Panama Canal review

Material Information

Panama Canal review
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Panama Canal Commission
Creation Date:
May 1956
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Gift of the Panama Canal Museum .HE 95f-[-;i/*C*} /L*&g*j[I^ Vol. 6, No. 10 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE MAY 4, 1956 5 cents CANAL EMPLOYEES ARE EXTREMELY COMPETENT AND COOPERATIVE GROUP SAYS GOVERNOR SEYBOLD Superior Award Winners (See story on new Incentive awards on Page 4) SEVEN COMPANY-GOVERNMENT employees were the first to receive Superior Award citations under the new extension of the Incentive Awards program approved last month and announced in this issue of The Review. Six of the employees so honored for excellent work are shown above. Left to right, they are: Richard B. Potter, Electrical Division; Ellis F. Fawcett, Schools Division; Mrs. Faye C. Minton, Engineering and Construction Bureau; Leon M. Warren, Engineering Division; Lee Kariger, Locks Division; and T. C. Tavares, Schools Division. The seventh, William G. Mummaw, of the Maintenance Division, was away from the Isthmus when this picture was taken. Governor Believes Sea-Level Waterway Plan Is Inevitable In Solution Of Canal Problem Four years of supervising the operations of the Panama Canal and observing its operational problems have convinced Gov. John S. Seybold that conversion of the Canal to a sea-level waterway is "both feasible and desirable and, in fact, inevitable." He believes that the project should be urged from the standpoint of future requirements of commercial traffic and national defense. Governor Seybold has reviewed the report and recommendations developed by the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947 and believes that the proposal is still sound and rational. The Governor expressed his opinion on the desirability of a sea-level canal at the April meeting of the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Comp?~" *-* ' he appeared for the last time as President of the Company. He will speak on this subject next Monday night at a meeting of the Panama Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers to be held at the Tivoli Guest House. He expects at that time to reiterate his views on the subject and discuss in some detail the problems involved and the major features of the 1947 proposal. Studies Of Canal Improvements Although he considers a sea-level waterway the inevitable solution to the Isthmian canal problem, the Governor told the Board of Directors that the Canal Company should continue to press studies of possible improvements in the water' Mncre? ;*-(s?e mgr Chief Executive And Wife To Say Farewell To Canal Zone May 19 "I am sincerely proud to have been associated with the employees of the Panama Canal organization." This quotation succinctly phrases the sentiments expressed by Governor John States Seybold in a special farewell message to Canal employees on the eve of the completion of his four-year term as the administrative head of the Panama Canal Company and Canal Zone Government. The Governor's term of office has covered a critical four-year period in the 52-year-old enterprise of the United States Government. A brief review of this eventful period and his administration is carried on pages 10 and 11 of this issue of The Panama Canal Review. Expressing his admiration for the competence and cooperativeness of employees in the organization, Governor Seybold issued the following message to them: "I should like to note briefly but sincerely my high regard for the employees of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government. The transition period since the reorganization has been a trying one for them. Such actions as the extension of the income tax and the increase in housing rents and other changes in policies have, in varying degrees, affected their pocketbooks and their morale. "Nevertheless, they have as a group given the Canal enterprise their conscientious help and loyal support at all times. They have retained a well-deserved pride in being an essential part of an enterprise which is in the nature of a public utility serving world commerce and which has a world-wide reputation not only for efficiency but J or hospitality to all users of the Canal. "In my opinion, the personnel of the Canal agencies represent a selected group of extremely competent and cooperative employees. It is they who in large part make the Canal enterprise so successful and the Canal Zone a congenial place to live and work. "I am sincerely proud to have been associated with them." Governor and Mrs. Seybold plan to sail for the States Saturday, May 19, aboard the Panama liner Ancon. Their plans for the immediate future call for an extensive tour of Europe. High t~'' *• to both has been paid several • rivate (Set y


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 Latin American Schools Will Reopen Next Week; Plan Pacific High Move School days will begin again next Monday for over 3,700 boys and girls in the Canal Zone local-rate communities. The opening date of this year's school session, May 7, is the earliest during the calendar year for many years. It has been advanced gradually for the past two years until the Latin American schools are now operating on approximately the same schedule as those of the Republic of Panama. Schools will close February 6, 1957. School officials, who have had an uncanny ability in past years to anticipate enrollment, estimate that 3,759 students will be enrolled in kindergarten through Grade 12. The figure is about 140 less than the enrollment when the Latin American schools closed for the dry season vacation in March. Opening day enrollment last year was 4,042. The enrollment figure dropped to 3,895— a loss of 148 students by the end of the school year. Several changes will be made as the school year progresses in the locations where the students will attend classes. The principal change will be the transfer of the Pacific side high school from La Boca to Paraiso toward the end of May when the new high school building at Paraiso is scheduled for completion. New Paraiso High School When the high school pupils move to the new building at Paraiso, the La Boca elementary and junior high school building will be vacated and students from that building will move a few hundred feet into the more modern La Boca high school building. Next Monday, however, Pacific side Latin American high school students will begin their classes in the La Boca building where they attended school last year. By communities, the following facilities will be offered for Latin American students: La Boca: Kindergarten through ninth grade students will attend school in the elementary school building, and high school students will begin their school year in the high school building. Paraiso: Kindergarten through ninth grade students will attend school in the same buildings used last year. Santa Cruz: Kindergarten through eighth grade students will be accommodated in Santa Cruz this year. Ninth grade students will go to La Boca. Chagres: Grades one through six will be taught in the two-room Chagres school. Rainbow City: Kindergartners through sixth graders will attend school in the elementary school building and Junior and Senior high school students will have their classes in the high school building. The junior high school classes will occupy the new wing of the high school building which was built about two years ago and last year was used for elementary school classes. All-Spanish Teaching Continues t The curriculum for the Latin American fiools will remain substantially the same that of last yeaj\_J2Mitog in all TWO MONTHS BEFORE the Canal was opened to commercial traffic Gaillard Cut looked like this with dredges digging away at Cucaracha Slide in the distance. Contractors Hill, now a stairway, is framed by the steam shovel working in the foreground. Those on the Honor Roll well remember such scenes as this during the days when they were first employed. Today marks the 52d anniversary of the formal beginning of the Panama Canal enterprise under the United States Government. Formal transfer of the French Canal Company rights and properties took place May 4, 1904, in the building on Cathedral Plaza which now houses the Panama Post Office. For an event of such striking historical significance it was practically devoid of pomp and ceremony. Acting in behalf of the United States Government was a young officer of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lt. Mark Brooke; he was designated for the task in the absence of his commanding officer. What ceremony there was consisted chiefly of Lieutenant Brooke's signing and delivering to the French Canal Company official a $40,000,000 receipt, followed by the raising of the United States flag over the building which was then the Company's headquarters. The simple ceremony started a 10-year period of feverish activity in digging a ship canal to join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The task was a formidable one even for a nation the size of the United States. Had a vote been taken at that grades will continue to be in Spanish. The major change will be the introduction of classes in English reading for third graders. These children have been taught entirely in Spanish since they began school, and will now begin the process of becoming bilingual with the addition of the English reading classes. Temistocles Cespedes, who retired recently as Chief of the Panama Schools' Technical Service Section, will continue to serve as a consultant for the Canal Zone's Latin American schools. A number of new textbooks in Spanish are to be usxl this year in the schools, and additions have been made to the school libraries. The textbooks are published in Mexico, Chile, Cuba, and Argentina; Spanish dictionaries which will be used are published in France. Physical Changes Listed The major physical change in the school plant this year will (.sve page 9) time, it is doubtful if half of the population of the United States would have expressed confidence of its completion. During that 10-year period, tens of thousands of Americans left their homes and came to the tropics to help in the job. While many were out-and-out adventurers seeking new fields, thousands came to stay and see the job done. Of the latter group, several thousands remained in service to operate the Canal. Construction Ranks Dwindle Of those who had a part in building the Canal and today can boast that they were employed during the construction period, only 12 are still in service. The ranks have dwindled fast in recent years. Ten years ago there were about 400 in service. There were 106 names on the honor roll when the list was first published in The Panama Canal Review in May 1950. The last woman's name on the list was stricken from the roll last December when Mrs. Lea K. Dugan retired from service. As it has for the past six years, on the anniversary of the beginning of the work in May, The Review pays honor to all those who participated in building the Panama Canal. And, as it has since it was first published, it pays special tribute to those remaining in service by the publication of their names. Below is the Honor Roll as it stands today. Holders of the famous Roosevelt Medals, indicating two or more years of continuous service during the construction period are indicated by an asterisk, and the names of those with continous service are shown in capital letters. Adrien M. Bouche* July 2, 1909 GEORGE N. ENGELKE*— Sept. 5, 1911 Bernard W. Mclntyre*— Sept. 28, 191 1 Gregor Gramlich*Oct. 14, 1911 Samuel J. Deavours Mar. 1, 191 2 Thomas J. Breheny Nov. 1, 1912 George C. Orr — Dec. 5, 1912 ARTHUR MORGAN— Dec. 16, 1912 David W. Ellis — June 11, 1913 Edward P. Walsh — July 1, 1913 EMMETT ZEMER— July io, 1913 William V. BruggeDec. 17, 1913


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Panama Liners Will Be Crowded By Vacationers In Next Few Weeks SWIMMING CHAMPS With school vacation figuratively at the finger tips of several thousand Canal Zone children, the study of travel folders and road maps has become almost as much a must in many Zone households as cramming for final exams. The vacation and travel season has already opened with great promise and the last two Panama Line ships sailing in April left Cristobal with nearly all passenger accommodations taken. While most of the travel by Panama Canal employees and their families until the close of school will be by those without children of school age, all Panama Line ships northbound have already been fully booked for sailings up through June 16. There were still a few available spaces on the SS Ancon, sailing for New York on June 23, at the time this issue of The Review was closed. In addition to those employees planning to travel by Panama Line, a large number of others will use plane travel or will go by other shipping lines to New Orleans and west coast ports. Employees taking advantage of free home leave travel may go by ship or plane. For the information of those planning to travel by ship, the following is quoted from the Home Leave Travel Regulations: "Ocean transportation will be via the Panama Line, unless the allowable cost of travel will be less by utilizing other available ocean routing. The cost of transportation on the Panama Line will be based on the administratively determined cost in effect at the date of the employee's departure." The "administratively determined cost" for home leave travel on the Panama Line is established by the Office of the Comptroller General, the full oneway fare this year being established at $170. While the study of road maps and travel booklets is presently an engrossing subject in many households, employees will have an even more absorbing study when they return from free home leave travel. This will be the subject of home leave travel vouchers which baffle about nine out of ten employees. This will be made easier this year by the appointment of one or more employees in each Canal unit to assist in the preparation of travel vouchers, which are required to be submitted within 30 days after an employee returns to duty. This service was announced last month in a memorandum issued by the Governor's Office to all Bureau Directors. Those employees designated to assist in the preparation of travel vouchers will be given special instructions by arrangements through the Office of the Comptroller which will also furnish the names of employees in each unit who fail to submit vouchers. The number of employees to be appointed in each Bureau will depend upon the size of the organization and the location of the various administrative offices. With respect to vacation travel, employees have been urged to forward their requests for leave and travel as far in advance as possible. Applications for travel on the Panama Line are received as much as 90 days in advance for northbound bookings. Because of the heavy bookings already for northbound sailings in May and June, many employees may be delayed in their vacation plans by not having taken advantage of this 90-day rule. The Transportation Section has pointed out that normally it is not necessary for an employee to follow-up on the receipt of his application in that section. The Transportation Section will contact the employee about 30 days before the scheduled departure date in connection with routing and other details of free leave travel. The "teachers' special" this year for the northbound trip will be the Ancon, sailing June 9. The northbound sailings on which employees with children of OUTSTANDING among Canal Zone swimmers is this pair above. They hold the Grieser Trophies, named for Henry Grieser who coached the famed Red, White, and Blue Troupe for many years. Robert Connor, 17, is a senior at Balboa High School and plans to attend the University of Oklahoma next year. He holds Canal Zone and interscholastic records for freestyle swimming. His older brother, Donald, was also a crack swimmer here several years ago. Although Grace Argo is only 15 and a sophomore at Cristobal High School, she has set a fine swimming record. Her specialty also is freestyle. She wilt vacation with her family this summer in Hawaii. school age will be given priority in assignments are those of May 26, and June 2, 16, and 23. The Panama Line ship sailing from New York southbound on August 30 will be the "teachers' special" this year. Sailings southbound on August 16 and 23 and September 6 and 13 are the end of vacation sailings on which there will be priorities in assignment for employees with children of school age. 36 BALBOA SENIOR STUDENTS NAMED ON 1956 HONOR ROLL GIRLS are smarter than boys — at any rate, they outnumber the boys almost two to one among Balboa High School's honor students. Commencement speakers will be chosen from this group. Left to right in the bottom row, they are: Judy Crosby, Frances Brandl, Peggy Donovan, Martha Hackett, Becky Esser, Diane Staples, Shirley Harned, Diane Hannigan, Allison Health, Beth Little, and Janeth Vinton. Center row: Janet Stockham, Mary Jo Euper, Alba Martinez, Rose Bricefio, Shirley Ransom, Pat Hattler, Margaret Cleve, Etilvia Arjona, Ellen Bathman, Pat Allen, Rose McGarr, and Mary Curtis. Back row: Jack Perantie, Steve Laidlaw. Tim Hotz, Enrique Ho, Mike Witkin, Ed Scott, Jim Reece, Ed Kirchmier, Jay Clemmons, Allen Lowrie, Dan Eggleston, Milton Rodriguez, and William Lewis.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 ^1 Canal Employees To Get Special Awards Three Women Employees Win \ Highest Performance Rating OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE RATINGS were won by Mrs. Marcia H. Van Home, Mrs. Beatrice Lee, and Miss Mary Maguire, left to right above. This was the first time that more than one employee has won this rating in any one year, and it was the first time any woman employee achieved the honor by their work over a full-year period. Three women employees of the Canal organization received Outstanding Performance ratings for the year ending in March and last month were presented certificates by the Governor for their achievement. This was the first time since the new performance rating system for Federal Government employees was adopted several years ago that more than one employee had received the highest possible rating in any one year. Only two other employees have ever received the Outstanding rating before. These were Paul W. Morgan, Supervisory Medical X-ray technician at Gorgas Hospital, who was given the rating two years ago, and Harold I. Perantie, Chief of the Administrative Branch, who was given an Outstanding rating last year. The three employees to receive the rating for the performance of their jobs during the last yearly rating period were: Marcia H. Van Home, Secretary to the Health Director. Beatrice E. Lee, Passenger Traffic Clerkin the Administrative Branch. Mary F. Maguire, Secretary to the GovernorPresident. Not only was this the first time that more than one employee has won the Outstanding rating in one year, it was the first time that a woman employee has received the highest performance rating possible. How Rating Is Won The present system of performance rating for Government employees provides for one of three ratings— unsatisfactory, satisfactory, and outstanding. For the latter, an employee must perform all duties assigned in a superior manner throughout the year. The regulation also provides that: "An outstanding rating must be supported by a written statement from the rating official setting forth in detail the performance in every respect, based on the performance standards, and the reasons for considering each aspect of performance outstanding and worthy of special consideration." The Outstanding rating is separate from the Distinguished and Superior Service awards which have been made a part of the Incentive Awards program and which are announced for the first time in this issue of The Review. The performance rating is based on an employee's work for an entire year. The Distinguished Service award may be made for an individual act or exceptional service, and the Superior Service award may be given to an employee for superior performance of duties for a minimum pjriod of six months. Two new types of honorary awards in recognition of superior employee performance have been made a part of the Company-Government Incentive Awards program with the first awards being made under the expanded program last month. An announcement of these awards and their recipients is carried in this issue of The Panama Canal Review. The new plan is in line with that followed in other Government agencies and was developed by the Incentive Awards Committee and given final approval by Governor John S. Seybold last month. The two new awards for which citations signed by the Governor will be presented are for Distinguished Service and Superior Service. This recognition for exceptional performance by employees may be given with or without monetary rewards, depending upon the type of service performed. It is also separate and apart from the performance ratings which are made on a yearly basis and are required for all employees. Under the latter, an employee may win an "Outstanding" rating for performance over a full-year period. All recommendations for outstanding performance rating as well as teeommendation for honorary awards under the Incentive Awards Program are subject to review by the Incentive Awards Committee and final approval by the Governor. Members of the committee are John D. Hollen, Chief of the Executive Planning Staff, Chairman; L. M. Brockman, Programs Coordinator, Secretary; Capt. Frank A. Munroe, Jr., Marine Director; and Col. Hugh M. Arnold, Engineering and Construction Director. The following briefly describes the two new awards under the Incentive Awards Program: Distinguished Service The Distinguished Service Award, the highest of the two honorary awards, will rank with the Distinguished Civilian Service Award given by the military services. It will be given on the basis of an employee's achievements, accomplishments, or performance of duties unanimously recognized as being clearly exceptional by all of his supervisors in the chain of supervisory authoiity and by the Incentive Awards Committee. To qualify for this award an employee must have accomplished his assigned INCENTIVE AWARD suggestions are reviewed by this Board. Left to right are: Col. Hugh M. Arnold, John D. Hollen, chairman, Leonard M. Brockman, secretary, and Capt. Frank A. Munroe. Jr.


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW duties in such a manner as to have been clearly exceptional among all who have done similar work; should have made some original development or major improvement or have changed methods, procedures, or products so that the changes were extraordinarily beneficial to the Canal organization; should have performed some special service in the public interest but related to his employment over and above his position requirements; or should have demonstrated outstanding courage and voluntarily risked his personal safety in the face of danger. Superior Service While not so high as the Distinguished Award, the Superior Service Award will still call for a high level of employee performance. It will require an employee to perform his work in a fashion which is superior to normal work requirements. In general it will be limited to the performance of regularly required duties and will not cover the outstanding features covered by the Distinguished Service. An employee whose performance of one particular phase of his duties is recognized as clearly superior to normal requirements and expectations may be granted the Superior Service Award, whereas clearly superior performance in all phases of his assigned duties would be necessary to justify the awarding of the outstanding rating under the annual personnel reviewprogram. The superior service award may also be granted for sustained superior performance on a special task or assignment throughout a period of six months, whereas the outstanding rating requires performance throughout the full year covei ed by the personnel ratings. The new plan has the approval and backing of President Eisenhower and the U. S. Civil Service Commission. Last fall President Eisenhower called for a program which would bring increased rewards for constructive ideas and recognition of superior performance in the Federal service. In line with the President's request and the Civil Service Commission's program, "emphasis in the Panama Canal Company-Canal Zone Government's Incentive Awards Program will be placed this year on the encouragement and recognition of superior performances at all levels," Mr. Hollen, Chairman of the Incentive Awards Committee, told The Review. Program Expanded "In the past," he said, "the Incentive Awards Program has been restricted to recognition and rewards for individual actions resulting in savings to the Company-Government, community improvements, or improvements in working conditions. "This program will continue to be pushed to the limit, but in addition, under the Incentive Awards Program as implemented by the Civil Service Commission, greater emphasis will be placed on recognition of superior employee performance in carrying out the responsibilities and duties of the various positions throughout the organization. "The United States Government, from the President down," Mr. Hollen added, "has recognized the fact that many government employees who are doing much more than is normally expected of them have not received full recognition for meritorious work." Citations Given Eight Employees In Incentive Award Program % THE HIGHEST AWARD possible for a Canal employee to win was presented late last month by Governor Seybold to Livingstone Reece for his part in saving the life of a five-year-old boy. A Distinguished Service award and seven Superior Service awards were approved late last month by Gov. John S. Seybold following an extension of the Incentive Awards program to provide recognition of unusual or exceptional performance. The Distinguished Service award was won by Livingston Reece, of La Boca, who is employed in the Armature Repair Shop of the Electrical Division in Balboa. His citation was personally presented by Governor Seybold. One woman employee was among the seven who were presented Superior Service citations by the Governor last month. The seven to receive this award were: Ellis F. Fawcett, Principal of Paraiso School. Lee Kariger, Administrative Assistant in the Locks Division. Mrs. Faye C. Minton, Administrative Assistant in the Engineering and Construction Bureau. William G. Mummaw, Lead Foreman in the Maintenance Division. Richard B. Potter, Technical Assistant, EUctrical Division. T. C. Tavares, Janitor at Balboa High School. Leon M. Warren, Architectural Engineer, Engineering Division. The Distinguished Service award was presented to Mr. Reece for his part in saving the life of Jesus M. Carlo, a fiveyear-old Panamanian boy, at Hideaway Beach on February 22. He rescued the young child after seeing him swept into the water from a rock offshore. After bringing him to the beach, he applied artificial respiration. The child was breathing faintly by the time other medical aid was received. Mr. Fawcett, long a leader in civic affairs in the Canal Zone communities, received a Superior Service award for his outstanding work as head of the Paraiso School and for related work. Mr. Kariger was honored for his outstanding work during the Atlantic Locks overhaul this year. He was recommended for the citation on his handling of this major project with respect to additional duties assigned over a period of eight months. Mrs. Minton, the only woman employee to be honored by a citation under the new program, received her award for exceptional performance of duty which was described by the Incentive Awards Committee as surpassing the requirements of her position. Mr. Potter was recommended for the special honor because of his excellent work in assisting the Plant Inventory and Appraisal program on which he was assigned special work for his Division. Mr. Mummaw, a veteran employee in the Maintenance Division, was awarded a citation for his contribution to the success of the Preventive Maintenance Teams. Mr. Tavares won his citation for the superior manner in which he performed his duties. He was recommended for the award by the Director of Secondary Education and the recommendation had the endorsement of the Superintendent of Schools. Mr. Warren was awarded the Superior Service citation for his work in engineering estimates prepared in connection with the annual inspection of public buildings and installations which was centralized for the first time this year in the Engineering and Construction Bureau.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW MAY 4, 1956 FOR YOUR INTERESTED GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION !£ 3 THAT'S NOT ALL You hoar a lot of talk these days about 'lifting with the legs instead of the back," and that's fine, as far as it goes. But, there's more to it. Lifting with your legs instead of your back won't guarantee that you won't be injured. You've got to be aware of the hazards of slivers, nails, wire, and jagged or sharp edges, too. You need to be sure-footed, surehanded, and steady in movement. Don't tii' yourself into knots with twisting or jerky motions. And remember to wear safety shoes and hand protection. SAFE DRIVING THOUGHT A car can help you to see the world hut it's up to you to decide which world. HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD MARCH SUPPLY AND EMPLOYEE SERVICE BUREAU HEALTH BUREAU CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Civil Affairs.. 2 Health 2 Supply and Employee Service 1 Transportation and Terminals 1 Engineering and Construction Marine Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES 1ARCH COMMISSARY DIVISION NAVIGATION DIVISION HOSPITALIZATION AND CLINICS MAINTENANCE DIVISION SERVICE CENTER DIVISION HOUSING AND GROUNDS DIVISION INDUSTRIAL DIVISION ELECTRICAL DIVISION MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION STOREHOUSES DIVISION AIDS TO NAVIGATION SANITATION DIVISION ON THE HOME FRONT What are you doing to help your child to safety? Do you make safety a cooperative understanding in your family? Do you have your child examined periodically by a doctor? Do you help your child to develop confidence in himself? Knowing that children are great imitators, do you practice safety yourself at all times? Do you give your child sufficient opportunity to develop sound muscular control? Do you help your child to learn the correct and, therefore, the safe way of doing things? Have you made an inspection of your home recently to discover hazards, and have you taken steps to make your home as safe as possible? Knowledge, they say, is what you learn from others. Wisdom, is what you teach yourself. You need both to live safelyl UNFAVORABLE ODDS If you had $18,000,000, would you bet your vast fortune against one dollar that you could toss a ball into the air and catch it as it falls? Of course you wouldn't. The odds are all out of proportion to the risk. Maybe you feel that no one in his right mind would take such a chance. If so, you're wrong. Thousands of apparently sane drivers not once, but many times each day take chances in the face of these odds. Only they wager years against minutes. And it's in this fact that we find one of the most convincing arguments for AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Aids to Navigation 3 Motor Transportation 3 Sanitation 3 Service Center 3 Storehouses 3 Commissary 2 Electrical 2 Hospitalization and Clinics 2 Industrial 2 Maintenance 2 Navigation 2 Railroad -. 2 Dredgi ng 1 Housing and Grounds 1 Terminals 1 Locks every person who supports the cause of safe driving. The average adult of 35 has some 18,406,600 minutes to live. Every time he takes a chance to save a minute he wagers all his remaining years. Remember . when you gamble on the highway, you bet your life! EVER NOTICE? Nothing is so upsetting to a woman than to have company drop in to see the house looking as it usually does. GETTING THE WEAR OUT OF SAFETY SHOES Keeping shoes clean adds to their life as well as to their appearance. After wearing, muddy shoes should be cleaned with mild soap suds and wiped dry, if possible. Shoes of elk, retan, or similar leather can be preserved and made more waterrepellant by treating with animal or vegetable oils or shoe compounds once a week or oftener. Shoes of smooth grain upper leather should be cleaned with saddle soap and polished with a high-grade shoe polish. When shoes become wet from perspiration or from outside moisture, they should be dried away from any heat. When drying, shoes should be placed on ventilated shoe trees to keep their shape. If shoe trees are not available, the shoes can be sutffed with crumbled newspaper. Leather can be made water repellent by use of silicon dressing. In using a leverage tool, be sure you use the proper tool for the job, be sure of firm footing and secure grip, and guard against a sudden slip or let-down of the load. MARCH 1956 Supply and Employee Service Bureau Health Bureau Civil Affairs Bureau C. Z. Covl.-Panama Canal Co. (This Monlh) Marine Bureau Engineering and Construction Bureau Transportation and Terminals Bureau C. Z. Govl.-Panama Canal Co. ( Last 3-Year Av.) Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked (Frequency Rale) O 10 20 30 Number of Disabling Injuries 6 10 20 30 Man-Hours Worked 2,433,166 LEGEND Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3-Year Average Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW -Ue-L, fflt-L-afal Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly At BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by the Printing Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone John S. Seybold, Governor-President H. W. Schull, Jr. Lieutenant Governor William G. Arey, Jr. Public Information Officer J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Assistant Editor SUBSCRIPTION— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— 5 cents each On sale at al! Panama Canal Service Centers, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL— 10 cents each BACK COPIES— 10 cents each On sale, when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Leaves Service TWENTY-FIVE years of Canal service— all in personnel work — came to an end this month for A. L. Wright, well known to those who have had dealings at Building 69 on Roosevelt Avenue in Balboa. Mr. Wright left the Isthmus recently and, for the time being, plans to live in Europe. A native of Georgia, he worked for the United Fruit Company in Guatemala and Costa Rica before he came to the Isthmus in 1929 as Office Manager for Pan-American Airways in Cristobal. He joined the Personnel Bureau of the Canal organization May 12, 1931. During the construction period just before World War II and the war years he wa? assigned to what was known as the Silver Control Section, which handled the thousands of contract laborers brought from Central and South Amarioa and the West Indies to work in the Canal Zone. In 1954 he was promoted to Chief of the Ceatral Labor Offics Division. Last fall, when the Personnel Bureau was reorganized, he became Assistant to the Chief of the Employment and Utilization Division. OF CURRENT INTEREST HONOR STUDENTS OF the Cristobal Senior Class this year are shown above. Left to right, are: Carolyn Jones, James Ambrose, Sally Morland, Allen Robinette, Margaret Leigh, Felipe Garcia, Edith Ann Eckhoff, Sue Pincus, Robert MacSparran, Rupert Chin, and Mary Jo Aycock. The announcement made recently by the Canal Zone Health Bureau that during March, for the first time in its 52-year history, a full month had passed without a single case of malaria being reported among employees in the Canal Zone organization, military personnel, or other residents of the Canal Zone, attracted wide attention. In an editorial, The New York Times called it a victory of the first order and although not the end of the war a sign that this hard war can be won. The editorial said that the conquest of malaria means drudgery, devotion, and the endless repetition of the same tasks. Meanwhile the Health Bureau has issued its annual warning that with the advent of the rainy season, the danger of contracting malaria becomes more acute and that all the basic precautions should be taken. Malaria has not been eradicated yet, health officials warned. It can strike at any time of the year and its control is a matter of constant vigilance on the part of all residents as well as Health authorities. the larger Commissaries. Customers will then be able to buy their favorite blend of whole bean coffee packaged in one-pound or half-pound sacks, pour it into the machine, turn a dial to the preferred grind and, presto, a sack of freshly ground coffee. If the method proves a success, coffee grinders may be installed in the grocery sections of other Commissary retail stores. A total of 50 U. S.-rate student assistant positions have been authorized this year for allocation on the basis of bureau justification for the coming school vacation months from June 6 through September 7, it has been announced by the Personnel Bureau. These positions can be filled by Canal Zone high school students or junior college students of 16 years of age or over who meet the general qualifications for U. S.rate employment in the Company-Government organization. As in the past, the jobs also will offer training opportunities for those who may later obtain positions similar to those held during the vacation period. Students who apply for jobs must register at the Employment and Utilization Division of the Personnel Bureau on Roosevelt Avenue in Balboa or at the Cristobal Central Labor office. Selections will not be made until the applications have been screened, qualified, and referred to the employing bureau. The Personnel Bureau has asked that only those students who expect to remain on the Isthmus during the entire summer vacition apply for these positions. Rainbow City is one of the cleanest towns in the Canal Zone these days. Fences have been repaired and painted; debris has disappeared; gardens have been weeded; shrubbery has been pruned; and the residents under the sponsorship of the Rainbow City Civic Council have adopted the motto: "Every Day A Clean-up Day." The campaign, which made Rainbow City a model for other Canal Zone communities, was started March 3 and continued for four days. The town was divided into five sections and during the campaign, residents working with the Civic Council, the International Boy and Girl Scouts, the Army Mothers, community clergy, and the Housing Division, cleared away approximately 100 cubic yards of debris. A new item on the Commissary shelves this month is reconstituted milk, put up in quart bottles for sale at 15 cents a quart. The milk, the Commissary Division announced, has the same properties as fresh dairy milk and has the endorsement of the Health Bureau as a nourishing and wholesome product recommended for inclusion in the daily diet of children and adults. The milk is available for home delivery as well as retail in the Commissary stores. The price of 15 cents per quart will be exclusive of the regular deposit on the bottle. There will be a new deal for Commissary coffee customers soon if the coffee grinding midline purchased recently by the Commissary Division proves a success. The machine is designed for individual use and will be set up on a trial basis in one of Atlantic side residents will have a chance this month to enter a bid for surplus furniture, miscellaneous household items, and other articles to be auctioned off May 25 and 26 in the Cristobal Storehouse by the Division of Storehouses. To make it more convenient for prospecthe customers, the Storehouses will try a sjstem of putting various lots up for sale witnin a specific time pe iod. The time schedule is printed in the auction bulletins which were posted on public bulletin boards this week. The sale will start at 6:30 p. m. Friday night, May 25, and will continue until 175 lots are sold. It will reopen Saturday morning at 8:30 a. m. and continue until all articles are sold.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 One And Only Official Photographer Leads Harried Existence On His Job CLYDE S. LAOLAIR The Canal's Official Photographer has photographed the Locks from practically every angle. As the one and only official photographer for the Canal organization, Clyde S. LaClair is well qualified, the second in this new Review feature thumbnail sketches of the men and women who hold "singleton" jobs in the Canal Zone. His work brings him into contact with, probably, a greater variety of people, in a greater variety of places, reached by a greater variety of transportation, than any other in the entire organization. A typical LaClair day may go something like this: In the morning, when the day is bright and clear, he may be up in an Air Force helicopter taking aerial shots of anything from an overall shot of the Gatun Locks Two Observances To Remember IN MAY ARMED FORCES DAY May 1 9 and CANAL ZONE CANCER FUND DRIVE May 1 5 through 3 1 overhaul to an air view of some specific building. Back on the ground again, he may return to the locks to take detailed pictures of some particular process and may grind out a few movies while he's at it— all for study and record. Back at his office at Diablo Heights, he may find an emergency call waiting to take an entirely different type of picture: A crack may have developed, inexplicably, in a concrete wall, or possibly termites have been discovered where no one ever thought they would go. These must be photographed for detailed study by crack and termite experts. Before he has a chance to catch his breath he has to arrange for prints to be made from negatives made earli3r; each month his studio turns out an average of 2.300 such prints. Or he may have to decide some question in connection with the preservation of the old photographic records, a highly technical process. Medicine Man His job has also taken him to many of the out-of-the-way places in the Republic of Panama. Several years ago he accompanied a medical group which was giving vaccinations against yellow fever and tracking down the monkeys which are the unwitting hosts to the jungle yellowfever. That particular trip took him to Bocas del Toro, the Darien, and Chiriqui. While he has been on picture expeditions he has been called on for a number of unusual (for a photographer) services from changing tires to baby sitting. On the yellow fever trip he found himself practically practicing medicine. When the others in the group went out to hunt monkeys and he remained to watch the camp, he was beset by the ailing natives who always flocked around whenever the party stopped. The doctors in the group had anticipated something of the sort and had left him a goodly supply of aspirin which he dispensed before the day was over to about 100 men, women, and children and, as far as he knows, may have helped some of them. It is only fair to say, here, that he warned those who seemed really sick to come back later for more professional care. Serving as official photographer has not all been as entertaining as that. He has waded through hip-deep mud to get a picture, waited for hours in the rain for another. He has crash-landed in a plane in the Darien, gotten pneumonia taking jungle pictures at night during the war, been attacked by owls in his old studio at Balboa Heights -and has come out of most of his adventures unscathed. The quality of his pictures is considered, by experts, to be excellent and he seldom misses a shot. Like all photographers, he has his jinxes and there are some places and some people he dislikes to photograph, because something invariably goes wrong with the camera or film. MinnesotaBorn Born in Faribault, Minnesota, Mr. LaClair has been working with cameras for over 30 years. In the mid 1920's, he was assistant sales manager for the Buzza Greeting Card Company in Minneapolis. A camera salesman visited the office, walked out with $800 worth of orders in his pocket, and the assistant sales manager found that he was the company's official photographer, too. Taking pictures provided an interesting new angle to his job and gave him a remunerative sideline to replace the prestidigitation with which he had been amusing audiences professionally for years. In recent years he has abandoned his magic entirely. His current hobby is painting, done to the accompaniment of a record player turned on at full volume. Mrs. La Clair, who is considerate of her neighbors, has set a 9 p. m. curfew for painting, and listening. PRIZE NEWS GIRL EDNA HARRISON, cashier at the Balboa Heights cafeteria, is a prize salesgirl for The Panama Canal Review. Each month she sells close to 300 copies to employees in the Administration Building.


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Canal Employees Are Extremely Competent And Cooperative Says Governor Seybold (Continued from page 1) affairs which have already been held in their honor. Several other affairs of a similar nature have been scheduled by organizations and personal friends during the two weeks before their departure. Governor Seybold, a native of Topeka, Kan., was serving as Assistant Chief of Engineers for Personnel and Administration when he was appointed by President Harry S. Truman as eleventh Governor of the Canal Zone. He took oath of office May 27, 1952, in the Pentagon Building in Washington soon after his confirmation by the United States Senate. The Governor, accompanied by Mrs. Seybold, arrived on the Isthmus on the Panama liner Panama on June 9, 1952, to assume his new duties. The Isthmus and its people were not new to them on arrival for they had resided at Corozal for three years, 1922-25, when he served as a lieutenant with the 11th Engineers. The intervening 27 years until their return covered a variety of important assignments with the Corps of Engineers. Principal among these were those of wartime service first as Chief of the Procurement Branch in the office of the Chief of Engineers, and later in the European theater as Executive Officer of the Engineer Section for the Services of Supply, and as Chief of the Supply Division. After his return from overseas duty in 1945, Governor Seybold served as District Engineer at Syracuse, N. Y., and later at Baltimore, Md. Two important postwar assignments were as District Engineer of the Garrison District with headquarters at Bismarck, N. D., with responsibility for the construction of the world's largest rolled-earth-fill dam on the Missouri River at Garrison, and as Division Engineer of the South Pacific Division which is comprised of California, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and Hawaii. Governor Seybold was retired from active duty as an officer of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers with the rank of Major General last October after 35 years of service. He held the rank of Brigadier General, to which he was promoted in June 1951, throughout most of his term as Governor. His promotion to Major General upon retirement was by Congressional action, one of the rare instances when such an honor has been paid to an officer in the military service of the Government by an act of Congress. Latin American Schools Will Reopen Next Week; Plan Pacific High Move (Continued from pag. 2) be the transfer, later, of Pacific side high school activities to Paraiso. Several other less important changes will greet incoming students. A complete paint job, inside and out, has been done on the Rainbow City schools, and the shop building and the old Paraiso school, and the Rainbow City pool has been repaired. Still to be done, but due for this fiscal year, are equipment of the Paraiso gymnasium with dressing rooms and shower facilities, and construction of a covered passageway from the Rainbow City high school to the gymnasium. Several new faces will be seen on the teaching staff. Mrs. Gladys Mauge will replace Mrs. Dorothy Powell, who has resigned, at the Rainbow City elementary TV Programs Start Sunday Several thousand pairs of eyes in the Canal Zone, including those of TV set owners, their wives and children, and many of their neighbors and friends, will be glued to animated glass screens, from 17 to 24 inches wide, Sunday afternoon, May 6, when the first television for this area is started by CFN, the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service station in the Canal Zone. A special 15-minute "live" program beginning at 2:15 o'clock Sunday afternoon will inaugurate television on the Pacific side. Service on the Atlantic side will be started sometime later. Under the schedule now arranged, programs will be telecast on week days from 3 o'clock in the afternoon until midnight, while programs on Saturday and Sunday will begin at 2:15 and continue until midnight. The telecasting of test patterns daily has been done since April 24, and owners having TV sets have been busy adjusting their sets. Because of the widespread interest in television among Canal employees and their families, the following program announced by CFN for the first week is carried in this issue of The Review. The programs are subject to change. The programs in future weeks will follow in general the one outlined below as to the type of programs and the hours when they will be telecast. Under the schedule announced, the closing program for each night will be a one-hour drama. The first week's program and time schedule follows: SUNDAY 2:15 SIGN ON— Special Program 2:30 The Big Picture 3:00 Shower Of Stars 4:00 Arthur Godfrey And His Friends 5:00 Hallmarks Hall Of Fame 5:30 Bums And Allen 6:00 News 6:15 Jane Froman 6:30 College Press Conference 7:00 Jack Benny 7:30 Screen Directors Playhouse 8:00 Toast Of The Town 9:00 Appointment With Adventure 9:30 The Peoples Choice 10:00 Readers Digest 10:30 Life With Father 11:00 News 11:05 Goodyear TV Playhouse 12:05 Sign Off MONDAY 2:58 Sign On 3:00 Armed Forces Hour 4:00 Garry Moore 4:30 Robert Q. Lewis 4:45 Eddie Fisher 5 :00 On Your Account 5:30 Zoo Parade 6:00 News 6:15 Panorama 7:00 My Little Margie 7:30 Life Begins At 80 8:00 Caeser's Hour 9 :00 Medic 9:30 I've Got A Secret 10:00 Four Star Playhouse 10:30 Talent Scouts 11:00 News 1 1 :05 Studio One 12:05 Sign Off school. At Rainbow City High School, Ernest Jamieson will replace Horace Parker who is on a year's leave of absence and who will not return until September 1. Also at Rainbow City High School, Clement Dixon has been assigned to replace Mrs. Clara Wattley, whose year's leave of absence will not be completed until July 1. TUESDAY 2:58 Sign On 3:00 Armed Forces Hour 4:00 Garry Moore 4:30 Robert Q. Lewis 4:45 Eddie Fisher 5:00 Strike It Ricli 5:30 Wizard 6:00 News 6:15 Panorama 7:00 Bob Cummings Show 8:30 S64.000 Question 8:00 Buick Berle Show 9:00 Big Town 9:30 Dollar A Second 10:00 Loretta Young Show 10:30 Red Skelton 1 1 :00 News 11:05 Motorola TV Theatte 12:05 Sign Off WEDNESDAY 2:58 Sign On 3:00 Armed Forces Hour 4:00 Garry Moore 4:30 Robert Q. Lewis 4:45 Eddie Fisher 5:00 On Your Account 5:30 Contest Carnival 6:00 News 6:15 Panorama 7:00 I Married Joan 7:30 This Is Your Life 8:00 Disneyland 9:00 The Line-Up 9:30 Beat The Clock 10:00 Pabst Bout 10:45 Jane Froman 11:00 News 11:05 Philco TV Playhouse 12:05 Sign Off THURSDAY 2:58 Sign On 3:00 Armed Forces Hour 4:00 Garry Moore 4:30 Robert Q. Lewis 4:45 Eddie Fisher 5:00 Strike It Rich 5:30 Topper 6:00 News 6:15 Panorama 7:00 My Favorite Husband 7:30 You Bet Your Life 8:00 Climax 9:00 Dragnet 9:30 People Are Funny 10:00 The Millionaire 10:30 The Johnny Carson Show 11:00 News 11:05 The Kraft TV Theatre 12:05 Sign Off FRIDAY 2:58 Sign On 3:00 Armed Forces Hour 4:00 Garry Moore 4:30 Robert 0. Lewis 4:45 Eddie Fisher 5:00 On Your Account 5:30 Roy Rogers 6:00 News 6:15 Panorama 7:00 Meet Millie 7:30 Stop The Music 8:00 Colgate Comedy Hour 9:00 Justice i:30 Pantomine Quiz 10:00 ABC Boxing 10:45 Great Moments In Sports 11:00 News + 1 1 :05 U. S. Steel Hour 12:05 Sign Off SATURDAY 2:13 Sign On 2:15 Western Matinee 3:00 Armed Forces Hour 4:00 Game Of The Week 4:30 Encore Theatre 5:30 Imogene Coca 6:00 News 6:15 Panorama 7:00 Life Of Riley 7:30 The Hunter 8:00 Jackie Gleason 9:00 Danger 9:30 That's My Boy 10:00 George Gobel Show 10:30 Hit Parade 11:00 News 11:05 The Bob Hope Show 12:05 Sign Off Live Telecast


10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 Governor Seybold's FourYear Term Filled With Significant Actions And Events For an area as small as the Canal Zone a lot has happened here in the past few years. And, when the history of the first century of the Panama Canal's operations is written in the year 2014, the administration of Gov. John States Seybold will undoubtedly be considered one of the most significant of the period. Governor Seybold completes his fouryear term of office this month. Each year has been crowded with changes and events of great interest. While many of these have been of local importance, others are of international significance and their imprint will be visible in Canal operations for many years to come. At the time he took oath of office in the Pentagon Building in Washington on May 27, 1952, the Panama Canal Company was still, rhetorically speaking, a babe in swaddling clothes. It was then less than a year old and the basic policies required by the change from an old-line agency operating on appropriated funds to a modern corporate form of management using corporate principles and business methods required to achieve a self-sustaining operation out of revenues, were still unsettled, or at least in the formative stages. While primarily fiscal in nature, the changes and new policies required by the incorporation and reorganization of the Canal operations have affected both over-all operations and the individual employee. Many Policies Settled The initiation and implementation of many of these policies have been the direct responsibility of the present Canal administration. In the main, the principles for operation of the Canal and its related activities have now been settled. The Company has not had occasion, since the reorganization, to obtain any appropriation of funds, either for operating expenses or capital outlay. Under its charter the Company is required to recover all costs of operation, including depreciation, and to reimburse the Treasury annually for interest on the net direct investment of the United States in the Company, for the net costs of operation of the Canal Zone Government, and for INSPECTING a Locks overhaul with Board members in 1952. Governor explains some problems to Lt. Gen. Lewis A. Pick, formerly Chief of Engineers, who was a member of a special committee of the Board of Directors to study Canal traffic and future requirements. At left is Roy ('. Stockham, Chief of the Locks Division. OATH OF OFFICE was administered May 27, 1952, by Secretary of the Army Frank Pace, Jr. Center is Karl R. Bendetsen, then Under Secretary and Chirman of the Board of the Panama Canal Company. the $430,000 annuity to Panama under the 1903 and 1936 treaties. During the first four years of operation since the reorganization, the operating net income of the Panama Canal Company totaled $89.3 million, after recovery of all direct operating costs, including depreciation and general overhead, but before payments of the fixed general corporate charges noted above to the United States Treasury. Annual payments of the fixed charges to the Treasury totaled $75.8 million during the period. The resulting aggregate net income for the four years has therefore been $13.5 million. This annual net income was $2.9 million for fiscal year 1952; $5.8 million for 1953; $4.1 million for 1954; and $0.5 million for 1955. For the current fiscal year 1956 it is estimated that the net income will be around $2.5 million. In addition to the annual payment of interest, net Canal Zone Government costs, and the annuity to Panama, the Panama Canal Company paid into the United States Treasury in November 1954 a liquidating dividend of $10 million, the amount of accumulated cash on hand determined by the Board of Directors to be in excess of the Company's working capital needs and reasonable forseeable requirements for authorized plant replacement or expansion. Another such dividend in the amount of $5 million was declared in April 1956. These payments, totaling $15 million represent a refundment of capital, and liquidated the Government's investment to that extent, thereby reducing the Company's interest base. Canal Traffic Increases Commercial traffic through the Canal has shown a constant increase over the past four years. The number of oceangoing commercial vessels transiting the Canal during this period, of which approximately two-thirds are foreign flag, was 29,715 as compared with 20,512 during the preceding four-year period, an increase of about 45 percent. Transits by United States Government vessels, on the other hand, declined sharply after fiscal year 1953, from 1,064 transits in that year to 800 in 1954 and only 296 in 1955. Tolls revenues and credits reached an all-time peak in 1953, totaling $37.4 million. The decrease since that year was entirely due to diminished Government traffic. The peak in commercial oceangoing traffic was reached in 1955, when 7,997 of such vessels transited the Canal carrying 40.6 million tons of cargo. Tolls on all commercial vessels amounted to $33.9 million in fiscal year 1955 and it is estimated they will amount to $34.9 million in fiscal year 1956 and $35.6 million in fiscal year 1957. Credits for tolls on Government vessels amounted to $1.2 million in fiscal year 1955 and it is estimated they will amount to $0.8 million CELEBRATING a Centennial. The Governor poses with senior Panama Railroad men, Engineer B. W. Mclntyre, left, and Conductor C. B. Mcllvaine, before the departure of the train from Colon on January 28, 1955, reenacting the first transcontinental train trip 100 years before.


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 in fiscal year 1957. The high level of commercial traffic is still holding up, the month of February 1956 having set an all-time high record of 23.48 average dailv transits of large commercial vessels. March was almost as high. Aside from the many and varied adjustments resulting from the reorganization legislation, there have been sufficient other outstanding events of the past four years to make the period noteworthy in any historical record of the Canal. While some of these, ruch as the Canal Treaty revision, have not been of the Governors making nor his direct responsibility, they have added to the work load in his office and vitally affected his administration. A partial listing of the more outstanding and newsworthy occurrences of the past four years in the Canal Zone would include the following: Approval and initiation of the first phase of a plan to increase the capacity of the waterway. Completion of the Contractors Hil! project. Planning and initiation of the $25,000,000 electric-power-conversion project. Planning and initiation of a program for replacement of the locks towing locomotives. A substantial revision and completion of the long-range quarters replacement program. The change from English to Spanish as the basic language of Latin American schools in the Canal Zone, together with extension of the teaching of Spanish in all grades of the United States schools. Consolidation of all hospital facilities in the Zone. A revision of the functions of the Canal's Washington office with the transfer and consolidation of all procurement activities in the New York office. Transfer of the water management contract to the Republic of Panama. Closing of the Panama and Colon Health offices. Two public Congressional hearings in the Canal Zone. Completion of the plant inventory and appraisal program. The Booz, Allen, Hamilton study and report. Implementation of the so-called Fringe Benefits legislation. And, added to these would be a variety of public events of unusual interest such as the celebration of the Canal's 50th anniversary, the Panama Railroad's centennial, completion and dedication of the Goethals Memorial, and visits by the Queen of England and the Vice President of the United States. This list could be extended indefinitely by adding other events which would be included in a more comprehensive review. No single administrative action during Governor Seybold's administration aroused so much turmoil among employees as the increase in rents which was approved by the Board of Directors at its meeting at Balboa Heights in September 1952, less than four months after he took office. The question of increasing rents to cover all costs had been pending for several months before he took office, but he inherited the headaches of its actuality. Because of the many protests, the Governor obtained authority to postpone the ENTERTAINING a Vice President. Operation of the Panama Canal Locks were explained to Vice President Richard M. Nixon on his visit to the Canal Zone in February 1955. At the right is Henry F. Holland, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter American Affairs. effective date of the increase, and an impartial panel held public hearings. The end result was the acceptance by the Board of Directors of three of the panel's recommendation for rental adjustments. A second occurrence vitally affecting employees and their pocketbooks came on the heels of the rent raise when the House of Representatives cut the 25 percent differential to 10 percent. Governor Seybold immediately took the lead in what proved to be a successful fight to save the full differential. Worries On Fringes Benefits Coupled with this was a Congressional directive for an independent study of the differential and other fringe benefits. The study was conducted by the management consultant firm of Booz, Allen, and Hamilton. Its report recommending retention of all fringe benefits plus some additional ones was one of the biggest boc sts to employee morale in many years. Other events of major importance of the Governor's first year in office included resumption of studies on conversion of the Canal Zone power system to 60-cycle current, and approval of plans by the Board of Directors for a modification of the Canal locks to increase the capacity of the Canal. Plans for the power-conversion program have now been fully developed. Before Governor Seybold leaves the Isthmus, some residents on the Atlantic side will be cooking, washing clothes, and fanning themselves with 60-cycle electrical appliances. Modification of Gatun Locks has been completed and successfully tested during the overhaul this year. Another project of major importance directly affecting the waterway was the Contractors Hill work where a rock fissure required the removal of most of that rocky precipice overlooking Gaillard Cut. 1 he quarters replacement program has been, one of continuing concern during Governor Seybold's administration. The program had already begun when he took office. At that time plans called for an expenditure of $80,000,000. This program was drastically revised and reduced, with the result that the total expenditure was cut to about $25,000,000. Five Fewer Towns One phase of importance in the revised housing program which will have a longrange effect on operation and maintenance costs is the consolidation of quarters near the Canal terminals. This has or will ultimately result in five fewer townsites or integrated communities — Red Tank, Pedro Miguel, La Boca, Camp Bierd, and New Cristobal. Consistently with the gradual stabilization of Canal operations in general after the war, together with the Congressional directives requiring a self-sustaining operation, many adjustments were made and new policies developed during Governor Seybold's administra{See page 15) A JOB.COMPLETED. The Contractors Hill project was the biggest thing of its kind since the removal of big slides in the Canal soon after it was opened. It was completed during the Governor's administration. He is shown here congratulating A. Ray Smith, President cf the Tecon Corporation, center with checkered shirt, at job's completion. Facing camera between the Governor and Mr. Smith is Col. Hugh M. Arnold, Engineering and Construction Director, who supervised the job from the beginning until it ended in September of last year.


12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 m Here's How The Review I s Pr inted •Just six years ago, the first issue of The Panama Canal Review went on sale in the commissaries, clubhouses (as they were in those days), and hotels in the Canal Zone. Today, in addition to its local circulation, it goes to some 1,500 subscribers throughout the United States and in several other countries as well. To celebrate its birthday, The Review staff presents here some of the men of the Printing Plant at Mount Hope who have had a hand in the printing of the magazine's 63 issues— including this one. If the reader will start at the top of this page and follow the pictures down, across the bottom of this and the facing page and then up that page, he will see, in order, the major processes involved in turning an average of 20,000 words and 25 pictures into a magazine each month. The Review type is set by monotype, unlike the lintotype used by most newspapers. Earl A. Dyer, top left, is at the keyboard of the complicated machine which sets the 10-point Modern (of the Roman type family) used for the "body" of most of The Review's stories, the 8-point type (Binny and Cushing) used in the Current Interest and Promotion and Transfer pages, and the type, also 8-point Modern, used under the pictures. Mr. Dyer, temporary head of the Monotype Section, has been in the printing business here and at the Government Printing Office in Washington, for over 33 years. His job is Group Chief and Assistant to the Printer. When the perforated tape, like a player piano roll, comes off the monotype keyboard, it goes to the monotype caster, operated by Carl DaCosta, center left. He has been at the Printing Plant since 1918. He feeds the tape into the casting machine which then casts into galleyscolumns to the non-technical — the type which comes from the caster. Next step for each Review issue is the


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 composing room where the galleys of type, the pictures (which have been transformed into metal plates, or cliches, by Reinaldo De Pool, of Panama City), and the headlines, which have been set by hand, are fitted into page-size forms. At the bottom, left, J. B. Coffey, Composing Room Foreman, who served his apprenticeship at the Printing Plant more than 25 years ago, and Eustace Wiltshire, a veteran of 37 years service, put a page together according to a dummy prepared by the editorial staff. A proof is made of each galley of type and for each page. This is the job of Harold Lewis, who is shown in the onecolumn picture on page 12. The type is inked with a large cylinder and the proof sheet pressed, by a weighted roller, onto it. A. A. Doyle, not shown here, reads each proof for errors. Each 16-page issue of The Review is printed in two sections, of eight pages each, and every 20-page issue in three sections, one of four pages and the other two of eight pages apiece. Each section is known as a "sig." Richard Ennis, in the one-column picture below, arranges each sig on a large flat "stone," adjusting and tightening the columns and pages so that they do not slip under the pressure of the press. The actual printing of the Panama Canal's official monthly is done directly from type on a flatbed press. This, too, is unlike most newspaper production where the type is impressed into a papier mache matrix from which stereotype plates are made to fit the cylinders of a rotary press. At the bottom, right, Gilbert Furey, who heads the Printing Plant and who has been in the printing business for over 40 years, and John M. Purvis, Jr., who is in charge of the presses, looks over a sheet, still wet from the press. In the background, on the upper step of the press is Stephen Jeanmarie, whose first job at the Printing Plant, 40 years ago, was as a messenger. Putting the sections of each Review together, trimming them and binding each copy, and distributing the completed magazines is the job of the Bindery section. The pages are folded by the machine at the top right. W. R. Price, Bindery Foreman, checks a folded issue while Donald P. Peart, left, keeps an eye on the machine.


14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS March 15 through April 15 I inj loyees who were promoted or transtween March 15 and April 15 are below. Wiihin-grade promotions are not listed. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Mrs. Norma E. Hamilton, from ClerkStenographer, Supply and Employee Service Bureau, to Clerk (Typing), Division of Schools. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Mrs. Ida H. Fuller and Mrs. Dorothy J. Herrington, from Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk to Accounting Clerk, Payroll Branch. Florence M. Peterson, from Accounting Clerk to Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll Branch. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Elizabeth A. Allen, from Clerk-Typist, Commissary Division, to Clerk (Typing), Electrical Division. Victor C. Melant, from Accounting Clerk to Supervisory Clerical Assistant, Dredging Division. Frederick A. Ebdon, from Wireman, Electrical Division, to Electrical Inspector, Power Conversion Project. James A. Van Dyke, from Crater and Packer Foreman, Maintenance Division, to Pumping Plant Operator, Water and Laboratories Branch. Alfred J. Waldorf, from Pumping Plant Operator to Pumping Plant Operator and Tractor-Bulldozer Operator, Water and Laboratories Branch. Joseph A. Orvis, from Cablesplicer to Electrical Distribution Foreman, Electrical Division. OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT Paul M. Runnestrand, from Executive Assistant to the President to Executive Secretary, Canal Zone Government, and Executive Assistant to the President, Panama Canal Company. INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE Mrs. Cloy C. Dorey, from Personnel Security Clerk to Personnel Security Assistant, Internal Security Office. HEALTH BUREAU Mrs. Maxine K. Hitchcock, from ClerkTypist to Clerk (Typing), Corozal Hospital. MARINE BUREAU Charles E. Hughes, from Electric Welder to Boilermaker, Locks Overhaul. Hugh B. Smith, from Wireman, Electrical Division, to Lock Operator Wireman, Pacific Locks. Joseph M. Hunt, from Marine Traffic Controller to Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller, Navigation Division. William E. Pierson, from Machinist, Locks Overhaul, to Lock Operator Machinist, Pacific Locks. Felix Karpinski, from Machinist, Locks Overhaul, to Lock Operator Machinist. Atlantic Locks. Martin S. Sawyer, from Branch Superin1 ident, Posial Division, to Marine Traffic I ontroller, Navigation Division. Richard W. Abell, from Control House Operator to Lookmaster, Pacific Locks. Preston M. Trim, from Lock Operator Wireman Foreman to Control House Operitor, Pacific Lock-. Elden W. Coffey, from Lock Operator Wireman to Lock Operator Wireman Forem in, Pai ific Locks. James H. Bowen, from Wireman, Elec•ivision, to Lock Operator Wireman, fii Loi ks. SUPPLY AM) EMPLOYEE SERVICE BUREAU Ruth P. Housley, from Usher to Doorman, Service Center Division. Mrs. Lucille Abernathy, from Commissary Assistant to Commissary Supervisor, Commissary Division. Mrs. Gertrude J. Connard, from Commissary Checker to Commissary Assistant, Commissary Di\ision. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Dan G. Nellis, from Apprentice Wireman, Electrical Division, to Electrician, Motor Transportation Division. Charles E. Staples, from Foreman to Lead Foreman, Tire Reclaiming Plant, Motor Transportation Division. James T. Wiggins, from Rigger, Locks Overhaul, to Lead Stevedore Foreman, Terminals Division. MAY SAILINGS From Cristobal Panama May 5 Crist ob a I May 12 A neon May 19 Panama May 26 From New York Cristobal May 3 A neon May 10 Panama May 17 Cristobal May 24 A neon May 31 Northand south-bound ships are in Haiti Mondays. RETIREMENTS Retirement certificates were presented the end of April to the following employees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birthplaces, titles, length of service, and future addresses: Anson G. Kinsman, Missouri; Marine Superintendent, Terminals Division; 39 years; Seattle, Wash. Marie Arias Smith, Panama; Clerk, Gorgas Hospital; 36 year., 4 months, 12 days; address undecided. ANNIVERSARIES With 41 years of government service, Carl G. Brown, Chief of Area Sanitation for the Health Buieau, is again this year the senior employee on the April list of anniversaries. There are few Zonians who have not seen him, dressed in khaki and wearing a sun helmet, poking around potential breeding places for mosquitoes and other pests. He had his first Federal service as a sergeant in the United States Army Medical Corps. After five years in the service, he decided to become a civilian, and in 1920 went to work in the Board of Health Laboratory in Ancon. With the exception of a brief break in service in 1921 he has been with the Health Bureau continuously for the past 36 years. His friends and associates are forever amazed at his long list of hobbies, all of which, they add, he does very well. He is a ham radio operator, a chess player, a musician, an amateur botanist, and a photographer of considerable ability. 40 YEARS Adrien Bouche, Control House Supervisor at Pedro Miguel Locks, has spent most of his life in the Canal Zone. Born in Mount Carbon, W. Ya., he came here when he was only 9 years old. Last month he completed 40 years of government service, all with the Canal organization and most of it with the Locks Division. As he did when he was a youngster, he still prowls the Isthmus from end to end in his spare time. A competent local historian, ADRIEN M. BOUCHE he has been of great help on several occasions to members of The Review staff who wanted to know just where a certain old building might have stood "way back when In November 1952, other of his extracurricular activities were described in a Review story concerning his "plant prospecting." In his off duty hours, the story said, "he prospects for plants . and passes them on to botanists, pharmaceutical research laboratories, other scientific institutions, or to interested individuals who can propagate or put them to good use." 30 YEARS Five Canal employees, all of them men and only two of them in the same division, rounded out 30 years of government setvice last month. Senior from point of service among the five 30-year employees is Anthony Lombroia, Lead Foreman in the Maintei ance Division's Planing Mill. He is a native New Yorker who came to the Isthmus to work with the Gatun Golf Club. His total Federal service is just three days more than that of William F. Browne, Supervisory Accountant in the Agents Account Branch. Mr. Browne, who was born in Springfield, Mass., served as an Army officer during World War II and is active in the local Reserve Officers Association. Two employees of the Locks Division, Floyd R. McDermitt and Stanley Sudron, follow, in that order. Mr. McDermitt, who once called Point Pleasant, W. Va. his home, is a Lockmaster at Gatun. Mr. Sudron was born in England but came to the Canal Zone in time to serve an apprenticeship here. He is a Lock Operator Machinist Foreman at the Pacific Locks. Junior on the 30-year list, although first alphabetically, is Boyd M. Bevington, Supervisory Administrative Assistant in the Housing and Grounds Division. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio, but has lived most of his life in the Canal Zone. 25 YEARS Three of the eight employees who rounded out a quarter of a century of government service in April have unbroken Canal service. These three are Mack F. Bailey, John W. O'Connell, and Freddie S. Southerland. Mr. Bailey, who originally came from Deer Park, Ala., is a Supervisory Sanitation Inspector; all of his service ha? been with the Health Bureau. Mr. O'Connell, whose formal title is Supervisory Railroad Transportation Specialist, is Master of Transportation for the Panama Railroad. He comes from Durango, Colo., is a Navy veteran of World War I, and has never worked here


May 4,1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 Governor Seybold's Four-Year Term Filled With Significant Actions And Events (Continuzd from, page 11) tion to increase efficiency and effect economies in the Canal enterprise. These included internal reorganizations, elimination of activities where possible, and the use of private contractors for new construction and major maintenance services. The contracting policy effected very substantial savings in the housing program and is doing so currently in the general maintenance program, while at the same time benefiting the Republic of Panama because of increased reliance upon contractors located in the Republic. These and other policies applied to the postwar, post-reorganization conditions have permitted a reduction of nearly 28 for any other unit but the Railroad. MrSoutherland, who was born in Morristown' Tenn., is a policeman and detective' stationed at Balboa. Other 25-year employees last month were: Mrs. Gladys B. Baldwin, once of New Jersey and now Secretary in the Superintendent's Office at Gorgas Hospital; Richard A. Edmonson, Police Sergeant at Cristobal, who is a native Zonian, having been born in Ancon; Burton J. Hackett, Jr., another native Anconite, now Grounds Maintenance Lead Foreman in Housing and Grounds; Willard E. Percy, who was born in Buffalo, N. Y., served his machinist's apprenticeship in the Canal Zone and is now No. 2 man in the Apprentice Training School; and Clifford V. Russell, who was born in Gloversville, N. Y., has never worked for any other Canal organization but the Health Bureau and is now Hospital Administrative Officer at Corozal Hospital. 20 YEARS Two native Zonians, Jack W. Clarke and Mrs. Janice G. Scott, are among the five who completed 20 years of government service in April. Mr. Clarke, whose service is continuous, is a General Foreman for Grounds Maintenance with Housing and Grounds. Mrs. Scott is an Accounting Clerk in the Maintenance Division. Other 20-year employees are Leonard R. Gale, Distribution and Window Clerk now assigned to the Director of Posts' Office; John C. Paige, Cash Accounting Assistant for the Treasury Branch; and Harvey G. Rhyne, Texas boin, a Police Sergeant at Balboa. Mr. Gale and Sergeant Rhyne have unbroken Canal service, 15 YEARS Thirteen of the employees who completed 15 years of government service in April have unbroken Canal service and two, Emerson W. Cottrell and Robert G. Rowe, share the same service date. Those with continuous Canal service are: Joseph A. Blackburn, Guard Supervisor, Locks Security Branch; William T. Clute, Pilot, Navigation Division; Emmett O. Collins, Policeman, Balboa District; Emerson W. Cottrell, Control House Operator, Gatun; Mrs. Eldermae Duff, Accounting Clerk, Accounting Division; Walter W. Fox, Auto Repair Machinist, Motor Transportation Division; Orlando L. Flye, Jr., Electrical Engineer, Electrical Division. Wallace E. Gibson, Property and SupplyClerk, Commissary Division; Robert G. Grocott, Histopathology Technician, Board of Health Laboratory; Daniel J. Ianoale, Guard Supervisor, Locks Security Branch; Donald M. Luke, Chief, General Ledger and Processing Branch, Office of the Comptroller ; Mrs. Jettie Price, Commissary Assistant; Robert G. Rowe, Commissary Supervisor; and John A. Taylor, Quarters Maintenance Lead Foreman, Maintenance Division. Other 15-year employees are: Frank A. Baldwin, Chief of the Plant Appraisal Branch; Macon W. Foscue, Supervisory Electrical Engineer, Engineering Division; Robert Hassler, Optical Technician, Commissary Division; George F. Husted, Boilermaker, Industrial Division; James F. McGloin, Fireman Driver-Operator, Fire Division; Gale A. O'Connell, General Engineer, Engineering Division; Paree L. Roland, Lead Foreman, Public Works, Maintenance Division; and Roy M. Steele, Stevedore Foreman, Terminals Division. percent in the personnel force since 1951. This decrease has for the most part been achieved by normal attrition, with a minimum of reductions in force. The stability of the personnel force that has been achieved is indicated by the fact that the separation rate for the Federal Government as a whole was nearly double that of the United States citizen personnel of the Canal agencies last year. The betterment of working and living conditions for local-rate employees has been of continuing concern during Governor Seybold's administration. Administrative actions in this area included: The institution of the Latin American schools; an increase in the minimum wage; a bill sponsored by the Canal administration which increased disability relief payments from $25 to a maximum of $45 a month; provisions for payment of night differential rates to local-rate employees; and the adoption of a unified payroll. Of major importance was the encouragement and assistance given to the organization of Civic Councils in the principal Latin American communities. Following their organization monthly conferences with their selected representatives were instituted on the same basis as those with U. S.-rate Civic Councils. The last four years have been marked by the special interest of the Canal administration in civic and community affairs and organizations representing all groups in the Canal Zone. The further development of playground and recreational facilities for employees and their families has been a noteworthy improvement. Numerous organizational changes have been made during the past four years. Some of these were end-products of the Canal's incorporation, and others were made because of changes in the workload, for more economical operation or improved conditions, or because of the changing economic picture in the Zone. The most recent and extensive of these was the consolidation of the Community Services and Supply Bureaus. A complete internal reorganization of the Finance Bureau was made soon after Governor Seybold took office. At that time the name of the unit was changed to Office of the Comptroller. Other changes have included intsmal reorganizations of the Personnel and Civil Affairs Bureaus; transfers of the Dredging Division from the Marine Bureau to the Engineering and Construction Bureau, and the Motor Transportation Division from the Supply Bureau to the Transportation and Terminals Bureau, the latter being made at the time the name of the bureau was changed from the Railroad and Terminals Bureau; and transfer of the procurement functions of the Washington to the New York Office. While the problems which have arisen during the Governor's term have been unusually high in number and complex in nature, there is little likelihood that he will be able to take a "breather" even during his last few days in office. The duties of the Governor of the Canal Zone and President of the Panama Canal Company do not permit time-out periods and Governor Seybold, by nature, is not one to look for such periods. So, it is an even guess that his last day in office will be much like the other 1,460 busy, up to the hilt, with barely enough time to do what has to be done. Champ And Nears Champs A HIGHLIGHT OF the Field Safety Day held in Paraiso late last month under the sponsorship of the Paraiso Civic Council was the line-heaving contest to determine the most proficient in this ancient art among Locks Division employees. Winner of the first three places, above, are: Manuel Rodriquez, of Miraflores, first with seven points deft); Juan Gorzon, of Miraflores, second with six points (center); and Esteban Canizales, Pedro Miguel, third with five points. The champion will have his name placed on a plaque designed for this purpose. Also-rans in the contest were Stanley Chambers, of Pedro Miguel; and the two entries from Gatun Locks, Mortland Hinds and Arthur A. Clarke. Marks for future line heavers to better were: Distance, 107 feet, 10 inches; height, 50 feet from 50 feet away; and target bullseye, 14 inches. All three first-place winners clearei the 50-foot marker for height. Representatives from the three Locks were selected by preliminaries held earlier. The lineheaving contest was but one of the many attractions for the several thousand residents of communities from both the Atlantic and Pacific side for Safety Field Day, the second sponsored by the Paraiso Civic Council.


16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 Everything But Dogwood Blooms During Canal Zone's Dog Days Change of season — the Isthmian dog days is not completely disagreeable, despite the heat. It is the time of year for the flowering trees which dot Canal Zone hilsides and jungles with great patches of brilliant color. Washington's famed Japanese cherry trees would be completely overshadowed if some of the Isthmian blossomers could be concentrated along one road or avenue, but the local trees simply don't grow that way, nor do they lend themselves to transplanting. One of the most beautiful vistas during the past month was a long-range view of a portion of Gatun Lake from the transIsthmian highway about 15 miles from Cristobal. The jungle was studded with bright yellow guayacan trees; their color was visible for miles. Off Schedule In an ordinary dry season, which this year has not been because of the heavy rains through January, guayacans ordinarily blossom about a month earlier on the Atlantic side than on the Pacific side of the Canal Zone. This year, however, a giant guayacan on a hillside near the Christian Science Church in Ancon was in full bloom more than a month before the Atlantic side trees began to flower. One of the last guayacans to blossom is a great tree opposite the Governor's House on Heights Road. This ordinarily flowers in early May, but this year it did the unexpected and bloomed during the last week in April. Another of the large flowering trees whose season has been thrown off schedule this year is the roble, whose blossoms range from a pale pinkish white to a fairly dark lavender. There are many of these trees on the hillsides behind Gamboa and Albrook Field. Blossoming Now Trees which should be at the height of their blossoming season right now are the poinciana, or flame trees, and the jacaranda. There are two clumps of poinciana trees on the Pacific side which can usually be depended upon to be spectacular. These are on the slope beside the First Baptist Church in Balboa Heights and near the Balboa Elementary School Building. Another cluster which ordinarily is in full bloom in May and which invariably attracts photographers by the dozen is that on the Plaza de Francia in Panama City. In addition to the red, or flame poincianas there is a yellow poinciana tree which should be in blossom now. It has a long flowering period which began last month. An especially handsome yellow poinciana grows near the Civil Affairs Building on Gaillard Highway. There are two types of the jacaranda tree to be found in the Canal Zone. Both have purple blossoms. One type, which flowers along its branches, is found in the jungle; the second, more common in Zone towns, has large terminal clusters of blossoms in a crown around the upper part of the tree. One of the former type is located opposite the Governor's House at the corner of the road leading into Quarry Heights. Another of the large flowering jungle trees is the palo santo, or iriplaris. It has two types of flowers, male and female, A FLAMING BEAUTY of the Isthmian forests is the guayacan tree during the dry season. but the brilliant red female flower is the one which attracts attention. It was in bloom in the Canal Zone last month. Showers Of Flowers Other flowering trees which should— and may — be blossoming right now on the Pacific side are the golden, the bronze, and the pink and white shower trees. Most trees of this family on the Atlantic side bloomed in April, but there may be a few stiagglers still to come. A number of the golden shower trees are located along Balboa Prado, but their blossoming this year has been somewhat sporadic. The pink and white shower, which can be found in most of the Canal Zone towns, should not be confused with a native pink shower. The town variety, which is an imported tree, has its blossoms clustered along the branches while the native variety flowers very much like apple trees. The bronze shower has pendant clusters of flowers, like bunches of grapes. Canal To Join Nation In "Job Safety Week" "Not a single accident during the entire week of May 13." This is the theme and the objective of Job Safety Week which will be observed in the Canal Zone this year during the week of May 13-19. It is a theme which every employee and every resident of the Canal Zone must know and follow to make the observance a success. President Eisenhower has designated this period as Job Safety Week throughout the United States and has called on all Federal Government agencies as well as private citizens to join in eliminating for that week all accidents. Details of the "no-accident week" campaign were announced to all Bureau Directors last month in a memorandum from the Governor's Office. The program is under the sponsorship of the Federal Safety Council and will be conducted on a nationwide basis. The objective of Job Safety Week in the Canal organization will not only be safety at work for employees, but safety at home, on the streets, and at play. While the safety program will be intensified in the various units of the organization, all residents of the community will be asked to cooperate and make the campaign a success. Full Cooporation Asked Bureau Directors have been asked to spearhead the campaign in the organization by publicizing Job Safety Week throughout their units; holding safety meetings; appointing special Workers Inspection Committees for each activity or installation to report unsafe conditions; encouraging the submission of safety suggestions; conducting safety training and practice for employees who have completed first aid courses; and reporting promptly and thoroughly all accidents, however trivial. Power Conversion Job Completed THE FIRST MAJOR PROJECT of the power-conversion program to be completed was the Mount Hope Substation built by Louis R. Sommer, Panama contractor, at a cost of $820,000. This shows the switching yard with the big transformers which step down 44,000-volt current to 2,300 volts and feed it out to the various communities. In the background is the masonry substation building. Final inspection was made late last month.


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. CANAL TRAFFIC AT HIGH LEVEL IN PAST QUARTER South America Trade To States And Europe Boos ts Traffi c Total With commercial traffic moving through the Canal at near high records during February and March, the total number of transits for the third quarter of this fiscal year reached 2,057, one of the highest quarterly totals in the Canal's history. Increased trade movements of the shipping routes between the east coast of the United States and South America; Europe and South America ; and the east coast of the United States and the Far East were primarily responsible in the. high level of Canal traffic during the three-month period. Traffic was lighter in the quarter than in the third quarter of the past fiscal year on three of the main trade routes through the Canal. These were: United States intercoastal; Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada; and the east coast of the United States and Central America. The amount of United States Government shipping moving through the Canal continued low with only 63 transits by ocean-going vessels. Tolls And Traffic Up Both traffic and tolls for the first three quarters of this fiscal year are running considerably in excess of the first nine months in the fiscal year 1955. There were 6,140 transits by ocean-going commercial vessels up through March of this year, as compared with 5,961 in the first three quarters of the past fiscal year. Tolls this year amount to $26,918,000, as compared with $25,035,000 last year. The increasing traffic through the Canal between Europe and South America has served largely to offset the major decline of recent months in oil shipments from California to east coast ports in the United States. The trade over this route has been increasing since 1953 with increased tonnage in both raw and finished products. Much of this merchandise is being carried in vessels flying the German flag which have been on the increase for the past two years. During the past quarter there were 145 German ships listed in Canal traffic carrying 450,000 tons of commodities, as compared with 106 transits with 270,000 tons of cargo during the third quarter of the past fiscal year. Leading Flags In Canal By nationality of vessels, the United States, Great Britain, and Norway ranked the top three in that order in the past quarter. These were followed, in order, by Liberia, Germany, Honduras, Japan, and Panama. There has been a considerable alteration in the top eight places during the past year. In the third quarter of 1955 fiscal year, Panamanian vessels ranked fourth while German shipping was in eighth place in numerical rating. New Industrial Division Chief Arrives For Duty i^. SHIPS iNo SHIPPING •i.^_i Transits By Ocean-Going Vessels March 1,956 1955 Commercial 712 709 U. S. Governments 32 19 Total. 744 728 Tolls* Commercial $3,073,307 $3,020,527 U.S. Government.. 198,079 64,891 Total... $3,271,386 $3,085,418 "Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-goh.g and small. A new record in Panama Canal traffic was established in February with a daily average of 23.48 transits by tolls-paying commercial transits. The previous high was 23.45 for July 1955 when there were 727 transits. This total is still the highest on record although March traffic this year was not far behind with 712 transits, the second highest month on record. COMMANDER HUGH S. KNERR SUCCEEDING Capt. Robert H. Emerick as Chief of the Industrial Division next week will be Comdr. Hugh S. Knerr, who comes to the Isthmus from Washington, D. C, where he has been on duty as Assistant Director General in the office of the Chief of Naval Operations. The new Industrial Division head was graduated from the Naval Academy with the Class of 1934. He served three years, 1949-52, as Industrial Engineer Officer at the Navy shipyard in Charleston, S. C, and two years with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory in San Francisco, Calif. During the past war he was stationed in Portsmouth, N. H, serving as Assistant Hull Superintendent in charge of fitting out new construction and later as Progress and Scheduling Officer. Captain Emerick plans to leave the Isthmus May 9. He will return to Charleston, S. C, where he will resume private practice as a consulting engineer. Cristobal had one of the biggest tourists seasons of the past 15 years during the past few months. There were 38 cruise ships docked in Cristobal from the time the SS Ocean Monarch opened the season on October 28 until it was closed by the visit of the SS Kungsholm on April 8. During this busy period there were 15,341 cruise passengers arriving in port to see the Canal, visit the hundreds of places of interest in Panama, and shop in Colon and Panama City. This number of tourists does not include the many hundreds who arrived on vessels which call regularly at the port. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars) Month 1956 1955 1938 1956 IV 5 5 1938 [uly 727 676 640 457 83,247 82,646 $2,030 August . 652 505 2,980 2,752 2,195 September 686 660 444 3,053 2,756 1,936 October .-.-_-. 709 627 683 636 461 3,065 2,831 1,981 November 435 2,706 2,630 1,893 December 658 664 676 439 2,944 2,853 1,845 668 444 2,844 2,832 1,838 February. 681 637 436 3,011 2,720 1,787 March., ..... . 712 709 685 506 3,068 3,015 2,016 April . . 487 2,938 3,072 2,804 1,961 Maj 698 465 445 _: 1,887 June. . 653 1,801 Totals for first 9 months of fiscal year 6.140 5,961 4,127 $26,918 $25,035 817,521 Totals for fiscal vear 7,997 5,524 $33,849 $23,170


18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 Heavy Ore Shipments Balance Tonnage Loss In P acific C rude Oil A major increase in the amount of ores shipped through the Panama Canal from the Pacific to the Atlantic during the third quarter of this fiscal year largely offset the loss in tonnage of mineral oils in recent months moved in this direction. The ore tonnage during the past quarter was 600,000 tons over that in the third quarter of the past fiscal year, but the amount of oil shipped from the Pacific to the Atlantic dropped from 812,000 last year to 155,000 tons this year. Although there were fluctuations in the commodity movements through the Canal in both directions during the past quarter, the two mentioned were the most significant in the commodity tonnage reports. Oil Shipments Down The decrease in oil shipments resulted when the movement of crude oil from California to refineries on the east coast of the United States began a decline last November. This major movement of oil began in January 1955 and reached a peak of 500,000 tons shipped through the Canal in July of last year. It continued through October and averaged during the 10-month period approximately 250,000 tons a month. Since that time, shipments have averaged about 50,000 tons a month. The amount of ores being moved from South America, principally iron ore from Peru, to Atlantic destinations has increased materially during the past year. There has also been a substantial increase during that period in the movement of manufactured products from Europe to South America. There has been a major increase in the number of special ore carriers moving through the Canal during the past few months. Many of these were transferred during the winter months from the ore trade to Labrador. There have been almost seven times as many special ore carriers in Canal traffic since last December as the average of the previous few months. Cargo From Atlantic Increases The amount of cargo shipped through the Canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the past quarter totaled 5,177,000 tons, an increase of about 600,000 over the comparable period in the previous fiscal year. Commodities moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic dropped about 100,000 tons. Of the leading commodities, those with higher tonnage last quarter in the Atlantic to Pacific trade were mineral oils, coal and coke, manufactures of iron and steel, phosphates, ammonium compounds, scrap metal, sugar, paper and paper products, machinery, tinplate, ores, and fertilizer. Tonnage losses were recorded in two commodities, soy beans and cement. Increased tonnage in commodity movements from the Pacific to the Atlantic were shown for ores, wheat, nitrate, canned food products, sugar, bananas, refrigerated food products, coffee, raw cotton, and copra. Other than mineral oils, commodities with less tonnage moved in this direction last quarter than the third quarter of the past fiscal year were lumber, metals, barley, and wool. Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in long tons) ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Mineral oils Coal and coke Manufacturers of iron and steeL Phosphates Soy beans Ammonium compounds Metal scrap Sulphur. Sugar Paper and paper products. Machinery Cement Ti opiate Ores, various Fertilizer All others Total Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1,274,686 740,552 520,526 332,270 165,998 162,516 156,356 128,216 119,928 100,962 85,960 81,986 75,135 70,585 66,247 1,095,222 5,177,135 1955 1,159 720 461 249 185 108 111 82 84 73 82 52 40 53 1,112 995 518 280 ,624 ,391 233 483 ,247 ,452 603 940 ,113 ,838 ,824 ,085 920 1938 4,579,546 236,664 27,867 362,008 67,518 493 7,872 134,275 44,830 32,587 90,274 25,179 26,719 56,451 7,809 6,003 923,105 2,049,654 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commodity Ores, various Lu mber Wheat Nitrate Canned food products Sugar Bananas Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit). Metals, various Mineral oils Barley Coffee Raw cotton Wool Copra All others Total. Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1,495,915 827,379 524,030 375,560 325,467 284,532 257,619 186,736 162,450 154,639 132,991 87,039 78,639 74,912 68,118 857,807 5,893,833 1955 892,294 951,720 456,284 328,149 305,652 257,907 235,476 158,284 197,439 811,523 181,825 75,869 75,973 75,679 58,590 947,080 1938 6,009,744 542,936 632,901 267,904 530,861 220,124 299,404 20,076 106,820 165,473 498,282 81,435 53,179 37,801 37,915 52,011 766,001 4,313,123 Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1955 1938 Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo 1 2 307 15 8 50 6 906 4,279 1,893,191 71,875 70,797 61,871 40,625 Brazilian British 298 19 7 58 8 1,814,576 120,168 57,831 75,391 47,738 348 3 1,626,625 Chilean Chinese . 10,012 Colombian Costa Rican 2 56 1 26 86 19 10 77 17 9 26 145 28 124 1 il 115 6 149 3 39 13 255 100 8 7 2 17 ii 282,484 24,493 34,891 167,574 449,617 259,957 102,114 10,350 182,631 905,050 17,513 1,260,920 10,429 189,305 21,592 1,380,445 425,983 35,488 43,494 1,927 72,317 175,163 70 12 3 38 106 23 110 251,632 14,999 20,543 156,660 267,700 214,907 100,952 161,735 4,021 138,303 Ecuadorean . French 312,330 96,467 3,839 Honduran 36 118 1 107 1 36 15 236 143 8 4 218,427 836,906 12 77 1 31,762 495,136 Japanese. South Korean. Liberian 782,303 Netherland Nicaragua n 214,212 21,735 1,076,750 776,054 21,994 20,162 77 179,917 Norwegian Panamanian.. 174 44 3 2 2 848,325 56,087 4,008 Philippine 4,375 Spanish Swedish 6 54 1 497 13,795 252,113 8,005 3,175,897 28 187,191 United States Uruguayan 459 1 1 2,888,442 3,924 9,161 413 2,195,344 2 7,300 Total 2,057 11,070,968 2,014 10,589,290 1.386 6,362,777


May 4, 1956 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 Governor Believes Sea-Level Waterway Plan Is Inevitable In Solution Of Canal Problem (Continued from page 1) and its Safety, "unless and until a sea-level canal is built." In discussing the future requirements of the Canal with the Board, Governor Seybold reviewed briefly the success of the plan to increase the capacity of the Canal during overhaul periods by alterations to the locks, which represents Phase I of a two-part plan approved by the Board in 1953 for increasing the Canal's capacity. He also listed a number of improvement projects, generally included in Phase II, which are already in the study stage which would cost approximately $24,000,000. These include: Continuation of the project to widen the channel through Gaillard Cut to 500 feet; widening Miraflores Lake channel; removal of DeLessjps Island and certain other islands in Gatun Lake; widen the Pacific entrance channel; and cut back the west bank at the south approach to Miraflores Locks. In his statement on the sea-level canal proposal, Governor Seybold said: "During my four-year term I have become well informed on the operational problems of our present waterway, and I have had occasion to review the sealevel canal proposal. It is my unqualified conclusion that the construction of a sealevel canal across the Isthmus in the Canal Zone is both feasible and desirable and, in fact, inevitable. Believes Project Sound "I am satisfied that the recommendation for a sea-level canal as proposed in the 1947 report is sound from an engineering and national-interest standpoint. "No doubt certain minor changes might be introduced in current planning or performance, but on the whole the 1947 proposal was and still is sound and rational in my view. Although the 1947 estimates of cost would, of course, be increased by the general rise in costs since that date, I am sure that substantial reductions in the estimates can now be made because of new developments and improved techniques that would be worked into the plan for the performance of the work. "I believe the sea-level project should be urged from the standpoint of future requirements and national defense. It is also my opinion that further investigating committees, as has been proposed, to review again the broad issues of alternative locations of such a canal and other possible types of interoceanic waterways would represent a needless waste of public funds." Isthmian Studies Of 1947 The recommendation for the conversion of the Panama Canal to a sea-level waterway was made by former Governor Joseph C. Mehaffey, based on exhaustive studies authorized by Congress to determine the best means to meet the foreseeable requirements of interoceanic commerce and meet the needs of national defense. Estimates prepared in that study indicated that the project would cost $2,500,000 and 10 years would be required for the work if done without interruption to traffic during the construction period. The report and recommendation were reviewed by, and had the concurrence of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Department of the Navy, and the Atomic Energy Commission. The study was the most comprehensive and exhaustive ever undertaken on the Isthmian canal problem. The studies were conducted by the Special Engineering Division with Brig. Gen. James H. Stratton, now a consulting engineer in private practice, as Supervising Engineer. Eminent Consulting Board The studies were conducted under the continuing advice of a Board of Consultants, appointed soon after they were initiated and composed of some of the most eminent engineers of the United States. The membership included men of high reputation in the various fields of engineering. The Special Engineering Division also had the advice and cooperation of various other governmental agencies and shipping agencies. The recommendations for conversion of the existing Canal to a sea-level waterway were made after investigations were made of 30 possible canal routes and alignments through the American Isthmus from Tehauntepec, Mexico, to the Atrato River routes on the Colombian border, and following detailed studies of several different plans for altering the Canal but maintaining a high-level, lock-and-lake type waterway. Power Conversion Program Moving Steadily Forward The power-conversion program has moved steadily forward on all fronts during the past few weeks although a delay of about a month was necessary in starting the conversion of domestic equipment in Margarita because of delays in the contractor-received materials on order. The first major steps in the project on the Pacific side have been taken with the award of two large contracts and the opening of the first bids for actual conversion of frequency-sensitive equipment. Madden Contract Awarded Announcement of the award of a contract to the General Electric Company for the conversion of the three big power generators at Madden Dam was made late last month. Bids for this work were opened at the end of February with General Electric entering an offer of $708,161 to convert the three 10,000-KVA units to 60-cycle current generation. Bids were opened last month for the central area conversion with L. R. Sommer entering the apparent low offer of $381,512.50 of five bids received. This work covers the conversion of all domestic, commercial, and industrial equipment in Gamboa, Summit, and Paraiso with the exception of the two pumping stations, the Canal lighthouse system, and the Summit Substation which is to be rebuilt on another contract. TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: Third Quarter. Fiscal Years 1956 1955 1938 I nited States IntercoastaL. ______ 121 149 264 East Coast of U. S. and South America 562 510 145 East Coast of U. S. and Central America 119 132 30 East Coast of U. S. and Far East _ 303 275 142 U. S. -Canada East Coast and Australasia 39 38 39 Europe and West Coast of U. S. -Canada 194 217 271 Europe and South America, _______ _ 198 161 134 Europe and Australasia __ 97 97 65 All other routes. __ _ __ 424 435 296 Total Traffic _ 2,057 2,014 1.386 CANAL TRANSITS — COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1956 1955 1938 Atlantic to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels, ocean-going 1,046 1,011 2,057 2,014 1,386 Small 102 107 209 215 219 Total commercial. 1,148 1,118 2,266 2,229 1,605 **U. S. Government vessels, oceangoing 35 28 63 65 Small ... 32 51 83 66 Total commercial and U. S. 1,214 1,197 2,412 2,360 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited free.


20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1956 Locks Alterations Greatly Increase Canal's Capacity In Overhaul Period Alterations made to the Gatun Locks as a part of the overall plan to increase the dependable capacity of the Panama Canal more than fulfilled expectations during the critical operating tests under overhaul conditions during the past four months. The overhaul of Gatun Locks was completed during the last week of April and the Canal returned to normal operations about three weeks ahead of the schedule set last January. The completion ahead (if schedule was attributed to good advance planning, cooperation, and coordition. Also, it was found that the work could be advanced more rapidly under the new operating conditions which permitted closer supervision with work in progress on one lock wall instead of two at the same time. Canal Traffic Booms Comparative figures on the amount of traffic handled during the first three months of this year and the comparable period in 1951 when Gatun Locks were last overhauled reveal not only the tremendous increase in Canal traffic during the past five years, but also the benefits derived from the alterations to the Atlantic Locks. During the first quarter of the calendar year 1951 there were 1,537 transits by ocean-going vessels. This year there were 2,121 transits during the first three months. Daily averages for the two periods were 17 for 1950 and 26 for this year. It is clearly obvious that the amount of traffic this year could not have been handled without intolerable delays under operating conditions before the alterations were made, since the number of lockages possible at Gatun previously under optimum overhaul conditions was about 24 a day. This year, as high as 28 lockages were handled on two different days and days with 25 or more lockages were frequent throughout the overhaul. It is estimated that 30 or slightly more lockages could be handled at Gatun under the new conditions, at least 30 percent more than previously during overhaul. Ship Handling Expedited The handling of ship traffic during the past overhaul also was considerably expedited by having a tug at the north end of Gatun Locks to assist vessels and by the use of relay lockages for 16 hours a day when only one lane was in service. The system of relay lockages provided for the doubling of lock operating crews, with one crew handling the ship to the middle chamber and another handling it the remainder of the lockage. The alterations to Gatun Locks, described in previous issues of The Panama Canal Review, consisted chiefly in providing means of blocking off the flow of water in the lateral culverts feeding from the center wall culvert. This was done by the use of big metal plugs in the five openings in each of the lateral culverts from the center wall. Other alterations required were the sealing off of openings to the center wall culverts' near the bottom of the chambers for the removal of cylindrical valves for overhaul, and enlargement of access shafts from the top of the wall to permit removal of all ^^^™ O) C s KO==S o^^=-i 5=k in — — ij ft. -n K =-n -M O OJ ~ = n (A -i, • PLACING METAL PLUGS in the east chamber was done after the lock chambers were flooded after the overhaul on that side. A barge equipped with a crane lifted the big stovelids down into the bottom of the lock chamber. A total of 300 plugs were needed at Gatun to seal off the water from the center wall culvert. cylindrical valve parts to the top of the wall. Before these alterations were made, it was necessary to have the center wall culvert out of service when either side of the locks were empty for overhaul. This required single culvert operation and single lane traffic throughout the overhaul period. Improved Operating Features The new system permits double culvert operation during the time when either set of locks is empty, and double lane traffic with single culvert operation while overhaul of the center wall culvert is in progress. Similar alterations are to be made at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks before the Pacific Locks overhaul in 1958. The big metal plugs, which resemble big teapot lids and are five and a half feet across which were used at Gatun, will be transferred to the Pacific side for the next overhaul. The overhaul at Gatun this year started the first week in January when the east **|^j chambers were emptied. The work was 5^ shifted to the west side after overhaul of the east chambers was completed, and the last task was overhaul of the centerwall culvert. It was found under actual operating conditions that more traffic could be handled with double culvert operation with one lane in service than with both sets of locks in service, but with single culvert operation. Metal Plugs Are Placed The metal plugs were placed in the west chamber apertures while it was still empty, but those on the east side were lowered from a special barge equipped with a crane. It was found that there was no leakage back into the center wall culvert from about 75 percent of the floor openings after the metal plugs were in place. However, it was necessary to send down a diver to caulk apertures in two of the lateral culverts because the openings were not true circles. This year eight of the lock gates were removed for overhaul of pintles, bushings, pins, and bearing plates. Other major work included the removal and overhaul of all rising-stem valves, 16 of which were replaced; removal and replacement of the rising stems for the cylindrical valves; replacement of one cylindrical valve; and replacement of cylindrical valve rubber seals. The overhaul this year permitted the first full-scale inspection of the effectiveness of cathodic protection provided for the lock gates five years ago. Canal officials were well pleased to find that the cathodic protection has been highly effective with the result that less bitumastic coating was required on the exterior of gates so protected. The overhaul of the Atlantic Locks this year was accomplished with an outstanding safety record. There were only seven lost-time accidents, none of a serious nature, during the overhaul. METAL PLUGS, each 5 }4 feet in diameter, have been fitted in every other row of openings in the west chamber floors at Gatun. These are the apertures which feed or empty water through lateral culverts from the big center wall culvert. By blocking off these laterals the overhaul of the center wall culvert is made while both sides of the locks are in service.

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