Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Creation Date:
May 1955
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text

PAGE 1

Gift of the Panama Canal Museum Qa^\ J-)^%~0^ Vol. 5, No. 10 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, MAY 6, 1955 5 cents Zone Will Participate in Civil Defense Test Planned For Entire U.S. The first Zone-wide civil defense test since the World War II period is being planned for June 15. Governor Seybold has accepted the invitation of the Federal Civil Defense Administration to participate in the national test exercise, "Operation Alert 195.5" which will include all 48 States of the Union, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The extent of participation will vary from State to State and from locality to locality. Here in the Canal Zone it is planned to have a complete public test in a ten-minute alert, to be followed by a test exercise by the Control Center Staff on the Atlantic side. Control Point Commanders and their immediate staffs in their respective areas, and a limited, small scale exercise of the Townsite Warden Service. In the ten-minute alert, all non-vital vehicular traffic on the highways will be required to pull to the side of the road and stop but occupants will remain in their cars. All residents in the Zone will be asked to seek shelter either in their homes or at work. Pedestrians or persons employed in the open when the sirens sound will seek the nearest available shelter. The test alert will come in the early afternoon of June 15 with the alert to be sounded over the attack warning system. FCDA Sets Test Standards The standards to be used in the hypothetical attack have been prescribed for the Canal Zone by the Federal Civil Defense Administration. They call for an atomic attack with an aerial burst over the Canal Administration Building at Balboa Heights. Under this simulated condition, it will be assumed that the principal Control Center of the Civil Defense Organization on the Pacific side would be inoperative. For this reason, it is planned to hold the Control Center exercises on the Atlantic side with the alternate Control Center Staff actively participating. The test exercise for Control Point Commanders and their staffs which will follow the alert will consist chiefly of a communications test, utilizing both Canal Zone Police radio cars and portable radio units The townsite Warden Service exercise will consist of the various Section Wardens; the manning of Child Care Centers; and rendering first aid to simulated casualties by first aid squads. Details of the Zone-wide exercise are being planned by W. G. Dolan, Chief of the Canal Zone Civil Defense. Limited Polio Inoculation Program In Zone Is Required Until More Vaccine Is Received The Salk Vaccine news— one of the great medical stories of the centurystruck the Canal Zone last month with the same force that it did thousands of towns and cities all over the United States The ink was scarcely dry on the papers '^ WHOA, NOW, DOCTOR! Two-year-old .James D. Craig is very much concerned about his inoculation which is being done by Dr. Robert I. Berger, Chief of the Outpatient Clinic at Gorgas Hospital. .James is the son of Mr. and Mrs. William T. Craig, and his father is an employee at the Pacific Locks. A more spirited outburst on his part was probably avoided by soothing words from his mother who was with him. He was one of the first nine children to be inoculated with the new Salk vaccine at Gorgas. Ten others were inoculated the same day at Coco Solo Hospital. making the announcement that the new vaccine is effective against polio before Canal Zone health authorities were deluged w^ith inquiries and requests. While these have subsided somewhat, many questions are still being asked as to when and how much vaccine will be received; and the who, when, and where questions about inoculations. The answers to many of these questions are still to come since Zone health authorities have not received such information from the United States where the vaccine is manufactured and where it is being allocated. The first inoculations in the Canal Zone took place on Friday afternoon, April 22, just 10 days after the announcement was made as to its effectiveness. Six Months To 16 Years Because of the limited supply received, the inoculations are being restricted to childi'en between the ages of six months and 16 years who are leaving for summer vacations in the United States. Nineteen were vaccinated the first day and since then the vaccine has been administered daily at the Outpatient Clinics at Gorgas and Coco Solo Hospitals. Children and parents are individually notified when to report and the inoculations are being scheduled as rapidly as possible so that the maximum number of children will have time for the two doses required for immunization before leaving for the States. The doses are given at approximately two week intervals, with a third dose being given about seven months later. Cards showing the (See page is) ANTICIPATIO.X AND apprehension show on the faces of these young Pacific side residents as they wait in the office of the Outpatient Clinic at Gorgas Hospital for their inoculations. Reading from left .. to right are: .John Omenitsch, William Craig, Mrs. Craig and son James, Robert and 10-month-old Steven Omenitsch, George Gattoni (seated), and .Juan Hansen.

PAGE 2

THE PANAMA, CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 A PANEL of teachers and parents enlivened the last meeting of the Diablo Heights PTA with a discussion of special educational features. Standing at the back is Lt. Col. E. B. Jennings, President of the PTA. Panel members seated at the table include R. W. CoUinge, Miss (Sladys Elkins, Miss Naomi Griithjan, and Mrs. Elizabeth McNevin, of the teacher group; and Mrs. C .Jacnbson and Capt. .!. McTollins, representing parents. Renewed Interest Shown In Formation Of Zone Parent-Teacher Associations Renewed interest is being shown in the organization of Parent-Teacher Associations in the Canal Zone after a lapse of several years and already one organization is fully functioning and three others are well into the formative stage. The bellwether of these groups has been the Diablo Heights Elementary School Parent-Teacher Association. It was organized in February and under the vigorous leadership of its President, Lt. Col. Edward B. Jennings, Project Engineer for the power conversion program, two successful monthly meetings have been held which were attended by about 100 or more parents of children in that school. Also fully organized and ready to initiate a definite program based on a closer cooperation between the home and school is the Atlantic Side Parent-Teacher Association. Mrs. Dorothy Leach of New Cristobal is President of this group. Instead of being strictly an individual school group, this association includes all United States schools on the Atlantic side. Latin American PTA Two Parent-Teacher Associations have also been recently formed by the Latin American schools. These are at La Boca and Paraiso. Officers for both of the associations have been selected with Mrs. Eulean Harris as President of the Paraiso group, and Christopher Hey wood as President of the La Boca Association. With the earlier closing of the Latin American schools this year, these associations are still in the process of formation and defining their aims and objectives. A committee has been organized at La Boca to work out a program for the association and leaders of both groups expect to be ready for full-swing activities by the time school reopens in July. The organization of parenl^teacher groups in the Canal Zone communities this year has followed a suggestion made to the various Civic Councils by Governor Seybold. The proposal has met with excellent response and the Civic Councils in both La Boca and Paraiso have taken the initiative in forming the association, and the Civic Councils of other communities have assisted in the program which has the whole-hearted support of school administrative officials. Since the Diablo Heights Association is a going concern, its policies and objectives as defined in the bylaws will form a pattern for other groups, particularly since they follow, in the main, those of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers. Three basic policies have been adopted by the Diablo PTA which are: That the purpose of the association shall be educational and shall be developed through conferences, committees, and projects; that it shall be non-commercial, non-sectarian, and non-partisan; and that it shall not seek to direct the administrative activities of the school nor to control its policies. Quoting directly from the bylaws, the objectives are: To promote the welfare of children and youth in home, schools, church, and community. To raise the standards of home life. To secure adequate laws for the care and protection of children and youth. To bring into closer relation the home and the school, that parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training of the child. To develop between educators and the general public such united efforts as will secure for every child the highest advantages in physical, mental, social, and spiritual education. Basic Objectives Identical Although other PTA's being formed or to be formed may outline their policies and objectives differently and may include special projects of interest in their respective communities, these set the basic principles which are sponsored by the National Congress. Leaders of the local units expect the Zone associations to become formally affiliated with the National Congress of Parents and Teachers at a later date. They have already received literature from the national body for use in guidance in the matters of organization, policies, and objectives. While the underlying principles of the Parent^Teacher Associations may be substantially the same, they are sufficiently broad to provide a highly varied and interesting program designed to attain the objectives in individual communities. Thus, the monthly meetings may be brought down to specific subjects or objectives. Typical of this was the April meeting of the Diablo Heights Association. It was devoted to a panel discussion on the facilities and requirements pertaining to speMRS. DOROTHY LEACH President of the Atlantic side VTA cial educational services of the school. The panel was led by Roger W. Collinge, Assistant, Superintendent of Schools and Director of Elementary Education. Participating were both parents and teachers. The panel was followed by a questionand-answer session in which such subjects as the need for a reduction in the number of elementary students per teacher, the requirement for a full-time resident school doctor, the Spanish course, and child behavior, were discussed in detail. Children's Project Meeting The program for the May meeting was to follow a completely different line. It was planned to make that a "children's project" meeting at which time it was planned to present special projects which have been pursued by the various students during the school year. The June meeting will be primarily a business meeting with the annual election of officers. Since the student body of the Diablo Heights Elementary School is made up of children from several different communities, the roster of officers is appropriately representative of these. Other officers serving this year with Colonel Jennings are: Mrs. Nina Harmon, of Fort Clayton, Vice President; Mrs. Hall, of Curundu Heights, Secretary; Robert L. Blaney, of Diablo Heights, Treasurer; and Mrs. Frances Baggott, of Curundu, Publicity Officer. Miss Ruth Creasy, Principal of the Diablo school, is the School Advisor and member of the Executive Committee. All three of the meetings held by the Diablo group have been well attended, and Colonel Jennings attributes this largely to the efforts of a "Calling Committee" which was appointed at the outset. It is the duty of the members of thi^ committee to call personally every parent a day or two before the meeting to remind and invite them to attend. Atlantic Side Officers Officers of the Atlantic Side ParentTeacher Association also come from several different communities. Serving with Mrs. Leach as President are: Mrs Evelyn Muncy, of Fort Gulick, Vice President; Mrs. Leonore Butts, of Margarita, Secretary; and Paul Baker, of Coco Solo, Treasurer. The teacher member of the Executive Committee of the association

PAGE 3

May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW THIS AUDIENCE of more than a hundred listens attentively as Roger W, Collinge, Assistant Schools Superintendent and Director of Elementary Education, leads a panel discussion at Diablo Heights Parent-Teacher Association meeting. The panel discussed the facilities and requirements pertaining to special educational services of the Diablo Heights Elementary School. is Miss Frances Moomaw, Principal of South Margarita Elementary School. -. The Atlantic side group held its second meeting late last month at which time Colonel Jennings was the guest speaker. In addition to telling briefly what the Diablo Heights group has accomplished thus far, he outlined some of the basic problems which parentrteacher associations always encounter. Over 100 parents and teachers attended the meeting. The Atlantic Side Association has planned tentatively to hold its meetings every third Monday. A committee has been appointed to draft bylaws for the association and these are expected to be considered at the May meeting. The formation of the Parent-Teacher Associations in the Canal Zone this year may, in a sense, be termed a revival. The history of the PTA in the Canal Zone goes back more than 35 years but it is by no means a consecutive story. First PTA In Balboa According to Canal records, the first such group organized, about 1920, was the Parent-Teachers' Cooperative Association, of Balboa, of which H. N. Engelke was President. A Parent-Teachers Association of Cristobal High School, with Mrs. F. H. Townsend as President, was formed about four years later. Apparently interest lagged and the association was short lived. Efforts to form similar organizations on the Atlantic side several years later did not meet with successful response. A considerable amount of public interest in the formation of Parent-Teacher Associations in the Canal Zone was generated about eight years ago with the result that several were formed and were active for three or four years. Most of these were formed about 1947 and the list included associations for the Balboa Junior and Senior high schools, Ancon, Diablo Heights, and Balboa elementary schools, and four associations in the localrate communities at Red Tank, Paraiso, Rainbow City, and Santa Cruz. Interest Lagged Five Years Ago None of these have been active for about five years and after the first burst of enthusiasm interest waned and attendance at meetings gradually fell off until formal meetings were discontinued. The leaders in the present move to form Parent-Teacher Associations hope to reverse this trend by the stimulation of continuing interest in a well-rounded program which will attract both the attention and support of both parents and teachers Colonel Jennings, one of the "sparkplugs" in the present revival, fully believes that this can be done by proper leadership and cooperation among the two groups most vitally interested in the promotion of good relationship between the home and school. RETIRES THIS MONTH F. H. IRWIN Frank H. Irwin closed more than 30 years of continuous service with the Canal organization earlier this week, almost half of which has been served as head of the Engineering Division. He and Mrs. Irwin plan to leave within the next few days to make their home in California. His retirement becomes effective at the end of May. Mr. Irwin has been active in many civic and community affairs for many years. He has also been Chairman of Local Board No. 1 of the Selective Service System since it was formed and has served as a member of the Canal Zone Pardon Board. Many Canal Officials See Joint Armed F orces Test A large number of officials in the Canal organization were invited to witness the various phases of Exercise Barracuda this week. This exercise was a joint U. S. Armed Forces maneuver designed to test the defense of the Canal against attack by an agressor ground force. Climax of the Exercise was a parachute jump at Rio Hato by some 800 paratroopers of the Eleventh Airborne Division of Fort Campbell, Ky. More than 2,000 troops participated in the maneuver. All Panama Line Ships Filled For Northbound May And June Sailings When the Panama Line Ancon sails next Saturday from Cristobal for New York the annual exodus of Canal employees and their families for summer vacations in the United States will be started in full swing. While travel this year is not expected to be heavier than previous years, all Panama Line ships for the months of May and June will be well filled. By the latter part of last week, full bookings were reported for all sailings in these two months except for a few spaces left on the SS Panama for its May 21st trip northbound. The Panama returned to passenger service on its last southbound sailing to provide sufficient accommodations for employees and their families during the rush vacation period. The change was made in anticipation of a substantial increase in travel by the Panama Line following instructions issued early in April for the use of travel on the Line for free home leave travel except in the relatively few cases where travel by other means to the States would be more economical. Employees taking advantage of the free home leave travel regulations may use other forms of travel to the States if they so desire by paying the difference between the reduced rates on the Panama Line and the cost of travel by other means. Few Disruptions Caused The two changes last month relating to travel caused comparatively little disruption to employee plans. Some reassignments were made to the Panama for its first two northbound sailings in passenger service and these were on a voluntary basis. Also, many of those sailing last Saturday had planned other forms of travel and changed to go on the Panama Line after the new instructions were issued. It was announced last month that changes in the sailing date for any employees as a result of the Panama returning to passenger service would be made by the Chief of the Administrative Branch. Very few reassignments in sailing dates have been necessary and these were also on a voluntary basis after consultation with the individuals concerned. The "teachers' special" for the northbound trip this year will be the Panama on its June 1 1th sailing. As in past years, employees with children of school age will be given priority in assignment on the two sailings before and the two after the teachers' special. This will be the first summer vacation in which Canal employees have the opportunity to take advantage of the free home leave travel. The legislation for free home leave travel was enacted last August after most employees had already taken their vacation. Although travel to the States is ordinarily by the Panama Line, employees and their families may use any form of travel they desire in going to their homes from New York. If they travel by private automobile, they are entitled to reimbursement on a mileage basis for the most direct route from New York to their home.

PAGE 4

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 Hundreds Of Zonians Have Received Help From Past Donations Made to Cancer Fund With the eradication of polio now a possibility through the development of the Salk vaccine, medical science is expected to tackle with renewed vigor one of the greatest killers of mankind and one of man's most dr?ad diseases cane r. Again this month Isthmian residents will have an opportunity to aid in this great fight by their donations to the Cancer Fund which has the two-fold purpose of providing financial assistance to those stricken and funds or research. Although the generosity of local residents has been amply demonstrated by gifts amounting to more than $50,000 during the past five years, the story of how this money is "spent and what is being accomplished here in the Canal Zone is little known. Some part of the story is told in a message being issued by Governor Seybold. Chairman of the Canal Zone Cancer Committee, inviting contributions. $9,079 In Financial Aid "Since May 1954 he said, "the date for the opening of the previous campaign, 72 patients were furnished hospital services, medical care, and financial assistance by the Committee. During this same period disbiu-sements to patients alone amounted to $9,079. In addition, to this local expenditure, $3,857 was transmitted to, the American Cancer Society specifically for cancer research. While it is deeply regretted, you should know that during the last year in the Canal Zone there were 11 terminal cases which were beyond the ability of our doctors to prevent." This brief statement tells the story of the more serious cancer cases where direct financial assistance was provided in hospitalization, medical services, nursing care BIOPSIES are made free of charge in all examinations for cancer. These are paid for by the Cancer Fund, being one of the several services in which a large number of Canal Zone residents benefit directly bv money donated each year. Dr. Ferruccio Bertoli, Chief of "Pathology at the Board of Health Laboratory, is shown making the microscopic examination of a piece of tissue to determine if there are any signs of malignacy. X-ray treatments, and medical supplies. In addition to these, many others were directly benefitted without their knowledge. About a year after the first Cancer Fund Drive was held in the Zone, the Canal Zone Cancer Committee made arrangements for the Health Bureau to make direct billings for all charges for certain services provided in cancer detection and treatment. These include: Charges for cancer detection examinations, biopsies, and those not in excess of DR. D. D. DOrCL.^SS, Acting (_'hief of the X-ray Service at (iorgas Hospital, and Mrs. \ivian Zimmerman, X-ray Technician, are examining chest .X-rays fur possible indication of cancer. Such examinations are done at no cost to the patients who rarely know that this service is free and is paid for by the Cancer Fund $50 for minor operations on indigent patients. That list has since been increased and now includes post-operative examinations. Charges Paid Automatically These charges are paid out of the Cancer Fund, generally without the knowledge of the patient. In addition, other treatment of a minor nature, such as Xray and drugs is paid on direct charges from the hospital without being referred to the patient. In a recent summary of expenses incurred during a typical quarterly period, the Executive Chairman of the Committee reported that direct charges were paid for 34 consultations, 12 biopsies. X-ray treatments, and drugs. These were in addition to financial assistance granted to fi\-e patients. These services were provided without fanfare and while most Zone residents have personal knowledge of financial assistance being rendered in isolated cases of long hospitalization of some friend or acquaintance, few realize that they themselves may have been personally benefitted financially through the Fund. It is impossible to judge how many lives may have been saved by this little known service, but medical authorities are in complete agreement on the importance of the early detection of cancer. In its national drive for funds this year, held during April in the States, the American Cancer Society stated that cancer strikes one in four persons. Of those stricken, one is saved by early detection and treatment and one could be saved by earlier diagnosis. Educational Program Important While the Cancer Fund has a two-fold purpose, primarily, it also serves in an educational program designed to save the one out of four whose case might have been cured by early diagrcsis. And, much progress has been made locally under the sponsorship of the Cancer Committee in educating the public in the importance of recognizing the early signs of cancer and consulting a physician immediately. The history of the Canal Zone Cancer Committee is relatively short. It was first organized in 19.50, largely through the initiative of Dr. K. 0. Courtney, formerly Assistant to the Health Director. The first formal drive was held during the latter half of May of that year, and a total of nearly $11,500 was donated. Sixty percent of that was retained in the Canal Zone and the remainder was forwarded to the American Cancer Society. The Canal Zone Cancer Committee became formally affiliated with the American Cancer Society the following year and since that time it has forwarded 30 percent of the funds raised and retained 70 percent to render financial aid to cancer victims here and to provide free medical services for detection and early treatment. The Governor of the Canal Zone serves as Chairman of the Canal Zone Cancer Committee and the funds are administered by a Board of Trustees with the Health Director as its Chairman. The Board of Trustees is composed of representatives from the Canal organization and the three branches of the Armed Forces on the Isthmus. The administrative

PAGE 5

May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW work of the committee is handled under the direction of an Executive Chairman who is elected annually by the Board of Trustees. Leaders For 1955 Appeal The Executive Chairman al-o has the responsibility for the annual fund rai^inp; drive which is held during the last half of May each year. The Executive Chairman this year is Leonard M. Brockman, Assistant Personnel Director of the Panama Canal Company. For the annual drive this year, Mr. Brockman has app.iintcd Frank J. Moumblow as Pacific side chairman, and Oearge A. Tully to head the Atlantic side c;)inmittec. As in past years, ivo specific goal has been set and all contributions will be on the voluntary basis. In his appeal for support in this year's campaign for funds. Governor Seybold said: "All residents of the Canal Zone are urged to render whole-hearted support and are invited to participate in this great humanitarian cause through the contribution of funds. No goal or minimum contribution is established. The frequency with which cancer strikes makes it a very personal matter to all of us that we assist to the extent that we are financially able." You may be a fine upstanding person, but that makes no difference to a bananaskin. Accidents are no respector of persons, neither are hazards, so keep your eye peeled. Think of your own skin. Remote Control Of Power Plants Planned As Phase Of 60-Cycle Conversion Project Imagine yourself sitting at your desk and holding the check reins on fiO.OOO horses charging up and down several hundred miles of roadway, slowing down oi' stopping a few thousand here, and k'tting 10,000 others tun more fK'ely T)!) miles away. That, you say, couldn't he done. And, if the horses were I'eal live animals, you would be correct, but translate the potential pulling power of 60,000 horses into units of electric energy, and it becomes entiiely feasible. Not only is it feasible, but is being planned in connection with the (JO-cycle conversion project. The Boaid of Directors at its last quartei ly meeting appi oved a plan to provide operation of the two hydroelectric generating plants at Madden Dam and Gatun by remote contiol from a single control board. The plan actually is an extension of one already in effect in the Canal Zone power system, since all major substations are now operated by i emote control. This existing equipment is due foi' replacement in the near future and will be included in the power conversion program. The purchase of additional equipment required at the generating plants will permit the tying-in of the entire system to a single centi'al board from which the power dis Armed Forces Day May 21 SYMBOLIC OF the spirit uf Aimed ]'"urces Day. ceremonial personnel representing each of the .\rmed Services of the United States present an impressive picture of the nation's armed strength. Local observance of Armed Forces Day is scheduled fcr May 21 with open-house ceremonies at .^Ibrook Air Force Base and Coco Solo .\aval \\r Station. The Canal organization is again actively participating in this year's observance by a special exhibit in the area set aside for this purpose at Albrook. Several thousand Canal employees and their families are expected to attend the open house ceremonies as they have done in past years. Canal Zone schools are also taking a special part in the observances through an essay contest sponsored by the Veterans of Foreign Wai's, an annual event of the past several years. The contest is open to boys and girls in the seventh and eighth grades who are American citizens. Prizes will be the selection of a boy and a girl to be Generals of the Ai-my, Generals of the Air Force, and Admirals of the Navy for a day. Special caps and stars will be given the essay winners. The contest closes at midnight, May 9. patcher can control both the generation and distribution of power to all parts of the .system. Single Control Hoard Needed Undei' the proposed .system, the operation of the two hydro plants and all main substations will be handled through a single cntrol board, which will be a miniature of the control board at each plant, and will permit remote control, metering, and supervision of all impoitant functions at each station. Not all features of the two generating plants will be fully automatic, and personnel will be available at each plant at all times for duty in connection with the nonautomatic features and for direct control of the entire plant if an emergency develops, as well as to perform maintenance work. The actual workings of the centralized control plan for the power system is too highly technical for the ordinary layman to understand. Its main features, however, are understandable and they indicate a regular fairyland in which a string is pulled here and something jumps yonder, the apparatus working something like an automatic telephone exchange. Novel Communication System One of the more interesting features of this remote control set-up is the communication system by which the messages will be brought into the control board from all parts of the power system. These mes.sages will be brought in by "carrier current" which means they will flow in over the same power line that is transmitting the regular curi'jnt, but at a much higher frequency. The control board will have meters to indicate to the dispatcher the voltage, current, and poweiflow throughout the system, indicating lights to show whether switches are opened or closed or whether apparatus is energized or dead, as well as control switches to start, stop, open, close, raise, or lower; and devices to indicate hot bearings, overloads, failures, or other disturbances. Any uncontrolled operatic n of a switch or unusual happening will soimd an alarm and indicate the device is in trouble. With the constant information supplied over the "carrier current," and indicated on the control board, the dispatcher, by pushing a button or turning a knob, can start or stop the generators at Madden Dam and Gatun ; increase or decivase the voltage anywhere in the power system; turn the lights on or off in any locality; locate trouble here, there, and everywhere; and, in general, hold the check reins of the 60,000 hoi-ses charging up and down the Isthmus, which is the rated capacity of the two hydroelectric plants. Diesel Plants Not Included The diesel generating plants will not be tied into the remote control system for the two hydroelectric plants. While this might be possible, it is not considered either feasible or economical because of the more intricate details requited in their operation. The last of the major contracts of the pov/er conversion project to be let this fiscal year was awarded last tnonth to the Sachse Electrical Company.

PAGE 6

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION Our 1954 Toll 355 Disabling Work Injuries Durins,' the calendar year 1954, the Canal Z;)n" Government-Panama Canal Company expeiienf_'d 355 disibling injurii^s, of which six were fatalities, S p;'imanent partial disabilities, and 341 t;Miip )rary total disabilities. These 341 temporary total disabling injm'ies represent a total of 8,372 actual days lost by the injured persons from the job. Since the actual costs of the six fatalities and the eight p?rmanent partial disibilitiss are intangible amounts, which are spread over many years, a fixed scheduled charge of 51,000"d'ays, as specified by the American Standards Association, was recorded at the time of the injury for statistical purposes and in order to compare accident expsriences, whether or not any days were lost by the injured employee from the job. The accident frequency rate for the year was 12.72 which represents a 4 percent improvement over our previous 3-year average of 13.21 for the years 1951, 19.52, 1953, and a 29 percent improvement over our 19.50 frequency rate of 17.84, the first full year under the Government-Company reorganization. Those chiefly responsible for this overHONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD MARCH TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU CIVIL AFFAIRS B UREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Civil Affairs 1 Community Services 1 Engineering and Construction 1 Supply 1 Transportation and Terminals 1 Health_.._ -Marine •• Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES MARCH TERMINALS DIVISION MAINTENANCE DIVISION SERVICE CENTER DIVISION DREDGING DIVISION ELECTRICAL DIVISION MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION RAILROAD DIVISION HOUSING DIVISION SANITATION DIVISION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Maintenance 3 Aids to Navigation 2 Dredging 2 Electrical — 2 Grounds Maintenance 2 Housing 2 M otor Transportation — 2 Railroad 2 Sanitation 2 Commissary : 1 Industrial 1 Service Center _. 1 Storehouses .._ 1 Terminals I Hospitalization and Clinics Locks Naviga tion all improvement during 1954 and who showed improvements ranging from one percent to 100 percent over their own 3-year averages were: 1 Bureaus -Community Services Bureau; Health Bureau; Transportation and Terminals Bureau; Marine Bureau. 2. Divisions and Miscellaneous Bureau Units — Printing Plant and Supply Bureau — Misc.; Housing Division and Community Services Bureau— Misc.; Postal and Customs Divisions; Service Center Division; Engineering Division and Eng. and Constr. Bureau— Misc.; Police Division; Staff and AdministrationGrounds Maintenance Division; Dredging Division; Locks Division; Motor Transportation Division; Division of Storehouses; Navigation Division, Aids to Navigation, and Marine Bureau — Misc. The "Accident Statistics for the Calendar Year 1954," which have just been published, compares the improvement each bureau and division made over their own previous 3-year average. This system of gauging each unit's safety effort with their own previous 3-year average is a less controversial method than that of comparing the safety experience of one unit with that of another. Under this method, if a unit makes steady progress each year in reducing accidents their percentage of improvement will be plus and as the saying goes: "in the green;" if not, their percentage will be minus and "in the red," which of course shows they are not doing so well. The National Safety Council also uses the previous three years as a basis for comparison. Since it is their own record each unit is trying to beat, there can be no alibis, such as was previously the case when the frequency rates of all units were compared. Some units claimed they should be given some sort of a handicap over other units because of the difference in their activities and degree of hazards involved, including something greater than the possibility of falling out of an office swivel chair. This method of safety competition does not permit a unit to rest on its "laurels," or to become satisfied with a more or less fixed frequency rate. Every new annual record in turn becomes one of the three previous years and, if an improvement, sets up a new lower average for the unit to shoot at for the year coming up. A good example of how this works is the safety experience of the Terminals Division. They figured back in 19.50 that because of their relatively high frequency rate they would always be on the bottom for any Honor Roll Award. In 1951 they started out with a 10 percent improvement over their previous low record and rose to 46 percent improvement in 1953 over their previous 3-year average. These new lows gave them a much lower 3-year average to shoot at in 1954. As it turned out, they were unable to better this average because of one major accident. Even at that, they were only 1 percent worse for the year. However, they have taken a new hold on their accident prevention situation for 1955, and have won the Honor Roll Award for no disabling injuries during the month of March— something they never expected would happen back in 1950. For them, this is a new outlook in safety, when they discovered there was a way for them to win recognition for a sincere effort in preventing accidents and they found they could stand up among the best. MARCH 1955 Transportation and Terminals Bureau ,, 1 <<<<>:<:m Engineering and Construction Bureau 1 ^ Civil Affairs Bureau 1 •:::::•: :•:•::) Community Services Bureau 4 S 5 7 IE 15 ^m — 1 C. Z. Govl.-Panama Canal Co. ( This Month ) ,x-J Wf^ 1 Health Bureau Supply Bureau i<:}::y-:i K^ H ffff^K 1 S32a C. Z. Govt.-Panama Canal Co. ( Last 3-Year Av. | Bi^l 1 Marine Bureau ^^ Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked (Frequency Rale) 10 Number of Disabling Injuries 13 Man-Hours Worked .2,454,688 LEGEND I .Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3-Year Average I I Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average fi'X'f^'iii Aocuimilative Frcqiipnoy Rate This Year

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May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW JUeJ-, .e/fi^hj,!. Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by lh Printinf PUint Mtunt Htpe, Canal Zont John S. Seybold, Governor-President William G. Arey, Jr. Public Information Officer J. RuFUS Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Editorial Assistant SUBSCRIPTION— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— 5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BYMAIL— 10 cents each B.\CK COPIES— 10 cents each On sale when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Marine Director Serves As Acting Zone Governor C.-VPT. FRANK A. MUNROE, Jr. Capt. Franlv A. Munroe, Jr., Marine Director, became Acting Governor of the Canal Zone last week with the departure of Governor Seybold for Washington to attend hearings on Canal appropriations. This was the fourth time in the history of the Canal organization that the head of the Marine Bureau (or Division) has been called to take the Canal Zone Governor's place on a temporary basis. Others who have served briefly as Acting Governors were: Rear Adm. (then Captain) Clark H. Woodward in 1929; Commodore Stewart A. Manahan in 1942; and Capt. Robert M. Peacher in 1952. Captain Munroe's appointment was made following the departure of Lt.-Gov. H. 0. Paxson for his new assignment in Washington. Col. Herman W. Schull, Jr who has been appointed by Governor Seybold to succeed Colonel Paxson as Lieutenant Governor, is scheduled to arrive on the Isthmus about May 25. OF CURRENT INTEREST Annual Safety Trophy Presented WEARING a broad smile. Wilson H. Crook, Community Services Director, receives from Governor Seybold the Governoi'-President Annual Safety Trophy at a special ceremony last month at Balboa Heights. Equally pleased is Emmett Zemer, standing at Mr. Crook's right, since he is Safety Inspector for the Community Services Bureau. Emphasizing the importance of the safety program, the Governor invited all Bureau directors, heads of the principal units of the Community Services Bureau, and members cf his staif to attend. In making the presentation. Governor Seybold said the ceremony had a two-fold purpose: To give recognition of the fine record, and to stress the importance of the safety program throughout the Company and Government. This was the second year when the Governor-President Safety Trophy has been awarded. It was won last year by the Health Bureau. It is presented to the Bureau with the highest percentage improvement in accident-frequency rate over its own previous three-year average. Eleven cottages and one two-family bouse in the Ancon-Balboa area which were scheduled to be vacated for demolition by tbe end of June, will be retained temporarily because of the present shortage of quarters on the Pacific side. The decision to keep these bouses in use for the present was made following an inspection as to their condition. The occupants of these quarters to be kept have bee;i given written notice from the Housing Division of the change in the demolition schedule. The change will not affect the demolition schedule for other houses and occupants of quarters slated to be torn down soon will know there has been no change in the date they must vacate, unless the>' have received such a notice. The houses to be kept in use will be repaired; it necessary, repainted, and kept on a minimum maintenance basis. in Cristobal by Governor Seybold, effective May i6. Canal Zone Magistrates are appointed to four-year terms. Judge Tatelman has been a resident of the Isthmus since IQ24 when he was first employed in the Marine Division. He has served as Magistrate in Cristobal since 1931. Aside from his official duties, Judge Tatelman has taken an active role in many civic affairs during his 30 years of residence. He and Mrs. Tatelman left last week for a vacation in Colorado. Bids are now being advertised for the sale and removal of three of the six emergency dams of the Panama Canal which were erected at the time of the Canal construction. Bids are to be opened May 31. The three dams to be sold are those at Miraflores and one at Pedro Miguel. The other three are to be sold for scrap at a later date. They were remodelled several years ago for use as spillways for flood control if needed. None of the dams has ever been used for emergency purposes. h draft of legislation has been forwarded to Congress by the Canal administration which would reciuire the registration and licensing of architects and professional engineers in the Canal Zone. The proposed legislation is patterned along standards prevailing in the District of Columbia. The registration and licensing of these two professional groups has been sought by them and the proposed bill would establis'-' substantially the same procedure in the Canal Zone as now applies to the medical and legal professions. Meanwhile, it was announced recently that pending approval of the legislation, registration and licensing will proceed under regulations similar to those now in practice throughout the llnited Stales. Judge E. I. P. Tatehnan has been reappointed to a four-year term as Magistrate The Communications Branch of the Electrical Division recently completed the installation of a new telephone directorylisting system designed to simplify the work and increase efficiency. It is an interlocking card system in which individual cards contain a line of information such as is listed in the telephone directory. Upon removal of a telephone, the individual's card is withdrawn and upon installation a new card is inserted alphabetically in the area of the listing. The interlocking card system is expected to eliminate the end-of-the-year rush and greatly simplify the compilation of the new Canal Zone telephone directory each JanA total of 38 U. S.-rate student-assistant positions have been authorized this year for allocation on the basis of Bureau justification for the coming school vacation months from June 8 through September 9, it has been announced by the Personnel Bureau. These positions can be filled by Canal Zone high school students or Junior College students of 16 years of age or over who meet the general qualifications for U. S.-rate employment in the Company-Government organization. The jobs also will offer training opportunities and many of the high school graduates employed during the summer may be retained in permanent positions similar to those held during their training peiiod. Students wishing to apply for jobs may register at the U. S.-rate Employment Branch of the Personnel Bureau in the Administration Building or at the Central Labor Office in Cristobal.

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 The Panama Canal Honor Roll Fifty-one years ago last Wednesday May 4, 1904the United States formally undertook to build the Panama Canal. Ten years later, on August 14, 1914, the new waterway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans was opened to traffic despite all the gloomy predictions which had been made to the contrary. During that ten-year, hurry-burly period, t?ns of thousands of Americans left their homes to come to the Isthmus to help build the "Big Ditch" as it soon became affectionately called by them. Although there were never more than 7,000 employed at any one time, it was estimated that a total of about 40,000 employments and reemployments were made during the Canal construction period. When the work ended, several thousand of these pioneers remained to run the Canal ancl for a period of some .30 years afterward most of the responsible position in the Canal organization were held by them. Gradually, the hardy band has been reduced and on May 4 of this year, the 51st anniversary of the Canal enterprise under the United States Government, there were only 13 of those who were first employed during the construction period still in service. When this Honor Roll of the Canal organization was published in the first issue of The Canal Review in May 1950, the list contained 106 names. It has declined rapidly in the intervening five years and another few years will make the honor roll something for the history books. Only 5 Roosevelt Medal Holders Of those remaining in service, only five are holders of the Roosevelt Medal which was awarded for two years of construction-day service. These are five out of 7,391 who received the coveted medal. Their names below are indicated by an asterisk. The names of those now in service who began work for the Canal before it was opened is given below with the dates they entered service. The three names in capital letters have had continuous service. A brief calendar of events is given with each name and date as a reminder of the time when they began their careers. 1909 *Adrien M. Bouche — July 2 The floor of Gatun Spillway was completed and the sea-level section of the Canal on the Atlantic side had been dredged down to within nine feet of its final depth by July 1909. During the month, a $25,000 clubhouse building at Gatun was authorized and survey work for the Cristobal Breakwater was practically completed. 1911 *Lea K. Dugan — June 6 Pedro Miguel Locks were nearing completion and the permanent construction plant there was moved to Miraflores Locks. This was the month when the first ordinance was issued requiring all operators of automobiles to be licensed. 'GEORGE N. ENGEEKE— Sept. 5 'Bernard VV. Mclntyre — September 28 The installation of the vast amount of machinery needed for the operation of the MOUNTAINOUS SLIDEvS plagued the Canal construction during tlie latter years and delayed opening the waterway. Most of those still in service remember sights such as this where steam shovels were upended and railroad tracks were made to look like rubber when millions of yards of earth and rock started to move. locks was begun in September 1911. The Canal Zone Postal Savings System was established by Executive Order of the President, and the Society of the Chagres, an association of those with six years of Canal service, was formed. *Gregor Gramlich — October 14 Excavation for the permanent harbor at Balboa was begun the same month Mr. Gramlich was employed. The old Hotel Washington was reopened after being moved from the site where the present hotel was to be built. 1912 Samuel J. Deavours — March 1 Work on Pedro Miguel Locks was well advanced and the concrete for the emergency dam foundations were being poured. Meanwhile the first shipment of material for the Miraflores Lock gates had arrived and preparations were being made to concentrate work there. President Taft issued an Executive Order setting the speed limit at 15 miles an hour for cars on a straight road and eight miles on curves and in towns. Thomas J. Breheny — November 1 The upper guard gates at Pedro Miguel Locks were operated for the first time two weeks after Mr. Breheny started work. That same month the Executive Order of President Taft setting toll rates for ships to use the Canal was published. About 400 acres of land comprising a part of the present town of Balboa was being reclaimed by hydraulic fill from dredges in Balboa Ilarlwr. George C. Orr — December 5 ARTHUR MORG.\N— December 10 Gatun Lake was being filled with the practical completion of Gatun Dam and the lake reached a level of slightly over 56 feet in December. However, the lake was lowered to 50 feet to permit work on the concrete spillway to be completed. Surveys were begun for the location of towers for the 44,000-volt transmission line across the Isthmus. The Canal force rose to the highest level of any time in the construction period, with 40,159 employees. Of these, however, 3,499 were employed by contractors on Canal work. 1913 David W. Ellis— June 11 A committee reported unfavorably on plans for a tunnel under the Canal near Paraiso. Erection of the framework for the Administration Building on the side of Ancon Hill was begun in June 1913. It was announced that the filling of Gatun Lake to its operating level would start on July 1. Meanwhile, villages in the lake area were still being evacuated and buildings removed or demolished. Edward P. Walsh— July 1 EMMETT ZEMER— July 10 A contract was awarded for the construction of Piers 15 and 16 in Cristobal. Plans for blowing up the Gamboa Dike in October were announced. Work was started on the construction of the Miraflores Filtration Plant. William V. Brugge — December 17 Slides, which delayed the opening, of the Canal, were main topics of conversation at the end of 1913 and at the time Mr. Brugge started work, dredges had just cut a channel sufficiently wide for floating equipment to pass through the big Cucaracha Slide. News of the death of Col. David DuBose Gaillard was received on the Isthmus. Plans were announced for the Ancon Commissary, the first permanent type store to b? built.

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May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW ONE OF THE Canal Zone's notaries, F. J. Moumblow, attests the signature of a document. 186 Notaries Public Serve The Public I n Ca nal Zone Towns And Military Posts Notaries public in the Canal Zone will never get rich; the top fee they may ever charge is $1 and although that $i may legally go into their pockets a good many of them don't ever bother to collect it. What they get out of their appointments as notaries is the satisfaction of having helped someone untangle a bit of red tape or comply with the rules and regulations which require that the signatures on many documents must be sworn to, or, in better notary parlance, attested. Notaries public have been functioning in the Canal Zone since January 1905; today there are 75 of them scattered in 10 Canal Zone communities -and this figure does not include the 111 notaries among military personnel or civilians whose headquarters are in the Canal Zone's military posts or Navy stations. All Canal Zone notaries public have several things in common: they must be citizens of the United States; they are appointed for terms of three years by the Governor; they may function only in the Canal Zone but are not bound to their home base, i.e., a Cristobal notary may notarize documents in Gatun, Gamboa, Balboa, or any other place in the Canal Zone; they may not generally charge for administering an oath or attesting papers which are to be filed with a department of the United States or with the Panama Canal Company; and they must provide their own impression seals, at their own expense. My Friend, The Notary Canal Zone notaries also, apparently, have one complaint in common: they wish their friends would not take advantage of friendship. What they mean is something like this: John Jones, who works for the Locks Division, say, has to swear to a certain document. The document says, quite plainly, that the oath of signature must be made before a notary public. But John Jones is a busy man, he's been an old friend of his neighborhood notary for a good many years, and said friend knows John Jones' signatiu'e as well as he knows John Jones. So Jones signs his piece of paper, at home, and asks Mrs. Jones to take it to their old friend the notary so he can put his seal on it; "then we can get it into tonight's air mail." Both Joneses are almost invariably highly incensed when their friend, the notary, points out that he cannot place his seal on any document which has not been signed in his presence and when he insists that Jones come around in pei'son and take care of this matter. Specialized Notaries Some notaries have specialized work. The two notaries at Gorgas Hospital, for instance, deal mostly with the oaths required when a veteran applies for treatment in a Canal Zone hospital. Death certificates, also, must be notarized. The Canal Zone Credit Union has a notary on its staff; the work there deals mostly with chattel mortgages arranged by Credit Union members. A number of oil companies in the Canal Zone have notaries in their offices, as do several shipping agencies. They may deal with such matters as bottomries, hypothecations, and affreightments — which mean respectively, a contract in the nature of a mortgage with a ship, and sometimes its freight, as security; the pledging of a vessel as security by a bottomry bond; and the mercantile lease of a vessel under which it remains in charge of its owners. Notaries at the Canal Zone License Section attest transfers of vehicles, and notaries at the Canal Zone District and Magistrates' Courts must notarize all affidavits of complaint. A person who is charging his next-door neighbor with battery must take his oath that the charge is, to the best of his knowledge, correct. Notaries public also administer oaths to Canal Zone officials. For many years August T. Schmidt, a notary public in the Administration Building, swore in each Governor of The Panama Canal, and today notaries in the Magistrates' Courts swear in the Magistrates. Election periods in the United States always bring an extra load of work to the notaiies public, as absentee ballots must be sworn to before a notary. John A. Michaelis, who is clerk of the Balboa Magistrate's Court but also a notary, recalls that the number of absentee ballots was unusually large in 1952 when Dwight D. Eisenhower was Republican candidate for president. Because his office is located near the two large Canal Zone banks, Mr. Michaelis is also called on frequently to notarize powers of attorney to enable someone other than the payee to collect retirement checks, for instance. Never Collected George M. Lowe, of the Locks Division's main oflice at Pedro Miguel, has been a notary public for nine years and in all that time he has never collected a cent for his work, although there have been many times when he could have charged for his notarization. "I don't feel like taking money from my buddies," he says. Most of the time, his notary duties have been routine. He recalls, however, an involved mass of legal documents he was once called on to notarize. These were concerned with the guardianship of the minor children and with the estate of a widowed Locks employee who died suddenly. The first order establishing notaries public in the Canal Zone was signed by William Howard Taft in January 1905, when he was Secretary of War. A schedule of fees which could be charged by the notaries was set up three years later; notaries public who were employed in the Department of Civil Administration had to account for the fees they collected, but others were permitted to retain their fees. Three Year Terms In 1920 Governor Chester Harding issued an Executive Order providing that the notaries public should be appointed by the Governor for a three-year term, fixing the fees which they might collect, and stating that they might not charge "for any service performed for the Panama Canal or for any other department or agency of the Government of the United States." A good many prominent Zonians have served as notaries public at one time or another. In 1914, when there were 17 notaries public in the Canal Zone, they included such well-known persons as W. G. Comber, Courtenay T. Lindsay, William D. Taylor, F. "H. Wang, "H. H. Hammer, and Gerald D. Bliss. Until 1930, the Canal Zone's notaries public were sworn in by the District Judge. One oldtimer recalls the annoyance of a certain judge when two prospective notaries appeared before him to take their oath, without benefit of tie or coat. Today notaries are sworn in by other notaries and the matter of coat and tie is optional. Blessings Of Allah Occasionally a special situation has called for the appointment of temporary notaries public in the Canal Zone. The most recent of these was in July 1946, when 86 employees were appointed to administer affidavits relating to membership in organizations which asserted the right to strike against {See page w)

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10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 Pure Water Supply Was Major Problem Of Primary Concern To Canal Builders Editor's Note: This is the second of a series of stories on the Canal Zone water system. The average householder gives little thought to the manifold inconveniences, in fact, dire consequences, which would occur if water failed to come through the pipe like magic when the tap is opened. Like good health or warmth, good drinking water is not missed until it isn't there. While the quenching of thirst is the most important use of potable water to man, the lack of it can be disastrous or inconvenient in many other ways. Several weeks ago the Technical Chiefs of the Canal Zone Civil Defense organization met to consider what steps each would have to take if an atom bomb with the explosive potential of -50,000 tons of TNT were detonated near Miraflores. The general assumption in the problem was that the Pacific side water system had been wrecked. Of the many individual problems the group was asked to solve under simulated emergency conditions, one vividly illustrated the ever-present need of water for purposes other than drinking. The Technical Chiefs were asked to decide what to do if the Tivoli Guest House caught fire. Without water to fight the blaze, the answer was simple: Evacuate the building and dynamite it! The problem and answer told a simple but pointed story of one of the most urgent needs man has for water. Ten Billion Gallons Last year the Water and Laboratories Branch filtered and distributed 10,800 million gallons of water to 315,000 consumers in the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon at a direct operating cost of over $1,000,000. The purification was done at the two big filtration plants located at Miraflores and Mount Hope, while the water is distributed through a vast network of mains and smaller pipelines measuring 1.50 miles in total length. An interesting sidelight on the amount of filtered water used is the fact that it requires about five or six gallons of water to run the electric turbines which generate the power to deliver each gallon of water to a consumer. The distribution of this vast amount of water, which would cover 1,000 acres to a depth of 33 feet, is no less crucial and exacting than making the water fit for human consumption. The distribution system, in fact, represents about 60 percent of the $8,500,000 investment in the entire water system, while 78 of the 123 employees are engaged in this phase of the work. Excellent Record Set The thought of a major distribution failui-e has the same nightmarish qualities for E. W. Zelnick, Chief of the Water and Laboratories Branch, and his principal assistants as any rise in the bacteria count in the water. On both scores they have maintained an excellent record. Last year, for example, there were no service interruptions in the water distribution system involving more than a few hours other than those in restricted areas which were planned in advance for repair work or construction. Much of the credit for this is due to the excellent storage faciliST.WDIXG BESIDE one of the two, big pumps which supplies filtered water to the communities on the west side of the Canal, from left to right, are: R. .J. Risberg, Sanitary Engineer who is Assisant to the Chief of the Water and Laboratories Branch; E. W. Zelnick, Chief of the Branch; and H. F. CckIv, Supervisor of the Pacific side water distribution system. ties and a well integrated system. Men are on constant call for any break of a pipeline or service interruption of any nature, and repair crews are hustled out on an emergency basis for any trouble. Two Separate Systems Both the filtration and water distribution systems are separate for the two sides of the Isthmus. On the Atlantic side nine electrically-driven centrifugal pumps are used to pump the filtered water to the various rsservoirs, or in some instances direct into distribution pipes serving Atlantic side communities. The reservoirs have a storage capacity of approximately six million gallons. They include two .500,000-gallon elevated steel tanks at Agua Clara, two of one million gallons capacity each at Mount Hope, and one steel reservoir at Fort Gulick M.\XY THOUS.-\XDS depend on this 30-inch filtered water main for their water supply. Xew foundations are being installed where it crosses a small stream near the Miraflores Power Plant. Supervising the job is John E. Jennison, Leader Foreman of the Water System. He is bareheaded and is standing at the far right. holding 2, .500,000 gallons, plus miscellaneous tanks on military reservations. The water is fed through 180,000 feet of mains and distribution piping ranging from 30-inch to 4-inch pipes. These are, in turn, equipped with such fixtures as fire hydrants, valves, meters, air reliefs, and blowoffs. In the case of distribution lines for supplying ships, the lines are equipped with safety valves preventing a back flow and possible pipe contamination from ship tanks. Pacific Side System The Pacific side distribution system is much more extensive, proportionate to the population. The communities on the west side of the Canal are supplied from a pumping station at Miraflores through a 16-inch pipeline crossing under the Canal to three reservoirs located at Cocoli, Howard Field, and San .Juan which have a combined storage capacity of 2,187,500 gallons. Water is also pumped from Miraflores to three "wash water" reservoirs, with a combined capacity of 1,750,000 gallons, which in turn feed the Pedro Miguel and Paraiso filtered water pump station. The latter station pumps to the 250,000 gallon. Paraiso reservoir which supplies Paraiso, and a 750,000 gallon tank at Gamboa. The big twin reservoirs on Engineers Hill and a tank at Fort Clayton are supplied from the Miraflores Pump Station. The Reservoir Hill tanks, holding 3,000,000 gallons, supply water to suburban Panama, while water for Fort Clayton, Albrook Air Force Base, Corozal, and Los Rios is supplied from the Fort Clayton tank which holds 791,000 gallons. Balboa Pump Station The Balboa Pump Station is the principal distribution unit for the Pacific side communities of Ancon, Balboa, Diablo Heights, Quarry Heights, Fort Amador, Curundu, and Panama City. It is supplied by water flowing by gravity from

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May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 S. L. CRAIG. Pump Plant Operatur at Alcmnt Hope, fxamines "lum tn? meters on the control panel. This is one of two control panels which starts the pumps for filtered water distribution on the .\tlantic aide. Mirafiores through 30-inch and 20-inch mains. It pumps to three big reservoir.^ serving these communities from which it flows by gra\'ity to domestic and industrial users. Two res?rvoirs of 2, .500, 000gallon capacity each are located on Chorrillo Hill near the boundary line and one of 2,400,000-gallon capacity, known as the Ancon high service reservoir, located on Ancon Hill. The mains and distribution pipes on the Pacific side range in size from 4 inches up to 30 inches in diameter and measure approximately 610,000 feet in length. The amount of piping does not include that on Armed Forces reservations nor that in the cities of Panama and Colon. The installations in the Armed Forces reservations are owned and maintained by them and the same is true in Panama City and Colon. The Water and Laboratories Branch's only responsibility is to supply filtered water to the point of entry to these areas where it is metered. Complicated System Required While the total population served by the water system is estimated to be 31.5,000, the system is considerably more complicated than in a normal city of this size in the United States. In the first place, the system is divided into two distinct parts, and, secondly, the topography is more rugged than is generally encountered and the communities are more widely scattered. Despite this and other local conditions which cause increased cost of producing filtered water, the price of water to consumers here is low in comparable population. A recent siu-vey shows the cost of filtered water in the Canal Zone is in the lower ten percent of a group of cities comparable in size and with purification systems of the same general type used here. Why System Is Needed Since this is the tropics it is not surprising that more water per consumer is used here than in the United States. Also, there is a seasonal variation here which ranges about 20 percent, with the usage being much higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Many people may wonder why such an extensive purification and distribution system is necessary in a land where so much rain falls annually. The main answer is the problem of storage through the long dry seasons. If only drinking water was required, cisterns to catch rainwater might suffice, but the use of filtered water ranges from about 40 up to about 350 gallons a dav per consumer in the various communities on the Isthmus, which would require an enormous tank for each household. Even this would be no guarantee of fire protection because of lack of water pressure, nor against contamination during the storage period. These are, however, only a few of the problems which would be left unsolved by the use of cisterns. A source of water often tapped elsewhere which is not feasible here is the underground supply. Many cities and isolated homes draw their water supply fi'om deep wells which, in many instances, obviate the expensive process of purification. The geological formation of the Canal Zone is not favorable to this system and the underground water supply is not sufficient to meet the extensive demands for potable water even if the system were less expensive than the one in use. System Developed From Scratch The present modern water purification and distribution system was developed from scratch. As mentioned in the previous Review article describing the filtration system and processes, the provision THE .APP.\RATU.'< shown in this picture is a -rate of flow controller" at the Mirafiores plant. Working on the controller is R. M. Turner. Mechanic of the Water System. .Assisting in the job at the left is George W. Joshua, repairman-helper. of a pure water supply was one of the first and most urgent concerns of the builders of the Panama Canal. There was no public water supply in Panama and only a limited supply in Colon in 1904 when the United States began construction of the Canal. Consequently, diseases directly traceable to the consumption or use of polluted water were more rampant than malaria and more dangerous than "Yellow .Jack." In the very earliest planning stages, it was recognized that an adequate sewer and water system would have to be provided and work was begun on this immediately. By special Treaty provision, the cities of Colon and Panama were included in the plans for sanitation, and sewer and water installation, since diseases do not stop at curb-line boundaries. Both plans and work on a watei' and sewer system for Panama City and Colon and the Canal Zone communities were carried forward conciu'rently with those for the Canal's construction. Work Was Started In 1904 The first work for a Pacific side supply was begun in 1 904. It consisted of raising a dam, built by the French, on the Rio Grande River 1 7 feet to impound enough water with sufficient elevation for gravity flow to Ancon. This reservoir is nowbeing filled by spoil taken from Contractor Hill. The water was brought to Ancon in a 16-inch cast-iron pipe to a concrete reservoir built on a spur of Ancon Hill which was long known as Reservoir Hill and which was flattened two years ago for the residential development there. Meanwhile, sewers, water mains, and feeder pipes were being installed in Panama City. A Day Of Rejoicing The water was turned on in Panama City on July 4, 1905, and it was a day of great rejoicing. The Municipal Council held a special session and adopted a resolution of appreciation, and a special Mass of thanks was held in the Cathedral which was attended by the President and his Cabinet as well as prominent officials of the Isthmian Canal Commission. The water problem on the Atlantic side was solved by forming a big reservoir back of an earth dam on Brazos Brook. Water was brought by gravity flow from there to a steam pumping station and a pressure filter plant, similar to a filter plant on the Pacific side. A short time later on the Atlantic side a sedimentation basin was constructed where the water was treated with aluminum sulfate before it was passed through the filters. The Atlantic side water system was completed in 1906. The present facilities, which have since been greatly expanded, were constructed during the latter pait of the Canal construction period. The Mirafiores Filtration Plant was completed and placed in operation in March 1915, while the Mount Hope plant was placed in service a year earlier, February 1914. The water problem on the Pacific side, however, was not completely solved by the construction of the modern filtration plant. The original plans for the plant provided for an intake of raw water from nearby Miraflores Lake, since it represented a saving of $500,000 over any other project then considered feasible. Miraflores Intake Abandoned It w^as not before it was discovered that this economy could not be effected because of the rise in chlorine (See page 16)

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12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 Up And Down The Banks Of The Canal Civil Affairs Bureau Engineering And Construction Three Canal Zone representatives of the Civil Defense organization were to return from the Nevada Proving Ground at Las \'egas where they attended as observers "Operation Cue, "a nuclear test shot, originalIv scheduled for April 26. They are William (>. Dolan, Chief of Civil Defense; Edward M. Browder, Jr., Assistant Engineering and Construction Director and Civil Defense t-ontrol Point Commander for the Pacific Area; and Melvin F. Millard, Safety Engineer and Civil Defense Facility Coordinator of the Engineering and Construction Bureau. The group left by plane April 19 and were to return early this week. In addition to seeing the atomic blast, the three representatives attended briefing classes given under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. • • • Orders have been placed for the 1956 Canal Zone automobile license plates. Next year's plates will have black numerals on a bright yellow background. The size of the plates will be increased slightly to conform with a standard being adopted throughout the United States and Canada as a result of the efforts of the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administration. The association estimates the size, six by twelve inches, will be in standard use by 1957. • • • After being away from his job for two years serving with the U. S. Army on duty in the States, Harold F. Egger was welcomed back to his old post at the Cristobal Fire Station Fireman F.gger, who was on duty there before entering the Army, says he is happy to be back on his old job and with his former pals. Mrs. X'irginia Roberts, of the Civil Affairs Director's office, returned recently from a vacation trip to South i'\merica. She and her husband, James P. Roberts, well known shipping agent, visited Lima, Cuzco, and Macchu-Picchu, the "lost city of the Incas" in Peru, and Guayaquil, Ecudaor. Mrs. Suzu K. Kuranioto recently resigned her position with the Canal Zone Library in A neon to go to Patau in the Caroline Islands where her husband has been assigned. Mrs. Verna S. Winstead, of Ancoti, has been employed as Library Assistant. Talks to different groups were given recently by Canal Zone Library personnel. Mrs. Eleanor D. Burnham, Librarian, gave an informal talk to the Caribbean College Club on the Canal Zone Library System, and Mrs. Emily J. Price spoke to the Gray Ladies training class at Gorgas Hospital on library service to hospital patients. Lt. Perc F. Graham is presently acting as Chief of the Balboa Fire District during the absence of Capt. William E. Jones who is on vacation in his home state of Te.xas. Personnel Bureau Miss Marie L. iMjster, Position Classifier, has spent the past month on official duty in the New York Office of the Panama Canal Company. Her assignment has been in connection with a position classification sur\ey in that office. • • • Edward A. Doolan, Personnel Director, returned at the end of .April after a two week's offcial business trip to the United States. Leonard M. Brockman, Assistant Personnel Director, served as Educational Director for the Caribbean Girls State which was held at Fort Gulick this year during the first week in April. This was the second year he has served Girls State in this capacity. Among other things, he gave a series of instructive talks on forms of government. Se\er;d ])ernianent translers ol ])ersonnel are being made to the Power Conversion Project from other units. These include the transfers of Lt. Col. E. D. Jennings from Project 13-A and George C. Dunlap from the Electrical Division to be Project Engineer and Assistant Project Engineer, respectively. F2arl O. Dailey, Supervisor of the Electrical Division's Field Office, has been transferred to the Power Conversion Project as Atlantic Area Engineer, and W. L. Brooks, of the Electrical Division Field Office at Mount Hope, has been transferred to Mr. Dailey 's office as clerical assistant. Other transfers in connection with the conversion program are Allen K. Miller and Robert E. L. Brown from the Electrical Division to the Engineering Division. Both ha\e been on a "loan" basis for the past several months. Subscribers received their new Canal Zone telephone directories late last month. The late issue of the directories was caused by non-receipt of the new systems equipment for the telephone exchange which will be used in making the records sent annually to the Printing Plant. Two features are added to the directories this year which will make them much more useful for reference. For the first time the house numbers are listed in the Personnel Section, and the mailing addresses of all Company and Government organizations are listed to permit a more efficent and direct use of the mails. • • • The o\erhaul of the big suction dredge Mindi was completed at the first of this month by the Industrial Division. The dredge is to return to regular operations on work in the outer anchorage of west Litnon Bay. • • • An unusual drilling assignment was completed last month by Dredging Division forces under the direction of i.eorge C. Felps. This was a water well drilled through the volcanic formation at Concepcion. R. de P.. for the Cia. de Leche Chiricana. The well was drilled to a depth of \S0 feet and lined zcilh \2-inch and 8-inch surface casing. The work was extremely difficult because of caving boulders in the lolcanic formation. The new well has a capacity estimated at 50 gallons of artesian water a minute. Charles P. Barton who has been on duty as Field Engineer at Contractors Hill has been transferred to the office of the Engineering and Construction Director as Assistant Budget and Projects Coordinator. Supply Bureau LISTENING TO the advice of some o.ustumers is Michael Ward, center with shoes in liand, who is the Commissary Division's shoe buyer in New York. The customers are Mrs. I. Robert Berger and Mrs. Thelma H. Bull, who were among several women representing various gi'oups invited to a conference on women's shoes. F. R. Johnson, Supply Director, at the right, attended the conference as did several representatives from the Commissary Division. Mr. Ward spent two weeks on the Isthmus visiting the retail stores and conferring with Commissary officials and customers. He met .John M. Brown, Manager of the Wholesale Shoe Section of the Commissary Division, in NewYork later in the month and they were to attend the various spring and summer shoe displays and shows. With the transfer last montli of some accounting functions from the Accounting Division to the Commissary Division, personnel from the Accounting Division were regular visitors to the General Manager's Offices at Mount Hope. They included M. D. Davis, Norbert Jones. Janet Harness, Ann Lawson, and Carl Pajak who assisted in the training of Commissary Division employees with their new duties. • • • Changes being made in the retail stores at Cristobal and Margarita are nearing completion. The changes in layout are designed for increasedcustom er convenience and are meeting with many favorable comments. • • • Work is nearing completion on the construction of another entranceway at the Balboa retail store. The new entrance opens on Clinton Street, and will prove highly convenient for the many patrons using the adjacent parking area. • • • W. C. Bain, Commissary Cold .Storage Supply Officer, left for the States late last month on an extensive official business trip. Before he returns about May 12. he will visit retail and wholesale establishments in New York; the meat packing industry in Chicago; and the various fruit and vegetable centers in California and Arizona. • • • R. L. Sullivan, General Manager of the Commissary Division plans to leave at the first of June for a vacation at his moimtaintop home at Frisco, Col. He expects to return to the Isthmus at the end of August.

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May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Community Services Bureau William Benny, of the Motion Picture Service, is conducting a Civil Defense first aid course for personnel of the Service Center Division. He recenth' completed the 44-hoiir first aid instructor course. Fire fighter Civil Defense training courses are befng planned for the personnel in the various Ser%'ice Centers. In connection with this, Melvin E. Walker has been named liaison ofiicer between the Service Center and Fire Divisions. • • • Several of the Community Services Bureau buildings are being repainted and redecorated. Exterior painting has been completed at the Balboa and Margarita Service Centers, and the repainting of the Diablo Heights Service Center is underway. The Fern Room of the Tivoli Guest House is getting a full-treatment renovation which includes alterations and redecoations. Although many, improvements have already been made to this popular meeting place for small groups, the overall decorative scheme is not yet completed. • • • A wide screen has just been installed in the Paraiso Theater, and similar installations are to be made soon at the theaters in Gatun, Gamboa, and Santa Cruz. The new screens ha\e already been received. • • • With the recent closing of La Boca bakery in connection with the overall program of consolidating facilities, pies, cakes, and pastries will be produced in the kitchens of the Balboa and Diablo Heights Service Centers in the future. The facilities in these kitchens have been considerably expanded to take care of this added work. • • • The demolition of the "300 .^rea" opposite the Balboa Port Captain's office has been started. A part of this project includes the conversion of a part of one warehouse into a roller skating rink. • • • The Grounds Maintenance Division has moved its Southern District office and shops from Building. 397 in Ancon to Buildings 0630-,-l and 0630Z? which zvere formerly occupied by the Maintenance and Storehouse Divisions in the Ancon area. Limiled Polio Inoculation Program In Zone Is Required Until More Vaccine Is Received (Cnn'imed from page 1) date or dates of inoculations are issued and those" children receiving only the first dose before leaving may present these to private clinics or physicians in the States for their second inoculations. While it will be necessary to limit the inoculations to the children leaving for vacations until additional supplies of the vaccine are received, Brig. Gen. Don Longfellow, Health Director, has announced that the supply available is sufficient to inoculate all children going on vacation this summer. More Vaccine Promised Canal authorities have been informed that the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis will apportion sufficient vaccine to the Canal Zone to inoculate first and second grade school children. This is being done on a national basis with the vaccine being paid for by March of Dimes funds. At the time this edition of The Review went to press, no announcement had been received as to when the vaccine will arrive. It is hoped that the supply will be received in time to administer the vaccine before schools close. However, the vaccine is being allocated on a priority basis to those areas with the highest rates of incidence, and the Canal Zone will have a low priority because of a later polio season than the States and a low rate of incidence. No information has been received by APRIL SHOWERS are more likely to be May downpours on the Isthmus, and they can be expected almost any time April Showers after May Day. When rain In May — makes its appearance, howMuddy Feet' ever, it means wet feet and muddy streets as well as green grass and flowers. The Commissary Division has taken all this into consideration and, like squirrels preparing for the winter, they have gathered together an extensive supply of wet weather clothing accessories suitable for Mom and Dod as well as the children. WE ARE starting with feet, wet feet, which seem to bother mothers most of all on wet and soggy days. There will be available in all shoe sections soon a supply of soft rubber boots for the smaller fry. They are bright red and will slip on easily over any child's shoe ranging in siie from eight to three. The color should please the children and the boot should please mother who will find her offspring with dry legs as well as dry feet. They should please daddy too for they cost only $1.95. RUBBERS ARE things people in the tropics seldom fool with because a tropical storm IS usually over in a few minPlastic Boots utes and nobody walks if for they can avoid il. NeverTropical Storms theless the Commissar/ has a supply of hHood Rainsteps, which are boots made of clear Koreseal plastic to fit over any size shoes either high or low heel and can be carried in miladys pocketbook, so long as it isn't an eveningbag. The boots come in small, medium, and large sizes, and have a matching Koreseal scarf to be used to cover the top-knot. THE MEN haven't been left out in this footsaving operation. On sale in all shoe sections during the year are black rubbers for men with a non-slip sole made by the Tingley Rubber Company. The sole is something special having been developed by the U. S. Navy during the last war for use on wet slippery aircraft carrier decks. It involves some sort of suction principal and it works very well, we are told. WHILE WE are on the subject of footwear, the Commissary has a new stock of sport shoes for men, women and Sport Shoes children with rubber soles for which will be just the Summer Vacation thing for the summer vacation months or for wear on the ship to the States. The shoes for ihe moppets are made by the well known U. S. Rubber Company. They have a cushioned built-in arch and best of all are washable. They come in harbor-blue sail cloth with white trim. There are similar types in blue and in white for the older gals, and handsome cork rubber soled cloth sport shoes for the men in brown and in blue. They are all the best things we have seen for sports wear and ore all priced under $3. MEN'S SHOES are something of a problem to the Commissary Division in that it is difficult to keep a wide variety of styles and sizes in stock. A solution was recently worked out which should be of interest to those men who have a large shoe wardrobe as well as to those who buy one good pair every two years. The Stetson Shoe Company will send on order any shoe included in its catalog. All the customer has to do is to put in on order at the Commissary retail store shoe section and the shoe of his choice will arrive within a few weeks. Samples of the shoe to be ordered as well as pictures and prices may be seen in the shoe sections. TO GET back to the subject of rainwear, the Commissary has put in a complete stock of plastic raincoats and Raincoats, Rain capes for women and little Capes, and girls which are as goodUmbrellas looking as they are protective. The Vinylite material used in these raincoats is milled specifically for rainy weather. The girls' raincoats have bright red roses appliqued on the collars, and are equipped with hoods. In addition to raincoats for women, there are ram capes folded into a small pack, easy to carry. These capes are bright yellow, a color which is now being widely used in the States in rainwear as a safety color. The stock of umbrellas for the coming rainy season is more varied than usual this year, with a number of new styles and colors. None of them is priced higher than $3.15 and children's umbrellas, miniatures of mother's, are as low as $1.50. These make wonderful birthday presents. ANY MOTHER who feels that she has a problem fitting out her young son in durable clothes which will make him look more like a cowboy or a wild Indian, will find the solution in the men's and boys' wear sections. The Commissary will place on sole soon a stock of rayon and orlon spot-resistant long trousers in charcoal shades made to complement, if anything can complement, the high fashion color shirts the boys have been mad for recently. Some are slack style with an elastic back and some are to be worn with belts. They run from size four to 16. For rough play or work, there are some new style jeans or levis made in Texas, by Texans, for unlucky little boys who live elsewhere. They are called Panchitos, America's original jewel studded jeans, with a cowboy cut, and a zipper fly. In addition to the usual blue, they come in brown, and a goodlooking shade of soft green. For $2.50, Mom couldn't go wrong. IF THE local gals have been to the States recently or if they have been reading the ads in the fashion magaNew Nylon zines, they will know all S-t-r-e-t-c-h-i-e-s about the new nylon sheer Ordered stretch stockings known as 'Stretchies." The Commissary has ordered an ample supply from the Burlington Mill people in fashionable shades. They don't come in sizes, only in three different lengths and are a |oy in that they wear twice as long, are very sheer, and are practically snag-proof. They will be sold at $1.60 and ore worth every penny. A NEW shipment of furniture made by the Heywood-Wakefield Company in the Old Colony style which has been so popular here is now being received by the Commissary Division and will be placed on sale this month. The shipment includes arm chairs, davenports, and a variety of end tables. There is also a limited stock of the platinumfinish modern furniture made by the same company. The Commissary Division announced that furniture catalogues are available in all houseware departments at Balboa and Cristobal Commissaries and that orders will be accepted. the Health Bureau as to the priority of inoculations when additional supplies are received. Full announcements will be made when such information is available. The same priorities will prevail here as those adopted in the United States, the Health Director has announced. When ample stocks are received, health officials plan to make it available to persons of all ages. The anti-polio inoculations are entirely on a voluntary basis although the general program is being administered as a public health measure. The vaccine is administered only after a request form is signed by the responsible individual in each case.

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS APRIL RETIREMENTS March 15 Through April 15 Employees who were [iromoted or transferred between March 15 and April IS are listed below. Within-grade promotions are not listed. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Mrs. Marie T. Lindh, from Secretary, OflSce of Lieutenant Cjovernor, to Clerical Assistant, Administrative Branch. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Ruth R. Townsend, from Library Assistant to l.ibrari.in, ("anal Zone Library. Robert H. Beecher, from Teacher, Senior High School to Principal, La Boca High School. Division of Schools. Russell S. Johns, from [Principal, La Boca High School, to Supervisor of Instruction, Latin American Secondary Schools, Division of Schools. Mrs. Mary Ellen Horine, from Substitute Te.icher to l-:ienienlary School Teacher, Division of Schools. COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU John W. Hare, from Land Inspector to Real Property Analyst, Office of Director, Community Services Bureau. OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER Howard Lewis, from .\ccountant to Systems .Accountant. .Accounting Systems Staff. Mrs. Eleanor A. Connor, from Accounting Clerk, Methods and Relief Assignment Staff, to Bookkeeping Machii\e Operator, Machine .Accounting Cnit. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Wesley H. Sparling, from Powerhouse Operator to Powerhouse Dispatcher, Power Branch. Mrs. Nita B. Hartman, from Supervisory Clerk, Water and Laboratories Branch, to Supervisorv Administrative Assistant, Contract and Inspection Division. Manuel Quintero, from Construction Inspector to Contract Assistant, Contract and Inspection Dixision. Robert H. Hayes, from Wircman, Electrical Division, to Foreman, Quarters Maintenance, Maintenance Division. William W. Spencer, from Wireman. Electrical Division, to Foreman, Quarters M.iinten.uice, Maintenance Division. Nelson E. Wise, from Planning Engineer to Budget and Projects Coordinator, Office of Director, Engineering and Construction Bureau. Robert H. Stewart, from Hydraulic Engineer, Meteorological and H\drographic Branch, to Civil Engineer, Engineering Division. William L. Brooks, from Clerk-Typist, Electrical Division, to Clerical Assistant, Power Conversion Project. John E. Jennisoh, from Water System Foreman to Leader Foreman, Water System, W.iter and Laboratories Branch. William I. HoUowell, from Water System Foreman to Leader F'oreman, Water System, Water and Laboratories Branch. Preston J. Barker, from General Foreman. Water Ssstem, to Leader Foreman, Water S\stem, Water and Laboratories Branch. Earl O. Dailey, from Supervisor, .Southern District. Electrical Division, to Supervisors Construction Management Engineer (\ille. .Ark. MAY SAILINGS From Cristobal .4 neon Ma\7 Cristobal : May 14 Panama Ma\'21 Ancon May 28 From New York Cristobal May 5 Panama May 1 2 Ancon Mav 19 Cristobal Ma)26 (Southbound the Haiti stop is from 7 a. m. to 4 p. m. on Monday; northbound, the ships are also in Port-au-Prince Mondays, from about 1 to 6 p. m.) ANNIVERSARIES F'orty years of government service, most of it with the Sanitation Department of the Canal Zone Health Bureau, is the anniversary record set this month b\Carl G. Brown, Chief of .Area Sanitation for the Canal Zone. Mr. Brown, a native of Ithaca, N. Y., went to work in the Board of Health Laboratory in .Ancon in 1920 after five )-ears as a sergeant in theMediical Corps of the U.S. Army. With onl V a short break in '1921, he has been employed continuously since that time on sanitation work on both sides of the Isthinus. In addition to his duties as .Area Sanitation Chief, a job he has held since 1947, he has developed a number of hobbies and is well known locally as an amateur botanist and photographer. These two hobbies have complemented each other very well and many a Canal Zone visitor has f-ieen treated to a showing of his color slides of local plants and fiowers, a showing which he accompanies with a tape recorded explanation. In addition. Mr. Brown is an active mendier of the Dialilo Heights Camera Club, a ham radio operator, an able musician, and a competent chess player. •15 YEARS Louis L. Moolchan, who is the only empUnee to celebrate 35 years of serx-ice this month, has worked in the Administration Building longer than any other employee. He was with the Paymaster's Office when that unit moved to Balboa Heights from

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May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 Empire in Septenilier 1914. Mr. Moolchan is a naturalized Panamanian citizen. He first arrived on the Isthmus in 1911 and took his first job soon after in the Paymaster's Ofiice. 30 YEARS Harold D. Halverson, Chief of the Comnumications Branch of the Electrical Division, not only completed 30 yea rsof unbroken service with the Communications Branch in April but also retired from service at the end of the month. A native of Chicago, 111., Mr. Halverson first came to the Isthmus in 1925 as one of the "^ ^ technicians from the Automatic Electric Company to install the automatic telephones\-stem in the Canal Zone. Afterthe workwascompleted, Mr. Halverson remained with the Canal organization as a switchman with the Communications Branch. He was made General Foreman in 1946 and has been Chief of the Branch since 1951. .Another employee to pass the 30-year mark in go\ernment service in April was Arthur T. Cotton, Postmaster in Balboa. Mr. Cotton, the son of a former Canal emplo>-ee and a member of a well known Canal Zone family, was born in Beachmont, Mass., and came to the Isthmus with his family when he was 15 years old. He attended Cristobal High School and took his first job with the Canal in 1924 as a mail clerk on the Panama Railroad. After a year of school in the States, Mr. Cotton was reemployed by the Canal Zone Postal service in 1926 and since that time, his service has been continuous. He has been Postmaster in Balboa since 1950. 25 YEARS Of the six employees who have completed a quarter of a century ol government service in April, three have unbroken records with the Canal organization. They are; Gustaf A. Peterson, of Troy, N. Y., first em]5loyed as a switchboard operator with the Electrical Dix'ision in 1930, and presently Powerhouse Dispatcher at Gatun; James B. Rigby, a native of Kittanning. Pa., who is employed as a heavy equipment operator with the Motor Transportation Division; and James R. Johnson, of Cumberland, Md., wdio is Chief ol the Agents Accounts Branch in the Office of the Comptroller. Those whose service is broken are; Wesley H. Townsend, Supervisory General Engineer. Engineering Division, who was born in Chatanooga, Tenn., and who first worked for the Canal organization in 1919; George L. Cain, a native of Beverly, N. J., worked with the Commissary Division for a number of years and is now a Customs Guard in the Canal Zone Customs Division; and Hayden B. Jones, who served his apprenticeship as a cable splicer with the Electrical Division and who is now a Foreman in the Cristobal Field Office. 20 YEARS Eight of the eleven employees who completed 20 years of government service in April have had continuous service with the Panama Canal organization and two of these share service dates. The latter two are Sgt. Jack C. Sutherland, of the Balboa Police, and Harry E. Townsend, Foreman of the Instrument Repair Shop, both of whom went to work with the Canal April 12. 1935. Others having continuous Government service are: Leslie A. Beauchamp, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic with the Maintenance Division; William A. Cawl, Car Loading Foreman with tlie Commissarv Division; Robert L. Coffey, Accountant in the Accounting Division; Arie T. Van Gelder, Chief Towboat Engineer. Dredging Division; Charles M. Middleton, Chief of the Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff; and David A. Yerkes, General Engineer, Plant Invenliir\' and Appraisal Staff. Those with broken service are; Ernest E. Berger, Meter Inspector with the Electrical Division; Clarence W. Kilbey, Assistant to the General Manager of the Service Center Division; Kenneth E. Marcy, Quarters Maintenance Foreman with the MaintePayroll Machines Begin To Grind NEED AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY? This PajToll Writer being operated by Rafael Herrera does practically everything but that. The four things it does simultaneously are; Writes your chock, the check register, pajToll journal, and the your earnings record card. The traasfer of the Payroll Branch operations from Diablo Heights to its new home in the former Ancon Clubhouse has progressed to the point where the first paychecks will be issued this month to employees on the biweekly pay schedule. The first checks will be to local-rate biweekly employees and will be issued from the new location and on the new machines May 23. The first checks to U. S.-rate personnel will not be issued from the Ancon ofiice until July 11. Checks have been issued to employees paid weekly and disability relief annuitants since the first of February. The former clubhouse building is being transformed into a modern office building suitable for a major payroll operation such as required for the Canal organization. The alterations include fluorescent nance Division. 15 YEARS Nineteen Panama Canal employees completed 15 years of government service in April. Those having continuous service w ith tl-e Canal organization are; Dorothy K. Babbitt, Staff Nurse at Gorgas Hospital; Grover R. Barnes, Iron Worker and Welder in the Locks Division; Santo V. Casella, Heavy Special Truck Dri\er. Motor Transportation Division; Martha A. Furey, Clerk-Stenographer, Maintenance Division; Harry W. Gardner, Wharf Building Foreman, Dredging Division; Kenneth C. Heliums, Project Engineer, Contract and Inspection Division; Thomas McNeill, Carpenter Foreman, Pedro Miguel Locks; Virginia K. Roberts, Secretarv. Civil Affairs Director; Charles F' Schonert, Postal Clerk; Cecilia E. Waldorf, Staff .N'urse, Gorgas Hospital; Wilson H. Waldron, Superintendent of the Bud\' Repair Shop, ^Iotor Transportation Division, Cristobal; and Clara A. Zapponi, Staff" Nurse Gorgas Hospital. Those with broken ser\ice are: Dr. L Robert Berger, Chief of the Out-Patient Service, Gorgas Hospital; Wilbur B. Fall, Welder in the Maintenance Division; William R. Graham, .Accounting Assistant with the Railroad Division; Harland V. Howard, Jr., Electiical Engineer. Engineering Division; John F. Rice, Fireman at Gatun; John W. Urey, Pipe Fitter with the Industrial Division; and William S. Wigg, Supervisory Administrative Assistant, Administrative Branch. lighting and tinted louvres for the wideopen building, in addition to the new machines. Procedures Almost Automatic The new machinery which will make the payroll procedures and bookkeeping largely an automatic function include accounting machines, high-speed addressographs, and check-writing machines. The operation of these machines will be by a group of local-rate employees who were given a two-month course of intensive training. Following the training period, 15 have been employed. Under the present scheduled move of the Payroll Branch, the work of the unit will not entirely cease at the Diablo Heights location until the end of July since some of the work is involved with the closing of books at the end of the fiscal year period. Heads Engineering Division JOSEPH M., COOKE has assumed his new duties as Designing Engineer of the Panama Canal Company succeeding F. H. Irwin. Mr. Cooke has been employed as Chief of the Engineering Division with the "Corps of Engineers in the Huntington, West Virginia, District before his employment in the Canal organization

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16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 Farewell Luncheon For Lieutenant Governor PRINCIPAL AMONG the many affairs arranged for Lt. Gov. II. 0. Paxson and his family before their departure was a luncheon at the Tivoli Ciuest House tendered by Governor Seybold. Guests included the principal oflicials of the Canal organization and of other Government agencies on the Isthmus with whom the Lieutenant Governor had been closely associated. Facing the camera in the picture above, left to right are: Capt. Frank A. Munroe, Jr., Marine Director; Maj. Gen. Lionel C. McGarr; Lieutenant Governor Paxson, and Governor Seybold. Seated opposite, left to right, are: F. R. .Johnson, Supply Director; H. L. Donovan, Civil Affairs Director; E. C. Lombard, Executive Secretary; U. S. District .Judge Guthrie F. Crowe; and I". S. Ambassador Selden Chapin. Annual Canal Zone Police Pistol Shoot ONE OF the big events of the year for the Canal Zone Police and their friends is the pistol competition. The big shoot was held this year at the Balboa range, with Paul S. Stewart, of Cristobal, the winner with a score Of 197 out of a possible 200. Robert A. Engelke won second place with 192, and D. V. Howerth and F. A. Robinson tied for third with a score of 191, with the former winning in the shoot-off. This shows the crowd enjoying one of the main features of the day— the lunch. This year it consisted of fried fish and roast pork as the main dishes. The considerable amount of food remaining after the crowd of over 400 had finished was donated to the Bella \'ista Children's Home. Pure Water Supply Was Major Problem Of Primary Concern To Canal Builders (Continued from page I h content, or salinity, in Miraflores Lake by the diffusion of sea water. Miraflores Locks was first placed in operation in November 1913 and by the following May the chlorine content had risen so rapidly that it was decided to abandon the lake as a raw water supply source, and the intake on the Chagres River at Gamboa was constructed and the water piped from there to the filtration plant. Since the water system here is now a half century old, comparatively few residents remember back to the times when a pure water supply for all residents was non-e.xistent. They are also inclined to overlook the fact that conditions relative to potable water which existed on the Isthmus in 1904 are still common in many areas of the globe. It is such conditions that the World Health Organization is seeking to spotlight and correct. Because of its importance to public health, potable water was made the subject to which World Health Day, celebrated April 7, under the sponsorship of WHO, was dedicated this year. CANAL ZONE CLERGY REV. ALEXANDER H. SHAW After five years as pastor of the Balboa Union Church, the Reverend Alexander H. Shaw is a firm believer in what he calls "cooperative Christianity." During a recent poll of his congregation, he found that his flock representsd 24 different Protestant denominations. The church services are conducted along non-denominational lines and Mr. Shaw himself is a member of the Baptist Church. The members of the Balboa Union Church get along just fine and since 1951 Mr. Shaw has seen the congregation double in size. At present the chiu-ch has a total membership of 600 adults, and 400 children in Sunday School, with tlirce youth groups and six choirs. The Balboa Union Church is one of the five Union Churches established in the Canal Zone and is a member of the National Council of Churches. Its activities are non-sectarian and its teaching nondenominational as was the first Union Church which was created in 1914 at Corozal by representatives of the Christian League of eight Canal Zone communities. Mr. Shaw was born in Patterson, N. J., and is a graduate of Colgate University in Hamilton, N. Y. He took his theological training in the Colgate-Rochester Divinity School in Rochester, N. Y. where he obtained his Bachelor of Divinity Degree. He spent seven years with the East Marion Baptist Church in East Marion, L. I., and the eight years prior to coming to the Canal Zone as pastor of the First Baptist Church of Highland Park, N. J. He also served as Executive Secretary of the New Brunswick Council of Churches. He spent his first six months on the Isthmus as pastor of the Cocoli Union Church. The Shaw familv, which includes Mrs. Shaw and their children Joyce, 15, and Bruce, 7, are planning to leave the Isthmus and return to the United States sometime in July of this year. Mr. Shaw says that his plans are indefinite but that he expects to settle on the east coast, possibly New Jersey.

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May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic tiirougii tlie Panama Canal, statistics for thehscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. Commercial Shipping Reaches High Peak Heavy traffic over three of the principal trade route.s through the Canal recently brought commercial ship traffic during the past quarter to the highest level in the history of the waterway. New records for commercial traffic were set in both the months of February and March. While commercial traffic was at a high peak, the number of ocean-going Government vessels during the third quarter of this fiscal year was lower than in any three-month period of the past several years. There were only 65 large Government vessels in transit during the past quarter, as compared with 74 in the previous three-month period. The decline in Government shipping offset the increase in commercial shipping with the result that the number of oceangoing transits for the three months of January-March was lower than previous high records for total traffic. Government traffic in February reached the lowest level of any month since before the Korean conflict with only 15 large ships in transits. Three Trade Routes High The three trade routes which had high traffic records during the past quarter were those between the east coast of the United States and South America; between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada; and between Europe and South America. A tremendous increase in Latin American trade is indicated in comparative figures for trade routes through the Canal for this fiscal year and the fiscal year 1938. In the third quarter of this year there were 510 transits over the route between the east coast of the United States and South America, and 132 from the east coast of the United States to Central American ports. In the same quarter of 1938 there were 145 and 30 transits, respectively, over these two routes. A substantial increase also has been shown in the amount of shipping moving through the Canal over the trade route between Europe and South America. Europe Trade Increases On other trade routes through the Canal in the past quarter, traffic was at approximately the same level of a year ago, with the exception of the route between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada. There were 217 ships in transit over this route in the last quarter, as compared with 1 77 in the third quarter of the previous fiscal year. New records were set in March for the number of commercial transits, daily averageof transits, cargo tonnage, and amount of tolls on commercial shipping. There were 709 transits during the month, this being the first time.4hat the number of ocean-going transits "by commercial vessels ever exceeded 700 in one month. (The daily average number of transits in March was 22.9. A new record daily average had been set in February but/the hW mark was exceededin March by 0.2. Therewas 3,760,038 long tons .of cargo shipped through the Canal during March, which was also a new record. Tolls collected on commercial vessels exceeded the three million dollar mark in March for the first time in any one month. The previous record for commercial tolls was set in December 1953 when $2,962,749 was collected on 690 transits. The former record number of transits of 693 in one month was set in March 1954. Government Shipping Drops Both tolls and transits for commercial and Government shipping in March were below previous high records because of the decline in number of Government ships using the Canal. Commercial traffic and tolls for the first nine months of this fiscal vear are well above the figures set last year. There were 5,961 transits by large commercial ships up to the end of March this fiscal year, as compared with 5,781 in the comparative period of the previous fiscal year. Commercial tolls this year are approximately $300,000 over previous fiscal year figures. The decline in Government shipping, which has been steady throughout this fiscal year more than ofl'sets the increased commercial traffic, and total figures for all ocean-going traffic for the first nine months of this year are below those in the comparative period of the previous year. Luxury Liner Visits Canal THE LUXURIOUS Liner Kungshulm transited the Canal early last month on its last leg of a roundthe-world voyage. It stopped overnight in Balboa. The visit of the Kimgsholm was one of the last by many cruise ships of a busy tourist season on the Isthmus. CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1955 1954 1938 .Atlantic to Pacific 1,003 Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: Ocean-going 1,011 2,014 215 1,911 233^ 1,386 *.Sni.ill 108 1,111 43 15 1,169 107 219 Total, commercial 1,118 2,229 2,144 125 1,605 **U. S. Government vessels; .. Ocean-going 22 65 .Small 51 1,191 66 2,360 54 2,323 Total commercial and I'. S. Goxernment -* Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. ** Vessels on which tolls are credilccl. Prior to jiiK 1, I')5I, Go\eriinient-operated ships transited free.

PAGE 18

18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 75,000 Paid In Insurance Claims Since Federal Plan Was Instituted Last Year Payments totaling more than $75,000 were made to survivors of deceased Canal employees under the Federal Employee (iroup Life Insurance plan during the first six months it was in effect. A summary of the results of the plan during the first six months, from August 2!) when it became effective until February 28, revealed that .3,592 employees, or 95.66 percent of those eligible, are participating in the plan with a total of straight life insurance coverage of almost $23,000,000. Since the insurance plan provides for double indemnity in event of accidental death, plus additional coverage for serious injury, the coverage amounts to nearly $46,000,000. There were 1 1 deaths among employees since the plan became effective up to February 28. Of these, two had already retired from service. The insurance payments, averagmg $7,000, were paid to eight widows and three next-of-kin survivors. Of the latter group, payments went to six adults, the father or brothers and sisters of the two deceased employees. Among the beneficiaries were 10 minors. The survivors of three of the employees also received payments on policies held with the War Agency Employees Protective Association, a low-cost insurance which has been available to Canal employees for the past 10 years. Free Coverage After Retirement One of the special attractions of the Federal Employee Life Insurance plan is the provision for continued coverage after retirement at no cost to the employee. Full coverage is provided until the retired employee reaches 65 years of age, after which there is a gradual reduction in coverage. Since the plan became effective and up to the end of February, there were 42 employees who retired with a total life insurance coverage of $294,000. The average age of this group was 565 years, so that they will have full coverage at no cost for about eight and a half years. The War Agency Employees Protective Association also now permits the lowcost insurance offered employees to be continued following retirement. However premium payments continue but at no extra cost. All employees became automatically insured under the Federal Employee group plan last August unless they specifically waived their rights. According to figures announced with the six-month summary, the plan met with almost unanimous approval by employees. Only 151 employees waived their rights to the insurance. The percentage of Canal employees participating is above that for the Federal (lovernment generally. According to figures recently announced by the Civil Service Commission, the total participation by all Government employees is 90 percent. The group life insurance plan offers insurance at an extremely low rate of 25 cents per $1,000 for each pay period. The Government pays half this amount. The amount of policies is dependent on the salary of the employee, being to the next $1,000 above the annual salary. Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in long tons) ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Mineral oils Coal and coke Manufactures of iron and steel Phosphates Soy beans J_-_ Sulphur Ammonium compounds I'aper and paper products Sugar Cement Machinery. .Automobiles and accessories. Canned goods Raw cotton Fertilizer All others -.Total Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1955 1,159,995 720,518 461,280 249,624 185,391 111,247 108,233 84,603 82,452 82,113 73,940 67,843 62,526 62,012 53,085 984,684 4,579,546 1954 ,124,711 616,091 415,321 241,807 150,781 90,253 59,449 77,544 126,603 81,836 66,450 54,322 43,969 72,243 52,759 991,406 4,256,535 1938 236,664 27,867 362,008 67,518 493 44,830 7,872 90,274 32,587 26,719 25,179 76,102 29,626 56,323 6,003 959,589 2,049,654 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commodity Lumber .._ Ores, various Mineral oils Wheat .--'^ Nitrate Canned food products Sugar Bananas Metals, various Barley -. Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit) Wood pulp Raw Cotton Coffee Wool . All others _ I'otal Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1955 951,720 892,294 811,523 456,284 328,149 305,652 257,907 235,476 197,439 181,825 158,284 81,914 75,973 75,869 75,769 923,666 6,009,744 1954 993 1,216, 128, 551, 414, 296, 288, 200 117 4 178 71 76 83 68 646 ,184 999 798 687 058 845 007 ,128 511 561 ,700 ,046 397 444 ,782 ,915 5,337,062 1938 632,901 542,936 498,282 267,904 5,?0,861 220,124 299,404 20,076 165,473 81,435 106,820 64,156 37,801 53,179 37,915 753,856 4,313,123 Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels Third Quarter, Fiscal Years Nalii)nalit\' 1955 1954 1938 Number of transitj Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Helpian 1 2 307 15 8 50 6 70 12 3 38 106 23 110 906 4,279 1,893,191 71,875 70,797 61,871 40,625 251,632 14,999 20,543 156,660 267,700 214,907 100,952 5 • 2,373 317 23 4 47 10 67 16 1,972,475 124,768 33,328 50,942 60,333 223,288 21,880 348 3 1,626,625 Chilfiin 10,012 Colombian 56 161,735 Frnadorean 1 26 86 19 10 4,021 138,303 312,330 96,467 French. German Greek 32 94 38 77 2 1 44 95 159,832 191,936 309,984 98,151 16,702 7,971 272,858 594,606 Honduran 3,8.?9 Iri'.h Italian. Japanese .. 36 118 1 107 1 36 15 2.?6 143 8 4 218,427 836,906 12 77 1 31,762 495,136 782,303 57 341,155 Xetherlaiid Nicaragiian Norwegian Panamanian Perux'ian 214,212 21,735 1,076,750 776,054 21,994 20,162 29 6 207 170 7 5 167,420 7,780 950,365 958,360 6,998 27,552 77 179,917 174 44 3 2 848,325 56,087 4,008 Philippine -4,375 6 54 1 497 13,795 252,113 7 65 71 77Q 227,746 30,400 2,691.897 21,268 28 187,191 8,005 I 4 I'nited States \'oeosla\' 3,175,897 480 2 413 2 2,195,344 7,300 Total 2,014 10,589,290 1,911 9,593,597 1,386 6,362,777

PAGE 19

May 6, 1955 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 AND SHIPPING Transits By Ocean-Going Vessels In March 195.5 1954 Covimercial 709 693 U.S.Government 19 40 Total 728 733 Tolh* Commercial $3,020,532 $2,937,357 U..S. Governments 64,892 193,700 Totd $3,085,424 $3,131,057 *Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small. The Aids to Navigation salvage tug Taboga is expected to return late this week from towing the Swedish tanker Pegasus to Curacao. The big tanker, with 18,000 tons of fuel aboard, became disabled during its transit of the Canal when its steering gear failed while the ship was in Miraflores Lake. The type of repair work required that the tanker be unloaded, it was determined by a diver who examined the rudder. Although ample storage facilities are available in the Canal Zone for the amount of fuel oil carried by the Pegasus, the tanker operators decided to have the vessel towed to Curacao for unloading and repair. The tanker is owned by the Esso Company and local agent is Fenton and Comany. The February record for the highest daily average number of commercial transits lasted only one month. The record of 22.75 was broken in March by a daily average of 22.9. Other new records for commercial traffic in March were in the number of transits, amount of cargo, and amount of tolls. March saw the end, for all practical purposes, of the 1954-55 tourist season on the Isthmus so far as excursions through Gaillard Cut are concerned. It was one of the busiest cruise seasons in many years, and approximately 9,000 tourists were afforded trips through the Cut aboard the Navigation Division ferryboat Presidente Porras. Northbound traffic was delayed a few hours during the lask week in April when a strut arm which moves the lock gates broke. The break occurred on the lower gate of Miraflores Locks late at night. Workmen were engaged throughout the night and until one o'clock the next day replacing the strut arm, the replacement being delayed when it was necessary to burn out the big metal pin holding the strut arm to the bull wheel. There were no delays to southbound traffic but some of the northbound ships were delayed as the accident occurred on a day when there was heavy traffic in the Canal. The Colombian frigate Capitan Tono visitd Canal waters briefly at the middle of last month after having spent a year in service off the China and Japanese coasts as a part of the United Nations' fleet. The ship is under command of Lt. Comdr. Jorge Taua Suarez of the Colombian Navy. After spending a day in NEW IN looks and new in ili'sit;n, thi' Shaw-.Savill passenger liner Smitheni Cross attracted as much attention as any vessel to visit Canal waters in a long time. The new vessel on its maiden voyage transited the Canal April 1 1 on a round-the-world voyage. It is shown in Miraflores Laiie as it entered the Locks. The Southern Cross, built in Belfast, is 600 feet long and has accommodations for 1,600 passengers. It has a designed service speed of 20 knots and the owners have announced that it will do four voyages around the world each year, two in each direction. It was built primarily for low-cost travel but it is beautifully fitted in both the staterooms and in the public areas. It is air conditioned throughout for the comfort of its passengers in the tropics where most of its sailing time will be spent. Among the passengers on the first trip was Mrs. Ruth T. Getz, former Canal employee, who retired last October as clerk-typist in the Board of Health Laboratory. Mrs. Getz had lived on the Isthmus for many years. She went to England after her retirement and after making the round-the-world trip on the Southern Cross, she plans to make her home in Milledgeville, Ga. Balboa, the frigate transited en route to Cartagena. Governor Seybold has received a letter of congratulations and appreciation for the presentation of the briefing on Canal operations before a group of shipping executives in Washington at the first of last month. The letter was from T. J. Tarr, Operating Manager of the Luckenbach Steamship Company, Inc. He said in part: "Your address, together with your exhibits, models, and booklet, entitled 'The Panama Canal,' was most interesting and instructive and I am certain our entire group benefitted greatly. Your patience and courtesy in responding to our queries were also appreciated." The Panama Line was the recipient of high praise for the manner in whicli it handled the shipments of 54 big, glass-lined tanks from New York to the Isthmus. The tanks, manufactured by the Pfaudler Co., of New York, for the National Brewery, were shipped as deck cargo and all 54 arrived without mishap. In a letter to Governor Seybold, A. E. MacLean, Erecting Engineer for the manufacturing company, said: "I wish to take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation for the manner in which this equipment was handled. "In New York City, I had the wholehearted cooperation of Mr. R. H. Halsey, Jr., Mr. J. Ratter, and Mr. Cusick. "In Cristobal -Messrs. Beck, MacPherson, and Sanders; and at Panama City I found thatMr.J.Michaud was very efficient and anxious to render the best possible service at all times. "I only wish that I could depend on all our handlers to take the same interest and give the same cooperation as your line has given." TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large, tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: commercial vessels (300 net Third Quarter, Fiscal Years 1955 1954 1938 149 151 264 510 481 145 132 127 30 275 288 142 U. S. /Canada east coast and Australasia .. 38 41 39 217 177 271 161 147 134 Fiirope and Australasia 97 96 65 \11 other routes 435 403 296 2,014 1,911 1,386

PAGE 20

20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 6, 1955 Tecon Contract Extended To Include Removal Of 250,000 Yards Of Material In Project 13 m "''%*_£'. PROJECT 13 is well di'tinuii iu this picture taken before Tecon Corporation started work on Project 13-A (Contractors Hill). A total of 250,000 cubic yards of material are to be removed as part of Project 13. The arrow in the foreground marking the limits of this 20-year pi-oject marks where this tip of Cucaracha formation juts out into the Canal channel. The completion of Project 13 on which work has been in progress intermittently for the past 20 years may not be many months away. This project, authorized in 1934, provides for the widening of the entire section of Gaillard Cut known as Culebra Reach to a bottom width of 500 feet. It is now approximately 96 percent completed. The remaining part is approximately 900 feet long on the north side of Contractors Hill and involves approximately 437,000 cul)ic yards of material. A supplemental agreement has been reached with Tecon Corporation to remove this spur which juts out into the Canal channel down to near the water level as an extension of its work on the Contractors Hill project. This will involve the removal of approximately 250,000 cubic yards of Cucaracha formation. Also under consideration is a proposal to have the contractor blast the 187,000 cubic yards of material below elevation 90 feet to bottom depth. This would complete Project 13 except for the removal of the blasted material which could be done 186 Notaries Public Serve The Public In Canal Zone Towns And Military Posts later by wet excavation. Two-Month Extension Granted A two-month extension has been added to Tecon's contract for Project 13-A (the Contractors Hill work) since the additional excavation will be done as a part of the main contract. However, the Contractors Hill project is well ahead of schedule and it is presently estimated that both projects could be completed by the end of August. The extension of the contract to include the Project 13 work will be advantageous and economical since the contractor has the necessary equipment at the site and the excavation can proceed concurrently with that on Contractors Hill. It also eliminates the hazard of having one contractor working independently of another in the confined area. All of the 250,000 cubic yards of material to be removed on Project 13 will be dumped in the same area as the spoil from Contractors Hill which is being hauled to the old Rio Grande water reservoir for disposal. All work done on Project 13 up to the present has been accomplished by the Dredging Division forces. The work has been done on a low priority basis and has included blasting and sluicing. The material was removed by dipper dredges and hauled bv scows to dump areas in Gatun Lake. Most Of Work Done Nearly one and a half miles of channel of Culebra Reach has already been widened but the spur of Cucaracha material which remains and projects into the channel opposite Gold Hill greatly reduces the usefulness of the completed section for a distance of 1,500 to 2,000 yards. The spur is at a point in the channel where vessels make an abrupt change of course and the completion of the project will be of special benefit to northbound traffic by improving visibility coming into the reach and removing the hazard of a vessel taking a sheer in the change of course as it passes Gold Hill. The work on Contractors Hill is now entering its final phase and at the end of April it was reported that Tecon had excavated a total of 1,235,000 cubic yards of rock, and 410,000 cubic yards of Cucaracha formation. Rapid progress has been made by the contractor during the dry season with efforts being concentrated in recent weeks on the excavation of the Cucaracha, or shale, which is difficult to handle during rainy season. In accomplishing the excavation to date the contractor has used 544,000 pounds of explosives in blasting the rock and shale, and has drilled a total of 75 miles of holes. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years (Continued from page 9) the Government. The appointments were for 30 days only. While the monetary take of the usual Zone notary is infinitesimal or non-existent, a notary may receive his reward in a different fashion. The thanks of a tired old person, who must have a document notarized in order to collect her disabled husband's check, is worth any amount of money. The best payment one local notary '.er received was a letter from a grateful individual who invoked the "blessings of Allah" on the notary. The notary never knew whether the individual was a Moslem or whether this was the most grateful phrase he could think of. Mciiith Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars) 1955 1954 1938 1955 1954' 1938 Julv --640 638 457 $2,646 $2,817 $2,030 Aiit^iist 652 640 505 2,752 2,778 2,195 Suptenilicr — 660 612 444 2,756 2,591 1,936 OftobtT — 683 654 461 2,831 2,755 1,981 \()\emtn'r 636 636 435 2,630 2,668 1,893 December 676 690 626 592 439 444 2,853 2,963 2,726 1,845 January 668 637 2,832 1,838 Fcl)rii:ir\' 436 2,720 2,491 i -1,787 March 709 693 506 3,014 2,934 2,016 Xpril 654 487 2,838 1,961 Mav 689 465 2,923 1,887 660 445 2,764 1,801 Totals for first 9 months i)t liscal \'ear 5,961 5,781 4,127 25,034 $24,723 $17,521 7,784 5,524 $33,248 $23,170 =


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