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Gift of the Panama Canal Museum tmie: Vol. 4. No. 10 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, MAY 4, 1954 5 cents WORLD ATTENTION IS DRAWN TO PANAMA CANAL BY STUDY BEING MADE OF 1 6-YEAR-OLD CRACK No occurrence of the past 35 years has served to spotlight so vividly the importance of the Panama Canal to world commerce as the many press reports late in April of a potential danger of closing the waterway by a rock failure at Contractors Hill. Immediate requests for additional information were received by the Canal Administration, both direct and through various shipping agents on the Isthmus, from the principal maritime centers of the world. While no attempt was made to minimize the potential danger, assurances were given that the development of a disastrous slide which would block traffic was not considered. imminent. The existence of a crack along the crest of Contractors Hill was first observed in 1938 at which time two monuments were set for future measurement of the opening. Extensions of the original crack in both directions were observed last March when additional markers were established Upon further extensions of the fissure in March, the consulting services of two ranking geologists in U. S. Government service in the United States was requested The two consultants, Edward Burwell, Chief Geologist in the Office of the Chief of Engineers, and Thomas F. Thompson, Division Geologist of the Corps of Engineers, South Pacific Division, San Francisco, arrived during the latter part of April to begin their investigations. Project 13 Is Suspended One of the first major steps taken as a precautionary measure was the suspension of all work on Project 13. This project consists of the widening of the Canal channel just north of Gold and Contractors hills. It is one of low priority which has been in progress since 1935. The work requires heavy blasting in the area immediately adjacent to Contractors Hill which might aggravate the situation. The extent and the exact nature of the corrective measures to be taken have not yet been determined. Solution to the problem will await engineering investigations of a various nature, including core drilling. It is planned to drill diagonally through the hill from 'SeepagsS) SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL features of Gaillard Cut near Contractors Hill are indicated in the picture above. Project 13 for widening the Cut is on the west bank and immediately adjacent to Contractors Hill. Work on that project has been suspended as a precautionary measure. Health Bureau Wins Annual Safety Award For 54% Improvement In Accident Rate The Governor-President Annual Safety Trophy was presented last month to the Health Bureau on the basis of a 54 percent improvement in its accident frequency rate. This is the first presentation of the trophy which was authorized last year. It is a permanent award to be retained by the winning Bureau. In presenting the Safety Trophy to Brig. Gen. Don Longfellow, Health Director, in the presence of the Bureau's safety assistants, Governor Seybold said that the Bureau's record had contributed materially to the 26 percent improvement of the entire Company-Government organization. He stressed that the award was to the Health Bureau as a whole, and pointed out that Safety Programs, like any such effort, must have the wholehearted cooperation of all members of an organization, from the top down. Top officials must believe in such a program and give it their support and encouragement in order GIVE TO THE CANCER FUND MAY 15 30 to enable the people who do the actual work to perform the best possible job, he added. Compete Against Own Records In order to provide a fair basis of competition for Bureaus having dissimilar operations, the award is made to that Bureau having the highest percentage improvement in its frequency rate over its own previous three-year average. This avoids any handicap for a Bureau having more hazardous operations than another, inasmuch as each Bureau is competing with its own previous record. When the first safety program was initiated on April 26, 1940, the Canal organization's overall accident frequency rate was 90. That 90 was the number of disabling injuries for each million manhours worked, and means that with the force then working there were 90 disabling injuries in every four S-hour working days, or between 525 and 600 each month. At this time the comparable frequency rate for the U. S. national average was 15. Today, almost 14 years after the safety program was instituted here, the accident frequency rate is down to 11 and only between 20 and 30 lost-time injuries are occurring each month. The national average frequency rate for (Se: pags t) ARMED FORCES DAY MAY 15
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1954 Health Bureau Wins Annual Safety Award For 54' Improvement In Accident Rate Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by Me Printing Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone JOHN S. Seybold, Governor-President II. 0. Paxson, Lieutenant Governor William G. Arey, Jr. Director of Public Relations J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Editorial Assistant SUBSCRIPTIONÂ— SI. 00 a year SINGLE COPIESÂ— 5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIESBYMAILÂ— 10 cents each BACK COPIESÂ— 10 cents each On sale when available, from the Vauit Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. SAFETY ASSISTANTS from the trophy-winning Health Bureau and the Chief of the Safety Branch watch the presentation of the award to Brig. Gen. Don Longfellow by Governor Seybold last month. Behind Governor Seybold and General Longfellow are left to right: Dr. Henrv W. Harper III, Gayle O. Kellar, Chief, Safety Branch; J. R. Thomson, George P. Huddock, J. P. Smith, Jr., Chief of Sanitation, and Health Bureau Safety Representatives Fred L. Workman, Gardner Hayes, James A. Braid, Clifford V. Russell. Mack F. Bailey, Ray Forbes, and A. E. Schuler. Continued from pagel) ail injury is 8. Disabling injuries, in safety language, are those which prevent an employee from returning to work the next day. They range in severity from temporary total disabilities Â— when a man is confined to quarters or hospitalized Â— to fatalities. Minor injuries, in which an employee is not disabled, are not included in the statistics. As the Panama Canal Safety Program is based on the premise that supervisory personnel is largely responsible for injury frequency, the improvement in the Canal's safety record, safety people believe, is largely due to increased interest and effort on the part of such supervisors. Supervisors are responsible for conditions under which their employees work, and employees are obligated to follow the safety rules which have been laid down for them. A force of 23,500 men and women was working in the Canal (.S&page? Safety Statistic For The Past Month HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD MARCH CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Civil Affairs 1 Community Services 1 Health 1 Engineering and Construction Marine Supply Transportation and Terminals Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES MARCH AIDS TO NAVIGATION MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Aids to Navigation 3 Motor Transportation 2 Sanitation 2 Service Center 2 Electrical Grounds Maintenance Hospitalization and Clinics Railroad Storehouses Commissary Dredging Industrial Locks Maintenance Navigation Terminals MARCH 1954 Civil Affairs Bureau Engineering and Construction Bureau C. Z. Govl.-Pan. Can. Co ( Last 3-Year Aver.) Marine Bureau Supply Bureau C. Z. Govl.-Pan. Can. Co. I This Monthi Health Bureau Transportation and Terminals Bureau Community Services Bureau Number of Disabling Injuries .__ __35 Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked ( Frequency Rate) Man-Hours Worked 2.408.070 LEGEND Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government Â— Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average J Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government Â— Panama Canal Company Last 3Year Average Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year
May 4, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW \i HUNDREDS OF present-day Canal Zonians and scores of the oldtimers who helped to build the Panama Canal gathered on March 31 to attend the dedication of a memorial to Col. George W. Goethals. The wide steps of the Administration Building and the hillside's grassy terraces supplemented the more formal seating arrangements. TRIBUTE PAID CANAL BUILDER THE AFTERNOON WAS SUNNY and hot. The crotons and the Golden Shower trees waved a bit in the dryseason wind. It was just the sort of day as many on which Col. George W. Goethals had "toured the line," giving a word of encouragement here, a bit of appreciation there. And from both coasts oldtimers had come to pay him honor. There were Canal veterans from California, others from New York. One of his sons, Dr. Thomas R. Goethals, was here from Boston. Maurice H. Thatcher, the only living member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, had come from Washington. Panama's President, a Senator, and an Assistant Secretary of the Army were on the speakers' stand. Praise for the man of the hour came from high places. Like this: Dear Governor Seybold: I am delighted to learn of the memorial to Major General George W. Goethals, and I very much regret that I cannot be present in the Canal Zone to attend the dedication ceremonies on March thirty-first. During my own service in the Canal Zone, I came to appreciate the magnitude of the Panama Canal as an engineering triumph and the importance of its operations to interSENATOR ALEXANDER WILEY, Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, was the main national traffic. It is indeed fortuspeaker. President Jose Antonio Remon of Panama is seated at the left; Maurice H. Thatcher, last surnate that the nation was able to call riving member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, is at the right,
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1954 THE SPEAKERS STAND wa; erected between the memorial and the base of the Building steps. Left to right are: Richard H. Whitehead, of the Goethals Memorial Commission; Dr. Thomas R. Goethals; Senator Alexander Wiley; Lt. Gen. Horace L. McBride, saluting; President Remon; Governor Seybold; George H. Roderick, Assistant Secretary of the Army; the Rt. Rev. R. H. Gooden; Maurice H. Thatcher; the Rev. Alexander H. Shaw, and the Rev. J. F. Konen, C. M. upon a leader of General Goethal's stature to supervise our construction forces and to set the pattern for the Canal's successful operation. It is most fitting that we should perpetuate his memory by a memorial at the scene of his extraordinarily distinguished services. My congratulations go to all those who served with General Goethals and to those who now serve in the operation of an engineering masterpiece which by itself stands as a memorial to the genius and industry of many dedicated Americans. Sincerely, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER After the speakers had finished, the Colonel's son pulled a cord, and tricolored bunting which had shielded the monument, fell away. The monument said "Goethals," but every oldtimer in the audience knew that meant "The Colonel." The formal dedication of the memorial at the head of the Prado on March 31 was the highlight of the three-day program but other activities had kept the oldtimers and their families busy. DR. THOMAS R. GOETHALS took the microphone on the ferry Presidente Porras to greet some 200 of his father's co-workers during the trip from Gamboa to Balboa. TRIM IN bright red trousers and white shirts, the Balboa High School Band waited at Pier 18 to greet oldtimers when the Presidente Porras docked. MARY PICKFORD swapped stories at the Tivoli Guest House with some of the oldtimers.
May 4, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Altogether, about SO oldtimers had come from the States to attend the dedication ceremonies. Those arriving by ship had been briefed before they landed and were personally welcomed by Governor Seybold on the pier. Badges and details of the program were given to them and to others at a specially arranged Oldtimers Information Center at the Adminintration Building. On March 30, over 200 of the oldtimers boarded the ferryboat Presidente Porras at Gamboa to make at least part of the transit of the Canal which some of them had never seen filled with water. Sons of oldtimers manned the towing locomotives which pulled the Porras through the locks. The Balboa High School Band played "Hail, Hail, The Gang's All Here" as the ferry berthed at Pier 18. That night the oldtimers built the Canal all over again at a reception at the Tivoli Guest House, watched squaredancers, listened to songs of the old days and to a special "Panama Canal Waltz," composed in their honor by Charles Bath, of Margarita, who had helped sanitate the Canal Zone. The next day they watched an exhibition Little League baseball game played by grandsons and great-grandsons of Canal builders and attended a special movie premiere at the Balboa Theater. Some of the oldtimers had an added thrill when Mary Pickford, once America's Sweetheart, visited them at the Tivoli. The last event on the formal program was a picnic on April 1 at Morgans' Gardens at Miraflores, given for the visitors by local retired employees. When it was all over, the oldtimers were tired, but not too tired. They still had enough energy to wear down a good many people half their age. One Zonian watched his apparently tireless parent and said: "I know now how they managed to build the Canal. The Governor ought to fire the whole bunch of us and hire them back again!" GRAVES OF the oldtimers were nut neglected. On the Pacific side, J. H. de Grummond, left, representing the Sons and Daughters of the Oldtimers, and Rabbi Nathan Witkin held a brief, non-denominational service. Boy Scouts provided an honor guard. GRANDSONS AND GREAT-GRANDSONS of oldtimers played a Little League exhibition game for the const 'uction-day workers. A big sign said: "Welcome Grand Mom and Grand Pop." CLOSING EVENT of the three-day celebration was a picnic given at Morgans' Gardens at Miraflores by the local retired oldtimers for the visitors from off the Isthmus. There was plenty of everything and the oldtimers proved that they had lost none of their prowess as stout trenchermen.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1954 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. bovernment Shipping Through Canal Shows Sharp Drop Recently The number of ocean-going United States Government vessels in transit through the Canal continued to decline during the past quarter with the total of 125 being one of the lowest numbers in several years for a three-month period. A slight decline was shown in the number of transits by large commercial vessels in the last quarter as compared with the preceding three months. There were 1,911 transits by large ocean-going ships last quarter, as compared with 1,979 in the preceding quarter. The pronounced drop in Government shipping through the Canal since the end of the Korean conflict is evidenced by 125 transits in the past quarter, in comparison with the 255 total in the third quarter of the past fiscal year, a decline of more than 50 percent. Commercial traffic of the past quarter showed a slight decline from the comparable period in the preceding fiscal year. Heavy shipments of commodities between Europe and South America brought the highest gain in number of transits by commercial ships over this trade route of any of the main routes through the Canal during the past three months. Far East Trade Drops The biggest drop in number of transits over any trade route in the third quarter of this fiscal year as compared with the third quarter of the fiscal year 1953 was shown on the route between the east coast of the United States and the Far East, There were only 288 transits on this route in the past quarter, as compared with 319 for a comparable period of the previous fiscal year. This significant decline was attributed to a drop in the tonnage of coal and coke shipment to Japan during the past three months. These shipments amounted to 616,000 long tons during the past quarter, as compared with over 1,000,000 tons in the third quarter of 1953 fiscal year. The sharp decline of coal and coke shipments were noted for the first time in January. During the first six months of this fiscal year these shipments were averaging nearly 300,000 tons a month. Shipments From Pacific Increase The amount of commodity shipments from the Pacific to Atlantic destinations during the past quarter was higher than in the comparable period of 1953, the figures being 5,337,000 and 4,510,000 tons, respectively. Commodity shipments in the opposite direction were less this year, with 4,257,000 tons moved in the past quarter from the Atlantic to the Pacific, as compared with 4,669,000 in the third quarter of 1953 fiscal year. Increased shipments of various ores, lumber, and nitrate accounted for most of the gains in the Pacific-to-Atlantic movements. The big drop in coal and coke shipments to the Pacific was partially offset by increased shipments of the manufactures of iron and (See page sy CANAL TRANSITSÂ— COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1954 1953 1938 Atlantic to Pacific 917 Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial Vessels: 994 1,911 1,926 1,386 107 126 233 305 219 1,024 1,120 2,144 2,231 1,605 **U. S. Government Vessels: 70 55 125 255 *Small 26 28 54 114 Total commercial and U. S. Government 1.120 1,203 2,323 2,600 "Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. """Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited free. TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: Third Q larter, Fi; cal Year 1954 1953 1938 151 153 264 481 472 145 East Coast of U. S. and Central America. 127 147 30 288 319 142 41 71 39 177 179 271 Europe and South America 147 106 134 96 103 65 403 376 296 Total traffic .. 1.911 1.926 1.386 Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels Third Quarter, Fiscal Year Nationality 1954 1953 1938 Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits 'Tons of cargo 5 317 2. 1 4 47 10 67 16 2.373 1.972.475 124,768 33,328 50.942 60,333 223,288 21,880 2 388 16 9 31 2 51 46 2 38 63 27 108 10,300 2.030.420 93,995 72,594 28,780 19,040 236,725 23,124 15,177 175.915 79,160 231,365 151,064 British 348 3 1.626,625 10,012 56 101.735 1 26 86 19 10 4,021 32 94 38 77 2 1 44 95 159,832 191,936 309,084 98,151 16,702 138,303 312,330 00.407 Honduran 3.839 Irish 7,971 272,858 594,606 6 38 90 2 42 1 2 34 4 210 114 2 8 1,781 182,047 599,371 1,000 265,965 9,205 14.835 114.389 1.988 780.221 740,105 1,997 45.419 12 77 1 31,76' 495,136 57 341,155 Nfetherland Micaraguan Norwegian Panamanian 29 6 207 170 7 5 167,420 7.780 950,365 958.360 6.998 27,552 77 170.017 174 44 3 2 2 848,325 56,087 4.008 Philippine 4.375 7 65 4 480 21.220 227.746 11 39 59,869 197,871 8,927 3,054,963 22,215 28 187,101 30.400 1 United States __ 2,691,897 525 14 413 2,195,344 Yugoslav Â— 1 21,268 2 7,300 Total 1,911 9,593,597 1,926 9,278,827 1 ?80 6,362,777
May 4, 1954 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS March 15 through April 15 Employees who were promoted or transferred between March 15 and April 15 are listed below. Regradings and within-grade promotions are not listed. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU L. Graham, from Substitute Janet Teacher to Elementary School Teacher, Schools Division. Lester L. Largent, from Police Sergeant to Police Lieutenant, Police Division. Hiram Overall, from Policeman to Police Sergeant, Police Division. COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU Jack C. Randall, from Manager, Cristobal Housing Office, to Assistant Chief, Housing Division, and Manager, Balboa Housing Office, Housing Division. Wendell G. Cotton, from Administrative Assistant, Housing Division, to Assistant Manager, Cristobal Housing Office. Jackson J. Pearce, from Housing Maintenance Inspector to Manager, Gamboa Housing Office. P. Byrne Hutchings, from Manager, Gamboa Housing Office, to Administrative Assistant, Housing Division. Harry C. Egolf, from Assistant Manager, to Manager, Cristobal Housing Office. OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER Edward G. Coyle, from Accountant, Cost Accounts Branch, to Systems Accountant, Accounting Systems Staff. Catherine Joustra, Clerk Typist, from Agents Accounts Branch to General Accounts Branch. R. Trendon Vestal, from Supervising Business Accountant, Agents Accounts Branch, to Systems Accountant, Accounting Systems Staff. Thomas H. Scott, from Accountant, Agents Accounts Branch, to Systems Accountant, Accounting Systems Staff. Helen N. Minor, from Accountant to Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll Branch. Hugh W. Cassibry, from Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, to Accountant, Payroll Branch. Norbert H. McCauley, from Budget Examiner to Budget Analyst, Budget Branch. Ralph R. Grassau, from Accountant, Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff, to Budget Analyst', Budget Staff. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Mrs. Jessie G. Harris, Clerk-Typist, from Housing Division to Engineering Division. Mrs. Beatrice J. O'Toole, from Cash Accounting Clerk (Teller),. Commissary Division, to Accounting Clerk, Electrical Division. Mrs. Carmen Casey, from Cash Accounting Clerk (Teller), Commissary Division, to Cash Accounting Clerk, Electrical Division. OFFICE OF GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT Hugh A. Norris, from Organization and Methods Examiner, to Economist. Execuutive Planning Staff. HEALTH BUREAU Mrs. Winona A. Smith, from Histopathology Technician to Medical Technician, Board of Health Laboratory. MARINE BUREAU Slaughter H. Sharpensteen, from Foreman, Pipeline Suction Dredge, Dredging Division, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks. Julian O. Russell, from Small Tug Operator, Dredging Division, to Towing Locomotive Operator, Pacific Locks. Ollin P. Strickland, from Planing Mill Hand to Planing Mill Hand Leader, Industrial Division. William Kosan, Machinist, from Maintenance Division to Industrial Division. Luther G. Bradshaw, Evan G. Evans, Jr., from Pobationary Pilot to Qualified Pilot, Navigation Division. Robert M. Blakeley, from Machinist to Machinist Leadingman, Industrial Division. SUPPLY BUREAU Clement J. Genis, from Assistant Commissary Manager. Commissary Division, to Safety Inspector, Office of Supply Director. TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Charles S. Staples, from Auto Repair Machinist to Supervisor, Tire Reclaiming Plant, Motor Transportation Division. Lynn T. Hornaday, from Property and Supply Clerk to Freight Tragfnc Clerk, Terminals Division. John W. O'Connell, from Chief I rain Dispatcher to Supervisory Railroad Transportation Specialist, Railroad Division. Errett R. Albritton, from Train Dispatcher to Chief Train Dispatcher, Railroad Division. Health Bureau Wins Annual Safely Award [Continued from page 2) organization when the Safety Program was established 14 years ago. The original safety staff was a safety engineer and an assistant. Within two years, the total force had swelled to over 38,000 and the personnel of the Safety Section, then under the Special Engineering Division, was increased to a total of six. In July, 1943, the safety force was cut to four. The accident rate, which had declined, began to rise again and during the early part of 1945 Canal officials decided to enlarge and emphasize the safety program. As a result of this decision, a Safety Board was appointed. It was headed by the Military Assistant to the Governor and composed of representatives from all departments. This was in January, 1945, and was the beginning of a decentralized safety program. The duties of this Board were to review accident statistics each month and adopt measures toward correcting unsafe conditions and unsafe practices, as well as to formulate and promulgate safety policies designed to reduce injuries and accidents. At the time the Safety Board was formed, the Canal assigned 13 employees full-time and 17 others part-time on safety work. The Canal force was then well over 28,000. Safety Policy Reviewed In 1950, when a reorganization and realignment of Canal functions was started, the organization's safety policy was also reviewed. The Safety Board was reorganized and G. 0. Kellar, Chief of the Safety Branch, was made its chairman. The Board was made up of representatives of all Bureau Directors. The safety organization was again revised in February, 1953. At this time membership on the Board was changed to full-time safety personnel, either safety engineers or inspectors, as representatives of all Bureau Directors except the Comptroller, Health, and Personnel Directors who are represented by part>time safety assistants. At the present time, the Company-Government has four safety engineers, eight safety inspectors, and a varying number of assistants who devote part of their time to safety work. Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in thousands of long tons) ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Mineral oils Coal and coke Manufactures of iron and steelPhosphates Soy beans Sugar Rice Sulphur Cement Paper and paper products Metal scrap Raw cotton Machinery Automobiles and accessories Fertilizer All others Total Third Quarter, Fiscal year 1954 1.124,711 616,091 415,321 241,807 150,781 126,603 106,879 90,253 81,836 77,544 73,063 72,243 66,450 54,322 52.759 905,872 4,256,535 1953 1,218,820 1,082,798 387,190 155,959 154.77') 196.184 78,779 89,180 110,124 83,450 2,008 46,7n4 75,191 71,549 27,953 887,863 4,668.591 1938 236,664 27,867 302.008 67,518 493 32,587 5,146 44,830 26,719 90,274 134,275 56,323 25.179 76,102 6,003 857,666 2,049,654 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commoditv Ores, various Lumber Wheat Nitrate Canned food products Sugar Bananas Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit) Mineral oils Metals various Coffee Raw Cotton Wood pulp Copra Wool All others Total Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1954 1,216,999 993,184 551,687 414,058 296,845 288,007 200,128 178,700 128,798 117,511 83,444 76,397 71,046 69,820 68,782 581,656 5,337,062 1953 4,610,236 1938 900,399 542.936 794.929 632,901 531,872 267,904 310,530 530,861 299,857 220,124 200,592 299,404 216,656 20.076 193,963 106,820 92.182 498,282 197,489 165.473 82,474 53,179 51,261 37,801 26,059 64.156 51,798 51,976 74,917 37,915 585,258 783,315 4,313,123
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 4, 1954 CANAL DRAWS WORLD ATTENTION BY REPORTS OF FISSURE ON HILL TOP THIS ROCK FISSURE runs along the top of Contractors Hill. The two white markers at the top center are monuments established to determine any pissible movement of the rock. 40 O HODGES HI CONTRACTORS HI LIPEDRO MISUEL AGGLOMERATE. 400 THIS DRAWING GRAPHICALLY illustrates geologists' description of Contractors Hill and others in that vicinity as being gigantic inverted cones of Pedro Miguel agglomerate. The hard rock is surrounded by a sea of weaker rock known as the Cucuracha Formation. The exact depth of the hard rock cone which is Contractors Hill is not known, but borings have been made to a depth of several hundred feet in past subsurface explorations. (Continued from page 1) the land side crossing the fissure at a considerable depth below the surface. It will be possible by an examination of these cores to plot the extent and direction of the rock fracture. Soon after an inspection of the area was made early this year, cross-trenching was begun to remove the earth overlay on the rock and determine if there are any additional fissures or extension of those already known. This work was accelerated late in April. Plumbing of the crack at its widest opening was also done and this showed that the fissure extended to a depth of several hundred feet at one point. Geology Of Contractors Hill According to geologists, Contractors Hill is composed of a rock formation now officially named the Pedro Miguel Formation, which is a mass of crudely bedded agglomerate. An agglomerate is a rock composed of coarse fragments resulting from explosive volcanic activity. Contractors Hill, like several others in that area, is sunk in a surrounding mass of weaker rock, known as the Cucuracha Formation, which caused so much trouble by slides during the Canal construction and since. The geological nature of Contractors Hill was mapped and studied during the Canal construction period by the late Dr. Donald F. MacDonald, who was again employed as geologist for the Canal during the Third Locks work. Extensive additional studies of the geology of that area were made during the Third Locks work and again during the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947, both by Dr. MacDonald and by Mr. Thompson who returned for a visit late last month as consulting geologist. Shaped Like Ice Cream Cone According to their reports, Contractors and Gold hills are composed of Pedro Miguel agglomerates and are shaped much like ice cream cones which have their points cut off several hundred feet below ground level. One face of the extruding cone, known as Contractors Hill, was completely exposed when Gaillard Cut was excavated. Although Mr. Thompson believes that the fissure may have started during the construction period by heavy blasting, he does not think that the excavation itself induced the crack. He expressed the belief that the cracking, once started, may have been accellerated by the removal of the bed of Cucuracha rock surrounding the hills which had provided some stabilizing support for them and especially any fractures of the nature observed. A failure of the slope on the Canal face of Contractors Hill would be unique in the history of slides of the Panama Canal. Previous failures during and after the construction period were caused by foundation failures or were "mud-flow" type of slides caused by excessive pressures built up adjacent to deep excavations. Because of the geological formation of Contractors and Gold hills, it was never considered that this type of slope failure, or rock fracture, was likely to result from excavation. Accordingly, reports on both the Third Locks project and the Isthmian Canal studies of 1947 stated that practically vertical slopes through Pedro Miguel agglomerate would be s Â„fe and stable. Government Shipping Shows Sharp Drop (Continued from page 6) steel, phosphates, rice, and scrap metal from the Atlantic to Pacific ports. Commercial transits for the first nine months of this fiscal year were higher than the total in the first nine months of the previous fiscal year. There were 5,781 transits by ocean-going commercial ships during the first nine months of this fiscal year, as compared with 5,522 in the comparable period of the preceding year. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years Month Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars) 1954 1953 1938 1954 1953 1938 July 638 529 457 $2,817 $2,343 $2,030 640 533 505 2,778 2,288 2,195 612 615 444 2,591 2,636 1,936 654 673 461 2,755 2,910 1,981 636 620 435 2,668 2,611 1,893 690 626 439 2,963 2,679 1,845 626 632 444 2,726 2,689 1,838 592 616 436 2,491 2,597 1,787 March 693 678 506 2,934 2,884 2,016 April 628 487 2,733 1,961 Maj 650 465 2,861 1,887 610 445 2,686 1,801 Totals for first 9 months of fiscal vear 5.781 5,522 4,127 $24,723 $23,637 $17,521 o> = Â•" tfi| to ^-3-ra.ajÂ§0