 1'arnther. Kenneth Weeks, 1). E. White, and Mrs. Ivy Clarke of Rainbow Citv Civic Council; Mrs. W. Lavne, Mrs. Gladys Sandiford, E. S. Walrdnd, G. Llewelyn, Mrs. Josephine Soley, and Mrs. M. Loredo of La Boca Civic Council; Miss Violet Henry, Harold Spencer, Mrs. E. Inniss, Mrs. B. Small, Mrs. 0. Millett. Mrs. E. Bennett, and Mrs. E. McFarlane of Santa Cruz Civic Council; E. L. Fawcett, Thomas Sawyers, Mrs. Mildred Sawyers, Mrs. Ruth Smith, Eric Oakley, Cyril Atherley, Mrs. In,-/. McKenzie, Alfonso Alexis, and Hamilton Lavalas of Paraiso Civic Council; and R. L Sullivan, T. G. Relihan.,1. F. Manning, W. C. Pain. John M. Brown, C. P. Shay. V. J. Huber, L. W. Mcllvaine, and Mrs. Gladys Conley of the Commissary Division.

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April 5, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Vital Statistics For Zone Is Job Of Doris Kintigh Floods and fires throw an extra load on Doris Kintigh's shoulders— not that she has to do with rescue or relief. Fires and floods, however, have a way of destroying important personal records, ^fim CAtfAVS HIST< THIS MONTH DORIS KINTIGH Keeper of Vital Statistics like birth and death certificates; it is her job to issue these in for the Canal Zone. Her Civil Service title, Examiner (General) (Typing) might mean anything, but her job is that of Registrar of Vital Statistics in and for the Canal Zone. The filing cases which line the walls of her little office on the second floor of the Administration Building contain the records, filed alphabetically and by years, of the more than 190,000 births and 130,000 deaths in the Canal Zone since 1904. Because she is the sole Vital Statistician, she qualifies for "The Review" singleton series. Precision and accuracy are essential as the records she keeps are important legal documents. Just try to get a passport, or join the Army, or enter a child in school without legal proof of birth, for instance! Because these records are such important parts of anyone's personal dossier, she is forever being asked to reissue them, if they are lost or destroyed, or to correct them, if some mistake had been made years ago. The other day, a young Zonian came into her office to have a birth certificate corrected. Until he wanted to enlist in the Army no one in his family had ever noticed that his father's first name had been incorrectly reported on his birth certificate as Robert when it should have been Ralph. This meant that Miss Kintigh (pronounced Kin-tee) had to go through old records and files and verify his claim that Ralph is the young man's father and that his name should have appeared on the birth certificate as Ralph. Since 680 boy babies and 555 girls were born in the Canal Zone in 1956 — about an average for the past decade or so — and since about 30 deaths occur in the Canal Zone every month, her job is a never-ending one. Beside the natural births she records and for which she issues certificates, she also is concerned with adoptions. In such cases, the child's original birth certificate is then sealed into {See paye 15) 50 Years Ago April in the Canal Zone 50 years ago, or at least the first part of April, was all Taft. Accompanied by members of the Isthmian Canal Commission and several Congressmen, the Secretary of War visited the. site of the proposed La Boca Dam, made a trip to the islands in the bay to look over a possible site for a quarantine station, and inspected Gatun Locks. There he was lowered in a bucket to the bottom of a test-pit in the center of the middle lock. He conferred with the President of Panama on various important matters which, according to the Star & Herald, included sale in the commissaries of articles "not necessary to life," and the status of Panamanians working for the railroad. He visited Culebra and Empire, amazing the men "along the line" with his memory of their names or jobs, discussed the paving and water system of Colon with a delegation from that city and, finally, held long talks with steamshovel men and locomotive engineers who wanted more money. Despite the steamshovel operators' threat that they would strike unless they got a raise, he refused to decide the question immediately but promised to study their requests. One result of his visit, the "Star & Herald" reported late in the month, icas that the Hotel Tivoli stopped selling wines and liquors. Harbor craft whistled a farewell and the ICC Band played Auld Lang Syne as the flag-bedecked SS Panama carried former Chief Engineer John F. Stevens away from the Isthmus. Before he sailed, he told the crowd which gathered to see him off that he firmly believed the Canal could be opened by January 1, 1915. The functions of Governor of the Canal Zone were transferred to the Chairman of the ICC from the General Counsel icho had exercised them since the departure of former Commissioner Charles E. Magoon. The "Star & Herald" commented acidly that the Counsel's administration had"consisted chiefly of upsetting the ably conceived and carefully executed arrangements of Governor Magoon." Canal Zone school enrollment in April, 1907, totaled 1,724; of these, only 182 were attending the "white" schools. A fire did $100,000 worth of damage to a Mount Hope icarehouse and its contents. 25 Years Ago April, 25 years ago, began with a bang. The American Steamship Owners Association proposed that the Panama Railroad Steamship Line halt its operations. Governor Harry Burgess was called to Washington for high-level conferences. A few days later, Zonians learned of President Hoover's recommendation to the House Economy Committee that not only the steamship line be abolished but also that the Army and Navy transport service be done away with. Zone labor and lodges swung into action They instructed their Washington representative, H. A. McConaughy, to oppose any such move. He was also to fight a $65 rate proposed by the Steamship Association, should the Panama Line ships be removed. On the Isthmus, Zonians also began plans to incorporate a local steamship line "to engage in activities similar to those of the present Panama Railroad Steamship Line . even using the same steamers, if possible." As the month ended, the House, by a vote of 178-32, struck from the Economy Hill the clause pertaining to the steamship line. Although Canal traffic showed an increase of seven transits above the previous month, tolls were the lowest of any month since February 1923. Canal officials announced that the Locks organization, effective September 1, would be reorganized into one Division, to be headed by E. D. Still well, then Superintendent of Gatun Locks. As an economy measure, the Printing Plant at Mount Hope reduced its workweek from six to five-and-a-half days. Contractors began clearing the reservoir area at Madden Dam. The saddle dams on the left bank were completed and the steel framework for an aerial tramway, the cablecar trestle and towers, cement silos, and classifying plant were being erected. The public received an invitation to visit the Dam site and see what was going on. 10 Years Ago Twelve members of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee spent several days here, looking into Zone affairs "as a prelude to enactment of legislation for Canal improvement and expansion." They saw Zone housing "at its best and worst" and on their return to Washington announced that improvement was needed. Rents, however, would have to be increased, they warned. With some 1,300 persons waiting passage on Panama Line ships, the AFGE started a move to charter planes to fly Zonians to the States for their first real post-war vacations. Three platypuses, traveling in luxury in a platypusary aboard the SS Pioneer Glen en route to the Bronx Zoo, were met here by a member of the zoo staff who brought with him 10,000 earthworms to tempt their jaded appetities. The platypuses, two of whom are still alive, bore the fancy names of Betty Hutton, Cecil, and Penelope. The Canal Administration announced that overtime pay would be extended to all workers effective May 4The new ruling would affect primarily those for whom overtime pay had not been authorized two years earlier. An Isthmian visitor, Assistant Secretary of War Howard C. Petersen, now a member of the Panama Canal Company Board of Directors, told local newsmen that the "War Department is deeply concerned in the settlement of the matter of Panama Canal defense sites." One Year Ago At the April meeting of the Board oi Directors, Gov. J. S. Seybold said that a sea-level canal is "both feasible and desirable and, in fact, inevitable."

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 5, 1957 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS February 75 through March 75 Employees who were promoted or transferred between February 15 and March 15 are listed below. Within-grade promotions are not reported. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Mrs. Nona C. Rhoton, Clerk-Stenographer, from Electrical Division to General Services Section. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Norman C. Slade, from Customs Guard to Customs Inspector. Customs Division. James D. Dunaway, from Transfer Clerk. Tocumen Airport Unit, to Cleik-in-Charge, Window Services, Balboa, Postal Division. Dick R. Brandom, from Postal Clerk, Mail Delivery Unit, to Clerk-in-Charge, Cits Division, Balboa, Postal Division. Milton J. Halley, from Window Clerk to Clerk-in-Charge, Window Service, Cristobal Main Office, Postal Division. Jacques K. Lally, from Window Clerk to Clerk-in-Charge. City Division, Cristobal Main Office, Postal Division. Harry H. Corn, from Foreman, Mail Handling Unit, to Relief Finance Branch Superintendent. Postal Division. Nolan A. Bissell, from Relief Finance Branch Superintendent to Foreman. Mail Handling Unit, Postal Division. Mrs. Jacquelyn H. Trevathan, Mrs. Sally R. Hudson, from Substitute Teacher to Elementary School Teacher, Division ol Schools. Mrs. Jean A. Violette, Clerk-Stenographer, from Division of Schools to Office of Director of Posts. Ronald E. Angermuller, from Commissary Supervisor, Commissary Division, to Customs Guard, Customs Division. Elden G. Rouse, James L. Phillips, Homer W. Watkins, Richard D. Duncan, from Firefighter Driver-Operator to Fire Sergeant, Fire Division. Miguel B. Picado, Richard B. Hoard, Peter J. Barr, Herman Hessel, Earl W. Wrenn, Paul H. Reynolds, from Firefighter to Fire Sergeant, Fire Division. William G. Dolan, from Fire Drillmaster to Fire Marshal. Fire Division. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Morris Waxman, from Supervising Accountant, I'l.uit Accounting Branch, to Auditor, Internal Audit Branch. Mrs. Alice E. O'Dell, from Clerk-Typist, Central Typing and Clerical Unit, to Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll Branch, Accounting I (ivision. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Hubert A. Rotenberry, from Towing Locomotive I Iperator, Atlantic Locks, to Lead Painter Foreman, Dredging Division. Gerald E. Cooper, from Dipper Dredge Mate to Operator, Dredging Division. Paul W. Mohl, from Heavy Equi| snl Operator, Maintenance Division, to Dipper Dredge Mate, Dredging Division. Edward P. Scott, from Towing Locomo RETIREMENTS Retirement certificates were presented the end of March to the following emploj ees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birthplaces, positions, length of Canal service and future addresses: Leon E. Dedeaux, Mississippi; Building Maintenance Lead Foreman, Maintenance Division; 30 years, 6 month-, 13 days; Gulfport, Miss. Mrs. May B. Duer, New York; File Clerk, Personnel Bureau; 12 j e 10 months, 14 days; Canal Zone. Albert McKeown, Canal Zone ; Lead Foreman Boilermaker, Industrial Division; 38 years, 4 months, 5 days; Florida. Harry W. Moist, West Virginia] I motive Machinist, Railroad Division; 1" years, 10 day.-.; Van Nuys, Calif. Benigno Seise, Puerto Rico; Floating Equipment Oiler, Dredging Division; 29 years, 4 months, 27 days; San Juan, Puerto Rico. tive Operator, Pacific Locks, to Heavv Equipment Operator. Maintenance Division. OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT Forrest G. Dunsmoor, from Administrative Assistant to Governor-President, to Administrative Assistant to Governor-President, Deputy Executive Secretary. HEALTH BUREAU Lt. Col. John G. Higgins, from Chief, Neuro-Psychiatric Section, Gorgas Hospital, to Superintendent, Corozal Hospital. Mrs. Mary B. Egolf, from Clerk-Typist to Secretary (Stenography!, Office of the Health Director. Mrs. Mary E. D. Hanna, from ClerkTypisl to Cash Accounting Clerk (Teller!, Gorgas Hospital. Mrs. Mary M. Costello, from ClerkDirt. uing Machine Transcriber to ClerkTypist, Gorgas Hospital. MARINE BUREAU Walter A. Cole, from Towboat Master to Pilot-in-Training, Navigation Division. John J. Alexaitis, Curtis H. Frazier, from Guard, Locks Security Branch, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Atlantic Locks. Joseph W. Van Geel, from Plant Electrician, Maintenance Division, to Wireman, Pacific Locks. Frank D. Harris, from Chief, Aids to Navigation Section, to Master. USS Taboga. Glenn M. Cramer, from Master, USS Tahnga, Aids to Navigation Section, to Pilot-in-Training, Navigation Division. Richard A. Johnson, from Substitute Window Clerk, Postal Division, to Guard, Locks Security Branch. SUPPLY AND EMPLOYEE SERVICE BUREAU Kerner E. Frauenheim, from Catering Manager to Assistant Manager, Tivoli ('.nest House. James O. DesLondes, from Supply Cataloging Supervisor to General Supply Officer, Division of Storehouses. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Irwin K. Meir, from Agent Operator to Train Dispatcher and Agent-Operator, Railroad Division, Vernon N. Bircher, from Third Officer, SS Cristobal, to Lead Stevedore Foreman, Terminals Division. ANNIVERSARIES 30 YEARS The senior 30-year man for March is Frederick W. Hensler whose continuous government service includes 2\ years in the Navy, during which time he attained the rank of Chief Warrant Boatswain. During his naval service, he served as Assistant Port Director in Cristobal and as offii ei in charge of a tugboat which operated out of Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico. A native of Fernandina, I la Mr. I [ens ler came to work in the Navigation Division, March 22. L948, as a Signalman on Flamenco I land and has now advanced to the position ol Dot k Foreman. At the time ol theexplosion aboard the MV Lisholt in 1954 Mi. Hensler was commended for his work in i in -il\ age i Derations. I hxee of the four ol hei emploj ee hi i completed 30 years of government service last month share the same service date, \l ii, I, !6, 1927, The) are listed below : Dr. Ezra Hurwitz, Superintendent, Palo 3eco I eprosarium, was si heduled foi rel ire inriii i,i-i mii after devoting most ol hi long i urn to work al I he Palo Sei o < lolony :,iii ceded to the wishes of the patients and the Government and is staying on as Sup rintem leni ili i hi -n \ ice includes a 1 n iel tour ol duty in the Arm) Medical < orps Dr. Hurwitz has been awarded the Order ol \ ,i i" Nunez de Balboa in the grade ol t omendator by the Republic ol P and the Decoration For Exceptional Civilian Service by the Department of the Army in recognition of his work at the Leprosarium. Julian Hackett, Telephone Maintainer in the Electrical Division, is a native of the Canal Zone, born in Paraiso when it was a construction-day town. Although Mr. Hackett's service is not continuous, it has all been in the Electrical Division. Edwin F. Rigby has 30 years of continuous service which includes 2}4 years in the Army, part of which time he was stationed at Corozal with the Fiscal Branch of the Quartermaster Depot. Mr. Rigby, who was born at Chicago Heights, 111., is an ardent yachtsman who. several years ago, sailed on an eight-week cruise to the Marquesas and Society Islands on the Palmosa, a 72-foot ketch. Mr. Rigby's present position is Chief. Warehousing Section, in the Division of Storehouses. Henry P. Butcher March's other 30-year man, is a Foreman Lock Operator, in the Locks Division. He began his government service as a pilot of an Army supply launch at Gatun. He is a native of Montgomerv, W. Va. 25 YEARS One native-born Zonian is among the employees completing 25 years of service in March. George M. Lowe, Supervisory Administrative Assistant. Pacific Locks Division, was born at Gorgona, a now vanished construction-day town. His service is not continuous. The other 25-year men have continuous service. Murphy B. Alexander, a native of Monroe, N. C, is Lead Foreman for Road Maintenance in the Maintenance Division, and Alfred E. Osborne, of St. John's, Virgin Islands, B. W. I., is Supervisor of Instruction in the Latin American Elementary Schools. 20 YEARS Six of the seven employees passing the 20-year milestone in March have unbroken service. They are: James H. Burns, Towboat Engineer. Navigation Division; Milton J. Halley, Window Clerk, Postal Division; Webster A. Farrell, Pilot, Navigation Division; Hayward H. Shacklett, Safety Engineer, Safety Branch; and Daniel C. Zitzmann, Accountant, Accounting Division Desmond S. Doig, whose service is not continuous, is a Foreman-Stockman, Commissary Division. IS YEARS Five women are included in the len employees who passed their fifteenth year of government service in March. They are; Margaret D. Austin, Commii sary Assistant. Commissary Division, whose service is continuous; May B. Duer, File Clerk, Employment and Utilization Divi-it >ti (-luial-n ret iring in March) ; Martha A. Griffith, Cash Accountant, Commissary Division, whose service is unbroken; Virginia M. Dixon, Position Classifier, Wage and Classification Division; and Julia J. Holmes, Supervisory Clerk. Links Division. Two policemen are on the 15-year roster for March. They are Hollis Griffon, Policeman and Detective, Police Division, with continuous service; and Gardner Harris, M i, vele Officer and Policeman, Police I )i\ ision Other 15-year employees are Dr. George B. Hudock, Clinical Director, Corozal I [ospital. with continuous government service, including three years in the military Ben ii e, .Hid Ralph E. Robinson, Firefighter, Fire I )i\ ision. APRIL SAILINGS FROM CRISTOBAL Cristobal \pril 10 Ancon April 17 Cristobal Vpril 27 FROM NEW YORK Cristobal Vpril 2 Ancon April 9 Cristobal Vpril 19 .1 neon April 26 Southbound ships which leave New \,,ik Fridays are in Haiti the following I ue daj I ho e whli h sail from New v,,ik Tueadaj are In Haiti Saturday. Northbound, the ships stop In Haiti i,, days ,,v ri i,i, ,i Monday for those which ,il, ,1 ii, in i ii l,, bal Saturday, and Friday for those win, h !, ,i, I i n ,i,l, ,1 \\ ,|,i, ,,l,iY.

PAGE 15

April 5, 1957 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 Storehouse Employees Study Work Simplification A dozen employees of the Cristobal Storehouse won certificates last month for successful completion of a Work Simplification Course. Copies of congratulatory messages to the group from H. E. May, Superintendent of Storehouses, and ,). L. H. Demers, Chief of Warehousing, were sent to the Personnel Bureau to be filed with each employee's personnel record. The course was conducted by David White, of the Storehouse force, and coordinated by James Maguire of the Exective Planning Staff. He furnished literature for the group and secured training films which were of great value. The Rainbow City High School and the Industrial Division contributed to the success of the class by making available a motion picture projector and screen. Those taking the course were: Walpert Bernard, Nesbit Alexis, Bertram Walters, Luther Clarke, Joseph Richards, Vincent Wong, Lee Thorne, James Drysdale, Maxie Salmon, David Leonard, Wesley Anderson, and Herbert Weeks. Vital Statistics For Zone Is Job Of D. Kintigh (Continued from page 13) an envelope and filed; it may be opened only on court order. In addition to recording and registering all births and deaths, she makes a monthly and yearly compilation of births and of deaths. In the latter case, she tabulates the causes of death of employees, arranged by cause, sex, and age. Miss Kintigh was born in Onawa, Iowa, where she began to take nurses' training. She interrupted this when she moved to California where she lived for several years before Isthmian friends convinced her of the need for a small hotel in Boquete. With another woman, she opened and operated the El Nuevo Hotel there for five years until the tremendous construction jobs going on in the Canal Zone drained all of the Chiriqui labor supply away and World War II made the matter of supplies a next-to-impossible one. Her first Canal job was at Gorgas Hospital. After only a few days there she was transferred to the office of Corozal Hospital where she stayed until she transferred to Vital Statistics in 1944. Program For Zone Handicapped Children (Continued from page 4) that the Superintendent of Schools is the person responsible for leadership in studying and developing a program for handicapped children. One of Dr. Graham's suggestions — that the Superintendent attend special meetings and see programs for handicapped children in action — has already been carried out. S. E. Esser, head of the Schools Division, did just this on a recent trip to the United States. Dr. Graham also suggests that there be at least one advisory committee, composed of those in the medical, educational, psychological, vocational, and social work fields. Separate committees on single subjects— speech therapy, for instance — could be formed as the need arises. Another group might be formed to concern itself with policies of the program. These groups would be advisory only, and would make no decisions. iiiih 1 1 Walpert Bernard, of Cristobal Storehouse, receives a certificate from W. B. Allen that he has completed a work simplification course taught by David White, right. THE EDITOR'S MAIL Glendale, Calif. March Hi, 1957 Dear Editor: I thought you might be interested in reading the enclosed letter sent out by the Florida Society of the Panama Canal.* Our Los Angeles Society held its winter dinner last Sunday and a copy of the letter was handed each cf us in attendance. Our Society passed the same resolution by a vote of 74 in favor to only 1 against. You may wish to make some mention of the letter in the next issue of The Review. G. Henry Wunch was elected our new President, succeeding George Cassell. You may be interested to know that I first went to the Canal Zone in the SS Panama with Colonel Goethals and his Staff in March 1907, and was the first YMCA Clubhouse Secretary at Old Culebra. I am celebrating my 7.5th birthday next Friday. Have served the above organization (Glendale Adult Recreation Center Club) for three years as president and two as treasurer, as a volunteer of course, since my retirement from active life five years ago. We have 400 members, most of whom are senior citizens of our community above 65 years cf age. Cordially yours, W. H. Baxley *The letter referred to contained resolutions urging Congress to create an independPromoted Captain William G. Dolan last month was appointed to the new position of Fire Marshal. He has been with the Fire Division since early in 1942, and is former Civilian Defense Chief. ent Interoceanic Canals Commission to study and review all problems involved in the matter of increased capacity for the Canal. The action was reported in local papers at the time the action was taken by the Florida Societv. Eagle Lake, Tex. February 7, 1957 f have so appreciated everything done for me when leaving the Zone and especially the courtesy and efficiency extended by the Packing and Crating people of the Maintenance Division. I sometimes wonder if there is any place else in the world where employees are given as much kindly personal attention. It is true we sometimes complain while there— but once back in the States, bumping around on your own, so to speak— one realizes the many privileges of a Zone employee and the many blessings of living there. Although enjoying retirement to the fullest, I shall always long for the Canal Zone and its wonderfully kind and friendly people. (Xame withheld) Special Committee Will Meet Here (Continued from page 3) a decision as to the number of the "super-ships" that will transit the Canal. On the basis of these forecasts, committee members analyzed the locks and navigational operations to determine the limiting feature of the waterway as it exists today. The committee also made engineering estimates of the capital additions which will be necessary to eliminate these limitations. All of this information is reported in many pages of notes and references which will probably become annexes to the Committee's report. It will now be up to the Ad Hoc Committee to determine what improvements can be made to the present Canal within its capacity requirements and funding abilities. Time-To-Time And Place-To-Place (Continued from paye 3) than a change in lamb-chop prices. The new Price Index will replace the present Market Basket in the time-totime and place-to-place comparison of food costs, and will probably be announced by the Governor at one of his forthcoming community conferences. (Another story on the Price Index will follow in the next issue.)

PAGE 16

16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW April 5, 1957 AND SHIPPING TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING VESSELS IN FEBRUARY 1956 1957 Commercial 673 681 U. S. Government 23 12 Total 696 693 TOLLS Commercial $3,037,933 S3.010.868 U. S. Government102,973 57,954 Total S3. 140,906 S3.068.822 Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small. More Ore All previous records for shipment of iron ore through the Panama Canal were broken again last month, this time by a sister ship of the record holder. The new record was 39,193 long tons of ore, bound from San Juan, Peru, to Philadelphia. The record load was aboard the SS Ore Prince, one of the huge tankships owned by Universe Tankships, Inc. The record date was March 5. The previous record, set February 10, was 37,684 long tons, aboard the Ore Monarch, also en route from Peru to Philadelphia. New Customer The SS Dinteldyk, the latest addition to the Holland-American Line fleet of passenger freighters running from Europe to U. S. and Canadian west coast ports, arrived in Cristobal March 25 from London on her maiden voyage and sailed from Balboa the following day after making the Canal transit. She docked in Cristobal to discharge cargo before going through the Canal for the first time. The 11, 000-ton freighter was built in Holland and has accomodations for 50 passengers. The Pacific Steam Navigation Company are agents for the line. First Visit Members of the Boca Raton, Fla., Bible Conference will visit the Canal Zone next week as passengers on the SS Evangeline. The ship, which will be one of the last cruise vessels of the tourist season, is due from Miami via Kingston arriving at Cristobal April 9 and will remain at dock until 6 a. m. the following day. The Evangeline will make the return trip to Miami via Curacao and West Indian ports. Owned by the Eastern Shipping Corporation, the ship is making her first visit to the Canal and was not included on the regular cruise schedule for this year. Boyd Brothers are her agents here. Sailing Star A movie star, or possibly a supporting player, neither blonde nor brunette, was northbound through the Panama Canal last month en route from California to Havana, Cuba. The star (or player) was the 38-ton schooner White Cloud; when she appears in a series of films based on the Jack London stories, she will be the Rattler II. The White Cloud-Rattler was built in Salisbury, Md., in 192(i, and was purchased recently by Guild Films ( !ompany, Inc. which recently acquired the motion picture and television rights to the .lack London stories. The schooner docked in Balboa March 22 after an 18-day voyage from Los Angeles and transited the Canal northbound the following day. The big ball on which young Tommy Frensley is sitting was once the top of a lamppost at the Locks. Some of them were knocked off by overhanging aircraft carriers and the remainder were then removed. They are now used as traffic bumpers and light reflectors. Capt.W. J. Steffens Assigned Temporarily To N. Y. Office Capt. William J. Steffens, Master of the Panama Line's Cristobal, has been assigned temporarily to the position of Special Assistant to the Manager of the Panama Canal Company's New York Office. In this position he is in charge of the operation of the New York pier and the two Panama Line ships. These duties were among those formerly performed by E. H. Harms who recently submitted his resignation. Mr. Harms is serving in an advisory capacity until he leaves the Company's service April 30. During Captain Steffen's temporary assignment, Charles L. Foley is acting Master of the SS Cristobal. He is the Relief Master for the Panama Line and former Master of the SS Cristobal. Until the appointment of a new Chief of the Steamship Division, passenger and freight managers will report directly to Lester A. Ferguson, General Manager of the New York Operations. All previous records for traffic through the Panama Canal were broken last month when 808 oceangoing commercial vessels transited the Panama Canal, The previous record of 751 ocean-going commercial ships was set last December. March was the first month in the Canal's history that commercial traffic exceeded the 800 mark. Also broken in March was the record for total transits. During the month, 840 commercial and government ocean-going ships went through the Canal. The previous record, 780 ocean-going vessels, was set in May 1953. Agency Renovation The Italian Line building situated on steamship row in Old Cristobal is being completely redecorated and parts of the office and quarters building are being rebuilt. The apartments occupied by Capt. Allessandro Zeraga, Manager of the Cristobal office, are being completely renovated. The offices downstairs are being rebuilt and air conditioned. The work will be completed in approximately two months. It is the first major repair and redecoration job to be done on the Italian Line building since the war. The building itself was constructed on its present location, in 1916, for use as an office and quarters for the manager shortly after the Italian Line began service through the Canal to the west coast of South America. Progress Report If work continues at the present rapid pace, the extensive repair job now being done by the Industrial Division on the Colombian Government-owned suction dredge Colombia, will be completed by the middle of this month. At the end of March, all work had been finished on hull repairs, which wese so extensive that they involved the replacement of the whole bottom of the ship. By the same time, repairs and overhaul to the main and auxiliary engines had advanced to the stage where Industrial Division men could predict an early completion of the project. The overhaul and repair of the Colombia is one of the biggest jobs ever tackled by the Industrial Division and costs have been estimated at close to a quarter million dollars. The dredge is used in the busy Buenaventura Harbor where it has been in continuous operation since 1927 pumping the heavy silt and sand deposits brought into the bay by several small rivers. Helping Hands Two of the Panama Line ships were quite literally full of beans during two southbound voyages bo Haiti last month. Between the SS Ancon and the SS Cristobal, a total of one million pounds of dried beans were carried from New York to Port-au-Prince where they were to be used to alleviate food problems created in northwestern Haiti by lack of rain in recent months. The beans were part of a gift of nearly 2,350 tons of food sent by the American people in response to an appeal by the Haitian Government for assistance in feeding those in the drought-stricken areas. In The Black Despite the protracted shipping strike which tied up Fast Coast shipping operations and disrupted the schedule of the Panama Line ships, the 1'anania Line operated iii the black in February for the fii'st time in four months. February was the firs! complete month of two-ship operations for the Panama Line. The former SS Panama, now the President Hoover of the American Presiilinl Line, was not taken off the Panama Line service until about mid-January. ? i^=^ >^s i/ERS 262


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