Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Gift of the Panama Canal Museum

PANAMA


AL


Vol. 4 No. 1 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 7, 1953 5 cents


"THROW


ME A


QUARTER, MAMA"


Main

As I


Routes


Canal


Gain


Shipping


Has
Between 17


HAITIAN DIVING BOYS in their bumboats full of native goods or fruit are about the first
people a Panama Line passenger sees as his ship nears the Port-au-Prince pier. Canal Photographer
C. S. La Clair took this photograph on a recent vacation trip.


Conversion of the Canal Zone electrical
rnr-,,,-4/ 4.t\ gfl.nTln / rnirr /nvnt- nil11 h~nan nn


Conversion


60-Cycles


will be ordered at the start of the next
-fioxinnor if +ba unmrLr iS o*nniraroin ;Q


Record


Year


and 33 percent more ship-


ping moved over the three main trade
routes through the Panama Canal last
fiscal year than during the previous year.
This, and an increase of almost 50 per-
cent for the group of smaller, miscellane-
ous routes, accounted principally for the
all-time high in traffic through the Canal
in the fiscal year 1953.
Almost 7,850,000 long tons of cargo
were shipped last year over the trade
route between the east coast of North
America (United States and Canada) and
the Far East, an increase of more than
1,500,000 tons over the figures for the
preceding fiscal year. The gain in net
tonnage for this route was 32.9 percent.
The amount of shipping on the United
States intercoastal route increased last
year 22.3 percent in net vessel tonnage
over the fiscal year 1952, while an increase
of 17.4 percent was shown in the trade
route between the east coast of the
United States and the west coast of
South America. Cargo shipped over the
United States intercoastal route totalled
4,871,000 long tons, an increase of slightly
over 1,500,000 tons or 13.8 percent over
the previous year.
The heavy gain in shipping over the
miscellaneous routes last year, 49.4 per-
cent over 1952, was accounted for chiefly
by increased tanker traffic. This traffic
totaled 4,450,000 net vessel tons last
year, an increase of 89 percent over 1952.
Dry cargo shipments also increased over
the miscellaneous routes by 21.4 percent
with a total of over 4,000,000 net vessel


tons last fiscal ywar.


Plans


Proceeding


For


Zone


Electricity


m
m
I




THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7,1953


Panama


Mark


Canal


For


Force


First


Drops


Time


In


Below

Almost


17


14


,000


ears


42000


35000


26000


21000


14000

7000


1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953


The Panama Canal's working force on
the Isthmus in June dropped below the
17,000 mark for full-time employees for
the first time in almost 14 years.
The force report for June showed a
total of 16,317 full-time employees, of
which 3,938 were employed on the
U. S.-rate rolls and 12,379 were on the
local-rate rolls. These figures, for the
U. S.-rate and total force, include 185
school teachers on leave, not indicated
on the accompanying chart.
The force at the end of the past fiscal
year was 1,900 under that of the previous
year, with a cut of 400 in the U. S.-rate
and 1,500 in the local-rate force. The
decrease in employment over the 12-
month period was the heaviest since the
fiscal year 1950 when there was a net loss
of 2,500, resulting primarily from the
closing of the Industrial Bureau shops in


Balbo
other


-3- - -A
a and major reductions in several
of the larger Canal units.


The accompanying chart of the force
level graphically indicates the rise and
decline of the Canal force over the past
15-year period when the force was almost
tripled during the early war period over
the peace-time level of 1938.
mi- ...in ". I i .


by the Maintenance Division for
practically all of the new construct
projects were handled by contractors.
Contract Maintenance


addition,


a number


bces,
tion


major


maintenance projects were let on con-
tract. These included exterior painting
and major roof repairs to a large number
of employee quarters.
This change to contract work affected
principally the units in the Engineering
and Construction Bureau.


Another unit


which


employees in
and over 200
employed in i
ously stated
REVIEW, bec


error,


that a


employees we:
trash collection


Safe


the Maintenance Division
in the Health Bureau were
this work. It was errone-
in the July issue of the
ause of a typographical
bout 700 Health Bureau
re engaged in garbage and
n.


Driving


Awards Given


Canal


showed a


decrease in force during the past year
was the Railroad and Terminals Bureau.


This decrease was primarily in dock
workers, with that force being approxi-
mately 500 less at the end of this fiscal


year than one year ago. This decrease
resulted from a drop in the amount of
cargo handled over the piers. The total
cargo handled or transferred over the
piers during the past fiscal year was
approximately 200,000 tons under that
of the previous year, a 15 percent decrease.
Connected Losses
Although the principal reductions were
made min the units mentioned, many
other units showed lesser losses for the


Chauffeurs


Safe driving awards have just been
presented to 253 U. S. and local rate
chauffeurs of the Motor Transportation
Division. All of those to whom the
awards have gone operated official vehi-
cles during the past fiscal year without
any accidents causing personal injury or
property damage.
Ninety-five of the chauffeurs have
continuous service and received certifi-
cates for eight years of accident-free
driving. Many of the 95 have a longer
continuous period of safe driving but
complete accident records were not kept
and the safe driving certificates were
not issued until irrht vaars afro.





August 7, 1953


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


Hospital


Insurance,

Discussed


Quarters


July


Plans for hospitalization insurance and
a new method of quarters assignment
were discussed at length in the Governor-
Employee Conference held July 22 in the
Board Room of the Balboa Heights
Administration Building.
In the absence of Governor J. S.
Seybold, who was in Washington attend-
ing the Board of Directors' meeting, the
Acting Governor, Col. H. O. Paxson,
conducted the conference.
He told the employee representatives
that the administration has been working
on plans for some sort of hospitalization
insurance and that progress is being made.
Extension by the Senate-House conferees
on the Civil Functions Bill of so-called
"free hospitalization" for employees until
December 31-this hospitalization had
been removed by the House and restored
by the Senate-gives additional time to
work out a suitable plan, he said.
The Panama Canal Company, Colonel
Paxson said, is not in a position to deal
directly with an insurance company but
can authorize payroll deductions for hos-
pitalization insurance for such an em-
ployee organization as the Canal Zone
Credit Union. Preliminary plans call for
the Company-Government to collect-by
payroll deductions-insurance payments
from employees who sign up for hospital
insurance; these payments will be remit-
ted to the Credit Union which, in turn,
will deal with the insuring company.
The situation is somewhat different, he
told the conferees, in regard to local-rate
emDlove s. The five local-rate credit


unions are Federal organizations and not
in a position to deal with an insurance
company. One way in which this could
be worked out, he said, would be to form
a sort of Mutual Benefit Association which
would be made up of representatives of
the credit unions, lodges, churches, etc.
This organization could deal with the
insurance companies, and to it the Com-
pany-Government could turn over insur-


ance payments
deduction from
the plan.


collect


d by payroll
subscribing to


Group Plan Not Prejudiced
Any such plan, the Acting Governor
v_- .* ..* *


Assignments


Employee


Conference


Henry L. Donovan, Community Serv-
ices Director, joined the group to outline
for conference consideration the proposal
for a new method of quarters applications.
Since there had been considerable objec-
tion to a proposal that applications be
limited to three choices-by type, street,
or areas-a plan has been developed simi-
lar to the postings of real estate offices in
the United States, he said.
Each Wednesday, on glass-enclosed
bulletin boards placed in all Housing
Offices, Clubhouses, Post Offices, and
Commissaries, Housing Division em-
ployees would post a list of all quarters
which had become vacant for the week
ending the previous day. The posting


would be done by district
in Gamboa would not b
southern district (Pedro
Diablo, Balboa, Ancon) n
ern district quarters be a
northern district (Gatun,
and New Cristobal).


L; i. e., quarters
e posted in the
viguel, Corozal,
or would south-
dvertised in the
Margarita, Old


Each advertised set of quarters would
be described by type of construction
(frame, composite, masonry), house and
apartment number, the number of fam-
ilies in the building, the number of
bedrooms, baths, whether or not the
quarters have a garage, maid's room,
maid's toilet, storeroom, paved basement.
The rent, per week, would be listed.
Available For Inspection
During this advertising period, which
would close six days later, the quarters
would be available for inspection on
application to the district housing office
concerned, and during this same period
applications would be accepted for any of
the quarters advertised.


The number of


Our


applications an


Civil


Defense


Civil defense is based on the principle of
self-protection by the individual, extended
to include mutual self-protection on the part
of groups and communities. It is a way
of protecting all of us and our families,
either in case of an enemy attack or during
natural, peacetime disasters.
Civil defense is the responsibility of all


ployee could file would not be limited.
If he considered several houses equally
desirable, he could apply for them all;
since the purpose of the plan is to have
employees apply only for houses in which
they are definitely interested, there should
not be any large number of such multiple
applications.
The advertising period would close
at noon each Tuesday and assignments for
the quarters advertised during the pre-
vious six days would be made at 1 p. m.
that day to the senior applicant from
point of service-on the list. He would
have until 4:15 p. m., on Thursday of that
same week to accept or decline the assign-
ment. If the senior applicant declined
the assignment, the next employee in line
for the quarters would be assigned, etc.,
until the house is accepted.
Applications would be held until the
apartment is accepted, and then would be
voided. Apartments advertised for four
consecutive weeks with no applications
would then be withheld and used for
immediate assignments.


Penalty Planned


The AFGE, Mr.


Donova


n said, has


already accepted the plan but several
other organizations to which it was sub-
mitted are still to be heard from. Em-
ployee representatives at the July con-
ference appeared not only receptive to
the idea but to endorse it, and insisted
that the acceptance time be cut from the
original proposal of five days.
The conferees discussed what penalty
could be imposed on an employee who
had accepted a house and then declined
it without adequate reason when told the
house was ready for occupancy. All
agreed that a money penalty should not
be imposed but that it would be fair to
bar him from applying for any quarters
for a specified period, possibly two weeks.
George Cassell, Acting Chief, Housing
Division, said that during the previous
week, nine out of 31 (see page 19)


Responsibility


battleground --not peace in the world. We
may not now relax our guard nor cease
our quest."
Since September 1949, when Soviet
Russia exploded her first atomic weapon,
the need for the development and mainte-
nance of an adequate civil defense program
has become as important as a strong


'~ ~ F




THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7,1953


When
And


Sea I
Why


Level
The


Visitors to the (Canal Zone almost in-
variably express amazement over four
natural features: the hills; the fact that
Balboa, on the Pacific, is farther east
than Cristobal, on the Atlantic; the rising
of the sun from the Pacific ocean; and the
great difference in the tides in two bodies
of water which are separated by only a
40-mile-wide strip of land.


Of the four features, the tides have
played a most important part in Isthmian
history although the location of the Isth-
mian canal was determined largely by the
narrow isthmus and lowness of the Conti-
nental Divide in what is now the Canal
Zone.
Old Panama, where mud flats stretch
out to sea for a long distance at low tide,
never had a harbor worthy of the name,
even for ships of its day. Cargo had to be
lightered ashore, just as it is today in
many Central and South American ports.
All important Isthmian ports were on the
Caribbean where the tidal range is much
less than it is in the Pacific.
During the days of the Gold Rush,
ships anchored either far out to sea, off
Panama City, or made their port at the
island of Taboga although there, also,
they could not dock at low tide.
Affected Canal Construction
The variation of the tides in the Carib-
bean and the Pacific caused many heated
arguments among experts in the past and
had considerable influence on the decision
to make the Canal lock type rather than
sea level. During the Isthmian Canal
studies in 1946 and 1947 an elaborate tidal


machine


was


constructed


Not


Tides


Sea
Are


of the 1916-34
the Canal Zone
ent rise in sea
interval of .085
foot at Cristoba


Level

Different


and 1927-45 averages at
stations shows an appar-
level during the 11-year
foot at Balboa and .062
l. Both of these changes


are small, equivalent to 1 inch and 34
inch, respectively.
"As a small rise in mean sea level has
occurred in recent years along both the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United
States, the condition is assumed to be
general and of no particular significance
to the Canal Zone area. Whether the


rising trend will continue


min years


come or prove to be of only a temporary
nature remains to be determined by
comparison with future averages."
Sun and Moon Tides
School children learn that tides, which
Webster's dictionary calls the "alternate
rising and falling of the surface of the
ocean are caused by the attraction of the
sun and moon, acting unequally on the
water in different parts of the earth.
Since the moon is closer to the earth than
the sun, the tide-producing force of the
moon is a little more than twice that of


the sun.
When


school


children


come


to the


Tidal Troughs
Oceans, he says, are divided into a
number of such troughs. Balboa is at the
extreme end of one such body; the saw-
horse is off the Mexican coast in the
vicinity of Manzanillo and the opposite
end off lower California. Consequently
the rise and fall of water is great at Balboa
and very slight near Manzanillo.
The Caribbean, on the other hand, sep-
arated as it is from the Atlantic by a
ring of islands, is almost an inland lake
cut off from the oscillating system of the
greater ocean. But the Caribbean and
the Gulf of Mexico make up their own
trough and, being smaller and shallower
than the Atlantic or Pacific, the range of
their tides is much smaller.
Statistics obtained from years of local
observation show that it is possible to
have a tidal range, between high and low
water, of 22.7 feet at Balboa; the extreme
variation possible at Cristobal is only 3.05
feet. Tides at Balboa are regular, with
two highs and two lows a day, approxi-
mately an hour later each succeeding
day. Cristobal tides are irregular.
Lifts at Locks
The matter of tides, of course, had
much to do with the way the Canal was
constructed. The approach channel of
the Canal on the Pacific side is deeper
than the approach to the Atlantic Locks,
to allow for the tidal difference. There


in the fiats


below Miraflores Bridge where tidal
currents were simulated by machine and
their effect on a possible sea-level canal
studied.
Canal files are studded with corres-
pondence from such widely scattered
places as New York, Massachusetts,
Washington, Germany, Mexico, and
England, asking about the tides at the
Canal terminals.
People who ask about the tides fall
generally into two classes: those who
want to know if it is true that there is a
difference in sea level in the Pacific ocean
and the Caribbean sea there is; and
those whose questions have to do with the


...4 -


rnTToAT mT)U/'TTT ArTx',/' O' fI)T T/"I'ITI)T(J _. ,. ....I, ..... C .. 1-.. 1 ... L.:.l


..X ..


1e





August 7


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


FOR YOUR


NTER


AND


GUIDANCE


DENT


PREVENTION


Safety Message To Foremen


When something has gone wrong, it is
most necessary to know what it was and
what caused it to go wrong before it can


be corrected.


An accident is a very good


example of something gone wrong-the
man, the material, the machine, or the


method.
otherwise


Somebody or something failed;


the mishap


would not have


occurred.
Since an accident is evidence of some-
thing gone wrong, it follows that you must
get to the bottom of "why" and "how"
to prevent things going wrong again.
There must be a best way for doing this.
Let's just make a list of what we want to
find out and then see how we should go


about it.


It has been shown that the man


is the most important thing on any job.
Buildings, machines, and tools are lesser
things because they have been developed


to help the man


better,


and safer.


produce more faster,


So maybe


we had


better start with the man first.
1. Is this his first accident?
2. If not, how and when did the others
occur ?
3. What could he himself have done to
avoid having this accident?
4. Did he take an unnecessary chance
and bring the accident on him-
self?
5. Has there been a job study made
and a safe efficient way developed
for doing this job?


6. Had he been informed


dangers


involved


tions and drilling
working practices?


HONOR


as to the


with instruc-
as to the safe


ROLL


Bureau Award For
BEST RECORD
JUNE


7. Did he follow instructions?


8. Just who


was at fault?


Was it the


injured workman, a fellow worker,
or you, his foreman?
9. Was he "hurried" on this job?
10. What action did you take immedi-


to prevent


a recurrence?


Have you done this?
11. Are other employees also following


same


practice


that caused


this man to have an accident?


12. Was the safe practice,


which had


been taught and inm use, mostly
depending upon the employee
learning and continuing to duck
in time?
A check on layout, material and equip-
ment is less involved. You naturally
want to know:
1. If tools, machines, or equipment
being used were defective or in
need of repair.
2. If adequate working equipment and


safety guards


were


provided.


3. If the necessary protective equip-
ment and safety devices were
available.


4. If


so, were they being used and in
the right way.


5. Was lighting and ventilation ade-
quate.


When


is the best time for


investigate an accident?


It appears to be


as soon after it occurs as you can get to


where it happened.


If you are going to


get the information necessary to prevent
future accidents, and you might as well
not start unless you get the correct and
complete story, you are going to have to:
1. Go to the scene of the accident and


check
volved.


the physical


things


2. Get the full story from the man
who caused the accident.
3. Get the full story from others work-
ing near and with him.


'-'"k henecessarycorrectivemeas


ures


to prevent


a recurrence


before you leave.
5. Make out the report at once while
all facts are fresh in your mind.
6. Get professional advice from your
Safety Inspector.
Whenever you have made up your mind
to minquire as fully into the "whys and
"wherefores" of your accidents as you do
into getting other parts of your job
done-then and then only will you start
getting results in accident prevention, for
you cannot intelligently proceed with
righting something wrong until you have
the correct and complete facts in your
possession.


SAFETY


BOARD


The Canal Zone Government-Panama
Canal Company Safety Board as re-estab-
lished by Executive Regulation No. 32,
which outlines the Safety Program and


Organization, is n
following members:


G. 0.


IKELLAR,


Chairman
L. W. CHAMBER
1)irector
M. F. MILLARD,


C


OW (

Thief,


omposed of


Safety


RS, representing


represent


ting En


and Construction Director


Cmdr. \W.
Industrial


M. VINCENT,
Director


Branch,
Marine
gineering


representing


WV. F. RUSSON, representing Rail


Terminals


1)irector


E. E. TROUT,
Service Directc
E. 0. ZEMER,


Services


representing
)r
representing


Supply


Community


Director


E. L. FARLOW, representing Civil Affairs
Director
J. P. SMITH, representing Health Director
H. D. RAYMOND, representing Comptroller


BUiRNHAM


(


Personnel Director
II. L. ANDERSON, I


Executive


Acting),
Recorder


representing
, representing


Secretary


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
INDUSTRIAL BUREAU


AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR
Industrial ..............
Civil Affairs ...-- -----------
Health --------------------


Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man-Hours Worked
JUNE 1953 (Frequency Rate)


Civil Affairs Bureau


I


I




THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7, 1953


New


Paraisc

As


S


Buildings Ne

school Begins


ar


Completion


Local


Rate


Towns


of the school units. Miss Julette Carring-
ton, formerly principal at Paraiso, will
be teaching principal of the six-classroom
elementary school at Red Tank.
Until the addition to the Rainbow City
elementary school is completed about
the middle of the school year the school-


PART of Paraiso's modern, new school plant is pictured above. Only one room deep, the new
Paraiso school is on-the-ground masonry construction. A feature of the building is the wide awning-
type windows, divided into horizontal panes, each set of which opens like jalousies. Wide vertical
sun vanes provide shade and help in preventing sound from one classroom bothering students in
another.
The main building of the new Paraiso school will house elementary grades. It is connected by a
covered walk-way to a two-room building, also new construction, which will house the kindergarten.
The third building of the group is the remodeled older building, in which will be the junior high
school, with space for a library, music room, shops, and the principal's office in the basement.


Under the watchful eyes of their 160
teachers, some 4,300 boys and girls from
the Canal Zone's colored communities
trooped into their classrooms last Mon-
day morning in the 14 schools which make
up the local-rate school system.
The exact number of students will not
be known for several days, until figures
from all the schools are checked, but an
opening day estimate indicated that the
number would be well above the 4,156
who were registered the first school day
of 1952.
Boys and girls at Paraiso were especi-
ally interested in their modern new school
which will be ready for occupancy within
a short time, and grade-school students
at Rainbow City were eagerly waiting
completion of the addition to their school,
now expected about the end of the first
semester.
The outstanding change in the Canal
Zone colored schools this year is the
coming transfer from Red Tank to Paraiso


of the Junior High School for the Paraisc-
Red Tank area and the expansion of the
Paraiso school plant by the addition of a
new 12-classroom elementary building, a
two-room kindergarten building, and a


remodeled


basement


area under


former elementary school building.
Junior High In Remodeled School
The elementary grades will occupy the
new buildings when they are completed in
about a month and the remodeled building
will be reserved for Junior High School
use. Classrooms will fill the upstairs
area and a library, home economics labor-
atory, woodworking shop, clinic, music
room and the principal's office will be
in the new basement area.
The transfer to Paraiso of the Junior
High School will bring a shift in school
principals. Ellis L. Fawcett, formerly
principal of the Red Tank elementary
and junior high schools, has been trans-
ferred to Paraiso where he will be in charge


housing problem there continues to be
acute. Present plans call for 16 classes
to share eight classrooms until the new
addition is finished. The addition will
provide space for eight elementary school
classes.
Summer Institute
During the past summer approximately
160 teachers from the colored schools
attended the annual month-long Summer
Institute at La Boca and Rainbow City.
The staff of the Summer Institute is made
up of teachers from Balboa High School
and the Canal Zone Junior College.
The work of this summer's Institute
was largely revision of the curriculum in
the elementary, junior, and senior high
schools. In the summer of 1952 the
students at the Institute made "working
copies" of 37 courses; these were studied,
in the light of classroom use, during the
past school year and 26 of the 37 were
put into working shape this summer.
During the Institute, elementary teach-
ers took the Workshop in Arithmetic and
had a choice of a course in Children's
Literature or a methods course in the
teaching of Spanish.
Teachers from the secondary schools
studied Evaluation of Secondary Schools
and one of five electives: Workshops in
Mathematics, English, Spanish, Social
Studies, and Industrial Arts.
Social Studies
In the elementary schools, a new social
studies handbook is in use this year.
These tentative courses of study which
are the joint product of Canal Zone
elementary school teachers are organized
around six themes for the different grade
levels. The themes progress from the
immediate, for the youngest child, to the
distant, such as world problems, for the
older children.
Kindergarteners and pupils in grade
one, for instance, will study "Home and
School." Second graders widen their
horizon with a study of the community
in which they live. By (See page 12)


They


Head


Canal Zone Schools


.- / :


f





August 7,1953


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Official


Two


Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly at
BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE

Printed by the Printing Plant
Mount Hope, Canal Zone


of


Kind


S. SEYBOLD, Governor-President


H. O. PAXSON, Lieutenant Governor


J. RUFUs HARDY, Editor

ELEANOR H. McILKENNY
OLEVA HASTINGS
Editorial Assistants


SUBSCRIPTIONS-$1.00


SINGLE COPIES-5


a year


cents each


On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses,
Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after
publication date.

SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL-10 cents each


cents each


On sale when available, from the Vault
Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building,
Balboa Heights.

Postal money orders should be made pay-
able to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Com-
pany, and mailed to Editor, THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW, Balboa Heights, C. Z.


Railroad And Terminals Head


Will End Lengthy


Service


A BROTHER ACT, for a fact, is that of Canal Zone Fire Sergeants James V. and Frank J. Bart-
lett. James, the elder by five years, is at the wheel of the fire engine.
Born in Wisconsin, they were both employed as probationary firemen here on August 12, 1942,
promoted to firemen on November 10, 1942, and again promoted, this time to sergeants, on July 5
this year.


Sergeant James is on duty at the Gamboa Fire
Miguel.


Station;


Sergeant


Frank is stationed at Pedro


David W. Massingham of San Rafael,
Calif., has been appointed Assistant
Manager of Hotels for the Panama
Canal Company; he will be in direct
charge of the Hotel Washington.
Born in Melbourne, Australia, where
his American parents were living, he
attended school in California and has
spent most of his adult life in Califor-
nia. For the past 15 years he has been
enoa~ed in restaurant or cafeteria


I F U /


work and has had considerable experi-
ence in industrial cafeterias such as
those of the Kaiser Shipyards in Rich-
mond, and the Kaiser Cement Plant
at Permanente, Calif.
From 1946 until 1949, when he opened


Canal Zone team in action.
be narrated and will be shi
Clubhouses to promote dih


ow


This film will
n in all Zone


,aster prepared-


ness.

Automobile tires now may be pur-
chased unmounted from Section K of
the Balboa Storehouse, the Cristobal
Storehouse or mounted on wheels at
the Motor Transportation Division on
either side of the Isthmus.
Tires formerly were required to be
mounted on wheels at a cost of 35
cents each, by the Motor Transporta-
tion Division.
Some of the tires now available for
4 * ---t-


OF CURRENT INTEREST


BACK COPIES-10




THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7, 1953


Cars,

All


Drivers,


Are


Dogs,


Licensed


Vendors

By Canal


And Pe

License


ddlers-

Section


Black and orange will be the colo
1954, take it from Leslie tR. Evans,
of the Canal's License Section.
As long ago as March Mr. Evans,
his top boss, Col. Richardson Selee,
Affairs Director, and Colonel S
right-hand man, E. IL. Farlow, agreed
black letters on an orange backgr


rs for
Chief
with
Civil
elee's
1 that
"ound


would be a good combination for private
automobile licenses for 1954.
There was no particular reason for
their choice, Mr. Evans said. Black and
orange is an easily-read combination, had
not been used for some time, and could
not be confused with the black-and-white
of official plates.
The license plates are to arrive by


September 1. By mid-November, the
License Section will be accepting applica-
tions for them and at the end of the year
all Canal Zone-licensed cars will have


the plates in place


or else.


Selecting license plates and issuing
them is an important part of the License
Section's work, but it is not all, by any


means.


Licenses And Licenses


At its offices on the ground floor of the
Civil Affairs Building on Gaillard High-
way, one can get a license establishing
ownership of a vehicle and the right to
drive, transfer, or junk it; a vehicle
record card, which is the first step toward
allowing a U. S. employee living in
Panama to buy gasoline in the Canal
Zone; a license-if the applicant is a
welfare or fraternal organization-to vend
food or drink; or a peddler's license which
gives an individual the right to sell such


things as fruits, v
drinks in Canal Zot
month the License
duty: The licensing
which make the Can
Issuing licenses wl
the ownership or
vehicles is a major
of Mr. Evans and
women who make
Extra help is hired


vegetables, and
ne towns. Just
Section had a
Sof the 3,000
al Zone their h
which have to do


soft
last
new
dogs
ome.
with


operation of motor
part of the business
the five men and
up his regular staff.
for the annual rush


period but the addition of two new valid-
ating cash registers last year cut this
need in half. On December 31, 1952's
peak day, more than 700 customers were


LICENSE PLATES from all over
mural decorations for the License Secti
license plate from Wyoming.

the "Z" series the section at An
has a record of a majority of
owned by such people. This is i
by the vehicle record cards.
To buy gasoline in the Canal
owner of a Panama-licensed ca
have a special card, which he


by presenting his Panama car registra-
tion, his operator's license, and his
authority card. So far this year, the
License Section has on file 3,132 of these
vehicle record cards.
Lotteries And Lines


sequence


in which


automobile


license plates have been issued has been
determined, in the past, in several ways.
Mr. Evans recalls that when the License
Office was on the third floor of the Admin-
istration Building, the waiting line of
applicants sometimes stretched the length
of the hallway, and down the stairs to
the front entrance.


the United States and old Canal Zone licenses are appropriate
on. Mrs. Mary Hollowell hands George Pervin a sample 1953


Lcon still For operators of passenger cars, official
the cars cars, industrial trucks, commercial vehi-
provided cles, motorcycles, etc. Since 1950 there
have been only two categories: Roughly
Zone an people who drive for fun and people who
ar must make their living by driving, although
obtains separate tests are given operators of


motorcycles and motorscooters by the
two police examiners.
People visiting the Isthmus with their
cars may drive for 90 days with U. S.
license plates and drivers' licenses, if
they do not intend to remain here. Those


expecting to make their home here must
get both Canal Zone car and operator's
licenses within 15 days.
Character References
Drivers' licenses have been required in
the Canal Zone since 1911. Those old-
time drivers, provided they satisfied an
examining board as to their knowledge
of "gasoline and electrical motors and





August 7, 1953


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


cream, if they want the latter. Some 24
such groups are licensed each year.


No Sandwiches


Peddlers' licenses are issued to an aver-
age of 21 people a month for a period not
exceeding six months. Peddlers must
have physical examinations and a police
check. Most of them handle native
fruits and vegetables. Applications for
licenses to sell fresh fish, meats or meat
products of any kind, sandwiches or
cooked foods of all kinds are uniformly
disapproved, for strict health and sanitary
reasons.
Peddlers are licensed without cost
unless they wish to sell ice cream or soft
drinks, or both. In such case a peddler
pays $2 a month, and if he sells tobacco
an additional $2 monthly.
Occasionally a peddler is licensed, as
one was recently, to sell such things as
pocketbooks, baskets, and other native
straw products. The $2 monthly fee
applies here, also.
The License Section is a direct descend-
ent of the old Revenue Department of
construction days. The Isthmian Canal
Commission had established a system of
licensing coaches and carriages in 1910
but, as the motor population increased,
Canal authorities began to worry about
road upkeep. If motorists wanted to use
the highways, they should pay for the
privilege, the Commission felt.
$150 For A License !
The first fees were eyebrow raising:
$150 a year for commercial vehicles of
any sort, $25 for cars "operated for
pleasure," and $10 for motorcycles.
The first automobile license issued in
the Canal Zone went to Natalio Ehrman
of Panama, on December 3, 1910. Unfor-
tunately, old records do not show the
make of his car. The first license to a
Canal Zone resident was No. 5, issued a
week later to a "Capt. C. Nixon of
Cristobal." Oldtimers believe this was
Capt. Courtland Nixon, Depot Quarter-
master at Mount Hope.
In 1916 the fee for licensing personal
automobiles was reduced to the present
$5, and motorcycle licenses dropped to
the present $2. Owners of commercial
vehicles who today pay between $13.50
and $16, paid from $20 to $40.
From the Administration Building,


Good


Can


Community
Reduce Fly


Flies are everybody's business, first,
because they are a potential health men-
ace to every member of a community
and, second, because everyone is respon-
sible for the kind of good community
housekeeping that keeps them from
breeding.
Flies, like a lot of other potential
problems, are best nipped in the bud. It
is easier to prevent them from breeding
in the first place than it is to get rid of
them after they are grown.
DDT used to work like an atom bomb
on the adult fly population. It doesn't
work so miraculously any more; flies are
getting used to it.


Furthermore, flies are mobile.


If they


are any place in a community, they can


be all over the place. An adul
travel several miles to find his
of filthy environment and fro
possibly, into the food you eat.
The biography of a house
begin like this. One little hou


t fly will
own kind
m there,

ly might
sefly, for


instance, might have been born, together
with 99 to 149 brothers and sisters, in a
nice little nest of mouldy mashed potatoes
down in an overlooked cranny in a garbage
can.
Mama Fly, with fine feminine instinct,
may have flown from miles away to find
this fine home for her brood. Of course,
she might just as well have picked any

where it was located for many years, the
License Section, then a Bureau of the old
Executive Department, moved to the old
Balboa police station, opposite the present
Balboa school. The location was good
but it had some drawbacks. For instance
one day two not ordinarily timid clerks
took to their desk tops when a large and
dignified iguana paid an office call.
The License Section, under its present
organization, came into being in April


1946, following the war. It
then as now, by Mr. Evans,
Wisconsin, who came to the
in 1936 to work with the
Affairs Division. All of his
the Canal has been with


was headed
a native of
Canal Zone
then Civil
service with
the License


Section in its present or former forms


Housekeeping
Population


one of


a number of


places,


of them repulsive to tender human
sensibilities.
She could have stopped to lay her eggs
in a cozy thick blanket of damp commer-
cial fertilizer around a firecracker bush;
a rotting remnant of cabbage slaw slopped
around a garbage can; a nice mouldy
mess of garbage disposed of as trash and
put on a trash dump; manure in a riding
stable; a rotting potato-or any other
kind of fermenting organic matter.
A housefly lives a very fast life, growing
from egg to full-fledged adult in eight to
20 days. In Isthmian warmth and
dampness, the life cycle is short.
The eggs that Mama Fly lays in mash-
ed potatoes or elsewhere hatch in eight
to 30 hours into larvae or maggots.
The hungry little maggots have a
mashed potato diet (our little flies from
the garbage can) for 5 to 14 days, then
they migrate to drier material and turn
into dark brown nupas that look like


1 1
little seeds.
Then in three to ten days (the
fasts during this period) a grown-
emerges, to go around spreading
for the 30 days of his adult life.
Flies are nasty little creatures.


pupa
up fly
germs

o one


likes them very much, but some of the
grade school health lessons about the
germs they carry can stand repetition.
The deposits flies leave on the things
they touch may contain millions of dis-
ease germs. They are at least suspect
in transmitting bacillary and amoebic
dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, tuber-
culosis and other "filth diseases." The
virus of poliomyelitis has been recovered
from flies.
There are simple things that everyone
can do to help keep flies from breeding-
the only really effective way to keep them
out of a community:
1. Report to the Division of Sanitation
any conditions you see that may induce
fly breeding. The Pacific side number is
2-2463. On the Atlantic side, call 3-2576.
A great deal of time is lost trying to
track down breeding places after flies
are on the wing.
2. Report to the Grounds Maintenance
Division any holes in garbage cans,
missing covers, or any accumulation of
garbage left in or dribbled around the




THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7


1953


Payne


Handle


Wardlaw


Fif th


of


And


W. Andrews


Canal


Ship


&


Co.


Traffic


Suppose you're an exporter andI have a
cargo of wool to be sent from New'Zealamnd
to England; possibly) you're shipping
sugar from C(uba to Japan; or you might


be concerned with
Pacific Northwest


lumber


from the
East Coast


U. S. port.
Perhaps you're a potential passenger
from the Canal Zone to England or
Australia or Curacao or Brazil.
Could be you're a ship owner whose


vessel


has gotten


into trouble


in the


Caribbean and needs:a tow into port by a
Merritt (Chapman salvage tug; or your
ship may have damaged a propeller or
been in some mishap which should be
reported to its insurance underwriters.
Your ship might catch fire, like one


recently which was carrying fish meal
through the Canal to South Africa. Much
of it had to be discharged onto the
Cristobal docks so it could cool, the holds
had to be entered and the smouldering
fire completely controlled.
There was another ship fire, too, not
long ago. in which underwriters were


on t
interested.


Fire broke


out in a ship


which was carrying phosphorus from
Japan, in tin cans. Canal Zone firemen
wet the cargo down but it re-ignited as
soon as the phosphorous dried out. The
dissolved phosphorous got onto cargo'nets
and onto the decks. Men walking through
it tracked it onto the dock where it could
be ignited just like the matchheads it was
eventually to become.
Andrews, Payne & Wardlaw
In any of these cases and a great many
others, it would be quite likely that
you'd be dealing with W. Andrews & Co.
or Payne and Wardlaw, either as shipping
agents or in their capacity as Lloyd's
agents.
Because they are headed by the same
man, big, bo)ming-voiced Capt. Clifford
Payne, many people confuse the two


agencies.


But


actually they


are as


separate as any other two agencies.
Reporters covering the waterfront in-
variably have trouble at first straight-
ening out the difference between the two
and more than one has had to be re-
m nfhdp( rpnptn r11 v th n t Pa vn 1 nd


K^~r


('APT. CLIFFORD PAYNE

Japan, the Netherlands, Greece, the Re-
public of China, Denmark, Sweden,
Honduras and Germany.
The cargoes were as varied as the
ships which carried them. A cargo of
fish meal went through the Canal from
South Africa to San Francisco. There
was bulk wheat from the Pacific North-
west and soya, several loads of it, from
United States East Coast or Gulf ports
to Japan.
The P. & T. Voyager, transiting on
May 10, carried fireworks from a Penn-
sylvania port to the State of Washington,
presumably to help some one celebrate
the Fourth of July. Other ships carried
steel girders, automobiles, machinery,
coal, oil, cotton, phosphates, and dozens
of other items, in quantities large and
small.
Queen's Ships


In addition to handling commercial
traffic, Andrews acts as agents for the
British consul for all British and Com-
monwealth Navy ships. The firm will
handle the 15,900-ton Gothic when she
transits the Canal late in November,
carrying the Queen of England to
Australia. Regardless of what festivities
are prepared ashore, the Canal transit of
the liner is expected to be routine.
.___-- . 4 1I


happen at halfway ports.
If deck cargo on a lumber ship is going
to shift, it usually shifts between the
Pacific Northwest, from which most of it
originates, and the Canal Zone. More
than one such ship has had to tie up in
the Canal Zone to have its lumber cargo
restowed, to correct a dangerous list.
Parts break, and if there are no re-
placements aboard or they cannot be
made locally, the agents usually have to
radio to the United States to have a new
part sent to the Isthmus by plane.
War Days
War days had nothing to do with the
halfway point, but they brought all sorts
of problems. Boarding officers remember
the days when Cristobal harbor was full
of convoys of big gray ships, all without
identification and all much alike.
The only way an agent could find his
ship was to cruise among them by
launch, calling to each ship as he passed
it. When he had boarded one of his
vessels he would mark an X on the gang-
plank so that he wouldn't repeat his
efforts.
Provisioning ships of the varied nation-
alities the two agencies handle presents
some problems but not as many as might
be expected. Most ships provision staples
in their home ports and take on only
perishable items here.
But there are times when live goats
have to be provided as food for Hindu
seamen on some of the ships, or beef has
to be slaughtered in accordance with the
religious rites of other crewmen. Once
one of the agencies rounded up a dozen
goats, on the hoof, and presented them
en masse to a transiting ship so the cook
could take his pick. Goats used to be
easily available in La Boca, but they
have disappeared and a request for
goats now usually means that some one
has to make a trip to the Interior.


Operate Here


Most of the shipping agencies here
are branch offices of parent companies
established elsewhere, but Payne and
Wardlaw and W. Andrews operate only
at the Canal.
[ ^k^^*tI -- yj rT- a^ nty r-llIfHn f w^ y\ cv n^ a^ a


_ _





August 7, 1953


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


Forty


ears
July


Ago


Municipal Engineering Division forces
began clearing the site for Miraflores
Pump Station No. 1, one of the first steps
in the construction of the water works for
the southern end of the Canal.
It was planned that water would be
taken from the Caimitillo arm of Mira-
flores Lake, pumped to the purification
plant "to be located on the top of the
Miraflores Hill immediately above the
Miraflores spillway," and from there, by


gravity flow, to a pump st
where electric pumps wou
mains leading to Panama.


ation at Ancon
ld force it into


Paraiso was selected as headquarters for
all dredging operations for the Canal. A
plan approved by the Chairman and Chief
Engineer 40 years ago in July provided
that repair work on dredges then made at
shops at both ends of the Canal would also
be centralized in shops at Paraiso after
water was turned into Culebra Cut.

Construction work was started on the
permanent electrical transmission line


TYPICAL of the ships handled by W. Andrews & Co. is this 624-foot Norwegian tanker, Dalfimn,


shown in Pedro Miguel locks.


She was en route


old, as were all young colonial boys, to
boarding school in England. Colonial
girls stayed in India until they were 12.
He went to sea when he was 17 years
old. The first ship on which he sailed
was the Sierra Blanca, one of a fleet of 12
fine clippers which ran between Liverpool
and Rangoon. Captain Payne got his
master's license under sail at the end of a
harrowing trip aboard another clipper
called the Oread. The story of that trip
would fill a book; its highlights were a
shipwreck off the Peruvian coast, a 30-
mile trek by burro across the Peruvian
desert, and the discovery, in an isolated
Peruvian town, of a schoolmate, when an


interpreter was needed.
When the Oread was finally aban
Captain Payne joined the Pacific
Navigation Company, serving with
from 1899 until 1910. His last
command was the Taboga which


Panama's
-. i- : *


done,
Steam
PSNC
PSNC
ran in


coastwise service with its
J. L4 *1** flt.. .ih 2k*


from San Pedro to Bergen with a load of fuel oil.
W. Andrews & Co. is much older than
Payne & Wardlaw. It was founded
during the 1890's by William Thomas
Andrews who represented the West India
Mail Company in Colon. The original
offices of the agency were in the Fort
DeLesseps area, in an old wooden
building which was demolished during the
1920's when the Army wanted room for
expansion.
When Mr. Andrews returned to Eng-
land about 1920, he left his business in
Captain Payne's charge and on his death
in 1926, he bequeathed the good will of
the firm to his old friend and associate.
Agency Managers
At the present time the operation of


the organizations is
managership of Per
was with the White
pool before joining
1925. His office 1
Cristobal.


under the general
owne Francey, who
Star Line in Liver-
Captain Payne in
is now located in


across the Isthmus. The system, de-
scribed in the Canal Record as "simple
and straightforward," provided for the
transmission of electrical energy from "a
source of generation at Gatun" to load
centers at Miraflores, Balboa, and Cris-
tobal. The transmission line, which was
to parallel the Panama Railroad right-
of-way, was to run from Cristobal to
Balboa, permitting distribution of energy
both ways from Gatun.

Applications were received for the rent
of Panama Railroad lots Nos. 1 and 2
on the waterfront at Cristobal. The United
Fruit Company planned to build an office
on one, the Canal Record stated, and th,
Hamburg-American Line proposed to erect
a two-story building on the other.


The last of the three sluices through the
ogee of Gatun Spillway Dam was closed
and Gatun Lake started its final rise to
its permanent level. A schedule was
announced for the transfer of permanent
buildings and the Canal shops from the
town of Gorgona, one of the sites to be
inundated as the lake stretched out to
assume its final form.


JL





THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7, 1953


Money
He


Hundreds


Brought
Counted


thousands


Him


To


For


Panama;
36 Year


it


dollars


passed through the hands of Edward
Howell in the 47 years he worked for the
Canal before he left the organization at
the end of July. Hie had been a clerk
and money counter in the Treasurer's
Office at Cristobal for 36 of those years.
Unlike most amateur money handlers
and self appointed financiers, the long-
time clerk believes that he has made very
few mistakes.
"If I had made many," he explained
realistically during the last month of


probably


wouldn't


still be


around."
His supervisors use such terms as
"accurate, honest, responsible, and de-
pendable" to explain the employee and
the caliber of his work.
He frequently found around the office
money a caller dropped from a billfold,
perhaps, in the process of cashing a
check. Once he discovered $50 neatly
hidden beneath a blotter near the cashier's


cage.


In that case, the cashier remem-


bered having paid someone that amount
during the day and, with a little detective
work, found the rightful owner.
Cashiers in the Canal organization also
have had reason for gratitude to the long
time money counter. The bags of money
that they send to the Treasurer's office
sometimes contain a few penmnies or a
few dollars more or less than they have
accounted for. Of course, that's Mr.
Howell's job-to catch and rectify such
errors.
Like Apples on a Tree
It was money that attracted Mr.
Howell to the Canal Zone when he first
came in 1906. He heard the stuff was
"growing on the trees like apples" and
came to see for himself. He was a
bellhop in the Marine Hotel at home in
Hastings, Barbados, when he made the
great decision.
He assumes he missed the money trees;
the main things he remembers seeing when
he got to the Isthmus were mudholes and
mosquitoes "so big that when they stuck
you, you saw blood."
He first lived in a tent city labor
camp, Otro Lado, on the "other side" of
the Canal from Paraiso. He started to
work digging holes, first for tower con-
,*- .... ;.' ... . n T) rn^.]_ -1_ J -I . .


I
qc


Treasurer's offic
Treasurer's office


;e. Someone there became


acquainted with the janitor and when
the office needed a money counter, he was
given the job that he held for the next
36 years.


EDWARD HOWELL


the foreman and the foreman liked liquor
and paid the water boy from his pocket to
bring Scotch as well as water on his
rounds.
On Sunday the men in the labor
camps shared their "bathroom with
alligators, making use of the Rio Grande
River for baths and weekly laundry.
The old timer also recalls that in
those early days the laborers were given
lodging checks after a day's work in the
Canal. If they didn't work, they didn't
get a check and couldn't sleep in the
camps. If they weren't in camps, they
were picked up by the police and were
provided their night's lodging in jail.
Clearances Unnecessary
In 1907, he quit his water-carrying
job and decided to try working on the
other side of the Isthmus. 'Clearances'
for jobs weren't necessary then," he says.
"No one checked up on you."


New Paraiso Buildings Near Completion
As School Begins In Local Rate Towns


(Continued from page 6) grade three the
students have advanced enough to be
interested in the problems of simple com-
munities, and fourth graders will learn
something of the problems of complex


communities like the Canal Zon
By fifth grade they go fart
and study "Panama and the
Hemisphere," and sixth gra
devote their attention to The
Canal and the World.
Only a few changes have b
in the teaching staff for th
schools. Gilberto Perez, who
known in local musical circles,
instrumental music this year at
junior and senior high schools.
Prescott, who in past years
his time between the two
high schools, will teach at Rain
this year.


Le.
her afield
Western
ders will
Panama

een made
e colored
is well-
will teach
La Boca
Reginald
divided
colored
bow City


-.A- IX ; a.


On the Atlantic side, he went to work
for a Health Department sanitary in-
spector. The inspector condemned old
rotten buildings min the town and his
helper pulled them down and burned
them.
That work wasn't easy either, and one
Saturday when his bones ached he stayed
home to rest up for Monday. He rested,
but had no job when he returned to work.
So he went to work for somebody else,
this time the District Quartermaster at
Cristobal and served as janitor and night
watchman at the old Lincoln House from
1914 to 1917. Working on so-called
"scavenger gangs," which cleaned Canal
offices and quarters, he also did some of
the cleaning work at the Cristobal





August 7, 1953


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Veteran Employee
42 Years With P

When Enrique de la Ossa entered the
service of the Panama Railroad on July
12, 1911, he was assistant freight clerk in
the Receiving and Forwarding Agency at
the French pier in La Boca (now Balboa).
Now, after 42 busy years in many
positions of trust and responsibility, he
has been assigned to still another new
job. Effective this month he became
Special Agent for the Panama Railroad.
In this new post his long and thorough
knowledge of the Railroad's relations
with business activities in Panama can
be of great value.
Mr. de la Ossa's service was commended
in a recent letter from A. C. Medinger,
Railroad and Terminals Director, when


he said:
"Effective August 1, 1953, yo
appointed to the position ol
Agent for the Railroad Divisi
position has been authorized
President in recognition of your
loyal service to the Railroad.
tion of Special Agent is also
important one and while the d
not so arduous, it is expected
knowledge of local conditions an
freight operations will be of spe
to the Railroad Division.
"Please accept my congratul
your having completed 42 years
on July 12th, and of course,
satisfaction we get out of a


Restrictions


'u will be
f Special
on. This
by the
long and
The posi-
a very
duties are
that your
d railroad
cial value


nations on
of service
the best
life-long


Completes


anama


Railroad


father later became Supreme Court
Justice, a post which he held until his
death in 1936. In his honor Panama
City named one of its busiest streets,
J. F. de la Ossa Avenue, which most
people know as "Automobile Row."
Although he was very young, the
younger de la Ossa fought for his coun-
try's independence. Then, with Panama
safely a sovereign nation he was sent to
complete his education in the United
States where he quickly had to learn a
language he had never spoken before.


After finishing h
in order to have


commercial acti
Panama Consul
and then for tw
he returned to
entered the serv
road. He had ti
opportunities to
turned down all


is school
a practice
cities, he
ate in
o export
the Isth
ice of th
hen, and
work el


offers,


ng in 191
al know
worked


08, and
edge of
at the


lew York
firms. In
imus where
e Panama
has since, r
sewhere bu


City
1911
e he
Rail-
many
it he


to continue his


railroad service.
Gold Over the Piers


ENRIQUE DE LA OSSA

careeristhe knowledge of a job well done.


Old Isthmian
Enrique de la Ossa'
known in the history
of Panama. Born in
February 23, 1888, he
Dr. Manuel Amador, w
ama's first president, a
de la Ossa, Alcalde o


Commutation


Family
s family is w
of the Repul
Panama City
is the nephew
ho became P
nd son of J.
rf Panama. t


Of Leave


In his first
was closely in
of tons of cargoc
Balboa each m
America or thi
ment across tl
some time he w
for gold or oth
came in cargo.
Day after d
cargo moveme
and forwardin
neared complex
tons of freight
railroad; the
was well above
Shipments fro
weighed those


job as way-bill clerk, he
touch with the thousands
Which were discharged in
)nth from South or Central
e Far East for transship-
he Isthmus by rail. For
as specie clerk, responsible
er precious material which

lay, he took part in the
nts on the pier, receiving
g freight as the Canal
tion. In 1911, 1,871,076
t crossed the Isthmus by


fol
fe
m
so


lowing year
the two m
the Pacifi
uthbound.


* the figure
million mark.
c side out-


Will Become

Restrictions on the amount of leave
which Canal employees can commute to
cash on leaving the service become effec-
tive after the last day of this month.
The new rule on commutation of leave
was contained in legislation passed by
Congress at this session amending the
general leave laws applicable to all
Federal Government employees.


The new legislation does
method of accruing leave n
of leave which may be
The restrictions on leave


not affect the
or the amount
accumulated.
commutation


Effective


September


will have earned 540 hours but only 324
hours may be commuted to cash. In
both instances, leave earned above the
amount which may be commuted can be
taken by Mr. A. before leavingthe service.
Mr. B., a U. S.-rate employee, was
employed January 1, 1950, and had 720
hours of accrued leave at the beginning
of this year. If he leaves the service at
the end of October of this year, he may
take leave earned since last January but
it may not be commuted on leaving the
service.


The year after the Canal was opened,
slides blocked it completely for several
months. Shipowners hastily arranged for
a transfer of bottoms; cargo which had
been destined for transit through the
Canal was transshipped by rail and
reloaded into ships on the other side of
the Isthmus. Pier and shipping facilities
were strained.
Moved to Pier 18


When Pier 18 was opened,
1916, Mr. de la Ossa's office
ferred there and in 1922 he
cargo clerk in charge of the
job also involved boarding
agency work for all lines for
If... .. n* .. 1. Tj-h^j As rv rh a f r, a an n


on April 1,
was trans-
was made
piers. His
and doing
which the


l





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 7,1953


AUGUST SAILINGS

From Cristobal
Panama .. .. ...-. .. . August 7
Cristobal --......... .- August 14
Ancon _August 21
Panama .. ... .........August 28

From New York
Cristobal .. ... August 4
Ancon ..... . August 11
Panama ..... ............ August 18
Cristobal ... .. .... . .. August 25

(Northbound, the ships are in Haiti from
7 a. m. to noon Sunday; southbound, the
Haiti stop is Saturday from 7 a. m. to
4 p. m.)


Employees who ob:
versaries during the
alphabetically below
includes all Govern
Canal or other agen
tinuous service with
with (*).


)served important anni-
month of July are listed
. The number of years
merit service with the
cies. Those with con-
the Canal are indicated


45 YEARS
Joseph C. Hannigan, Lockmaster, At-
lantic Locks,.


*Enrique de
Panama City,
Bureau.


42 YEARS
la Ossa,
Railroad


Local Agent,
and Terminals


41 YEARS
George H. Cassell, Housing
Balboa.


*Emmett
Community


40 YEARS
Zemer, Safety


Bureau.


Services


Manager,

Inspector,


35 YEARS


Hans P. Pedersen, Foremat
Repair Station, Dredging Division
30 YEARS
H. Conrad Dodson, Supervi
counting Clerk, Comptroller's Offi
Frank W. Hohmann, Cash Ac
Clerk, Comptroller's Office.
John R. McLavy, Chemist,
Bureau.
Alan S. Wallace, Pilot.


.1, I
1. 1

sing
:e.
tcou


nting


Health


25 YEARS
John M. Fahnestock, Captain of Police,


Cristobal District.
Beatrice S. Gardner,
Teacher, Balboa.
Frances M. Griggel, Su
(Drygoods), Commissary Di
George A. Halloran,
Foreman, Maintenance Divi
Russel J. Jones, Chief,
Branch.


High
ipply A
vision.
Heavy
sion.
Cost A


School

assistant

Labor

accounts


Georoe O. Lee. Instructor. Ir. College.


Employees who were promoted or trans-
ferred between June 15 and July 15 are
listed below. Regradings and within-grade
promotions are not listed.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Mrs. Beatrice E. Lee, from Records
Administrator, Records Section, to Passen-
ger Traffic Clerk, Transportation Section.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Billy W. Cole, from Property and Supply
Clerk,Commissary Division,to Postal Clerk.
Mrs. Eileen M. O'Brien, from Substi-
tute Teacher to Physical Education Teacher.
Earl R. Hatten, from Policeman to
Fireman.
Richard B. Hoard, from Guard, Atlantic


Locks, to F
Donald
Personnel 1R
Carletor
Kenneth
from Firem
Chester


ire
H.
,eci
iF.
T.
an
W


man.
Boland, from File Clerk,
words Division, to Postal Clerk.
SHallett, Frank J. Bartlett,
Daly, James V. Bartlett,
to Fire Sergeant.
. Pearson, from Fireman to


Policeman.
Jay L. Pittington, from Guard, Pacific
Locks, to Policeman.
Sigurd E. Esser, from Director, Second-
ary Education, to Director of Schools.
Roger W. Collinge, from Director, Ele-
mentary Education, to Assistant Superin-
tendent and Director of Elementary
Education.
Charles A. Dubbs, from Training Officer,
Personnel Bureau, to Director, Secondary
Education, Schools Division.
COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU
Mrs. Annie R. Rathgeber, from Clerk-
Stenographer, Clubhouse Division, to Clerk-
Typist, Office of Director.
Beauford J. Hartley, General Operator,
from Division of Sanitation to Grounds
Maintenance Division.
OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER


Mrs. Marion E. Troup,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, t
Clerk, Payroll Branch.
John W. D. Collins, from
Pacific Locks Overhaul, to
Cost Analyst, Plant Inventory
al Staff.
Richard M. Coy, from
Clerk, Electrical Division, to
Internal Audit Staff.


from Time,
o Retirement

Timekeeper,
Construction
and Apprais-

Accounting
Accountant,


ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Frank H. Robinson, from Policeman


Enginee
graphic
John
Operator
Electric
David
Engineer
Branch,
Division


ring
Bra.
W
r to
al Di
V.
r, Mi
to
*.


Aid, Meteorological and Hydro-
ich.
. Short, from Powerhouse
Senior Powerhouse Operator,
vision.
Kennedy, from Hydraulic
eteorological and Hydrographic
Civil Engineer, Maintenance


Robert Van Wagner, Administrati
Assistant, from Maintenance Division
Office of Maintenance Engineer.
n w r n t .


Dr. John L. Winkler, Dr. Robert V.
Balfour, Dr. Ernest O. Svenson, from
Intern to Medical Officer, Pacific Medical
Clinics.
Col. Merrill C. Davenport, from Medi-
cal Officer to Chief, Medical Service,
Gorgas Hospital.
Donald N. Zeese, from Superintendent,
Street Cleaning and Refuse Collection, Di-
vision of Sanitation, to Medical Equipment
Repairman, Ambulance Service.
INDUSTRIAL BUREAU
David A. Hope, from Student Assistant,
Dredging Division, to Apprentice Welder,
Industrial Bureau.
MARINE BUREAU
George E. Riley, Jr., from Signalman
to Supervisory Signalman, Navigation
Division.
Kenneth L. Bailey, from Dock Fore-
man to Shipbuilding Inspector, Navigation
Division.
William T. O'Connor, from Super-
visory Signalman to Dock Foreman, Navi-
gation Division.
John M. Klasovsky, from Lock Operator
Leader Wireman to Control House Oper-
ator, Atlantic Locks.
Merrill T. Webster, from Lock Oper-
ator Wireman to Lock Operator Leader
Wireman, Atlantic Locks.
Ralph W. Henderson, Joseph Quintal,
from Machinist, Locks Overhaul, to Lock
Operator Machinist, Pacific Locks.
James P. Johnson, Norman R.
Hutchinson, from Pilot-in-Training, to
Probationary Pilot, Navigation Division.
Henning J. Spilling, from Stevedore
Foreman, Terminals Division, to Towboat
Master, Navigation Division.
James A. Schofield, from Machinist,
Industrial Bureau, to Lock Operator Ma-
chinist, Atlantic Locks.
Eugene White, from Gauger and Crib-
tender Foreman, Terminals Division, to
Signalman, Navigation Division.
Everette N. Clouse, Combination Weld-
er, from Maintenance Division to Dredging
Division.
William E. Johnson, from Third Assist-
ant Marine Engineer, U. S. Taboga, to Chief
Towboat Engineer, Navigation Division.
Anthony J. Catanearo, Machinist,
from Industrial Bureau to Dredging Divi-
sion.
Harvey B. Trower, Towboat Master,
from Dredging Division to Ferry Service.
John A. Taylor, from Maintenance
Mechanic, Colon Hospital, to Guard,
Atlantic Locks.
RAILROAD AND TERMINALS BUREAU
Edward H. Bensen, from Junior High
School Teacher, Schools Division, to
Gauger and Cribtender Foreman, Terminals
Division.
Henry C. Freeman, from Public Works
Foreman, Maintenance Division, to Steve-
nri-o wrnrrman nt'orminI nivicjinn


PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


June 15 through July 15


ANNIVERSARIES





August 7, 1953


Security


Check


Require


THE PANAMA


sensitive

12-18


Positions

Months T


CANAL REVIEW


Complete


Ten


Captain


ears
1 July


George


Herman


Ago


was named


The security review check of all employ-
ees of the Canal organization, now being
conducted by the Internal Security
Branch, is a normal, routine check of all
employees of the U. S. Federal Govern-
ment. It is not a "witch hunt" or
something new and menacing.
It is required by a recent Executive
Order, establishing security requirements
for government employees, and setting up
"sensitive" positions in the Federal serv-
ice. A "full-field investigation," which
means that a thorough check is made of
sources furnishing background on the


employee's activity
every employee o'
position.
The order, date
numbered 10450, is
from government
all persons not su
employment. This


es, must be made of
ccupying a sensitive

d last April 27 and
designed to weed out
positions everywhere
iited for government
would affect not only


those who might traffic with or be sym-
pathetic to an unfriendly nation but also
those who for such reasons as mental or
moral instability are poor security risks.
Between 12 and 18 months will be
required to complete the investigation of
occupants of "sensitive" positions in the
Canal organization, according to word
from the Internal Security Branch which
is handling the Company-Government's
Security Program.
"Sensitive" positions, generally defined,
are whose whose occupants:
1. May have access to security informa-
tion classified as "confidential," "secret,"
or "top secret," or
2. May have the opportunity to commit
acts which directly or indirectly could
have an adverse effect on national
security.
The local action is in accord with that
taken in all government organizations,
in the United States or overseas, and is
required by Executive Order No. 10450.
The somewhat complicated forms which
employees in positions considered as
"sensitive" are now filling out are similar
to those used in the other government
agencies.
A sheet of instructions accompanies
each form and personnel of the Internal
Security Branch stand ready to assist
tmnlnvsR hvb answrinf snTecial aiuestions


days, through the Chief, Internal Secur-
ity Branch, statements and affidavits
refuting the charges on which the suspen-
sion is based. These statements will be


reviewed and
position of the
the Governor,
1. Restore t
duty; in such
compensated f
2. Transfer


a rec
case
who
he si
case


ommendation for dis-
will be submitted to
may then:
ispended employee to
the employee will be


or the period of suspension.
the employee to another


position within the Company-Govern-
ment.
3. Terminate the employment of the
suspended individual.
In addition to the foregoing protection,
which is guaranteed to all Company-
Government employees, United States
citizens, who have completed the proba-
tionary period in permanent or indefinite
appointments, are entitled to:
1. A written statement of charges.
2. An opportunity to answer charges.
3. A hearing before an impartial board.
4. A review by the Governor of the
board's findings.


WELL DRESSED BABIES no longer wear
only pink or blue. Dame Fashion has decreed
and the clothing industry has deferred to
baby clothes of maize and mint or almost any
other light color that appeals to mothers.
Following the little fashion lead, the
Commissaries have new infants' dress and
slip sets trimmed in maize and mint and
colored gripper diaper pants and shirts
of yellow.
"Redi-Tea," expected in the stores in August,
will eliminate the boiling, steep-
Tall ing, cooling and sugaring involved
and in serving iced tea. It is a liquid
Cool to which you add only water to
make this cooling drink. An eight-
ounce bottle, White Rose brand, will cost
about 23 cents. The directions say use two
or more teaspoonsful to make a glass of iced
tea of the desired strength."
"NYLAST," also expected this month, is a
new "shampoo" for nylon hose which the
.nan.. Cnr4f..ra tn.,m will i.10; wofi, falfl


Assistant Chief of the Police and Fire
Division. The new Police Chief A. O.
Meyer, named a month before, was given
the rank of Major.

A new regulation was placed in effect
providing that persons employed by The
Panama Canal in the United States for
service on the Isthmus would be required


agree to rem
reimburse


in in service for
he organization


a full year
for travel


expenses.


The new Canal Zone Air Terminal


formally
the new
southbou
building
month ea
delayed
condition


was


opened. The first plane to use
airport was a Panagra airliner,
nd for Lima. The terminal
had been completed about a
Lrlier but the opening had been
because of faults in the air
ing system.


W. M. Whitman, Attorney in the General
Counsel's Office, was named Assistant
General Counsel of The Panama Canal and
Assistant Counsel for the Panama Rail-
road Company on the Isthmus.


A SEVEN-MINUTE fluffy frosting mix is one
of the new kitchen time and labor savers
coming to the Commissaries this month. A
six-ounce package will cost about 30 cents.


A new
New
Furniture
GOOD
spikes are


shipment of Heywood-Wa
furniture, of Monticello
and maple, is now in the
GOLF OVERSHOES witi
now in the stores. They cost


AFicionados of I
will
Pizza new
Pies pack
and
A 129-ounce
50 cents.


talian food-and who isn
be glad to know there
pizza mix. It comes
age that includes the s
is expected during Au
package will cost a


kefield
cherry
stores.
h steel
$4.75.


t?-
is a
in a
auce
gust.
about


"WHITE SHOULDERS" perfume and co-
logne will be in the stores in August.


Car pens


for babies, new in the stores, can
hk ipcAr, Aither nc the ticii hnhv


Will





_16__________________THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW___________August 7,1953

STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC
For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for
the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939.

1929 1952 1953 1929 1952 1953 1929 1952 1953
^ <. ^ -/ -> ^-
r- ^ -^ r v
r- ^ -J -i ^ {-
v TOLLS A -
r CREDITS .
^ r. 1466 ^ I---S--^-^1
,i ^ ^-,-,--, 7 -11 A- U^/U^^UrWil ~1 ^ T ^ ~t
--< ::^ ^^J. ^; 7 ^LS1 ^
F-' -Tvii 1 r- ifii"'*'^>"" '* ***-*4^T.**i'"TT i i n < - *W L-l-ii-) ->
TDLLS^ v X'-X^-S^^^ i1 ', *' ', ] CREDITS s/
r'DrruTc: CvvX^OvQvQs^ i i' ' f i 1 -i ^ ^ncL'iio
s/ r^^t-^TS X<<'^^^ i i .1 < i i ^ t55?603B
t->rt"i ? V l'XK>006<^^ I I 1 I 'r1 ^1^^-w^'L/tJO
'si ^ '' ^ ^8sMMtL^% ; *',''' ', I'; *; ''*', I t T r \, *
-^ ^ v r ^ ^ ^COMMERCIAL]; 1^; ;1;';.1.1!'^ c -i ^ >\


-------------, ICOMMERCIAL^ '^It^'^1^ '^P^??^'^^^ ^ I 'i'1','111'''' \ \''', r -TOLLS 7 !1^1^ ^1^ ^


^^^^^^ ^y;^^^^^':^?:^?; ^! f ^ \\'11''11 '*'*\ '^J^S^:^ \ ', '11- '1 ^^y^^. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

IsM^M^ ^; |; '*; |;;;;;;;; SR^i?^ ; I ^t^i^ ; !;:;:;;; ; ^;;; ^
^^sN^ ^^i^^^; ^f^ ^M ; ^ ^N^^ :;:;;^;::;:;;;!
^ N^ ;;;;; ; ;;;:; ?^ ^ ^ ; ; S^ N^ ;;;; ; ;:;;:;;;
i?;^ ^ ;;;:; ; ;;;;;;; m ^ ^ ; : ^-a^^m ;:;; ; ;;;;;;;
I ^*.*-*.***.**^ ::-.Y.'; .;. *. \ M :.'.'; -; :^:? :::<:::*::*:: ; ^ ^^ y ^ ': *;;;;'; ; *;'; *;;';
OCEAN-GOING .OCEAN-GOING- OCEAN-GOING. OCEAN-GOING .OCEAN-GOING' 'OCEAN-GOING S^A AN-) *: SlulAl'l' Aun :* ,^r 3-11
COMMERC AL ^COMMEROAL:, ; %M^CAL^ CC.M>. ERCIAL ^MMEy.lAL;: ; ,COMM .RCAU OCEAN^^NG [o^ SSSa 'OC^ A^G
^ ::/.\".\<-':-.-.:-:.^ i1 1' *:''.' i *t -C ^*.*.*ly-:^-'-:?.-.-/.* i *:''''.' *' I 1 COMMERCIAL .'COMMERCIAL ; 'COMMERCIAL'
*.*;.:*.*;;.-:::.*****.*.*; *'*'.' *ff *%\^*.:*"*^^^^^^^^ *'-'>' 1 1 1 '1/ 1 i ****.*.*.*:.*,*:;;:::*..-.* i'^ '-fl.1W >'W
i g^;;s| * ^^^il IMBI mm
e2li9 -;^6524^;; ;;^;7- 0^f 27^ 666 :.:36'.674.302-; t 36.678 ^ ij; ; 27.28.893 ;t26:995'772 ^3 917 55''
*.^.*.*.***W :-^::-. *'.l l 0 I l I I :'*;*:.*:.**:*.;**.*:**.*. S^'^a^ ;;;;;;; ^^{f *:^ M^ : ^^^^f ^ ^ ^ ;^;;;; \--,\ *:

.'*'"***''>';! *'*'-'*'%',".'- 1 < I l \ i i i *//.'*'-'" *';^^""^ ^'. I l i i >'-'^ *,'-'*'*'*'.'," 'i.'-"';''"' i i i i 1 i i i
^^ KUff ^^;;;;;::;: --I ^ ^;;:; lillB ^^^^








TRANSIT P. C. TONNAGE TOLLS COLLECTED
LARGE COMMERCIAL

Trancit Tnllc Tnnnira MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
i ransn_ i ons, i onnage ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Comparisons Tell Story By fiscal years
A nDAPUTn ciTnov ^f u,,. ,,^,, s -





August 7,1953


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


CANAL'S


BANNER


YEAR


EXCEEDS


FORECASTS


MADE


BY


SEVERAL


WELL-KNOWN


ANALYSTS


No soothsayer ever had a more trouble-
some time with his predictions than the
many experts for the past half century in
forecasting Panama Canal traffic for any
appreciable period.
Because of the extreme fluctuations in
the number of ships moving through the
Canal as reflected by world changes of


an economic
long-range tr
unpredictable.
however, sine


r


o0
aff
e


political
1 1


nature,
11


ic trends are all our
The past fiscal year,
the number of transits


and total net tonnage figures far exceeded
former records, was a banner one for all
forecasters except the most optimistic.
The accompanying chart above shows
the prediction of Dr. Roland L. Kramer
in 1947 on Canal transits for the last half
of this century. Dr. Kramer, Professor
of Commerce and Transportation at the
Wharton School of Finance and Com-
merce of the University of Pennsylvania,
was employed as a traffic consultant for
the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947.
Kramer Estimated Low
As indicated on the chart, the number
of ocean-going commercial transits and
total transits both exceeded his predic-
tions for the first time. In making his
estimate of future traffic trends, Dr.
Kramer added 7.4 percent to cover the
factor of through or partial transits for
Panama Canal equipment. Since the
lines indicating traffic from 1947 through
1953 show actual transits, his prediction
on total traffic for the past year was well
under the actual number.
The first of many forecasts of Panama
Canal traffic was made about 50 years
ago for the first Isthmian Canal Com-
mission by Dr. Emory R. Johnson, also
Professor of Transportation and Com-
merce at the University of Pennsylvania.
His estimate was contained in reports
prepared on the industrial and commercial
value of a canal.
His second forecast, and one which
was remarkably accurate, was prepared
shortly before the Canal was opened in
1914 while serving as Special Commis-
sioner on Panama Canal Traffic and
Tolls.
Slip? A Factnr


.* ,. f t ^-
FIS AL 4 .
'40 40 . 6Q
FISCAL YEAR


Net tonnage, commercial
vessels over 300 tons, fiscal
year 1953 ..
Net tonnage, tolls credit ves-
sels, 1953_
Total net tonnage, fiscal year
1953 (
C. S. Ridley (1923) _


Harry


Burgess


and R


. A.


Wheeler (1929) ...
Sydney B. Williamson (1929-
31) .
Grover G. Huebner (1936)
Roland L. Kramer (1947) .


36,500,000
6,500,000
43,000,000
41,200,000
50,000,000
51,900,000
37,500,000
36,600,000


The forecast made by General Ridley,
former Panama Canal Governor, was
made while serving as Assistant Engineer
of Maintenance. His estimate was based
on 1924 figures projected to 1925 which
failed to materialize and therefore his


forecast is somewhat higher than it
would have been had he used the actual
1925 traffic figures.
The estimates prepared by Governor
Burgess and General Wheeler when the
latter was serving as Assistant Engineer
of Maintenance were based primarily on
a review of traffic statistics for both Suez
and Panama Canals. The figures used
were based on measurement rules in effect
prior to 1938 and therefore the total
figure of 50,000,000 net tons is somewhat
higher than if the estimate were trans-
1 .1 . 1 -- -


the Officer-in-Charge of the 1929-31
Nicaraguan Canal Survey. It was based
on the interrelation of world shipping,
Panama Canal traffic, and Suez Canal
traffic over the years 1890 to 1930,
inclusive.
Dr. Huebner, another Professor of Com-
merce and Transportation at the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania, prepared his estimate
while employed by a special committee
to report on Canal tolls and rules of


measurement. It was baf
of Suez traffic from 187(
Panama Canal general
figures from 1923 to 1936.


sed on tonnage
0 to 1935 and


tonnage


When Sea Level Is Not Sea Level
And Why The Tides Are Different

(Continued from page 4) gates. The tidal
lock would be on a channel by-pass; oper-
ated much as are the present locks, it
would have a chamber 200 feet wide and
1,500 feet long.
In the normal operation of the tidal
regulation structures, the navigable pass
would be open when the Pacific tides are
near mean sea level, and during these
periods traffic would be routed through
the pass.
During tidal stages which would pro-
duce channel currents over the limited





THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7, 1953


Governor

Fron


Receives

i Panama


Letter

Landlords


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE


ROUTES


The following table shows the cargo shipments in thousands of long tons, of com-
minercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:


High praise for the efficiency of the
personnel connected with the water man-


agement contrn
trash collection
publicly express
prietors Assoc
management c
the Maintenan
bage and trasi
Health Bureau


t(
ii
se
ia
or
ce
h


t and the garbage and
n Panama City has been
d bv the Panama Pro-
tion. Both the water
tract administered by
Division and the gar-
collection work of the
in Panama and Colon


terminated at the end of June.
Appreciation for the manner in which
the work was done was expressed in a
letter to Governor Seybold from Carlos
A. Patterson, Secretary of the Panama
Proprietors Association, who said in part:
"The Panama Association of Pro-
prietors, in the name of all the land-
lords in Panama, is pleased to
acknowledge publicly in writing the
sincere appreciation felt toward the
heads and personnel of the Water
Office and the Garbage Collection


Department,
fully and effic
"The high
beats in eve
moves us to
ledgment and
to all Canal Z


who
iently
spirit
ry Pa
make
,ina
one re


worked so faith-
Suntil June 30.
of justice which
namanian breast
public acknow-
very special way,
sident citizens, of


the just recognition of the work of


these services as perfo
American personnel for
of Panama over a lo
years."


)rmed by the
' the Republic
ng period of


Plans Proceeding For Conversion
Of Zone Electricity To 60-Cycle;
(Cnmtinued from page 1) proponents of thE
60-cycle idea obtained medical opinion
that the 25-cycle current would produce
eye strain, while 25-cycle advocates
held that excessive reading, by any
frequency, would be detrimental to
eyesight.
The question arose again at the time
Madden hydroelectric station was buili
in the early 1930's, and serious thought
has again been given to the matter since
about 1950.

Main Routes Gain As Canal
Shipping Has Record Yeari


FISCAL


United States
East Coast of
East Coast of
East Coast of


I ltercoastal
I". S. and South Am
I'. S. and Central .\
1". S., Canada, and


I. S/Canada East Coast and Aus


Europe and \Vest Coast of U.


Europe andI


S.C


jerica -
nerica
Far East.
tralasia
anlada -


South Anerica -


Europe and Australasia
All other routes...


Total Traffic -


1953
4,871
5,176
552
7,848
1,456
4,036
1,491
2,137
8,528
36,095


YEAR


S 1952
4,279
5,098
528
6,283
1,634

5,970
1,706
2,478
33 ,o-1
5,635
33,611


1938
6,395
2,652
46
4,912
992
4,237
2,974
1,251
3,927
27,386


Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels
Fiscal Years
1953 1952 1938
N a tito nality~ r----~ -,"* "----"" -v------
tt li Numrn- N um- Num-
her of Tonw of her of |Tons of her of Tons of
transit cargo transit- cargo transit cargo
Argentine ...----- I 3 13,670 2 18,507 .. .... .. .


Belgian.. .
Brazilian
British
Chilean ....
Chinese .
Colombian -
Costa Rican
Cuban-.. .
I)anish
Ectadorean1 -
Estonian -
Korean (South)
Finnish ..
French ........
German ....
Greek .....
Guatemalan --
Hoinluran -
Hungarian l-
Icelandic
Irish . .
Iranian ...
Italian ..
Japanese -
Latvian
Liberian
Mexican
Moroccan.....
Netherland ...
Nicaraguan -
Norwegian
Panamanian- -
Peruvian_ -
Philippine -
Port uguese


S
t
t
I
1


r


(Continued from page I) previous year.
Both dry cargo tonnage and tanker


1~ .AC>tl^
59
144
9
206
152
2
141
230
92
2
400

28
1 1
141
320 {


77-I


10,300


7.877,279
322.415
291,480
144,654
57,651


6
7,967
209
211
115
36


21.181
9.700
677,501
2,113,273


7
559
105
814
3
575


.319
,866
,541
,855
,389
.370
,960
,104

,680
,073
.632
,420
,152
,457
A *


740
13,164
9,220
462,451
696,794
337,271
19,916


2


,())
3


285
667
182
5
3


6.41
2
1


4,021
67,288
18,593
25,351


8,478
24,411


153,417
1,877,502
4,900


--.


s





August 7, 1953


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


Hospital Insurance, Quarters Assignments
Discussed At July Employee Conference


(Continued from page 3} assignments in Ba
boa had been so declined.
Other subjects brought up in th
conference were:


A change in
schedules from tha
Balboa pool will
and other pools sixb
Discontinuance
dump and inaugu


the swim
t originally a
be opened si
days weekly
of the Diabl
ration of a r


ling
nnou
even
' *


lo
.e


the hills behind Red Tank;
The expected demolition of all 1
Red Tank by Christmas, 1953
Proposed transfer to Margarit
antic side drivers' license e:
ho is a police officer and whose
uld give Margarita a more pers
rvice than it has at present a
nation (This proposal was object
veral Atlantic side conferees,


being studied further);


rubbish
w dump

mildings

a of the
examiner,
presence
onalized
is a call
ed to by
and is


Service Credit
A renewed request that part-time or
"Silver Roll" service be credited toward
U. S.-rate housing assignments; and an
estimate that 100 to 150 employees would
be affected by this change; the Personnel
Director will undertake a study;
Quarters maintenance, to be reported


They


Moved


A series of changes in Canal office
assignments which began early in May
is now nearing completion. The prin-
cipal changes and new office locations
are summarized as follows:
The Treasurer's Office, Claims
Branch and Agency Accounts Branch,
all of the Comptroller's Office, have
moved to Building 5142 in Diablo
Heights.
The Supply and Service Director's
Office is now in Rooms 262-270 while
the Comptroller and his immediate
staff, as well as the Accounting Systems
Staff, now occupy all offices on the
second floor of the west wing of the
Administration Building. The Man-
agement Staff of the Comptroller's
Office has moved to Room 112.
The Locks Division headquarters are
now located at Pedro Miguel Locks.
The Wage and Classification Division
has moved to Room 102 of the Admin-
istration Building with other Personnel
Bureau units.
The Internal Security Branch has
moved to the former Treasurer's office
on the first floor. The rooms vacated
by this office on the third floor of the
Administration Building are now occu-
pied by the Community Services
Director. The Real Estate Unit has
been transferred from Diablo Heights
to the third floor of the Administration
Building. The Survey Branch is now
located in the former Diablo Heights
Fire Station.


Here


nissarrv


Assistant, Anconl 32 years. 3


,
months, 10 days; Lutz, Fla.
Ross H. Hollowell, Ohio; Estimator and
Planner, Industrial Bureau; 34 years, 2
months, 16 days; Hendersonville, N. C
Robert W. Hutchings, Mississippi;
Assistant Auto Repair Foreman, Motor
Transportation Division; 30 years, 8 months,
1 day; San Jose, Calif.
Vard A. Kerruish, Missouri; Steward,
Clubhouse D)ivision; 22 years, 10 months,
24 days; St. Petersburg, Fla.
Godfrey B. Pacetti, Florida; Fleet
Machinist, IDredging Division; 23 years,
5 months, 13 days; Panama.
Norman E. Rocker, Nebraska; Admin-
istrative Assistant, Office of Engineering
and Construction Di)rector; 34 years, 6
months, 27 days; California.
Irl R. Sanders, Kentucky; Control
House Operator, Atlantic Locks; 25 years,
8 months, 12 days; Glasgow, Ky.
William C. Smith, Kentucky; Control
House Supervisor, Atlantic Locks; 30
years, 2 months, 22 days; Miami, Fla.
Frank Turman, Connecticut; Plumb-
ing Inspector, Contract and Inspection
Division; 12 years, 10 months, 9 days;
Lorain, Ohio.


at August
Reducti
service at
contempla


conference:


on of hours and coo
the Gamboa Clubho
ted instead of closing


ked food
use, now
the club-


house as originally proposed; this will be
discussed further by the Lieutenant
Governor with a delegation from Gamboa;
Parking at the Balboa post office,
where the number of parking spaces was
recently curtailed; accidents in this area
have dropped sharply; the administration
feels return to angle parking would be a
step backward;
Anniversary Stickers
A protest that residents of New Cris-
tobal have to buy Panamanian 50th
anniversary stickers before their cars can
be given the required semi-annual inspec-
tion; the Lieutenant Governor as matter
of priority is investigating legality and
possible relief;
New regulations on commutation of
leave pay when an employee resigns or
retires (covered elsewhere in this issue);
And a general round-table discussion,
with a hKip avnhlnlntl3rn h1,r ?rxlnrMn P0v


Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in thousands of long tons)
Figures in parentheses in 1938 and 1952 columns indicate
relative positions in those years
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
Fiscal Year
Commodity --------....


Mineral oils -
Coal and coke-
Manufactures of
Sugar ..._...
Soy beans and p
Phosphates -
Sulphur_
Paper and paper
Cement....
Blarley ...
Machinery_ -
Automobiles _
Rice -
Tinplate
Raw cotton _
All others _


iron and
products.


steel -


products


1


3,
*7 ? IfA


1 t in


1938
907 (3).
137 (15)
1,859 (1)
57 (31)
328 (6)
297 (7)
423 (5)
154 (11)
( )
168 (10)


238 (8)
142 (13)
4,771
i ~ ~ #i C/ Ck


Where


RETIREMENTS IN JULY

Retirement certificates were presented
the end of July to the following employees
who are listed alphabetically, together with
their birthplaces, titles, length of service
and future addresses:
Mrs. Mary L. Clements, Ohio; Com-


in


in

At
wh
CO.
ser
st
se'


t





THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 7,


1953


PICTURES


OF


THE


MONTH


C -


1 **.K:
*.n :,
I. '


JULY


brought


a number


"firsts" to the Canal Zone-first occasions
or first visits.


Shirley


Million,


Governor


of Girls'


State, said goodbye


to Acting Governor


H. O. Paxson just before she left on her
first visit to Girls' Nation in Washington.
Hundreds of midshipmen, on summer
cruises from Annapolis or Naval ROTC
units in States colleges, made their first
trips to the Panama Canal locks.
Under Secretary of the Army Earl D.
Johnson, new chairman of the Panama
Canal Company, took his first look at the
controls which operate the locks, and
Pete, pet of the piers, was first in line
when dog licensing and inoculation of


Canal


dogs against rabies began


new




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EYS9GGRNW_R6XN8G INGEST_TIME 2011-04-25T22:52:02Z PACKAGE UF00097366_00115
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

Gift of the Panama Canal Museum THE. d,3 A att & g^~J^ BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 7, 1953 Vol. 4 No. 1 5 cents "THROW ME A QUARTER, MAMA" HAITIAN DIVING BOYiS in their burnboats full of native goods or fruit are about the first people a Panama Line passenger sees as his ship nears the Port-au-Prince pier. Canal Photographer C. S. La Clair took this photograph on a recent vacation trip. Plans Proceeding For Conversion Of Zone Electricity To 60-Cycles Conversion of the Canal Zone electrical system to 60-cycle current will begin on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus and work south if plans which are being developed by the Electrical and Engineering Divisions are followed. The actual work of conversion would not start until fiscal year 1957. The conversion of the locks to 60 cycles is still questionable. Work on the locks will not begin until the latter part of the conversion project, if the final decision is to change the lock current. The conversion project is, and will be for at least 12 months, still in the planning stage. Funds are included in this year's program for a continuation of the studies through fiscal year 1954. When the plans are completed, they will have to be approved by the Board of Directors and then funds will have to be allotted for the actual conversion, which will take several years to complete. This year's planning will be devoted to several phases of the work. One of these is the preparation of plans and specifications for the equipment which will be ordered at the start of the next fiscal year if the work of conversion is authorized. Another item in this year's planning is the evaluation of the manpower which will be needed for the conversion work and the preparation of schedules for the hiring of additional personnel as extra manpower becomes necessary. The additional manpower requirements are expected to include technical as well as clerical personnel and, for the period when the actual conversion would be under way, various types of electrical and mechanical craftsmen. The question of the current frequency for the Canal Zone dates back many years to the first overall electrical system here. At that time (See page IS) FEATURES FOR AUGUST # For more about Shipping, see pages 16-19 # Interested In Tidts, then see page 4 • The License Section, see page 8 • Another Picture Page, see page 20 Main Routes Gain As Canal Shipping Has Record Year Between 17 and 33 percent more shipping moved over the three main trade routes through the Panama Canal last fiscal year than during the previous year. This, and an increase of almost 50 percent for the group of smaller, miscellaneous routes, accounted principally for the all-time high in traffic through the Canal in the fiscal year 1953. Almost 7,850,000 long tons of cargo were shipped last year over the trade route between the east coast of North America (United States and Canada) and the Far East, an increase of more than 1,500,000 tons over the figures for the preceding fiscal year. The gain in net tonnage for this route was 32.9 percent. The amount of shipping on the United States intercoastal route increased last year 22.3 percent in net vessel tonnage over the fiscal year 1952, while an increase of 17.4 percent was shown in the trade route between the east coast of the United States and the west coast of South America. Cargo shipped over the United States intercoastal route totalled 4,871,000 long tons, an increase of slightly over 1,500,000 tons or 13.8 percent over the previous year. The heavy gain in shipping over the miscellaneous routes last year, 49.4 percent over 1952, was accounted for chiefly by increased tanker traffic. This traffic totaled 4,450,000 net vessel tons last year, an increase of 89 percent over 1952. Dry cargo shipments also increased over the miscellaneous routes by 21.4 percent with a total of over 4,000,000 net vessel tons last fiscal year. Shipping over the other main trade routes in the past fiscal year was at near the 1952 levels, with a 3.5 percent loss on the Europe-Australasia route and a five percent gain on the route between Europe and the west coast of South America. Cargo shipments between the Far East and the east coast of the United States and Canada were heavier last year in both directions, although the movement from east to west represented nearly three-fourths of the total. Coal was the most important commodity, in tonnage, moved from the Atlantic to the Pacific over this route. It represented nearly half of the total tonnage with over 2,750,000 long tons. The further development of the banana trade between the east coast of the United States and the west coast of South America was largely responsible for the increase in shipping over this route. The banana carrier tonnage on this route was 1,700,000 tons last year, as compared with 1,260,000 tons the (See -page 18)

PAGE 2

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 Panama Canal Force Drops Below 17,000 Mark For First Time In Almost 14 Years 4 2000 35000 26000 21000 14 000 7000 m US -RATE LOCAL-RATE 34700 24200 30000 31000 — 27800 2 4700 13800 22700 21400 I H 18800 18700 IS250 4$'Ot% [4200 J ll : rrrrrn n 104001 1I200J M890 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 The Panama Canal's working force on the Isthmus in June dropped below the 17,000 mark for full-time employees for the first time in almost 14 years. The force report for June showed a total of 16,317 full-time employees, of which 3,938 were employed on the U. S.-rate rolls and 12,379 were on the local-rate rolls. These figures, for the U. S.-rate and total force, include 185 school t3achers on leave, not indicated on the accompanying chart. The force at the end of the past fiscal year was 1,900 under that of the previous year, with a cut of 400 in the U. S.-rate and 1,500 in the local-rate force. The decrease in employment over the 12month period was the heaviest since the fiscal year 1950 when there was a net loss of 2,500, resulting primarily from the closing of the Industrial Bureau shops in Balboa and major reductions in several other of the larger Canal units. The accompanying chart of the force level graphically indicates the rise and decline of the Canal force over the past 15-year period when the force was almost tripled during the early war period over the peace-time level of 1938. The 1953 level is quite comparable to 1938-39 when the Canal was operating on a maintenance basis as it is today. Force Reductions Several units were affected by force reductions during the past year which were too sizable to be accomplished by normal attrition. These included the Industrial Bureau, and the Engineering, Maintenance, and Storehouse Divisions. The biggest drop of any bureau force was that of the Engineering and Construction Bureau which showed a net loss of 720 employees, with all but about 50 being in the Maintenance and Engineering Divisions. The Industrial Bureau showed a loss of nearly 150 employees, caused chiefly by a curtailment early this calendar year in commercial ship work. One of the principal reasons for the drop in employment in the Canal organization during the past year was the contracting of major items of construction. With the exception of the heavy grading in the new Corozal townsite done by the Maintenance Division forces, practically all of the new construction projects were handled by contractors. Contract Maintenance In addition, a number of major maintenance projects were let on contract. These included exterior painting and major roof repairs to a large number of employee quarters. This change to contract work affected principally the units in the Engineering and Construction Bureau. Another unit which showed a large decrease in force during the past year was the Railroad and Terminals Bureau. This decrease was primarily in dock workers, with that force being approximately 500 less at the end of this fiscal year than one year ago. This decrease resulted from a drop in the amount of cargo handled over the piers. The total cargo handled or transferred over the piers during the past fiscal year was approximately 200,000 tons under that of the previous year, a 15 percent decrease. Connected Losses Although the principal reductions were made in the units mentioned, many other units showed lesser losses for the year. Most of the latter were "sympathetic" losses in service units caused by major force reductions elsewhere in the organization. Although no accurate figures are available, it was one time estimated that one "service" worker was required for every five employed in operating units. Although the force level at the end of the past fiscal year was lower than at any time since 1939, it was expected that the force would drop still further during the month of July when the reductions resulting from cancellation of the water management contract and garbage collection work in the cities of Panama and Colon would be reflected in the monthly force report. A further reduction was also being made in July of the Locks overhaul force, since there were still 85 employed on this work at the end of June. The net loss in the force as a result of the cancellation of the water management and garbage collection work was expected to exceed 300, as about 80 employees in the Maintenance Division and over 200 in the Health Bureau were employed in this work. It was erroneously stated in the July issue of the Review, because of a typographical error, that about 700 Health Bureau employees were engaged in garbage and trash collection. Safe Driving Awards Given To 253 Canal Chauffeurs Safe driving awards have just been presented to 253 U. S. and local rate chauffeurs of the Motor Transportation Division. All of those to whom the awards have gone operated official vehicles during the past fiscal year without any accidents causing personal injury or property damage. Ninety-five of the chauffeurs have continuous service and received certificates for eight years of accident-free driving. Many of the 95 have a longer continuous period of safe driving but complete accident records were not kept and the safe driving certificates were not issued until eight years ago. The remaining drivers received certificates covering periods ranging from one to five years. There were no fatal accidents during the past fiscal year. What accidents did occur were generally of a minor nature, but any accident or violation of traffic regulations, no matter how small, prevents the issuing of the certificates. The number of certificates earned during the past year is considered outstanding, especially since each Motor Transportation Division chauffeur drove an average of 12,000 miles during the year. The radio station at Balboa, operated by the Navy Department, opened for commercial business in 1913. A plan for a tunnel to cross the Canal, which was at one time under consideration, was abandoned in 1913 because of excessive cost.

PAGE 3

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Hospital Insurance, Quarters Assignments Discussed At July Employee Conference Plans for hospitalization insurance and a new method of quarters assignment were discussed at length in the GovernorEmployee Conference held July 22 in the Board Room of the Balboa Heights Administration Building. In the absence of Governor J. S. Seybold, who was in Washington attending the Board of Directors' meeting, the Acting Governor, Col. H. 0. Paxson, conducted the conference. He told the employee representatives that the administration has been working on plans for some sort of hospitalization insurance and that progress is being made. Extension by the Senate-House conferees on the Civil Functions Bill of so-called "free hospitalization" for employees until December 31 — this hospitalization had been removed by the House and restored by the Senate — gives additional time to work out a suitable plan, he said. The Panama Canal Company, Colonel Paxson said, is not in a position to deal directly with an insurance company but can authorize payroll deductions for hospitalization insurance for such an employee organization as the Canal Zone Credit Union. Preliminary plans call for the Company-Government to collect — by payroll deductions— insurance payments from employees who sign up for hospital insurance; these payments will be remitted to the Credit Union which, in turn, will deal with the insuring company. The situation is somewhat different, he told the conferees, in regard to local-rate employe 3S. The five local-rate credit unions are Federal organizations and not in a position to deal with an insurance company. One way in which this could be worked out, he said, would be to form a sort of Mutual Benefit Association which would be made up of representatives of the credit unions, lodges, churches, etc. This organization could deal with the insurance companies, and to it the Company-Government could turn over insurance payments collected by payroll deduction from those subscribing to the plan. Group Plan Not Prejudiced Any such plan, the Acting Governor emphasized, would not prejudice any group health insurance, such as the Blue Cross or similar organization, in which employees might become interested. He assured the employees present that the administration stands ready, through the Labor Relations Counsellor and the General Counsel's office, to help in putting some hospitalization insurance plan across and said further that employees should not do too much speculating over future hospital rates since the Governor has not as yet worked out a tariff. In answer to the subsequent questions, Colonel Paxson and Norman Johnson, Labor Relations Counsellor, said that an employee need not be a Credit Union member to participate in the Credit Union Insurance; that the proposed insurance would cover employee and family; that employees are covered by the "free hospitalization" until December 31; and that in setting new hospital rates full considsration will be given to Workman's Compensation and similar provisions. Henry L. Donovan, Community Services Director, joined the group to outline for conference consideration the proposal for a new method of quarters applications. Since there had been considerable objection to a proposal that applications be limited to three choices— by type, street, or areas — a plan has been developed similar to the postings of real estate offices in the United States, he said. Each Wednesday, on glass-enclosed bulletin boards placed in all Housing Offices, Clubhouses, Post Offices, and Commissaries, Housing Division employees would post a list of all quarters which had become vacant for the week ending the previous day. The posting would be done by district; i. e., quarters in Gamboa would not be posted in the southern district (Pedro Miguel, Corozal, Diablo, Balboa, Ancon) nor would southern district quarters be advertised in the northern district (Gatun, Margarita, Old and New Cristobal). Each advertised set of quarters would be described by type of construction (frame, composite, masonry), house and apartment number, the number of families in the building, the number of bedrooms, baths, whether or not the quarters have a garage, maid's room, maid's toilet, storeroom, paved basement. The rent, per week, would be listed. Available For Inspection During this advertising period, which would close six days later, the quarters would be available for inspection on application to the district housing office concerned, and during this same period applications would be accepted for any of the quarters advertised. The number of applications an employee could file would not be limited. If he considered several houses equally desirable, he could apply for them all; since the purpose of the plan is to have employees apply only for houses in which they are definitely interested, there should not be any large number of such multiple applications. The advertising period would close at noon each Tuesday and assignments for the quarters advertised during the previous six days would be made at 1 p. m. that day to the senior applicant— from point of service — on the list. He would have until 4:15 p. m., on Thursday of that same week to accept or decline the assignment. If the senior applicant declined the assignment, the next employee in line for the quarters would be assigned, etc., until the house is accepted. Applications would be held until the apartment is accepted, and then would be voided. Apartments advertised for four consecutive weeks with no applications would then be withheld and used for immediate assignments. Penalty Planned The AFGE, Mr. Donovan said, has already accepted the plan but several other organizations to which it was submitted are still to be heard from. Employee representatives at the July conference appeared not only receptive to the idea but to endorse it, and insisted that the acceptance time be cut from the original proposal of five days. The conferees discussed what penalty could be imposed on an employee who had accepted a house and then declined it without adequate reason when told the house was ready for occupancy. All agreed that a money penalty should not be imposed but that it would be fair to bar him from applying for any quarters for a specified period, possibly two weeks. George Cassell, Acting Chief, Housing Division, said that during the previous week, nine out of 31 (See page 19) Our Civil Defense Responsibility Civil defense is based on the principle of self-protection by the individual, extended to include mutual self-protection on the part of groups and communities. It is a way of protecting all of us arid our families, either in case of an enemy attack or during natural, peacetime disasters. Civil defense is the responsibility of all of us. It is the responsibility of our families, from whom will come our volunteer workers. It is the responsibility of our Police and Fire Divisions; our Electrical and Maintenance Divisions; and others. In case of an emergency they will all be called upon to shoulder their share of civilian defense work. It can be effective here only if all members of our community are so solidly behind it that they are willing to give time and effort to make it work. The variety of volunteer jobs in civil defense provides everyone of us with an opportunity to serve on the civil defense team. We are, of course, thankful for the Korean armistice. But the signing of that armistice does not mean that our civil defense responsibility has ended. When President Eisenhower announced that the Korean truce had been signed, he said: "We have won an armistice on a single battleground — not peace in the world. We may not now relax our guard nor cease our quest." Since September 1949, when Soviet Russia exploded her first atomic weapon, the need for the development and maintenance of an adequate civil defense program has become as important as a strong military defense. Lost January in his State of the Union Message — and the Korean armistice has not changed the meaning of this — President Eisenhower said: "Because the building of a completely impenetrable defense against attack is still not possible, total defense strength must include civil defense preparedness. Because we have incontrovertible evidence that Soviet Russia possesses atomic weapons, this kind of protection becomes sheer necessity." Therefore, I urge every resident of the Canal Zone to accept the moral obligation to assist in the development of our civil defense program. This program, properly manned and organized, could reduce casualties and property damage as much as 50 percent in the event of a catastrophe, which we fervently hope may never come, but which we cannot ignore. H. 0. PAXSON, Lieutenant Governor.

PAGE 4

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 When Sea Level Is Not Sea Level And Why The Tides Are Different Visitors to the Canal Zone almost invariably express amazement over four natural features: the hills; the fact that Balboa, on the Pacific, is farther east than Cristobal, on the Atlantic; the rising of the sun from the Pacific ocean; and the great difference in the tides in two bodies of water which are separated by only a 40-mile-wide strip of land. Of the four features, the tides have played a most important part in Isthmian history although the location of the Isthmian canal was determined largely by the narrow isthmus and lowness of the Continental Divide in what is now the Canal Zone. Old Panama, where mud flats stretch out to sea for a long distance at low tide, never had a harbor worthy of the name, even for ships of its day. Cargo had to be lightered ashore, just as it is today in many Central and South American ports. All important Isthmian ports were on the Caribbean where the tidal range is much less than it is in the Pacific. During the days of the Gold Rush, ships anchored either far out to sea, off Panama City, or made their port at the island of Taboga although there, also, they could not dock at low tide. Affected Canal Construction The variation of the tides in the Caribbean and the Pacific caused many heated arguments among experts in the past and had considerable influence on the decision to make the Canal lock type rather than sea level. During the Isthmian Canal studies in 1946 and 1947 an elaborate tidal machine was constructed in the flats below Miraflores Bridge where tidal currents were simulated by machine and their effect on a possible sea-level canal studied. Canal files are studded with correspondence from such widely scattered places as New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Germany, Mexico, and England, asking about the tides at the Canal terminals. People who ask about the tides fall generally into two classes: those who want to know if it is true that there is a difference in sea level in the Pacific ocean and the Caribbean sea — there is; and those whose questions have to do with the tidal fluctuation at Balboa and who are puzzled over Balboa's high and low tides where there is almost no appreciable tidal change at Cristobal. Sea Levels Differ Mean sea level on the Pacific side of the Isthmus, at Balboa, averages 0.767 foot— or about nine inches— higher than mean sea level on the Atlantic side at Cristobal. This has been determined by studies over a 19-year period. The fact is a lot more definite than the why of the fact, sea level to the average person being the same the world over. A lengthy report of tidal averages prepared in 1949 by Leslie T. Chapel, who was then Assistant Chief Hydrographer and who is now retired, says in part: "A change in the level of the sea may be due to a variety of influences, such as temporary or long period variations in climate of a nature to cause variable melting of the polar ice caps or changes in controlling ocean currents. A comparison of the 1916-34 and 1927-45 averages at the Canal Zone stations shows an apparent rise in sea level during the 11-year interval of .085 foot at Balboa and .062 foot at Cristobal. Both of these changes are small, equivalent to 1 inch and -V inch, respectively. "As a small rise in mean sea level has occurred in recent years along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, the condition is assumed to be general and of no particular significance to the Canal Zone area. Whether the rising trend will continue in years to come or prove to be of only a temporary nature remains to be determined by comparison with future averages." Sun and Moon Tides School children learn that tides, which Webster's dictionary calls the "alternate rising and falling of the surface of the ocean" are caused by the attraction of the sun and moon, acting unequally on the water in different parts of the earth. Since the moon is closer to the earth than the sun, the tide-producing force of the moon is a little more than twice that of the sun. When school children come to the Tidal Troughs Oceans, he says, are divided into a number of such troughs. Balboa is at the extreme end of one such body; the sawhorse is off the Mexican coast in the vicinity of Manzanillo and the opposite end off lower California. Consequently the rise and fall of water is great at Balboa and very slight near Manzanillo. The Caribbean, on the other hand, separated as it is from the Atlantic by a ring of islands, is almost an inland lake cut off from the oscillating system of the greater ocean. But the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico make up their own trough and, being smaller and shallower than the Atlantic or Pacific, the range of their tides is much smaller. Statistics obtained from years of local observation show that it is possible to have a tidal range, between high and low water, of 22.7 feet at Balboa; the extreme variation possible at Cristobal is only 3.05 feet. Tides at Balboa are regular, with two highs and two lows a day, approximately an hour later each succeeding day. Cristobal tides are irregular. Lifts at Locks The matter of tides, of course, had much to do with the way the Canal was constructed. The approach channel of the Canal on the Pacific side is deeper than the approach to the Atlantic Locks, to allow for the tidal difference. There TIDAL REGULATING STRUCTURES which would be part of a sea level canal were built in model form during the Isthmian Canal studies several years ago. Here a group of consultants and ( 'anal officials of those days watch the model in action. Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch at Balboa Heights for further information, T. C. Henter, acting Chief Hydrographer, has a simple and easily understood example of the twice-daily lunar tides to give them. The same information, in more complex form, is in a pamphlet called Panama Tides, which was prepared by H. A. Marmer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and printed in the U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings for November 1930. Take a trough filled with water and balance it on a sawhorse (the nodal point) like a teeter-totter, Mr. Henter tells his young questioners. Then rock the trough back and forth. The water, of course, runs toward the lower end of the trough but its level varies only slightly at the point where the trough rests on the sawhorse. are times when a northbound vessel is raised, at Miraflores Locks, approximately 1 1 feet more at extreme low water or approximately 1 1 feet less at extreme high water than a southbound vessel is raised at Gatun Locks although both then cross Gatun Lake at 85 feet above mean sea level. Elaborate observations made during the period of the Isthmian Canal studies established that if a sea-level canal were built here, there would be a maximum current of about 4 : 2 knots due to tidal fluctuation. The flow would change direction with high and low tides on the Pacific side. The current could be controlled by a tidal lock near the Pacific end of the Canal. There would also be a navigable pass, with a 750-foot wide channel closed by a pair of large rolling (See page 17)

PAGE 5

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE LML £JL IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION W Safety Message To Foremen When something has gone wrong, it is most necessary to know what it was and what caused it to go wrong before it can be corrected. An accident is a very good example of something gone wrong — the man, the material, the machine, or the method. Somebody or something failed; otherwise the mishap would not have occurred. Since an accident is evidence of something gone wrong, it follows that you must get to the bottom of "why" and "how" to prevent things going wrong again. There must be a best way for doing this. Let's just make a list of what we want to find out and then see how we should go about it. It has been shown that the man is the most important thing on any job. Buildings, machines, and tools are lesser things because they have been developed to help the man produce more faster, better, and safer. So maybe we had better start with the man first. 1. Is this his first accident? 2. If not, how and when did the others occur? 3. What could he himself have done to avoid having this accident? 4. Did he take an unnecessary chance and bring the accident on himself? 5. Has there been a job study made and a safe efficient way developed for doing this job? 6. Had he been informed as to the dangers involved with instructions and drilling as to the safe working practices? HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD JUNE CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU INDUSTRIAL BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Industrial 5 Civil Affairs 3 Health 2 Community Services 1 Engineering and Construction 1 Marine Railroad and Terminals Supply and Service Division Award For NO DISABLING INJURIES JUNE DREDGING DIVISION MOTOR TRANSPORTATION DIVISION DIVISION OF SANITATION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Motor Transportation 5 Sanitation 5 Dredging 4 Grounds Maintenance 4 Electrical 3 Hospitalization and Clinics 3 Clubhouses 2 Maintenance 2 Railroad 2 Storehouses 2 Navigation 1 Commissary Locks Terminals 7. Did he follow instructions? 8. Just who was at fault? Was it the injured workman, a fellow worker, or you, his foreman? 9. Was he "hurried" on this job? 10. What action did you take immediately to prevent a recurrence? Have you done this? 11. Are other employees also following the same practice that caused this man to have an accident? 12. Was the safe practice, which had been taught and in use, mostly depending upon the employee learning and continuing to duck in time? A check on layout, material and equipment is less involved. You naturally want to know: 1. If tools, machines, or equipment being used were defective or in need of repair. 2. If adequate working equipment and safety guards were provided. 3. If the necessary protective equipment and safety devices were available. 4. If so, were they being used and in the right way. 5. Was lighting and ventilation adequate. When is the best time for you to investigate an accident? It appears to be as soon after it occurs as you can get to where it happened. If you are going to get the information necessary to prevent future accidents, and you might as well not start unless you get the correct and complete story, you are going to have to: 1. Go to the scene of the accident and check the physical things involved. 2. Get the full story from the man who caused the accident. 3. Get the full story from others working near and with him. 4. Take the necessary corrective measures to prevent a recurrence before you leave. 5. Make out the report at once while all facts are fresh in your mind. 6. Get professional advice from your Safety Inspector. Whenever you have made up your mind to inquire as fully into the "whys and "wherefores" of your accidents as you do into getting other parts of your job done— then and then only will you start getting results in accident prevention, for you cannot intelligently proceed with righting something wrong until you have the correct and complete facts in your possession. SAFETY BOARD The Canal Zone Government-Panama Canal Company Safety Board as re-established by Executive Regulation No. 32, which outlines the Safety Program and Organization, is now composed of the following members: G. O. Kellar, Chief, Safety Branch, Chairman L. W. Chambers, representing Marine Director M. F. Millard, representing Engineering and Construction Director Cmdr. W. M. Vincent, representing Industrial Director W. F. Russon, representing Railroad and Terminals Director E. E. Trout, representing Supply and Service Director K. O. Zemer, representing Community Services Director E. L. Farlow, representing Civil Affairs Director J. P. Smith, representing Health Director H. D. Raymond, representing Comptroller L. B. Burnham (Acting), representing Personnel Director H. L. Anderson, Recorder, representing Executive Secretary JUNE 1953 Civil Affairs Bureau Industrial Bureau Supply and Service Bureau Engineering and Construction Bureau C. Z. Govt— Panama Canal Co. (Best Year) C. Z. Gov!.— Panama Canal Co. (This month) Health Bureau Marine Bureau Community Services Bureau Railroad and Terminals Bureau Number of Disabling Injuries 34 Disabling Injuries per 1,000,000 Man Hours Worked (Frequency Rale) o 10 20 30 40 5l • ZJ Mi 1 c^i 7 1 12 1.' 13 14 14 ""•"•"•"" iZ 1 ::::::: -il 23 :•:::::: 1 • : ;-;-;-;-;l 10 20 30 40 50 Man-Hours Worked 2,653,225 LEGEND Amount Better Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Beat Year Amount Worse Than Canal Zone Government — Panama Canal Company Best Year Accumulative Frequency Rate This Year

PAGE 6

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 New Paraiso Buildings Near Completion As School Begins In Local Rate Towns PART of Paraiso's modern, new school plant is pictured above. Only one room deep, the new Paraiso school is on-the-ground masonry construction. A feature of the building is the wide awningtype windows, divided into horizontal panes, each set of which opens like jalousies. Wide vertical sun vanes provide shade and help in preventing sound from one classroom bothering students in another. The main building of the new Paraiso school will house elementary grades. It is connected by a covered walk-way to a two-room building, also new construction, which will house the kindergarten. The third building of the group is the remodeled older building, in which will be the junior high school, with space for a library, music room, shops, and the principal's office in the basement. Under the watchful eyes of their 160 teachers, some 4,300 boys and girls from the Canal Zone's colored communities trooped into their classrooms last Monday morning in the 14 schools which make up the local-rate school system. The exact number of students will not be known for several days, until figures from all the schools are checked, but an opening day estimate indicated that the number would be well above the 4,156 who were registered the first school day of 1952. Boys and girls at Paraiso were especially interested in their modern new school which will be ready for occupancy within a short time, and grade-school students at Rainbow City were eagerly waiting completion of the addition to their school, now expected about the end of the first semester. The outstanding change in the Canal Zone colored schools this year is the coming transfer from Red Tank to Paraiso of the Junior High School for the ParaiscRed Tank area and the expansion of the Paraiso school plant by the addition of a new 12-classroom elementary building, a two-room kindergarten building, and a remodeled basement area under the former elementary school building. Junior High In Remodeled School The elementary grades will occupy the new buildings when they are completed in about a month and the remodeled building will be reserved for Junior High School use. Classrooms will fill the upstairs area and a library, home economics laboratory, woodworking shop, clinic, music room and the principal's office will be in the new basement area. The transfer to Paraiso of the Junior High School will bring a shift in school principals. Ellis L. Fawcett, formerly principal of the Red Tank elementary and junior high schools, has been transferred to Paraiso where he will be in charge of the school units. Miss Julette Carrington, formerly principal at Paraiso, will be teaching principal of the six-classroom elementary school at Red Tank. Until the addition to the Rainbow City elementary school is completed about the middle of the school year the schoolhousing problem there continues to be acute. Present plans call for 16 classes to share eight classrooms until the new addition is finished. The addition will provide space for eight elementary school classes. Summer Institute During the past summer approximately 160 teachers from the colored schools attended the annual month-long Summer Institute at La Boca and Rainbow City. The staff of the Summer Institute is made up of teachers from Balboa High School and the Canal Zone Junior College. The work of this summer's Institute was largely revision of the curriculum in the elementary, junior, and senior high schools. In the summer of 1952 the students at the Institute made "working copies" of 37 courses; these were studied, in the light of classroom use, during the past school year and 26 of the 37 were put into working shape this summer. During the Institute, elementary teachers took the Workshop in Arithmetic and had a choice of a course in Children's Literature or a methods course in the teaching of Spanish. Teachers from the secondary schools studied Evaluation of Secondary Schools and one of five electives: Workshops in Mathematics, English, Spanish, Social Studies, and Industrial Arts. Social Studies In the elementary schools, a new social studies handbook is in use this year. These tentative courses of study which are the joint product of Canal Zone elementary school teachers are organized around six themes for the different grade levels. The themes progress from the immediate, for the youngest child, to the distant, such as world problems, for the older children. Kindergarteners and pupils in grade one, for instance, will study "Home and School." Second graders widen their horizon with a study of the community in which they live. By {See page 12) **& ; x3 % si n They Head Canal Zone Schools SIGURD E. ESSER ROGER W. COLLINGE CHARLES A. DUBBS A NEW SUPERINTENDENT for the Canal Zone schools and two top Schools officials were appointed early last month. As Superintendent, Mr. Esser succeeds the late Dr. LawTence Johnson who died suddenly early in June in Minneapolis. Mr. Esser has been with the Canal Zone Schools Division for almost 20 years. Mr. Collinge, Director of Elementary Education since 1948, retains that His position but becomes in addition, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, service with the Canal Zone Schools is also about 20 years. Mr. Dubbs, who came to the Canal Zone in 1946 ns Principal of the Rainbow City Occupational High School, has been more recently Training Officer for the Personnel Bureau. He returns to the Schools Division as Director of Secondary Education.

PAGE 7

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW i-*g-L Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by the Printing Plant Mount Hope, Canal Zone John S. Seybold, Governor-President H. 0. Paxson, Lieutenant Governor J. Rufus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Oleva Hastings Editorial Assistants SUBSCRIPTIONS— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— 5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses, Commissaries, and Hotels for 10 days after publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL— lOcentseach BACK COPIES— 10 cents each On sale when available, from the Vault Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. Railroad And Terminals Head Will End Lengthy Service A. C. "GUS" MEDINGER will end 38 years of Canal service at the end of this month by voluntary retirement. Although most of his service was with the Dredging Division, which he headed for several years, he has been Railroad and Terminals Director since last October. Mr. Medinger has lived most of his life in the Canal Zone and has the distinction of being the first high school graduate of Canal Zone schools to be named a bureau director. He and Mrs. Medinger plan to leave early in September to make their home in New York. He has accepted the position of Assistant to the Chief Engineer of the Orinoco Mining Company, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation. He served with the Dredging Division for 35 years before his transfer in July 1950 to the position of Deputy Marine Director, which he held until his appointment to head the Railroad and Terminals Bureau. Mr. Medinger has received high praise for his outstanding work as head of the Railroad and Terminals Bureau. OF CURRENT INTEREST Two Of A Kind A BROTHER ACT, for a fact, is that of Canal Zone Fire Sergeants James V. and Frank J. Bartlett. James, the elder by five years, is at the wheel of the fire engine. Born in Wisconsin, they were both employed as probationary firemen here on August 12, 1942, promoted to firemen on November 10, 1942, and again promoted, this time to sergeants, on July 5 this vear. Sergeant James is on duty at the Gamboa Fire Station; Sergeant Frank is stationed at Pedro Miguel. David W. Massingham of San Rafael, Calif., has been appointed Assistant Manager of Hotels for the Panama Canal Company; he will be in direct charge of the Hotel Washington. Born in Melbourne, Australia, where his American parents were living, he attended school in California and has spent most of his adult life in California. For the past 15 years he has been engaged in restaurant or cafeteria work and has had considerable experience in industrial cafeterias such as those of the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, and the Kaiser Cement Plant at Permanente, Calif. From 1946 until 1949, when he opened his own restaurant in San Francisco, he assisted in opening new dining halls for Stanford University students, providing meals for 1,500 students three times a day and operating a commissary for the University's 35 sororities and fraternities. Mrs. Massingham and their three sons, 12, 10, and 2, will arrive here later. Canal Zone team in action. This film will be narrated and will be shown in all Zone Clubhouses to promote disaster preparedness. Automobile tires now may be purchased unmounted from Section K of the Balboa Storehouse, the Cristobal Storehouse or mounted on wheels at the Motor Transportation Division on either side of the Isthmus. Tires formerly were required to be mounted on wheels at a cost of 35 cents each, by the Motor Transportation Division. Some of the tires now available for sale have been reduced slightly in price. Lists of the types of tires available and the prices have been posted on bulletin boards throughout the Canal organization, at the Balboa and Cristobal Storehouses, and the Motor Transportation Division. A team from the Canal Zone Civil Defense organization will take part in "Operation Jackpot II," a Disaster Control exercise which will be conducted by military organizations here later this month. In addition to members of the Civil Defense Advisory Committee and the Chief of Civil Defense, who will be official observers, the Canal Zone Civil Defense group will be represented by three first aid teams and 18 Boy Scout volunteer "casualties." The first aid teams will be made up of 10 women each and will come from Gamboa, Pedro Miguel, and Margarita. Their supplies will be provided by the Canal Zone Chapter of the American Red Cross. Arrangements are being made to take a 500-foot, 35-mm motion picture of the A new system for the handling, assignment and property accounting for office furniture used by units of the Company and Government has recently been adopted. Under the new system, office furniture and equipment pools have been established and the equipment is rented by the various units at established rental rates. The rates are set at levels considered sufficient to cover depreciation, maintenance, transportation, and administrative costs and bills are submitted quarterly in advance. The pools are administered by the Superintendent of Storehouses and separate pools are being maintained for the Company and Government. Prior to the adoption of the new system, all capital item equipment of common usage, such as desks, chairs, typewriters and other office equipment, was transferred on inventory records to the Storehouse Division.

PAGE 8

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 LICENSE PLATES from all over the United States and old Canal Zone licenses are appropriate mural decorations for the License Section. Mrs. Mary Hollowell hands George Pervin a sample 1953 license plate from Wyoming. Cars, Drivers, Dogs, Vendors And PeddlersAll Are Licensed By Canal License Section Black and orange will be the colors for 1954, take it from Leslie R. Evans, Chief of the Canal's License Section. As long ago as March Mr. Evans, with his top boss, Col. Richardson Selee, Civil Affairs Director, and Colonel Selee's right-hand man, E. L. Farlow, agreed that black letters on an orange background would be a good combination for private automobile licenses for 1954. There was no particular reason for their choice, Mr. Evans said. Black and orange is an easily-read combination, had not been used for some time, and could not be confused with the black-and-white of official plates. The license plates are to arrive by September 1. By mid-November, the License Section will be accepting applications for them and at the end of the year all Canal Zone-licensed cars will have the plates in place— or else. Selecting license plates and issuing them is an important part of the License Section's work, but it is not all, by any means. Licenses And Licenses At its offices on the ground floor of the Civil Affairs Building on Gaillard Highway, one can get a license establishing ownership of a vehicle and the right to drive, transfer, or junk it; a vehicle record card, which is the first step toward allowing a U. S. employee living in Panama to buy gasoline in the Canal Zone; a license— if the applicant is a welfare or fraternal organization— to vend food or drink; or a peddler's license which gives an individual the right to sell such things as fruits, vegetables, and soft drinks in Canal Zone towns. Just last month the License Section had a new duty: The licensing of the 3,000 dogs which make the Canal Zone their home. Issuing licenses which have to do with the ownership or operation of motor vehicles is a major part of the business of Mr. Evans and the five men and women who make up his regular staff. Extra help is hired for the annual rush period but the addition of two new validating cash registers last year cut this need in half. On December 31, 1952's peak day, more than 700 customers were handled; almost twice as many as when licenses had to be written out on typewriters. As of June 1 of this year, the section had licensed 11,632 personal automobiles, 284 commercial vehicles, 313 motorcycles, and 185 trailers. The 11,632 personal vehicle licenses do not include some 75 special plates which go to the members of the Amateur Radio Association and which bear the "ham's" call letters. These plates, which cost $1 extra, are issued only to those designated by the Radio Association and are not transferable with a car. This year's figure is well below that of 1950 when 23,101 private cars were licensed. That was the last year of dual plates, when Canal Zone cars had to carry Panama plates as well as those of the Canal Zone and vice versa. Although the Canal's License Section does not issue plates to U. S. Government employees who live in Panama — such cars, of course, carry Panama plates of the "Z" series — the section at Ancon still has a record of a majority of the cars owned by such people. This is provided by the vehicle record cards. To buy gasoline in the Canal Zone an owner of a Panama-licensed car must have a special card, which he obtains by presenting his Panama car registration, his operator's license, and his authority card. So far this year, the License Section has on file 3,132 of these vehicle record cards. Lotteries And Lines The sequence in which automobile license plates have been issued has been determined, in the past, in several ways. Mr. Evans recalls that when the License Office was on the third floor of the Administration Building, the waiting line of applicants sometimes stretched the length of the hallway, and down the stairs to the front entrance. After the present License Section was formed in 1942, a lottery for low numbers was instituted. Pretty girls drew numbers out of a globe to determine low man in the license bracket. Then came a policy of first-come, first-served. Competition for the No. 1 plate became so intense that one year the winning applicant waited in line — or had stand-ins wait — for two days. Last year the Section returned to the drawing system, with the lottery supervised by the Civic Council which had proposed the plan. The first 20 numbers were not assigned to the lottery, being reserved, as is the accepted policy in most States, for officials. The Governor's personal car carries the No. 1 plate. Licensing of drivers is another responsibility of the License Section, although the qualifying examinations are given by the police. The triennial job of reissuing some 6,000 operators' licenses has just been completed. At one time there were several classifications of these: For operators of passenger cars, official cars, industrial trucks, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, etc. Since 1950 there have been only two categories: Roughly people who drive for fun and people who make their living by driving, although separate tests are given operators of motorcycles and motorscooters by the two police examiners. People visiting the Isthmus with their cars may drive for 90 days with U. S. license plates and drivers' licenses, if they do not intend to remain here. Those expecting to make their home here must get both Canal Zone car and operator's licenses within 15 days. Character References Drivers' licenses have been required in the Canal Zone since 1911. Those oldtime drivers, provided they satisfied an examining board as to their knowledge of "gasoline and electrical motors and machinery and operation of automobiles," were of proper age (18), and were vouched for "as to sobriety and trustworthiness by two reputable citizens" were given metal badges certifying their fitness to drive. Until comparatively recently, 18 was the lowest age at which anyone could drive in the Canal Zone anything but a motorscooter. In 1950 a change was made to allow the licensing of high school seniors who were at least 17 and who had passed the schools' driver-training courses. The License Section also deals with three other types of licenses. This month for the first time in many years all dogs in the Canal Zone will be licensed after they have been vaccinated against rabies. The other two types of licenses go to vendors and peddlers. Vendors are groups and stay put; peddlers are individuals and move around. Vendors, such as veterans' clubs, the YMCA's or the JWB, pay $2 per month for licenses to sell tobacco, soft drinks (which can include 3.2 beer) and ice

PAGE 9

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW cream, if they want the latter. Some 24 such groups are licensed each year. No Sandwiches Peddlers' licenses are issued to an average of 21 people a month for a period not exceeding six months. Peddlers must have physical examinations and a police check. Most of them handle native fruits and vegetables. Applications for licenses to sell fresh fish, meats or meat products of any kind, sandwiches or cooked foods of all kinds are uniformly disapproved, for strict health and sanitary reasons. Peddlers are licensed without cost unless they wish to sell ice cream or soft drinks, or both. In such case a peddler pays $2 a month, and if he sells tobacco an additional $2 monthly. Occasionally a peddler is licensed, as one was recently, to sell such things as pocketbooks, baskets, and other native straw products. The $2 monthly fee applies here, also. The License Section is a direct descendent of the old Revenue Department of construction days. The Isthmian Canal Commission had established a system of licensing coaches and carriages in 1910 but, as the motor population increased, Canal authorities began to worry about road upkeep. If motorists wanted to use the highways, they should pay for the privilege, the Commission felt. $150 For A License The first fees were eyebrow raising: $150 a year for commercial vehicles of any sort, $25 for cars "operated for pleasure," and $10 for motorcycles. The first automobile license issued in the Canal Zone went to Natalio Ehrman of Panama, on December 3, 1910. Unfortunately, old records do not show the make of his car. The first license to a Canal Zone resident was No. 5, issued a week later to a "Capt. C. Nixon of Cristobal." Oldtimers believe this was Capt. Courtland Nixon, Depot Quartermaster at Mount Hope. In 1916 the fee for licensing personal automobiles was reduced to the present $5, and motorcycle licenses dropped to the present $2. Owners of commercial vehicles who today pay between $13.50 and $16, paid from $20'to $40. From the Administration Building, Good Community Housekeeping Can Reduce Fly Population Flies are everybody's business, first, because they are a potential health menace to every member of a community and, second, because everyone is responsible for the kind of good community housekeeping that keeps them from breeding. Flies, like a lot of other potential problems, are best nipped in the bud. It is easier to prevent them from breeding in the first place than it is to get rid of them after they are grown. DDT used to work like an atom bomb on the adult fly population. It doesn't work so miraculously any more; flies are getting used to it. Furthermore, flies are mobile. If they are any place in a community, they can be all over the place. An adult fly will travel several miles to find his own kind of filthy environment and from there, possibly, into the food you eat. The biography of a housefly might begin like this. One little housefly, for instance, might have been born, together with 99 to 149 brothers and sisters, in a nice little nest of mouldy mashed potatoes down in an overlooked cranny in a garbage can. Mama Fly, with fine feminine instinct, may have flown from miles away to find this fine home for her brood. Of course, she might just as well have picked any where it was located for many years, the License Section, then a Bureau of the old Executive Department, moved to the old Balboa police station, opposite the present Balboa school. The location was good but it had some drawbacks. For instance one day two not ordinarily timid clerks took to their desk tops when a large and dignified iguana paid an office call. The License Section, under its present organization, came into being in April 1946, following the war. It was headed then as now, by Mr. Evans, a native of Wisconsin, who came to the Canal Zone in 1936 to work with the then Civil Affairs Division. All of his service with the Canal has been with the License Section in its present or former forms. AUTOMOBILE LICENSES and transfers are the bulk of the License Section's business. Rhoda Fox helps out her boss, Section Chief Leslie Evans, with two customers. Mrs. one of a number of other places, all of them repulsive to tender human sensibilities. She could have stopped to lay her eggs in a cozy thick blanket of damp commercial fertilizer around a firecracker bush; a rotting remnant of cabbage slaw slopped around a garbage can; a nice mouldy mess of garbage disposed of as trash and put on a trash dump; manure in a riding stable; a rotting potato — or any other kind of fermenting organic matter. A housefly lives a very fast life, growing from egg to full-fledged adult in eight to 20 days. In Isthmian warmth and dampness, the life cycle is short. The eggs that Mama Fly lays in mashed potatoes or elsewhere hatch in eight to 30 hours into larvae or maggots. The hungry little maggots have a mashed potato diet (our little flies from the garbage can) for 5 to 14 days, then they migrate to drier material and turn into dark brown pupas that look like little seeds. Then in three to ten days (the pupa fasts during this period) a grown-up fly emerges, to go around spreading germs for the 30 days of his adult life. Flies are nasty little creatures. No one likes them very much, but some of the grade school health lessons about the germs they carry can stand repetition. The deposits flies leave on the things they touch may contain millions of disease germs. They are at least suspect in transmitting bacillary and amoebic dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, tuberculosis and other "filth diseases." The virus of poliomyelitis has been recovered from flies. There are simple things that everyone can do to help keep flies from breeding — the only really effective way to keep them out of a community: 1 Report to the Division of Sanitation any conditions you see that may induce fly breeding. The Pacific side number is 2-2463. On the Atlantic side, call 3-2576. A great deal of time is lost trying to track down breeding places after flies are on the wing. 2. Report to the Grounds Maintenance Division any holes in garbage cans, missing covers, or any accumulation of garbage left in or dribbled around the cans. The Pacific side telephone number is 2-1801. On the Atlantic side, call 3-2373. The cans will be replaced or cleaned as soon as possible. Some residents even wash their own garbage containers. 3. Keep covers on garbage cans and don't spill garbage around them, or at least, if you do, clean up the mess you make. 4. Place garbage only in garbage cans; do not use cardboard containers for this purpose. 5. Do not put garbage in the large uncovered chums that are intended for dry trash only. 6. Drain, wrap or enclose garbage in double paper bags or newspapers before putting it in garbage cans. 7. Use only thoroughly composted manure or commercial fertilizer on shrubbery, lawns, and flowers. Keep it dry until it is used and use it very soon. Spread it on the ground thinly or work in into the soil.

PAGE 10

10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 Payne & Wardlaw And W. Andrews & Co. Handle Fifth of Canal Ship Traffic Suppose you're an exporter and have a cargo of wool to be sent from NewZealand to England; possibly you're shipping sugar from Cuba to Japan; or you might be concerned with lumber from the Pacific Northwest to an East Coast U. S. port. Perhaps you're a potential passenger from the Canal Zone to England or Australia or Curacao or Brazil. Could be you're a ship owner whose vessel has gotten into trouble in the Caribbean and needs: a tow into port by a Merritt Chapman salvage tug; or your ship may have damaged a propeller or been in some mishap which should be reported to its insurance underwriters. Your ship might catch fire, like one recently which was carrying fish meal through the Canal to South Africa. Much of it had to be discharged onto the Cristobal docks so it could cool, the holds had to be entered and the smouldering fire completely controlled. There was another ship fire, too, not long ago, in which underwriters were interested. Fire broke out in a ship which was carrying phosphorus from Japan, in tin cans. Canal Zone firemen wet the cargo down but it re-ignited, as soon as the phosphorous dried out. The dissolved phosphorous got onto cargo-nets and onto the decks. Men walking through it tracked it onto the dock where it could be ignited just like the matchheads it was eventually to become. Andrews, Payne & Wardlaw In any of these cases and a great many others, it would be quite likely that you'd be dealing with W. Andrews & Co. or Payne and Wardlaw, either as shipping agents or in their capacity as Lloyd's agents. Because they are headed by the same man, big, booming-voiced Capt. Clifford Payne, many people confuse the two agencies. But actually they are as separate as any other two agencies. Reporters covering the waterfront invariably have trouble at first straightening out the difference between the two and more than one has had to be reminded, repeatedly, that Payne and Wardlaw handles the Bank Line, for instance, while Shaw, Savill & Albion is represented by Andrews. The difficulty is understandable; Andrews men and Payne and Wardlaw men (there is only one woman on the two staffs and she is a newcomer to these male precincts) work side by side in the big offices in. the Balboa Terminal Building and the Cristobal Masonic Temple. Even a frequent visitor does not know who works for which, but accounts and all business matters are handled completely separately. Handled 110 Ships Last May, a typical month, 110 of the 650 commercial vessels which transited the Canal were handled by boarding officers from the two firms. Seventy percent of the 110 ships were of British or United States registry. Thirteen of the others flew the Norwegian flag and the rest were mostly singles or doubles, from the merchant marines of Panama, Spain, ('APT. CLIFFORD PAYNE Japan, the Netherlands, Greece, the Republic of China, Denmark, Sweden, Honduras and Germany. The cargoes were as varied as the ships which carried them. A cargo of fish meal went through the Canal from South Africa to San Francisco. There was bulk wheat from the Pacific Northwest and soya, several loads of it, from United States East Coast or Gulf ports to Japan. The P. & T. Voyager, transiting on May 10, carried fireworks from a Pennsylvania port to the State of Washington, presumably to help some one celebrate the Fourth of July. Other ships carried steel girders, automobiles, machinery, coal, oil, cotton, phosphates, and dozens of other items, in quantities large and small. Queen's Ships In addition to handling commercial traffic, Andrews acts as agents for the British consul for all British and Commonwealth Navy ships. The firm will handle the 15,900-ton Gothic when she transits the Canal late in November, carrying the Queen of England to Australia. Regardless of what festivities are prepared ashore, the Canal transit of the liner is expected to be routine. For most of the lines which the two firms handle, the Canal Zone is the halfway port and shipping agents the world over are firmly convinced that things PERRY FRAXCEY happen at halfway ports. If deck cargo on a lumber ship is going to shift, it usually shifts between the Pacific Northwest, from which most of it originates, and the Canal Zone. More than one such ship has had to tie up in the Canal Zone to have its lumber cargo restowed, to correct a dangerousflist. Parts break, and if there are no replacements aboard or they cannot be made locally, the agents usually have to radio to the United States to have a new part sent to the Isthmus by plane. War Days War days had nothing to do with the halfway point, but they brought all sorts of problems. Boarding officers remember the days when Cristobal harbor was full of convoys of big gray ships, all without identification and all much alike. The only way an agent could find his ship was to cruise among them by r launch, calling to each ship as he passed it. When he had boarded one of his vessels he would mark an X on the gangplank so that he wouldn't repeat his efforts. Provisioning ships of the varied nationalities the two agencies handle presents some problems but not as many as might be expected. Most ships provision staples in their home ports and take on only perishable items here. But there are times when live goats have to be provided as food for Hindu seamen on some of the ships, or beef has to be slaughtered in accordance with the religious rites of other crewmen. Once one of the agencies rounded up a dozen goats, on the hoof, and presented them en masse to a transiting ship so the cook could take his pick. Goats used to be easily available in La Boca, but they have disappeared and a request for goats now usually means that some one has to make a trip to the Interior. Operate Here Most of the shipping agencies here are branch offices of parent companies established elsewhere, but Payne and Wardlaw and W. Andrews operate only at the Canal. Captain Payne, a towering man whose vigor and energy belie his years, still keeps in touch with operations, although he will tell anyone who asks: "I really don't do anything any more. The boys handle everything these days." By "boys," he means the agency people, some of whom have been with him for 30 years or more. A visit to his office, however, is usually interruped by numerous telephone calls. Some are from his managers, to discuss a ship in trouble, a vessel in need of special attention, or some other shipping problem. Some of the calls quite likely are from people whom shipowners or personal friends have commended to Captain Payne's personal attention during their Isthmian visits, or from other people he may have met some time or another somewhere in the world. Born In India Born in India, w r here his father was in the Colonial service as a railway man, he was sent when he was only five years

PAGE 11

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 TYPICAL of the ships handled by W. Andrews & Co. is this 624-foot Norwegian tanker, Dalfonn, shown in Pedro Miguel locks. She was en route from San Pedro to Bergen with a load of fuel oil. old, as were all young colonial boys, to boarding school in England. Colonial girls stayed in India until they were 12. He went to sea when he was 17 years old. The first ship on which he sailed was the Sierra Blanca, one of a fleet of 12 fine clippers which ran between Liverpool and Rangoon. Captain Payne got his master's license under sail at the end of a harrowing trip aboard another clipper called the Oread. The story of that trip would fill a book; its highlights were a shipwreck off the Peruvian coast, a 30mile trek by burro across the Peruvian desert, and the discovery, in an isolated Peruvian town, of a schoolmate, when an interpreter was needed. When the Oread was finally abandoned, Captain Payne joined the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, serving with PSNC from 1899 until 1910. His last PSNC command was the Taboga which ran in Panama's coastwise service with its sister ship, the Chiriqui. In 1910, Panama passed a cabotage law, which banned foreign flag ships from the coastal trade and the Taboga and Chiriqui were withdrawn. Captain Payne left PSNC and went on the AlmiranteBocas del Toro run for the United Fruit Company. Sent to Europe The following year he was sent to Europe by a Panamanian firm to order, oversee the building of, and bring to Panama a coastal craft which, appropriately, was christened the Panama. Captain Payne was her master until she was sold to the French Government about the time of World War I. Formation of the shipping company with the late Robert H. Wardlaw, who had been local treasurer of the Panama Railroad, followed soon after the opening of the Canal. Except as a passenger, or as the master of his own fishing boat, the Pescadora, Captain Payne has not been to sea since. W. Andrews & Co. is much older than Payne & Wardlaw. It was founded during the 1890's by William Thomas Andrews who represented the West India Mail Company in Colon. The original offices of the agency were in the Fort DeLesseps area, in an old wooden building which was demolished during the 1920's when the Army wanted room for expansion. When Mr. Andrews returned to England about 1920, he left his business in Captain Payne's charge and on his death in 1926, he bequeathed the good will of the firm to his old friend and associate. Agency Managers At the present time the operation of the organizations is under the general managership of Perowne Francey, who was with the White Star Line in Liverpool before joining Captain Payne in 1925. His office is now located in Cristobal. The Cristobal office is managed by C. 0. Kelly, who has worked on both sides of the Isthmus during the past 26 years. People who may not know him personally are familiar with his fine photographs which have been exhibited in several local shows. At Balboa, James P. Roberts is in charge. He is well known in local Little Theater circles and has been with Captain Payne since 1927. He was born in England and like Mr. Francey was with White Star Line staff before he joined the shipping agency here. The Cristobal office is located in the Masonic Temple Building; the office in the Terminal Building at Balboa has been occupied since the building was opened to tenants in July, 1916. An order was issued in 1913 prohibiting the turning over of seats in any of the Panama Railroad first class coaches south of Gorgona, unless the seats were occupied by at least three passengers. Forty Years Ago In July Municipal Engineering Division forces began clearing the site for Miraflores Pump Station No. 1, one of the first steps in the construction of the water works for the southern end of the Canal. It was planned that water would be taken from the Caimitillo arm of Miraflores Lake, pumped to the purification plant "to be located on the top of the Miraflores Hill immediately above the Miraflores spillway," and from there, by gravity flow, to a pump station at Ancon where electric pumps would force it into mains leading to Panama. Paraiso was selected as headquarters for all dredging operations for the Canal. A plan approved by the Chairman and Chief Engineer Ifi years ago in July provided that repair work on dredges then made at shops at both ends of the Canal would also be centralized in shops at Paraiso after water was turned into Culebra Cut. Construction work was started on the permanent electrical transmission line across the Isthmus. The system, described in the Canal Record as "simple and straightforward," provided for the transmission of electrical energy from "a source of generation at Gatun" to load centers at Miraflores, Balboa, and Cristobal. The transmission line, which was to parallel the Panama Railroad rightof-way, was to run from Cristobal to Balboa, permitting distribution of energy both ways from Gatun. Applications were received for the rent of Panama Railroad lots Nos. 1 and 2 on the waterfront at Cristobal. The United Fruit Company planned to build an office on one, the Canal Record stated, and th; Hamburg-American Line proposed to erect a two-story building on the other. The last of the three sluices through the ogee of Gatun Spillway Dam was closed and Gatun Lake started its final rise to its permanent level. A schedule was announced for the transfer of permanent buildings and the Canal shops from the town of Gorgona, one of the sites to be inundated as the lake stretched out to assume its final form. The concrete penitentiary building at Culebra, intended orginally as a laundry, was demolished because slides on the west bank of the Cut had menaced its stability. Convicts had been transferred to a stockade near the Mandingo River on the line of the Empire-Chorrera Road after they were moved from the building in 1911. They had been moved to a stockade at Gamboafor work on the Gamboa-Empire highway in January 1918. In an attempt to reduce the unofficial use of telephones installed for official business, the Panama Railroad Company installed automatic pay telephones at 16 clubhouses, commissaries, hotels, railroad stations and other points. The Panama Canal-Panama Railroad Company in 1943 led all United States Government agencies in the purchase of War Bonds, with 95 percent of the employees subscribing an average of about 15 percent of their salaries.

PAGE 12

12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 Money Brought Him To Panama; He Counted It For 36 Years Hundreds of thousands of dollars passed through the hands of Edward Howell in the 47 years he worked for the Canal before he left the organization at the end of July. He had been a clerk and money counter in the Treasurer's Office at Cristobal for 36 of those years. Unlike most amateur money handlers and self appointed financiers, the longtime clerk believes that he has made very few mistakes. "If I had made many," he explained realistically during the last month of work, "I probably wouldn't still be around." His supervisors use such terms as "accurate, honest, responsible, and dependable" to explain the employee and the caliber of his work. He frequently found around the office money a caller dropped from a billfold, perhaps, in the process of cashing a check. Once he discovered $50 neatly hidden beneath a blotter near the cashier's cage. In that case, the cashier remembered having paid someone that amount during the day and, with a little detective work, found the rightful owner. Cashiers in the Canal organization also have had reason for gratitude to the long time money counter. The bags of money that they send to the Treasurer's office sometimes contain a few pennies or a few dollars more or less than they have accounted for. Of course, that's Mr. Howell's job — to catch and rectify such errors. Like Apples on a Tree It was money that attracted Mr. Howell to the Canal Zone when he first came in 1906. He heard the stuff was "growing on the trees like apples" and came to see for himself. He was a bellhop in the Marine Hotel at home in Hastings, Barbados, when he made the great decision. He assumes he missed the money trees; the main things he remembers seeing when he got to the Isthmus were mudholes and mosquitoes "so big that when they stuck you, you saw blood." He first lived in a tent city labor camp, Otro Lado, on the "other side" of the Canal from Paraiso. He started to work digging holes, first for tower construction at Red Tank, then on a powder gang in the Mining Division, he said, where the holes he dug were filled with dynamite for the charges that blasted away the earth to dig the Panama Canal. His hands were soft and "peeled up" easily, he said, and he and his bosses decided that he wasn't husky enough for that kind of work. So he became a water boy, lugging big buckets equipped with drinking dippers to and from a spring in Paraiso, up hill and down hill, over the railroad tracks in the Canal prism and on slippery boardwalk "streets" in the towns. Rain— By Bucketfulls He explains that the boards used for walkways later were equipped with wooden cleats to make them a little less slippery after tropical rains. And it seemed to him that rain fell in those days continuously for two weeks — at a rate of about a bucket a drop. That job wasn't easy either, but it had its special compensations. He liked EDWARD HOWELL the foreman and the foreman liked liquor and paid the water boy from his pocket to bring Scotch as well as water on his rounds. On Sundays the men in the labor camps shared their "bathroom" with alligators, making use of the Rio Grande River for baths and weekly laundry. The old timer also recalls that in those early days the laborers were given lodging checks after a day's work in the Canal. If they didn't work, they didn't get a check and couldn't sleep in the camps. If they weren't in camps, they were picked up by the police and were provided their night's lodging in jail. Clearances Unnecessary In 1907, he quit his water-carrying job and decided to try working on the other side of the Isthmus. 'Clearances' for jobs weren't necessary then," he says. "No one checked up on you." On the Atlantic side, he went to work for a Health Department sanitary inspector. The inspector condemned old rotten buildings in the town and his helper pulled them down and burned them. That work wasn't easy either, and one Saturday when his bones ached he stayed home to rest up for Monday. He rested, but had no job when he returned to work. So he went to work for somebody else, this time the District Quartermaster at Cristobal and served as janitor and night watchman at the old Lincoln House from 1914 to 1917. Working on so-called "scavenger gangs," which cleaned Canal offices and quarters, he also did some of the cleaning work at the Cristobal Treasurer's office. Someone there became acquainted with the janitor and when the office needed a money counter, he was given the job that he held for the next 36 years. New Paraiso Buildings Near Completion As School Begins In Local Rale Towns {Continued from page 6) grade three the students have advanced enough to be interested in the problems of simple communities, and fourth graders will learn something of the problems of complex communities like the Canal Zone. By fifth grade they go farther afield and study "Panama and the Western Hemisphere," and sixth graders will devote their attention to "The Panama Canal and the World." Only a few changes have been made in the teaching staff for the colored schools. Gilberto Perez, who is wellknown in local musical circles, will teach instrumental music this year at La Boca junior and senior high schools. Reginald Prescott, who in past years divided his time between the two colored high schools, will teach at Rainbow City this year. ~%e most welcome kind of musical irij, years.'/ -88 v ^ ftotertt, ROBERT BASSLER Z.(\ toecedt, RICHARD SALE • '" sc.enpi.o, 1S0BEL LENNART HNlCO y Starts BALBOA THEATRE August 22, 23, 24

PAGE 13

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Veteran Employee Completes 42 Years With Panama Railroad When Enrique de la Ossa entered the service of the Panama Railroad on July 12, 1911, he was assistant freight clerk in the Receiving and Forwarding Agency at the French pier in La Boca (now Balboa). Now, after 42 busy years in many positions of trust and responsibility, he has been assigned to still another new job. Effective this month he became Special Agent for the Panama Railroad. In this new post his long and thorough knowledge of the Railroad's relations with business activities in Panama can be of great value. Mr. de la Ossa's service was commended in a recent letter from A. C. Medinger, Railroad and Terminals Director, when he said: "Effective August 1, 1953, you will be appointed to the position of Special Agent for the Railroad Division. This position has been authorized by the President in recognition of your long and loyal service to the Railroad. The position of Special Agent is also a very important one and while the duties are not so arduous, it is expected that your knowledge of local conditions and railroad freight operations will be of special value to the Railroad Division. "Please accept my congratulations on your having completed 42 years of service on July 12th, and of course, the best satisfaction we get out of a life-long ENRIQUE DE LA OSSA careeristhe knowledge of a job well done.' Old Isthmian Family Enrique de la Ossa's family is well known in the history of the Republic of Panama. Born in Panama City on February 23, 1888, he is the nephew of Dr. Manuel Amador, who became Panama's first president, and son of J. F. de la Ossa, Alcalde of Panama. His Restrictions On Commutation Of Leave Will Become Effective On September 1 Restrictions on the amount of leave which Canal employees can commute to cash on leaving the service become effective after the last day of this month. The new rule on commutation of leave was contained in legislation passed by Congress at this session amending the general leave laws applicable to all Federal Government employees. The new legislation does not affect the method of accruing leave nor the amount of leave which may be accumulated. The restrictions on leave commutation for Company-Government employees are: 1. A maximum which may be commuted of 720 hours for U. S.-rate employees and 416 for local-rate employees. 2. A limitation of 240 hours (30 work days) which may be commuted within the first year of employment. 3. A limitation of 324 hours (40K work days) for U. S.-rate employees and 208 hours (26 work days) for localrate employees which may be commuted on leaving the service within two years of employment. Some examples on how the rule on commuted leave will operate are given below: Mr. A., a U. S.-rate employee, was employed July 1, 1953. If he leaves the service 12 months later on June 30, 1954, he will have earned 324 hours of leave but only 240 hours of this may be commuted to cash. If he leaves the service 20 months later, February 28, 1955, he will have earned 540 hours but only 324 hours may be commuted to cash. In both instances, leave earned above the amount which may be commuted can be taken by Mr. A. before leavingthe service. Mr. B., a U. S.-rate employee, was employed January 1, 1950, and had 720 hours of accrued leave at the beginning of this year. If he leaves the service at the end of October of this year, he may take leave earned since last January but it may not be commuted on leaving the service. The same system will apply to localrate employees but it will require the establishment of leave service dates which heretofore have not been required. In the past Canal U. S.-rate employees could commute to cash all accumulated leave up to the accrued maximum of 720 hours plus the amount that might have been earned in the service year following accumulation of the maximum. Aside from amending the leave rules on commutation, the new legislation also bars the commutation of leave for any employee when transferring to another Government agency. Leave earned by the employee at the time of the transfer will be transferred on an adjusted basis when the leave systems of the two agencies differ. The new rules also provide for the payment of holiday time when accumulated leave is commuted to cash, a provision not hitherto provided in Canal leave regulations. father later became Supreme Court Justice, a post which he held until his death in 1936. In his honor Panama City named one of its busiest streets, J. F. de la Ossa Avenue, which most people know as "Automobile Row." Although he was very young, the younger de la Ossa fought for his country's independence. Then, with Panama safely a sovereign nation he was sent to complete his education in the United States where he quickly had to learn a language he had never spoken before. After finishing his schooling in 1908, and in order to have a practical knowledge of commercial activities, he worked at the Panama Consulate in New York City and then for two export firms. In 1911 he returned to the Isthmus where he entered the service of the Panama Railroad. He had then, and has since, many opportunities to work elsewhere but he turned down all offers, to continue his railroad service. Gold Over the Piers In his first job as way-bill clerk, he was closely in touch with the thousands of tons of cargo which were discharged in Balboa each month from South or Central America or the Far East for transshipment across the Isthmus by rail. For some time he was specie clerk, responsible for gold or other precious material which came in cargo. Day after day, he took part in the cargo movements on the pier, receiving and forwarding freight as the Canal neared completion. In 1911, 1,871,076 tons of freight crossed the Isthmus by railroad; the following year the figure was well above the two million mark. Shipments from the Pacific side outweighed those southbound. The year after the Canal was opened, slides blocked it completely for several months. Shipowners nastily arranged for a transfer of bottoms; cargo which had been destined for transit through the Canal was transshipped by rail and reloaded into ships on the other side of the Isthmus. Pier and shipping facilities were strained. Moved to Pier 18 When Pier 18 was opened, on April 1, 1916, Mr. de la Ossa's office was transferred there and in 1922 he was made cargo clerk in charge of the piers. His job also involved boarding and doing agency work for all lines for which the Panama Railroad was agent. In 1928 he was promoted to stevedore foreman and in 1934 was made head stevedore foreman. He held this post only a few months when he was made Assistant to the Receiving and Forwarding Agent. Early in 1941 he was transferred to Panama City as Local Agent at a time when the Panama terminal was completely congested. He succeeded in relieving this situation, and maintained it. "I've been through two wars with the Panama Railroad," Mr. de la Ossa said the other day. "World War I came along while I was at Pier 18; I served the second World War in the Panama freight yards." Busy years they were too, then and afterward. In 1941, when he was transferred to Panama City, trans-Isthmian revenue freight was 1,073,767 tons in a year, almost double normal shipments. In all these busy years, Mr. de la Ossa has handled all of this volume of freight. Now, after 42 years, he will have a chance to take things a little easier.

PAGE 14

14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 AUGUST SAILINGS PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS From Cristobal Panama August 7 Cristobal August 14 A neon August 2 1 Panama August 28 From New York Cristobal August 4 Anion August 11 Panama August 18 Cristobal August 25 (Northbound, the ships are in Haiti from 7 a. m. to noon Sunday; southbound, the Haiti stop is Saturday from 7 a. m. to 4 p. m.) June 15 through July 15 ANNIVERSARIES Employees who observed important anniversaries during the month of July are listed alphabetically below. The number of years includes all Government service with the Canal or other agencies. Those with continuous service with the Canal are indicated with (*). 45 YEARS Joseph C. Hannigan, Lockmaster, Atlantic Locks. 42 YEARS *Enrique de la Ossa, Local Agent, Panama City, Railroad and Terminals Bureau. 41 YEARS George H. Cassell, Housing Manager, Balboa. 40 YEARS •Emmett Zemer, Safety Inspector, Community Services Bureau. 35 YEARS Hans P. Pedersen, Foreman, Barge Repair Station, Dredging Division. 30 YEARS H. Conrad Dodson, Supervising Accounting Clerk, Comptroller's Office. Frank W. Hohmann, Cash Accounting Clerk, Comptroller's Office. John R. McLavy, Chemist, Health Bureau. Alan S. Wallace, Pilot. 25 YEARS John M. Fahnestock, Captain of Police, Cristobal District. Beatrice S. Gardner, High School Teacher, Balboa. Frances M. Grigge!, Supply Assistant (Drygoods), Commissary Division. George A. Halloran, Heavy Labor Foreman, Maintenance Division. Russel J. Jones, Chief, Cost Accounts Branch. George O. Lee, Instructor, Jr. College. William F. Mornhinweg, Jr., Electrical Supervisor, Pacific Locks. 20 YEARS *Harry F. Butz, Superintendent, Atlantic Area, Water and Laboratories Branch. James O. Catron, Policeman. "Frances A. Hunter, Clerk, Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff. Guy R. Lord, Chief Sr. Engineer (Towboat), Ferry Service. William G. Rowe, Chief Sr. Engineer (Towboat), Navigation Division. John P. Smith, Jr., Chief, Division of Sanitation. 15 YEARS Elmer G. Abbott, Assistant Port Captain, Balboa. Glenn H. Burdick, Clerk, Electrical Division. Charles E. Chase, Cribtender Foreman and Gauger, Terminals Division. John W. Dwyer, Jr., Fireman, Fire Division. Philip A. Hale, Jr., Storekeeper, Pacific Locks. *J. Rufus Hardy, Press Representative. *David W. Hawthorne, Supervisory Coffee Specialist, Commissary Division. Anita H. McKeown, Accounting Clerk, Comptroller's Office. Walter M. Rader, Guard, Pacific Locks. Employees who were promoted or transferred between June 15 and July 15 are listed below. Regradings and within-grade promotions are not listed. ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Mrs. Beatrice E. Lee, from Records Administrator, Records Section, to Passenger Traffic Clerk, Transportation Section. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Billy W. Cole, from Property and Supply Clerk, Commissary Division, to Postal Clerk. Mrs. Eileen M. O'Brien, from Substitute Teacher to Physical Education Teacher. Earl R. Hatten, from Policeman to Fireman. Richard B. Hoard, from Guard, Atlantic Locks, to Fireman. Donald H. Boland, from File Clerk, Personnel Records Division, to Postal Clerk. Carleton F. Hallett, Frank J. Bartlett, Kenneth T. Daly, James V. Bartlett, from Fireman to Fire Sergeant. Chester W. Pearson, from Fireman to Policeman. Jay L. Pittington, from Guard, Pacific Locks, to Policeman. Sigurd E. Esser, from Director, Secondary Education, to Director of Schools. Roger W. Collinge, from Director, Elementary Education, to Assistant Superintendent and Director of Elementary Education. Charles A. Dubbs, from Training Officer, Personnel Bureau, to Director, Secondary Education, Schools Division. COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU Mrs. Annie R. Rathgeber, from ClerkStenographer, Clubhouse Division, to ClerkTypist, Office of Director. Beauford J. Hartley, General Operator, from Division of Sanitation to Grounds Maintenance Division. OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER Mrs. Marion E. Troup, from Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk, to Retirement Clerk, Payroll Branch. John W. D. Collins, from Timekeeper, Pacific Locks Overhaul, to Construction Cost Analyst, Plant Inventory and Appraisal Staff. Richard M. Coy, from Accounting Clerk, Electrical Division, to Accountant, Internal Audit Staff. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Frank H. Robinson, from Policeman to Engineering Aid, Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch. John W. Short, from Powerhouse Operator to Senior Powerhouse Operator, Electrical Division. David V. Kennedy, from Hydraulic Engineer, Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch, to Civil Engineer, Maintenance Division. Robert Van Wagner, Administrative Assistant, from Maintenance Division to Office of Maintenance Engineer. Robert F. Ausenmer, from Policeman, Police Division, to Apprentice Powerhouse Operator, Electrical Division. Mrs. Barbara G. Aycock, Clerk-Stenographer, from Division of Schools to Electrical Division. William G. Mutnmaw, Anthony J. Kucikas, from Carpenter Leader to Leader, Quarters Maintenance, Maintenance Division. Mrs. Marian M. Langford, from ClerkTypist to Accounting Clerk, Electrical Division. Verna E. Kelly, from Student Assistant to Clerk-Typist, Electrical Division. William J. Leddy, from Plumbing Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division, to Plumber, Maintenance Division. HEALTH BUREAU Mary L. Azcarraga, Clerk-Stenographer, from Administrative Section to Gorgas Hospital. Mrs. Esther V. Swift, from Medical Technician (chemistry), Board of Health Laboratory, to Medical Technician (general), Colon Hospital. Maj. Charles G. Kendall, from Pacific Dental Clinics to Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Michael J. Takos, from Resident to Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Virgilio Peralta P., from Intern to Resident, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. John L. Winkler, Dr. Robert V. Balfour, Dr. Ernest O. Svenson, from Intern to Medical Officer, Pacific Medical Clinics. Col. Merrill C. Davenport, from Medical Officer to Chief, Medical Service, Gorgas Hospital. Donald N. Zeese, from Superintendent, Street Cleaning and Refuse Collection, Division of Sanitation, to Medical Equipment Repairman, Ambulance Service. INDUSTRIAL BUREAU David A. Hope, from Student Assistant, Dredging Division, to Apprentice Welder, Industrial Bureau. MARINE BUREAU George E. Riley, Jr., from Signalman to Supervisory Signalman, Navigation Division. Kenneth L. Bailey, from Dock Foreman to Shipbuilding Inspector, Navigation Division. William T. O'Connor, from Supervisory Signalman to Dock Foreman, Navigation Division. John M. Klasovsky, from Lock Operator Leader Wireman to Control House Operator, Atlantic Locks. Merrill T. Webster, from Lock Operator Wireman to Lock Operator Leader Wireman, Atlantic Locks. Ralph W. Henderson, Joseph Quintal, from Machinist, Locks Overhaul, to Lock Operator Machinist, Pacific Locks. James P. Johnson, Norman R. Hutchinson, from Pilot-in-Training, to Probationary Pilot, Navigation Division. Henning J. Spilling, from Stevedore Foreman, Terminals Division, to Towboat Master, Navigation Division. James A. Schofield, from Machinist, Industrial Bureau, to Lock Operator Machinist, Atlantic Locks. Eugene White, from Gauger and Cribtender Foreman, Terminals Division, to Signalman, Navigation Division. Everette N. Clouse, Combination Welder, from Maintenance Division to Dredging Division. William E. Johnson, from Third Assistant Marine Engineer, U. S. Taboga, to Chief Towboat Engineer, Navigation Division. Anthony J. Catanearo, Machinist, from Industrial Bureau to Dredging Division. Harvey B. Trower, Towboat Master, from Dredging Division to Ferry Service. John A. Taylor, from Maintenance Mechanic, Colon Hospital, to Guard, Atlantic Locks. RAILROAD AND TERMINALS BUREAU Edward H. Bensen, from Junior High School Teacher, Schools Division, to Gauger and Cribtender Foreman, Terminals Division. Henry C. Freeman, from Public Works Foreman, Maintenance Division, to Stevedore Foreman, Terminals Division. SUPPLY AND SERVICE BUREAU Leo J. Krziza, from Accounting Clerk to Administrative Assistant, Motor Transportation Division. Michael I. Crooks, from Supervisor, Light Equipment, to Supervisor, Motor Transportation Division. William A. Cawl, from Commissary Assistant, to Storekeeper (Shipping-Receiving), Commissary Division. George E. Lowery, from Meat Cutter to Meat Cutter-in-charge, Commissary Division. Charles P. Shay, from Commissary Manager to Assistant to Chief, Retail Stores, Commissary Division. Ralph A. Nelson, from Lock Overhaul Foreman, Pacific Locks Overhaul, to Gauger, Division of Storehouses. Stanley M. Hamilton, from Supervisory Clerk, Hotel Tivoli, to Supervisory Administrative Assistant, Hotel Washington. Bart J. Elich, from Assistant to Chief, Retail Stores, Commissary Division, to Assistant to Supply and Service Director. Paul H. Friedman, from Assistant to Supply and Service Director to Assistant Director. Joseph H. White, from Car Loading Foreman, Commissary Division, to Supervisory Storekeeper, Division of Storehouses

PAGE 15

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 Security Check Of Sensitive Positions Will Require 12-18 Months To Complete The security review check of all employees of the Canal organization, now being conducted by the Internal Security Branch, is a normal, routine check of all employees of the U. S. Federal Government. It is not a "witch hunt" or something new and menacing. It is required by a recent Executive Order, establishing security requirements for government employees, and setting up "sensitive" positions in the Federal service. A "full-field investigation," which means that a thorough check is made of sources furnishing background on the employee's activities, must be made of every employee occupying a sensitive position. The order, dated last April 27 and numbered 10450, is designed to weed out from government positions everywhere all persons not suited for government employment. This would affect not only those who might traffic with or be sympathetic to an unfriendly nation but also those who for such reasons as mental or moral instability are poor security risks. Between 12 and 18 months will be required to complete the investigation of occupants of "sensitive" positions in the Canal organization, according to word from the Internal Security Branch which is handling the Company-Government's Security Program. "Sensitive" positions, generally defined, are whose whose occupants: 1. May have access to security information classified as "confidential," "secret," or "top secret," or 2. May have the opportunity to commit acts which directly or indirectly could have an adverse effect on national security. The local action is in accord with that taken in all government organizations, in the United States or overseas, and is required by Executive Order No. 10450. The somewhat complicated forms which employees in positions considered as "sensitive" are now filling out are similar to those used in the other government agencies. A sheet of instructions accompanies each form and personnel of the Internal Security Branch stand ready to assist employees by answering special questions which may not have been covered by the general instructions. A large number of employees have already been assisted in filling out their questionnaires. Every employee of the Canal organization is subject to a security investigation in one form or another. For those in nonsensitive positions, this usually consists only of employee personnel and record files being reviewed and reevaluated. All investigative reports containing derogatory information on Canal employees are evaluated in the office of the Chief, Internal Security Branch. If the derogatory information is verified, the report is given further administrative review by the Lieutenant Governor to determine if the employee concerned is to be suspended or removed from work of any sort until his case has been finally decided. Such an employee will be notified in writing of the reasons for the suspension. He has the right to submit, within 30 days, through the Chief, Internal Security Branch, statements and affidavits refuting the charges on which the suspension is based. These statements will be reviewed and a recommendation for disposition of the case will be submitted to the Governor, who may then: 1. Restore the suspended employee to duty; in such case the employee will be compensated for the period of suspension. 2. Transfer the employee to another position within the Company-Government. 3. Terminate the employment of the suspended individual. In addition to the foregoing protection, which is guaranteed to all CompanyGovernment employees, United States citizens, who have completed the probationary period in permanent or indefinite appointments, are entitled to: 1. A written statement of charges. 2. An opportunity to answer charges. 3. A hearing before an impartial board. 4. A review by the Governor of the board's findings. Ten Years Ago In July Captain George Herman was named Assistant Chief of the Police and Fire Division. The new Police Chief A. O. Meyer, named a month before, was given the rank of Major. A new regulation was placed in effect providing that persons employed by The Panama Canal in the United States for service on the Isthmus would be required to agree to remain in service for a full year or reimburse the organization for travel expenses. The new Canal Zone Air Terminal was formally opened. The first plane to use the new airport was a Panagra airliner, southbound for Lima. The terminal building had been completed about a month earlier but the opening had been delayed because of faults in the air conditioning system. W. M. Whitman, Attorney in the General Counsel's Office, was named Assistant General Counsel of The Panama Canal and Assistant Counsel for the Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus. WELL DRESSED BABIES no longer wear only pink or blue. Dame Fashion has decreed and the clothing industry has deferred to baby clothes of maize and mint or almost any other light color that appeals to mothers. Following the little fashion lead, the Commissaries have new infants' dress and slip sets trimmed in maize and mint and colored gripper diaper pants and shirts of yellow. A SEVEN-MINUTE Huffy frosting mix is one of the new kitchen time and labor savers coming to the Commissaries this month. A six-ounce package will cost about 30 cents. "RediTall and Cool ounce about or mor tea of Tea," expected in the stores in August, will eliminate the boiling, steeping, cooling and sugaring involved in serving iced tea. It is a liquid to which you add only water to make this cooling drink. An eightbottle, White Rose brand, will cost 23 cents. The directions say "use two e teaspoonsful to make a glass of iced the desired strength." A new shipment of Heywood-Wakefield New furniture, of Monticello cherry Furniture and maple, is now in the stores. GOOD GOLF OVERSHOES with steel spikes are now in the stores. They cost $4.75. "NYLAST," also expected this month, is a new "shampoo" for nylon hose which the manufacturer says will double their wearing time. DuPont makes the vital ingredient in the washing fluid. Aficionados of Italian food — and who isn't? — will be glad to know there is a Pizza new pizza mix. It comes in a Pies package that includes the sauce and is expected during August. A 125^-ounce package will cost about 50 cents. "WHITE SHOULDERS" perfume and cologne will be in the stores in August. An upright barbecue grill, expected soon in the Commissaries, provides not Charcoal one, but three cooking surBroiled faces, one on top in the conventional style and two vertical cooking surfaces on the sides. Those on the sides keep grease from dripping on the fire and can also be used as a windbreak if it's that kind of a day or night. The vertical grills, that barbecue, broil, and fry, are of two sizes, 24x30x12 '4 and 12 x 30 x 24 inches. BROWN 'N SERVE SAUSAGE is a new purchase cold storage people are crowing about. It will cook in three minutes without the waste that usually characterizes frying sausage. It is a Swift product, packed in one-half pound packages that will cost about 50 cents, and is expected in the stores in August. Men's underwear shorts of dacron, one of the new fabric "miracles" that is Dacron long wearing and needs no Shorts ironing, are expected in the stores late in August. They will cost about $3.50. Car pens for babies, new in the stores, can be used either as the usual baby Safe car seat or, with the seat Riding dropped down, form a pen in which baby can stretch and stand, held securely where he belongs. LOWRY'S seasoned table salt is another new product that will arrive soon in the grocery sections. It contains spices, sugar, monosodium glulamale, onion, garlic, herbs, cornstarch, and artificial flavoring. A fourounce tin will cost about 30 cents. Deductions Authorized For Eye Glass Purchases The purchase of eye glasses at the Commissaries may now be made by payroll deduction. The plan was recently approved by the Office of the Comptroller. The purchase of eye glasses by payroll deduction was suggested in a letter to R. L. Sullivan, General Manager of the Commissary Division, from H. W. Rerrie, Second Vice President of Local 900, CIO. Mr. Rerrie called attention in his letter to the desirability of such a plan for local-rate employees.

PAGE 16

16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of the fiscal year 1938 comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panam: are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time i Canal, statistics for than those for 1939. 1929 FREE 616 [XSMALL 292; i OCEAN -GOING, COMMERCIAL 6289 1952 •••••• small :•:•: ;COMMERCIAL' ^ < > N> J I A l* A A h TOLLSs r CREDITS > r l203 r 'A I A J OCEAN-GOING COMMERCIAL ;/.y:V6524V;y;': 1953 K-. •:• small :• ^COMMERCIALS :: .1294 •:•• v TOLLS s r CREDITS r a 1466 w AN-GOING. TRANSITS 1929 1952 1953 1929 1952 1953 OCEAN-GOING lCOMMERCIAL 27585 000 :OCEAN-GOING •.COMMERCIAL'. :-30 674 302 > r_ h > .y r* -i -J r .TOLLS < J CREDITS <\ $3,413,728 .TOLLS CREDITS J n $5,526,038 • small and ocean-going; •commercial '$26 995'772 SMALL AND ,OCEAN -GOING ^COMMERCIAL P. C. TONNAGE LARGE COMMERCIAL TOLLS COLLECTED Transit, Tolls, Tonnage Comparisons Tell Story A GRAPHIC STORY of the upsurge of shipping through the Panama Canal is told in the chart above showing comparisons of transits, tolls, and net tonnage of vessels for the three peak years in the Canal's 39 years of operation. The number of ocean-going commercial transits exceeded 600 in ten of the months in the past fiscal year and complete new records were set in both monthly and annual traffic statistics. The records for Canal traffic and tolls S3t in 1929 were unbroken until 1952 when the increase in shipping established new high marks in ocean-going commercial transits and net vessel tonnage. A new record in tolls was set in the past fiscal year, exceeding the previous record of $27,128,000 by more than $4,750,000. Tolls and tolls credit for the past fiscal year were approximately $7,135,000. The fiscal years 1952 and 1953 were the first in which credit for tolls on U. S. Government shipping has been shown in the financial statistics of the Canal. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years Month Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars) 1953 1952 1938 1953 1952 103S July. 529 463 457 $2,343 $1,981 $2,030 533 490 505 2,288 2,103 2,195 615 516 444 2,636 2,189 1,936 October 673 544 461 2,910 2,230 1,981 November 620 502 435 2,611 2,053 1,893 December 626 550 439 2,679 2,347 1,845 January . 632 522 444 2,690 2,121 1,838 February .. .. __ 616 507 436 2,597 2.IIS2 1,787 March 678 613 506 2,884 2,512 2,016 April 628 601 487 2,733 2,423 1,961 May 650 622 465 2,861 2,481 1,887 June . 610 594 445 2,686 2,401 1,801 Totals for fiscal year 7,410 6,524 5,524 $31,918 $26,923 $23,170

PAGE 17

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 ,-' .--"' ,--~ (/) 1947 *& z ,, tot*. l/> 1 o r k _-/-lt ^ -, ." K TOTAL TPANS/TS fc i ** co^S^" l/> i / -^-fS <' i/) (~~\ \ r J "' ,' J < t 1 s \X" \> I\ Xj f 7 COM W£ HCIAL TffAWSi rs fjwiPi or on" jog nrr rfiiit rofi} / jf -— FISCAL YEAR CANAL'S BANNER YEAR EXCEEDS FORECASTS MADE BY SEVERAL WELL-KNOWN ANALYSTS No soothsayer ever had a more troublesome time with his predictions than the many experts for the past half century in forecasting Panama Canal traffic for any appreciable period. Because of the extreme fluctuations in the number of ships moving through the Canal as reflected by world changes of an economic or political nature, the long-range traffic trends are all but unpredictable. The past fiscal year, however, since the number of transits and total net tonnage figures far exceeded former records, was a banner one for all forecasters except the most optimistic. The accompanying chart above shows the prediction of Dr. Roland L. Kramer in 1947 on Canal transits for the last half of this century. Dr. Kramer, Professor of Commerce and Transportation at the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce of the University of Pennsylvania, was employed as a traffic consultant for the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947. Kramer Estimated Low As indicated on the chart, the number of ocean-going commercial transits and total transits both exceeded his predictions for the first time. In making his estimate of future traffic trends, Dr. Kramer added 7.4 percent to cover the factor of through or partial transits for Panama Canal equipment. Since the lines indicating traffic from 1947 through 1953 show actual transits, his prediction on total traffic for the past year was well under the actual number. The first of many forecasts of Panama Canal traffic was made about 50 years ago for the first Isthmian Canal Commission by Dr. Emory R. Johnson, also Professor of Transportation and Commerce at the University of Pennsylvania. His estimate was contained in reports prepared on the industrial and commercial value of a canal. His second forecast, and one which was remarkably accurate, was prepared shortly before the Canal was opened in 1914 while serving as Special Commissioner on Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls. Suez A Factor Since the Canal was opened, numerous predictions on traffic have been made which were based on long range studies of world trade trends and other factors known to affect the movement of interoceanic shipping. In most cases, the prognosticated took into consideration the movement of traffic through the Suez Canal because the many years of its operation made possible a study of longrange trends in sea-borne commerce. Most of the predictions dealt with tonnage figures rather than the number of transits. Without a careful analysis of each forecast separately it is difficult to make comparisons between predictions and actual statistics. However, the following summarizes some of the predictions of expert analysts in comparison with figures on traffic during the past fiscal year. All figures are in round numbers and predicted tonnage is approximate, since estimates were made in , .. *\ essels under Jut) Panama Canal net tons or 500 displacement tons. five-year periods. Dates of the predlC"Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated tions are shown in parentheses. ships transited free. Net tonnage, commercial vessels over 300 tons, fiscal year 1953 __ 3<>, 500, 000 Net tonnage, tolls credit vessels, 1953 6,500,000 Total net tonnage, fiscal year 1953 43,000,000 C. S. Ridley (1923) .41,200,000 Harrv Burgess and R. A. Wheeler (1929) 50,000,000 Sydney B. Williamson (192931) 51,900,000 Grover G. Huebner (1936) 37,500,000 Roland L. Kramer (1947) 36,600,000 The forecast made by General Ridley, former Panama Canal Governor, was made while serving as Assistant Engineer of Maintenance. His estimate was based on 1924 figures projected to 1925 which failed to materialize and therefore his forecast is somewhat higher than it would have been had he used the actual 1925 traffic figures. The estimates prepared by Governor Burgess and General Wheeler when the latter was serving as Assistant Engineer of Maintenance were based primarily on a review of traffic statistics for both Suez and Panama Canals. The figures used were based on measurement rules in effect prior to 1938 and therefore the total figure of 50,000,000 net tons is somewhat higher than if the estimate were translated to present rules of measurement. Mr. Williamson's estimate of future Canal traffic was made while serving as the Officer-in-Charge of the 1929-31 Nicaraguan Canal Survey. It was based on the interrelation of world shipping, Panama Canal traffic, and Suez Canal traffic over the years 1890 to 1930, inclusive. Dr. Huebner, another Professor of Commerce and Transportation at the University of Pennsylvania, prepared his estimate while employed by a special committee to report on Canal tolls and rules of measurement. It was based on tonnage of Suez traffic from 1870 to 1935 and Panama Canal general cargo tonnage figures from 1923 to 1936. When Sea Level Is Not Sea Level And Why The Tides Are Different (Continued from page 4) gates. The tidal lock would be on a channel by-pass; operated much as are the present locks, it would have a chamber 200 feet wide and 1,500 feet long. In the normal operation of the tidal regulation structures, the navigable pass would be open when the Pacific tides are near mean sea level, and during these periods traffic would be routed through the pass. During tidal stages which would produce channel currents over the limited current velocity, the navigable pass would be closed and traffic routed through the tidal lock. CANAL TRANSITS— COMMERCIAL AND U S. GOVERNMENT • Fiscal Year 1953 1952 1938 Atlantii to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: 3,674 3,7.56 7,410 6,524 5,524 Small 656 638 1,294 1,401 931 Total commercial.. 4,330 4,374 8,704 7,925 6,455 **U. S. Government vessels: Ocean-going ... 698 366 1,064 774 f i 441 Small 201 201 402 429 Total commercial and U. S. Government. 5,229 4,941 10,170 9,128 6,896

PAGE 18

18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 Governor Receives Letter From Panama Landlords High praise for the efficiency of the personnel connected with the water management contract and the garbage and trash collection in Panama City has been publicly expressed by the Panama Proprietors Association. Both the water management contract administered by the Maintenance Division and the garbage and trash collection work of the Health Bureau in Panama and Colon terminated at the end of June. Appreciation for the manner in which the work was done was expressed in a letter to Governor Seybold from Carlos A. Patterson, Secretary of the Panama Proprietors Association, who said in part: "The Panama Association of Proprietors, in the name of all the landlords in Panama, is pleased to acknowledge publicly in writing the sincere appreciation felt toward the heads and personnel of the Water Office and the Garbage Collection Department, who worked so faithfully and efficiently until June 30. "The high spirit of justice which beats in every Panamanian breast moves us to make public acknowledgment and, in a very special way, to all Canal Zone resident citizens, of the just recognition of the work of these services as performed by the American personnel for the Republic of Panama over a long period of years." Plans Proceeding For Conversion Of Zone Electricity To 60-Cycles (Continued from page I) proponents of the 60-cycle idea obtained medical opinion that the 25-cycle current would produce eye strain, while 25-cycle advocates held that excessive reading, by any frequency, would be detrimental to eyesight. The question arose again at the time Madden hydroelectric station was built in the early 1930's, and serious thought has again been given to the matter since about 1950. Main Routes Gain As Canal Shipping Has Record Year (Continued from page I) previous year. Both dry cargo tonnage and tanker traffic increased last year on the United States intercoastal route, with the former making up 81 percent of the total tonnage during 1953. Mineral oils, coal and coke, and manufactures of iron and steel were the three leading commodities shipped through the Canal last year from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The three principal commodities in the Pacific to Atlantic trade were various ores, lumber, and wheat. The gain in commodity shipments through the Canal last year over 1952 fiscal year was principally in the trade moving from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Commodity shipments in this direction totaled 17,329,000 long tons in 1953, an increase of 2,200,000 tons over 1952. Only a slight gain was shown in the tonnage of commodities shipped through the Canal from the Pacific to the Atlantic, the total amount in 1953 being 18,766,000 tons, as compared with 18,482,000 tons in the previous year. TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the cargo shipments in thousands of long tons, of commercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: FISCAL YEAR 1953 1952 1938 United States Intercoastal ______ 4,871 4,279 6,395 5,176 5,098 2,652 East Coast of V. S. and Central America 552 528 46 East Coast of U. S., Canada, and Far East__ 7,848 6,283 4,912 U. S. /Canada East Coast and Australasia 1,456 1,634 992 Europe and West Coast of U. S./Canada__ 4,036 5,970 4,237 1,491 1,706 9 974 Europe and Australasia __ 2,137 2,478 1,251 All other routes 8,528 5,635 3,927 Total Traffic _ 36,095 33,611 27,386 Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels Fiscal Years Nationality 1953 1952 1938 Number of transits Tony, of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo 3 2 13,670 10,300 2 18,507 7 1,267 49 24 109 10 6,319 7.967.866 209,541 211,855 115,389 36.370 British 1,365 59 37 144 9 7,877,279 322.415 291,480 144,654 57,651 1,281 9 2 6,417,016 28,787 13.113 Colombian-. Costa Rican.2 223 206 152 884 888 88,305 206 143 978,969 98,104 865 235 2 4,695 2 3 141 230 92 2 400 1,000 15.177 566,524 352,899 829,097 1 ,860 570,321 2 134 30 89 2 476 7,680 559,073 105,632 814,429 3,152 575,457 1 105 357 94 4,021 567,288 1,518,593 Greek 525,351 Houduran 22 5 8,478 24,411 3 26 1 86 105 746 15,164 9,220 462,451 696 794 Iri^h 28 1 141 320 21,181 9,700 677,501 2.113,273 Italian 52 300 3 153,417 1.877,502 4,900 131 10 4 112 17 877 444 22 25 930.937 34,078 25.672 4i)5,387 7,571 3,303.375 2,592.208 50.159 145.044 106 7 337,271 19,916 Netherland Nicaraguan Norwegian Panamanian 106 2 850 352 17 27 5 566,607 1,027 3,067,799 1,858,041 15,788 159. 2')') 21.167 285 749,012 667 182 5 3 3,433,571 415,561 7.151 Philippine__ 8,441 5 2 110 10,419 35 182 6 2,165 43 154.251 755.324 44,753 12,661 .041 66.376 22 165 11 2,084 19 130.992 761,701 58.567 13,693,521 30,095 15,280 Swedish 763,049 United States Venezuelan. 1,780 4 14 9,892,619 3,971 73,413 Total 7,410 36,095,349 6,524 33,610,509 5,524 27,385,924 CARGO HANDLED OVER PIERS (In Short Tons) Fiscal Year 1953 1952 1938 Cristobal Balboa Total All Piers All Piers 1 ,' .il cargo received 282,745 118,349 401,094 425,912363,699 Local cargo forwarded 43,108 85,612 128,720 158,884 52,081 Transfer cargo received 270,427 12,209 282,636 359,890 555,725 Total incoming cargo handled. 596,280 216,170 812,450 944,686 971,505 Reh. milled cargo 11,709 1,073 12,782 12,979 8,683 [i.in-Ui i argo forwarded. 285,053 11,658 296,711 362,451 550,099 Total cargo handled and transferred.. 895,0-12 228,901 1,121,943 1.320,116 1,530,287

PAGE 19

August 7, 1953 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 Hospital Insurance, Quarters Assignments Discussed At July Employee Conference {.Continued from page 8) assignments in Balboa had been so declined. Other subjects brought up in the conference were: A change in the swimming pool schedules from that originally announced; Balboa pool will be opened seven days and other pools six days weekly; Discontinuance of the Diablo rubbish dump and inauguration of a new dump in the hills behind Red Tank; The expected demolition of all buildings in Red Tank by Christmas, 1953; Proposed transfer to Margarita of the Atlantic side drivers' license examiner, who is a police officer and whose presence could give Margarita a more personalized service than it has at present as a call station (This proposal was objected to by several Atlantic side conferees, and is being studied further); Service Credit A renewed request that part-time or "Silver Roll" service be credited toward U. S.-rate housing assignments; and an estimate that 100 to 150 employees would be affected by this change; the Personnel Director will undertake a study; Quarters maintenance, to be reported at August conference; Reduction of hours and cooked food service at the Gamboa Clubhouse, now contemplated instead of closing the clubhouse as originally proposed; this will be discussed further by the Lieutenant Governor with a delegation from Gamboa; Parking at the Balboa post office, where the number of parking spaces was recently curtailed; accidents in this area have dropped sharply; the administration feels return to angle parking would be a step backward; Anniversary Stickers A protest that residents of New Cristobal have to buy Panamanian 50th anniversary stickers before their cars can be given the required semi-annual inspection; the Lieutenant Governor as matter of priority is investigating legality and possible relief; New regulations on commutation of leave pay when an employee resigns or retires (covered elsewhere in this issue); And a general round-table discussion, with a basic explanation by Colonel Paxson, of Company-Government financing. New Representatives Attending the July conference were: Col. H. 0. Paxson, Acting Governor; F. G. Dunsmoor, Administrative Assistant to the Governor; E. A. Doolan, Personnel Director; Norman Johnson, Labor Relations Counsellor; Mr. Donovan, Community Services Director, and Mr. Cassell, of the Housing Division; Sherman Brooks, the Rev. Raymond A. Gray, Sam Roe, Jr., Carl Nix, and Elmer Powell, all from Civic Councils; Chester Luhr, Pacific Locks Employees; H. C. Simpson, Marine Engineers; Robert Daniel, Railroad Conductors; F. L. Wertz, Railroad Engineers; for the Central Labor Union and its affiliates: Walter Wagner, E. J. Husted, Rufus Lovelady, Carl F. Maedl, J. P. Boukalis, Sam Garriel, Henry Chenevert; Mrs. H. T. Longmore, Citizens' Association; Captain Fred M. Weade, Pilots (both of the latter organizations represented for the first time). Here's Where They Moved A series of changes in Canal office assignments which began early in May is now nearing completion. The principal changes and new office locations are summarized as follows: The Treasurer's Office, Claims Branch and Agency Accounts Branch, all of the Comptroller's Office, have moved to Building 5142 in Diablo Heights. The Supply and Service Director's Office is now in Rooms 262 270 while the Comptroller and his immediate staff, as well as the Accounting Systems Staff, now occupy all offices on the second floor of the west wing of the Administration Building. The Management Staff of the Comptroller's Office has moved to Room 112. The Locks Division headquarters are now located at Pedro Miguel Locks. The Wage and Classification Division has moved to Room 102 of the Administration Building with other Personnel Bureau units. The Internal Security Branch has moved to the former Treasurer's office on the first floor. The rooms vacated by this office on the third floor of the Administration Building are now occupied by the Community Services Director. The Real Estate Unit has been transferred from Diablo Heights to the third floor of the Administration Building. The Survey Branch is now located in the former Diablo Heights Fire Station. RETIREMENTS IN JULY Retirement certificates were presented the end of July to the following employees who are listed alphabetically, together with their birthplaces, titles, length of service and future addresses: Mrs. Mary L. Clements, Ohio; Commissary Assistant, Ancon; 32 years, 3 months, 10 days; Lutz, Fla. Ross H. Hollowell, Ohio; Estimator and Planner, Industrial Bureau; 34 years, 2 months, 16 days; Hendersonville, N. C Robert W. Hutchings, Mississippi; Assistant Auto Repair Foreman, Motor Transportation Division; 30 years, 8 months, 1 day; San Jose, Calif. Yard A. Kerruish, Missouri; Steward, Clubhouse Division; 22 years, 10 months, 24 days; St. Petersburg, Fla. Godfrey B. Pacetti, Florida; Fleet Machinist, Dredging Division; 23 years, 5 months, 13 days; Panama. Norman E. Rocker, Nebraska; Administrative Assistant, Office of Engineering and Construction Director; 34 years, 6 months, 27 days; California. Irl R. Sanders, Kentucky; Control House Operator, Atlantic Locks; 25 years, 8 months, 12 days; Glasgow, Kv. William C. Smith, Kentucky; Control House Supervisor, Atlantic Locks; 30 years, 2 months, 22 days; Miami, Fla. Frank Turman, Connecticut; Plumbing Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division; 12 years, 10 months, 9 days; Lorain, Ohio. Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in thousands of long tons) Figures in parentheses in 1938 and 1952 columns indicate relative positions in those years ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Mineral oils Coal and coke Manufactures of iron and steel Sugar Soy beans and products Phosphates Sulphur Paper and paper products Cement Barley Machinery Automobiles Rice Tinplate Raw cotton All others Total Fiscal Year 1953 4,936 2,996 1,501 780 475 433 387 354 325 305 300 266 257 229 207 3,578 17,329 1952 3,704 (1) 2,061 (2) 1,635 (3) 476 (5) 181 (16) 777 (4) 309 (9) 453 (6) 296 (10) (*) 312 (8) 345 (7) 243 (13) 246 (12) 271 (11) 3,820 15,129 1938 907 (3). 137(15) 1,859 (1) 57 (31) 328 (6) 297 (7) 423 (5) 154(11) (*) 168 (10) 208 (9) 238 (8) 142 (13) 4,771 9,689 (*) Included with miscellaneous grains in 1952 and 1938. PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commoditv Ores, various Lumber Wheat Canned food products Nitrate Sugar Metals, various Bananas Refrigerated food products (ex cept fresh fruit) Mineral oils Coffee. Wool Copra Iron and steel manufactures Dried fruit All others... Total Fiscal Year 1953 3,472 3,307 2,228 1,317 1,222 1,104 822 790 653 326 255 246 241 233 195 2,355 18,766 1952 3,574 (1) 3,466 (2) 2.105 (3) 1,127 (5) 1,239 (4) 955 (6) 659 (8) 758 (7) 612 (9) 481 (10) 280(14) 227 (12) 277 (13) 288 (11) 144 :i7) 2,290 18,482 1938 2,127 (3) 2,851 (2) 706 (7) 991 (6) 1,401 (5) 1,487 (4) 698 (8) 53 (29) 335 (10) 2,875 (1) 175 (16) 123 !21) 164 (18) 13 (*) 291 (12) 3,407 17,697

PAGE 20

20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 7, 1953 PICTURES OF THE MONTH J = <*>===fc x 2 NJ^=< W^^m • w% *ss =-, CO==^ Zo Ol^==:n ^2 == ^^^ JULY brought a number of new "firsts" to the Canal Zone— first occasions or first visits. Shirley Million, Governor of Girls' State, said goodbye to Acting Governor H. 0. Paxson just before she left on her first visit to Girls' Nation in Washington. Hundreds of midshipmen, on summer cruises from Annapolis or Naval ROTC units in States colleges, made their first trips to the Panama Canal locks. Under Secretary of the Army Earl D. Johnson, new chairman of the Panama Canal Company, took his first look at the controls which operate the locks, and Pete, pet of the piers, was first in line when dog licensing and inoculation of Canal Zone dogs against rabies began here.