Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text
Gift of the Panama Canal Museum


PANAMA


AL,


Vol. 3, No. 1 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 1, 1952 5 cents


MAJOR


CANAL


OPERATIONS


AND


FINANCES


CONSIDERED


BY


BOARD


AT


JULY


MEETING


Girls' Nation Representatives


ANAL ZONE representatives to the sixth annual Girls' Nation, now being conducted in Washington
by the American Legion Auxiliary, are shown above shortly before sailing July 25 for the States. They
are ArBline Schmidt, left, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. T. Schmidt, of Balboa, who was elected Lieutenant
Governor of Caribbean Girls' State which convened at Fort Winm. D. Davis in April, and Joyce Collinge,
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. RI. W. Collinge, of Balboa, who was elected Governor. Both girls are outstanding
students of Balboa High School and both take an active part in high school athletics.


Canal


Zone


Expected


School


Enrollment


Reach


New


This


All-Time


Year
High


1953 Housing Program
One Of Many Problems
Slated For Discussion
Many important decisions concerning
the various Canal operations this year,
especially those relating to the fiscal pro-
gram, were expected to be reached at the
meeting of the Board of Directors held
this week in Washington.
The meeting, which opened last Mon-
day, was attended by Governor Seybold-
his first since becoming President of the
Company. The Governor is scheduled to
return to the Isthmus this week. Also
attending the meeting was Lindsley H.
Noble, Comptroller, whose election as a
general officer of the Company was on the
July agenda.
Of the many questions slated for discus-
sion by the Board members this week,-
two of immediate interest to the average
Canal employee were the housing program
and the Panama Line operations.
The steamship line operations have
been under study now for the past several
months and reports on various phases
were scheduled for presentation to the
Board this week.
Housing Plans For 1953
The extent of this year's housing pro-
gram and the individual projects to be
undertaken as a part of the 1953 fiscal
year program probably will be announced
at an early date. Governor Seybold stated


last month after final Cong
action on the Canal Company a
Zone Government budgets that


gressional
nd Canal
the pro-




THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


Slogan


Of


"Every


Member


An


Officer"


Fits


Union


Local


Of


wo


Signalmen


Every member is an officer-and that
means both of them-in Local 133 of the
Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen of
America.
Spencer B. Smith is Chairman and
Tracy P. White is Secretary-Treasurer.
That's a quorum and a roster of the local.
It's the smallest local in the entire
union of signalmen in the United States
and Canada. It is also the only local
south of the Rio Grande and the smallest
union in the Canal Zone.
The local has no meeting time or place.
They meet frequently anyway. Mr.
White putt-putts over to Mr. Smith's on
his little railroad motor speeder or Mr.
Smith putt-putts over from Balboa to
Gatun to see the Secretary-Treasurer.
Or, there are times when they both putt-
putt to meet each other half way.
No Dues To Local
They pay no dues to Local 133-only to
the National Brotherhood.
If there's disagreement between mem-
bers about union business, the business
probably just doesn't come off. If one
thinks so, the other thinks not, the matter
is usually dropped.
Organizing activities are completely nil
for lack of potential members. Mr. Smith
and Mr. White are the only local railroad
men eligible for union membership.
As Signal Maintainer for the Northern
District of the 50-mile Panama Railroad,
Mr. White tends the signals to the "24-
mile," a mile north of Darien, and Mr.
Smith, Signal Maintainer for the South-
ern District, is responsible for the other
half of the line.
Local 133 was not always ro small.
When it was organized in November
1927, there were five full-fledged charter
members.
Supervisor Loses Membership
There was R. S. Wood of Ancon, a hard
worker at union business. He became
Supervisor of Railroad Signals in 1948
and withdrew in accordance with union
custom. As elder statesman without port-
folio, he is still an interested consultant
and advisor.
It was largely because of Mr. Wood,
Local 133 in 1935 became affiliated with
-Lh. '^M^ml I fh^.' m :- T tt


THIS IS LOCAL 133 of the Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen of America. The Signalmen are
Spencer B. Smith (left), Chairman, and Tracy P. White, (right), Secretary-Treasurer. That's all there
is to the local.


automatic flashing lights or wigwags at
grade crossings; all of which operate from
signal lines in underground cable.
Automatic Signal System
The present track circuit is gradually
being replaced with coded track in which
the track itself carries the impulses be-
tween signals, eliminating much of the
underground cable.


Chairman of Local 133 is
to the Canal Zone, having
Isthmus when he was ten
with his parents, Mr. and Mr
Smith, who now live in Gat
father is a control house s
the locks.
He became an apprentice


almost native
come to the
months old,
's. William C.
un where his
mpervisor at


railroad


*4


nalman in 1943 and became a journeyman
signal maintainer in January 1948-with
time out for service with the Air Force
during World War II.
Mr. White, who came from a railroad
family, went into the railroad business
himself in 1929 with the Maine Central
Railroad. He was employed in the signal
system of the Panama Railroad in Decem-
ber 1946.
Lifelong Zonian
Mr. Wood, who is something of a god-
father to the present Local 133, is also
almost a native. He came to the Canal
Zone when he was 11 months old when
his father, the late Joseph C. Wood, was
wnrkino' nat Emniro





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Lt. Gov. Paxson Meets


Ten


ears


Ago


In


July


Civic,


Labor


Leaders


At Monthly Conference

Representatives of Canal Zone labor
and civic groups had an opportunity to
meet their new Lieutenant Governor on
July 24 and they made the most of it.
They made so much of it, in fact, that the
July session of the Governor-Employee


Conference went well over the
closing time.
The Lieutenant Governor, Col.
Paxson, conducted the conference
absence of Gov. J. S. Seybold, who


H. 0.
in the
was in


Washington to attend a meeting of the
Company Board of Directors.


At the end of the conference, which
occurred just two weeks after Lt. Gov.
Paxson's arrival in the Canal Zone and
which was concerned with a wide variety
of matters, he commented that it had been
a new and different type of orientation
for him.
"It's much better than reading papers
and documents," he said.
A number of new subjects-copra bugs,
per diem allowances, method of employee
recruitment, speed limits, the price of
moving picture admissions-were taken
up at the July meeting, as well as the
more familiar subjects such as commissary
prices, housing, civil defense, and Colon
Hospital facilities.
As usual, the conference was started
with answers to questions raised at the
nreivinus meeting and left for further


study. Among t


these were


the size of


bachelor apartments. In answer to a
question which had been raised by the
Rev. Philip Havener of the Cristobal-
Margarita Civic Council, Lt. Gov. Paxson
answered that the long-range housing pro-
gram was still unapproved and that no
final decision had been reached as to what
types of buildings, or how many, are to be
constructed. The additional cost involved
in providing a separate bedroom or under-
building garage space for the bachelor
quarters would tend to discourage any
such enlargement, he believed.
Robert Daniels, of the Railway Con-
ductors, suggested that the administration
consider the assignment to bachelors of
existing single-bedroom, four-family quar-
ters rather than to demolish such buildings


WAR TALK AND TRAINING were occupying much attention of Canal Zone residents ten years
ago, and an intensive civilian defense program was being carried forward early in 1942. The picture above
shows five pretty Canal employees being given instruction in the use of the gas mask. The instructor,
Maj. Charles H. Barth, Jr., later Brigadier General, was then Assistant Supervising Engineer of the
Special Engineering Division and was in charge of the civilian defense program. He later was transferred
to the European Theater where he became Chief of Staff in that Command. He lost his life in a plane
accident in Iceland.
The five young women students in the use of gas masks were Miss Regina Quinn, now Mrs. Tristan
Enjuto, of Panama City; Miss Katherine Adams, now Mrs. Robert Lessiack who is employed in the
Personnel Bureau; Mrs. Marjorie Clarke, then employed in the Personnel Bureau who now lives in the
States; Miss Macel Goulet, now Mrs. J. Morton Thompson, of Balboa, whose husband is employed in the
General Counsel's Office; and Mrs. Beulah W. Sandford, whose husband, G. H. Sandford, is Supervisor
of the Reproduction Plant at Diablo Heights.


War work and war talk filled the
columns of Isthmian newspapers 10 years
ago. There seemed to be little else in the
Canal Zone.
Armed forces authorities let correspond-
ents take their first look at barrage balloon
sites. The balloons could then be operated
effectively in local tricky tropical winds,
they said.
Unreliable and "capricious creatures"
a few months before, the balloons had been
converted into "a smooth-functioning air-
plant net of lethal cables that keeps constant
watch over vital Canal installations."
The Army Engineers also had a po-
nouncement. They said they were far
ahead of schedule in hewing out of virgin
jungle and raising from swampy land an
outer ring of powerful defenses-airfields,
runnn ilonnQ haorrnpk'an wnrphnimn ma. r-


The Governor warned that war-working
transportation facilities would have little
space for Canal employees and that vaca-
tions might have to go by the board.
A shipment of potatoes, eggs, and vege-
tables was welcomed by the Commissaries
and Commissary customers, who had been
without several cold storage items for
some time.
Miss Verona Herman, daughter of Cap-
tain (now Major and Chief of the Police
Division) and Mrs. George Herman, be-
came the first Canal Zone girl to be accepted
in the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps.
The Tivoli USO was formally opened
with festivities attended by more than
2,000.


1 1.~


'
rk member of Canal oldtimers was


/ f





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


Attract


Few attractions on the Isthmus have a
more universal interest for visitors than
the murals in the rotunda of the Adminis-
tration Building at Balboa Heights.
The paintings, consisting of four large
panels and a frieze, were done by W. B.
Van Ingen, of New York, at about the
time the Canal was opened in 1914 and
were placed on the walls of the rotunda
early min 1915. IIe was assisted min his


work by C. T. Berry and Ira Remsen.
The five pieces of art represent scenes
during the Canal construction period. The
four main panels are of scenes of Culebra
Cut at Gold Hill, construction of the
Gatun Spillway, erection of a lock gate,
and the construction of Miraflores Locks.
The frieze is a panorama of the excavation
of Culebra (Gaillard) Cut.
The paintings contain a wealth of de-
tail but they are more impressive for their
massive scale and the sweeping artistic
conception of the modern miracle of
building the Panama Canal.
Muralist Was Noted
Mr. Van Ingen was a painter of con-
siderable reputation before his murals for
the Administration Building were painted.
He had done several other paintings of a
similar nature for buildings in the United
States, including the Congressional Li-
brary in Washington and the United
States Mint at Philadelphia.
Sketches for the murals were made by
the artist on two visits to the Isthmus
during the latter part of the construction
period. The paintings were executed in
his New York studio and were shipped to
the Isthmus and placed on the rotunda
walls under his personal supervision.
Col. George W. Goethals, then Chair-
man and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian
Canal Commission, took a personal inter-
est in Mr. Van Ingen's work and it was
primarily through his initiative that a
contract for the murals was made with
the artist shortly before the completion
of the Administration Building in 1914.
The paintings cover nearly 1,000 square
feet of space and the contract price, in-


Era


Universal


Interest


eluding the placing of the murals, was
$25 a square foot, or nearly $25,000.
An interesting sidelight of the Canal's
early history is the correspondence con-
cerning the murals exchanged in 1913 by
Colonel Goethals and Secretary of War
Lindley M. Garrison.
Secretary Of War Writes
When the question of the paintings was
first brought to Secretary Garrison's at-
tention, he expressed some doubt as to the
advisability of spending so much money
for the art work. He wrote Colonel
Goethals, in part, as follows:
"The amount is, of course, large to
spend for decoration, unless there is some
significant reason why such an expendi-
ture is justified. Even if the Fine Arts
Commission has made a recommendation
to this effect, I suppose the responsibility
is ours, so far as justifying the expenditure
of the money.
"It occurs to me in passing that if we
insist, as I am sure we both feel we should,
that the Administration Building and
everything else on the Isthmus is second-
ary to the operation of the Canal as an
instrument of commerce, it might seem
contradictory for us to expend so large a
sum of money in a mere matter of decora-
tion. In other words, since we take the
view that everything is subordinate to
operation, it might be inconsistent to ex-
pend money as if the Zone itself were to
be a thing of interest."
Opinion Of Colonel Goethals
Colonel Goethals' opinion that the
Canal was built for the primary purpose
of benefitting world commerce was al-
ready on record and he did not touch on
this point again in his reply to Secretary
Garrison. Excerpts from his reply follow:
"For the transaction of the business of
the Canal and the Railroad, an adminis-
tration building is necessary. The site
selected and the general plans of the
building were submitted to the Commis-
sion of Fine Arts, and the location of the
building on the site was fixed to meet
their views. Since the building is a neces-


- -t.


sity for the operation of the Canal, it
should be made creditable min every re-


spect, not only to the Canal but to the
United States. It may be called the
Capitol of the Zone.
"With the exception of the rotunda,
there will be practically no ornamentation
of the building of any kind and it is ex-
pected to make this the feature of the
building and to be attractive to all who
will come to the Zone for business or
other purpose. The cost of the building
contemplated some decoration of the na-
ture described and follows in this respect
the practice of practically all Government
buildings in the States. The advisability
and propriety of this work I have never
doubted. The expense was anticipated
when it was determined to make this
THE building in the Zone."
In his letter, Colonel Goethals explained
further details about the proposed con-
tract with Mr. Van Ingen and a short
time later received Secretary Garrison's
full approval of the project.


Canal Receives


Thanks


"Courier


An expression of a
received from the I
for the cooperation o:
tion during the rece
the Isthmus by the
floating transmitter,
Coast Guard Cutter,
Special mention o:


"Visit Aid


appreciation has been
departmentt of State
f the Canal organiza-
nt goodwill visit to
Voice of America's
the United States


Courier.
f the assistance ren-


dered by the Canal organization during
the Courier's visit several weeks ago was
made in a letter from the Secretary of
State to the Secretary of Defense.
"It would be appreciated if this ex-
pression of thanks for assistance rendered
were conveyed to the Commanding
General of the Caribbean Command, the
Governor of the Canal Zone, and their
respective staffs," the letter stated.
The message was forwarded to Gover-
nor Seybold by Maj. Gen. F. L. Parks,
Chief of Information of the Department
of the Army. In his letter to the Gover-
nor, General Parks said in part:
"I want to take this opportunity to
express the appreciation of the Depart-
ment of the Army and to extend my own
congratulations on the accomplishment of
a job well done."
Canal Zone School Enrollment This Year
Ir. V.mna.anJ T. D....L -.... ll T.-. II-L


Murals


Construction


August 1,1952





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


FOR YOUR INTER


Shipboard Safety


Safety


inm the


Navigation


Aids to Navigation Section


two categories:


The safety


Division and
s divided into
of the ship


during its transit of the Panama Canal and
safety of the employees handling the ship.
The pilot has more personal responsibility
for the safety of the ship during the transit
as a whole than any other employee in the


Panama Canal Company.


divisions have


Of course, other


responsibility, but theirs is


more that of a team,.
The pilot is usually alone on the bridge,


except


for the ship's


officers.


From


minute he sets foot on the bridge until he
leaves at the end of the transit, he must be
constantly on the alert for those dangers,
which not only are typical of those at sea,
but for those which he encounters only


while transiting the Canal.


Occasionally,


when the ship is tied up to a lock wall he can


the locks.
the size of
only eight
twenty me


IDENT


PREVENTION


The size of the ship determines


this group. A small ship


men,


requires


a large ship from sixteen to


mn, all under the direct supervision


a boatswain.


It is the ship's duty to furnish a pilot's
ladder, or an accommodation ladder, which
is a flight of steps with a platform at the


bottom.


In addition, the ship must furnish


lines and cables to tie the ship up to a pier or


lock wall.


There


are rules and regulations


with which a ship must comply before being


allowed to transit the Canal.


The pilot has


the authority not to board, or move a ship,
which does not in his estimation comply
with these rules and regulations, but more
than likely the ship has been through the
Canal before, and unsafe conditions are the
result of unexpected causes, which do not
become apparent until an emergency arises
min transit.
The pilot has tugs at his disposal and to
aid him radio telephone and signal stations


DANIEL H. RUDGE
Inspector, Navigation Division


relax and have a cup of coffee.


Even there,


he cannot leave the bridge for he must be
ready to proceed when the way is cleared
His problems are those of bad weather,


floods,


contrary


currents,


and those


re-


suiting from a big ship, a heavily loaded
ship, or an unbalanced cargo. Old unreliable
engines, slow to reverse, or rudder mecha-
nism failures at critical moments often make
safety for the ship a matter of how quickly
the pilot and crew can act in an emergency,.


In addition to the pilot,


a group of local-


rate employees are placed aboard to handle
ropes and cables, which are attached to the
ship from time to time to guide it through


along the route.


The Aids to Navigation


Section maintains additional aids to naviga-


tion such as channel,


buoys.


range


lights, and


Some of these lights are many miles


up and down the coast on each side of the
Isthmus from the entrances of the Canal.
The salvage tug Taboga and craneship Toro
often make trips to sea to help a ship in


distress, or service a light belonging


Coast Guard.


to the


Others who give aid to the


pilot, while he is transiting on a ship, are


the Assistant Port Captains,


and Dispatchers


Harbormas-


who control


movement and disposition of ships


as they are in Canal waters.


launches,


agents,


HONOR


Bureau Award For
BEST RECORD
June


ENGINEERING


which


passengers,


transport


supplies,


having business on board ship.


as long


There are also


pilots,


crews,


and others
Two of these


launches make trips from Balboa to Taboga
daily for the convenience of tourists and
swimmers.


AND


CONSTRUCTION BUREAU


AWARDS THIS CALENDAR


YEAR


Community Services.-------------
Industrial .................---------------------


In addition to the training a


nd experience


the pilot and other employees must have in
order to insure the safe transit of all ships in
their care, there is also the training and
experience all employees must have to pro-
tect themselves from the loss of life and


limb.


With the sea so near


to their daily


lives, and the sometime hazardous condi-
tions encountered in their regular work, all
employees must be taught to recognize these


dangers and


how to protect


themselves.


They are also taught first aid and rescue,
for it is important that all employees, from
the lowest to the highest, know and practice
this safety training, since there is always the
possibility that any one of them may be


called upon,to


save a life from drowning,


serious injury.
Also wherever practical, the unsafe con-
ditions on board a ship are removed, or
remedied, to insure both a safe transit for
the ship and safety for the employees who


navigate
units. ha\


the ship.


The fact


consistently


that these


improved


safety record, in spite of such hazardous and


dangerous conditions encountered,


points to


an active and progressive safety program
among the employees of the Navigation
Division and'Aids to Navigation Section.


Due to the retirement of Francis F. Hargy, safety
representative for the Marine Bureau, Charles T
Jackson has been appointed to fill the vacancy.


ROLL


their





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


1953 Housing Program One Of Many
Problems Slated For Discussion
(Continued from page 1n other Company-
Government operations for this fiscal year
are still under study. Final allocation of
funds, as approved in the appropriations
measure, will be made at an early date,
according to an announcement by the
Comptroller before his departure for
Washington last month.
Alterations Are Required
Alterations in the Canal's fiscal pro-
gram this year have been required in part


by the refusal of
"non-reimbursabl
$1,676,300 as con
quest. Although
amount was appr
that it be listed
Government net


Congress to approve as
e" items the sum of
gained in the budget re-
the expenditure of this
oved, Congress directed
with other Canal Zone
expenditures as being


reimbursable to the U. S. Treasury by the


Panama Canal Company.
In view of the many complicated prob-
lems relating to the Canal's fiscal policies
and program for this year the meeting of
the Board of Directors this month was
one of the most important held since the
formation of the Panama Canal Company
in July of last year. Most of these fiscal
problems are of a continuing nature al-
though their importance was heightened
at the July meeting of the Board by the
necessity of making full plans for the cur-
rent fiscal year on the allocation of funds
for various operations under this year's
budget.
Officers To Be Elected
Among the various items of business at
the Board's meeting this week was the
election of two general officers of the
Company-the Comptroller and Secre-
tary. The election of the Comptroller


was required by a change in the Com-
pany's bylaws at the Board's meeting in
April which provided for the establish-
ment of the office of the Comptroller as a
general officer instead of the Finance
Director.
Mr. Noble's appointment as Comp-
troller was made soon after the position
was established. He was formerly em-
ployed as Comptroller of the Atomic
Energy Commission. He arrived on the
Isthmus early in June after about three
weeks of duty in the Canal's Washington
Office.
The election of a new Secretary of the
Company was required by the recent
resignation of James C. Hughes to accept
a position with another Government
agency. Since his resignation, W. M.
Whitman, Attorney of the Canal Com-
pany in Washington, has been acting as
Secretary of the Company.


Cardenas


Site


w


ork


Over


ne-


Third


Done


Approximately 1,000,000 cubic yards of
earth are being moved in the major
clearing and grading job required in the
preparation of the new local-rate townsite
of Cardenas.
The work is being done under contract
by Macco-Panpacific, Inc., at a cost of
$1,225,000. It is the second largest
project of the 1952 housing program on
the Pacific side.
The contract was awarded last Febru-
ary in two parts, one for the clearing and
grading of approximately 175 acres of
hilly and heavily wooded land north of
Corozal; and another for the installation
of an access road from Gaillard Highway,
construction of two large water tanks, and


the provision of sewerage and drainage
facilities.
The contract completion date of the
project is next May and the work is on
schedule with more than one-third already
completed. The Contracts and Inspection
Division is supervising the administration
of this contract under the direction of
C.A. Behringer, Pacific Area Project In-
spector. The other inspectors are Charles
P. Morgan, R. J. Mahoney, and Francisco
A. Lopez.
New Highway To Town
A new reinforced concrete highway is
being built to the new townsite from
Gaillard Highway. The new road leaves
the main highway a short distance from
the existing entrance to Corozal Hospital.


Paving of the new road has already been
started and the roadbed has been graded
and ballasted for its full length of about
three quarters of a mile.
Because of the nature of the terrain, a
large storm drainage structure is being
installed. It is slightly over one mile in
length. The contractor also is installing
a large sanitary sewer, 4,230 feet in length,
which will connect with Cardenas River
north of Gaillard Highway.
Two 250,000-gallon capacity water
tanks, each, are being erected at the new
townsite. The footings and foundations
for these tanks have been poured and the
contractor is now engaged in placing the
forms for the tank walls.


- .-.: r, -






August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ezkit


Official
Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly at
BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE
Printed by the Printing Plant
Mount Hope, Canal Zone
JOHN S. SEYBOLD, Governor-President
H. O. PAXSON, Lieutenant Governor
E. C. LOMBARD, Executive Secretary
J. RUFus HARDY, Editor
ELEANOR H. MCILHENNY
OLEVA HASTINGS
Editorial Assistants

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Letters containing inquiries, suggestions,
criticisms, or opinions of a general nature
will be welcomed. Those of sufficient interest
will be published but signatures will not be
used unless desired.
SUBSCRIPTIONS-$ 1.00 a year
SINGLE COPIES-5 cents each
On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses,
Coroatnsaries, and Hotels for 10 days after
publication date.
SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL-10 cents each

BACK COPIES-10 cents each
On sale when available, from the Vault
Clerk, Third Floor, Administration Building,
Balboa Heights.
Postal money orders should be made pay-
able to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Com-
pany, and mailed to the Editor, THE
PANAMA CANAL REVIEw, Balboa Heights,
C.Z.

TO SUSCRIBERS
Please notify us promptly of any change in your
mailing address. Post Offices everywhere have pre-
pared postal card forms for notices of changes of
address.


THE EDITOR'S MAIL

Editor, THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW:
May I suggest that you start a movement to
send the Commissary Division calendars to


widows of retired employees?


Many of them


have expressed their desire for it and feel the
loss of it keenly when the head of the household
has passed on.
After all, the wives of Canal employees played


Health Director


Visits Gorgas


I' a :*' + ^ 1 < 'w s / *'* ' <'
........ 4 > >;... ...% >A__ _ ^ :.tii iiin ii ^ .1 11 .i l - i" .*' 1 :. - i a - ii. iiiiii~ii -iiiiiiilliiiiilillliil-ti ii i1 1 1 1 i in i . i


A VISIT TO GORGAS HOSPITAL was made by Brig. Gen. Don Longfellow, Health Director, facing
camera in picture above, soon after his arrival in the Canal Zone. General Longfellow was accompanied
on his trip through the hospital by Col. Clifford G. Blitch, Superintendent of the Hospital (left, above),
and Miss Beatrice H. Simonis, Chief Nurse. They visited briefly with various patients during their trip
through the wards. They are shown above examining the medical chart of Howard Smith, patient, who
is also an employee at the hospital in the Laboratory.


Assignments to the houses now under
construction in Diablo Heights in the
area between Walker Avenue and Diablo
Road will be made before the houses are
actually ready for occupancy to elimi-
nate the time lag which has formerly
elapsed between the assignment and
occupancy of quarters.
Applications for these houses-the
duplexes and the cottages-will be ac-
cepted up to August 29.
The only applications which will be
considered in making the assignments
will be those which refer specifically to
this group of houses in Diablo Heights-
either new applications or old applica-
tions which have been amended to re-
quest a specific house or type of house
in this area.
The houses are expected to be ready
for occupancy as they are compleftd,


in early October and con-
p to about November 10. It is
that construction will have
to the point by early Septem-
potential occupants may in-
houses and make application
nitharn* r 4t~rna


starting
tinuing u
expected
advanced
ber that
spect the


will be made only upon the request of
the employer for apprentices in craft
programs approved by Selective Service
headquarters in each State.
Approximately 175 classified employees of
the Company-Government who had been in
temporary status because of provisions of
the Whitten Amendment have been con-
verted to permanent status. The transfer
was possible because of the recent changes
in the Whitten rider which delegate certain
responsibilities to affected agencies, rather
than to the Civil Service Commission.
Employees on permanent status are eligi-
ble for retirement benefits; those on tempo-
porary status are not so eligible. The
conversion to permanent status of those
employees who were qualified and eligible
was started by the Personnel Bureau in July
and was completed late in the month. In
addition 21 employees whose position grades
had been held at lower levels because of
time-in-grade requirements have been pro-
moted to higher grades.
The Whitten Amendment, which has been
attached to a number of appropriations
h-il I onn t- In n-ri t t-x1 1 raa- 1It n^f suna ZTlfnraQ n


OF CURRENT INTEREST





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1


1952


Nylon first time since the public first learned
Nyoes to love this first synthetic "miracle"
Down fabric, there's enough on the market
to push prices down to near their
natural level.
Soon after nylon made its debut before an


impressed


came


buying public,


along and took it


the Nazis and Fascists.


World War II


away


to help fight


The young ones around
long for grade schools, uni'


But before
typewriters,


books and blouses to Ibuv.


Since


shoes


will be off before children's shoes


versit


ies, and high


they go there'll be
oxfords and anklets,


are a must that head many


lists of things to be bought for the school


Shoes


crowd, the Wholesale Shoe


Section


offers these facts about footwear for


Schoo children for the benefit of the parents
who buy them.


Top quality and sturdiest of chil
oes are those of welt construction.


welt is, in effect, a strip


both the


are the "stitch-down


which the shoe upper i
stitched down to the sole.


's, in


s turned out and
Commissary shoe


people guesstimate that 90 percent of the
children's shoes sold, here and elsewhere, are
stitch-down's.
It is a simple type of construction which
makes a flexible and comfortable shoe.


Commissaries


have a wide


in this kind of shoes which


from $2.


dren's


of leather to which


shoe upper and the sole


are sewed,


giving the shoe strength and durability and
holding it in shape.
Children's shoes of this type in Canal


Commissaries


range


They include
toe oxfords at


the Commnissa


"Trim


Foot,"


in price from $4.45 to
S"Pro-tek-tiv's," nmoc-


$8.25


rnes; "Mo'
morlassin i


plain oxfords at $5.45 and
Bonnet,' tip oxfords and


, the best sold in
dcern Age" and
toe, saddle, and
$5.50; and "Blue


straps


at $4.45.


The price variations on welt construction


shoes


reflect


workmanship.


Shoes


similar


Trences
quality


in leather


y-but primarily


for girls because of their lighter and daintier


appearance-are
on with cement.
Those of this t


those with


ype


primarily for girls,
which are priced atl


soles fastened


in Canal Commissaries,


are straps and sandals
$4 to $5.50.


The most popular and least costly of


range


range in


$3.75.


Golfing demons can work the kinks out of


their games with knitted


new in the


practice


stores.


Native fresh rhubarb and leeks
being sold in the Commissaries. T


Rhubarb-
It's
Fresh
plants are a


New for


golf balls,


are now


were


recently purchased for the first
time by the Commissary Divi-
sion from a grower in Chiriqui
Province, with whom these


Snew crop and


automobiles


which check mileage and


a new enterprise.


are:


Gasometers
auto bottle-


warmers which plug into cigarette lighters;
universal hubcaps which fit any car; window


rattle


eliminators;


initials that


auto crests


cost 30 cents for the gold


and 15 cents for each initial to


buggy


a plutocrat among


cars.


The price on nylon is now
looks, launderability, and w


make your


as nice as its


ear.


For the


of styles


When nylon came back from its war-time
career the ladies clamored to buy it-for
themselves and their husbands and grandpas
and children who had all found a use for the
fabric.
The buyers who strain to provide for the
public whatever the public will pay for bid up
the price for the available supply which
never quite caught up with the demand.


Then came the Korean


facturers made more and more nylon to fill,


or anticipate,
didn't absorb


wartime orders.
all the nylon that


war uses
was made


and a lot of it fell back on civilian markets.
In terms of prices in Panama Canal Cornm-


missari
means


es the consequent drop in prices
that nylon dresses that formerly sold


are now priced at $5.50,


in price on blouses,


for about $8.50
with similar dr


lingerie, and hose.


Arriving in the Commissaries in August
will be new blouses, skirts, and dresses in the
Back-to-School 3- to 6- and 7- to 14-size
Back-to-School ...se


groups-just


going-back-to-school girls.
And for those who will be leaving for
school in the States, the Commissaries will
have coats, sweaters, and hats for girls, and
gabardine topcoats, among others, for boys


in the


teen-age group.


"Liquid Smoke," a new barbecue sauce
in the Commissaries, is as good for beans and
other vegetables as it is to give spare ribs and
other barbecues a new kind of zip,


Cash


Sale


System


Inaugurated


In


Three


Atlantic


Side


Local-Rate


Commissaries


5212

I. P. No.


-........................- -....g -


Limit


The employee may authorize wholly dependent. legal members rf his im-
mediate family residing with him, such as his wife and minor children, to pur-
chase in his name by designating them in the spaces Indicated
For the Prealdent:


MR 52051-Panama Canal-5-28-52-5O,O00


B. C. LOMARo
Executive Secretary


Signature of EmDloyee


Name of Dependent Relationship

............................---.....-.......---...-..


Name of Dependent


Relationship


C. s~a ** Eh


schools.
tablets and


sh


time for


-----.---.-.-.-.-----.--1


war and manu-


h tolC s e


as s a~~lsl l lls lslslss lslsa| |lsla lslsla lslslslslsla ls sl Ial Ial





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


Summer


recreation


Program


Attracts


Many


Youngsters from 5 to 18 wind up this
month a summer of fun in the third Sum-
mer Recreation Program organized for the
entire Canal Zone.
This year, fathers too, and pets and
dolls and even mothers' hats, dresses, and
high-heeled shoes played a part in the
activities.
Fathers and sons pitted skills against
each other in father and son horseshoes,
one of the special events emphasized in
this year's playground program. "Me and
My Dog Day" gave Bowser his place in
the fun.
Small fry sirens modeled their own
creations in feminine headgear in a Little
Ladies' Hat Show. Then there have been
Hobo Day, on the opening day of the U.S.
rate activities June 16; a pet show; a
scavenger hunt and other special activities.
Before the U. S.-rate program closes
August 30, there will be more special
events in addition to the many arts,
crafts, and sports activities which form
the backbone of the program this year as
in the past.
Youngsters in local-rate communities
have had their traditional scooter derby
and in inter-playground tournaments
have played championship matches in
basketball, volleyball, swimming, base-
ball, track, and softball. There have also
been domino, checkers, archery, and
shuffleboard tournaments.
Square-dancing, sewing, handicrafts,
weight-lifting, boxing, skating, and even
jacks also provided entertainment and
instruction for children in the local-rate
programs, which opened June 11 and
closed August 1.
The arts and crafts program, a com-
munity Chest function, is directed by the
Canal Zone Recreation Committee. Mrs.
G. O. Parker served for the second year as
coordinator of the program in the U. S.-
rate communities and E. Stanley Loney
was coordinator, for the third year, of the
local-rate program.
The playground program was under the
general supervision of G. C. Lockridge,
director of the Physical Education and
Recreation Branch of the Schools Division.


NO PHASE OF THE SUMMER RECREATION PROGRAM attracts more enthusiasm than
boxing. The two young hopefuls above are William Brownie, 9, left, and Randolph Sealey, 8, right,
receiving instructions at the Santa Cruz Gymnasium in Gamboa from Phillip Walker. The boxing in-
structor is one of many volunteer workers in the summer recreation program who give many hours of
their time. The gymnasium was crowded with many boxers when this picture was taken.


FLOWER MAKING attracts all age groups. Even a few boys lose their timidity and take instruc-
tions in this phase of the summer recreation program. The volunteer instructor for this group of flower-
makers shown above is Isoline Medrick, center, who is showing Violet Reid at her left how to make a
paper rose. Many examples of the work of the class are displayed on the table.





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


Everybody

Some


Talks


People


About


Do


The


Something


About


It


Water makes the Panama Ca
and the Canal's Meteorological
drographic Branch budgets the
it will safely transit ships from
ocean, fill Isthmian faucets, 1
Canal Zone, and run its hoi
toasters.
The weather and water men
not a woman in the unit-also
authoritative information for I
large part of the population i


nal work
and Hy-
water so
ocean to
ight the
ists and


-there is
furnish
the very
vho talk


about the weather or do something about it.
Ringing telephones at the Balboa
Heights headquarters or Cristobal station
may announce a housewife who wants to
know if she should hang out her wash; an
Isaak Walton inquiring about the water
temperature in Panama Bay; or a ship
captain who asks if there were an earth-
quake at 2:10 a. m. on July 30-if not, his
ship must have hit an obstruction, he
explains.
Or the caller may be a Dredging Divi-
son official who wants to know about the
tide level in the bay; an obscure fact
fancier who is curious about the average
humidity at 3 a. m.; or the people after
people who seek assurance that it is un-
usually hot or dry or wet or windy.
Weather Over 1,300 Square Miles
Most of the answers come originally


from ink wiggles recorded on
by instruments at weather re(
tions spread over more than 1
miles of Isthmus covered
weather work-meteorolog
graphy, seismology, and clima
There's a lot of water in t


rainy season t
takes a lot to
much there is
prevent either
the primary qu
Meteorological
to supply the a
Back in the I


ropical down
run the Cana
and what to d
flood or wate
estions for wh
and Hydrogra
answer.


ush as far as 3


)(
1.
r
ci

5
1C

K


graph paper
cording sta-
,300 square
by Canal
y, hydro-
tology.
his area of
ours and it
SJust how
With it to
famine are
*h there is a
)hic Branch
miles from


the Canal channel, hydrographers travel
by launch, cayuco, and pack mules or
trudge long jungle trails on foot to find
out how much water there is and how
much can be expected.
That is the question which hydro-
graphic people labor constantly to reduce
to reliable facts which they must have to
beat floods to the draw and at the same
time assure sufficient water for all Canal
needs.
Must Meet Water Needs
Among the water expenditures, there
are some fixed obligations that must be
met-come high or low water. The first
of these is the business of shuttling ships
from ocean to ocean.
It takes 7$ million cubic feet (a cubic
foot is about 7$ gallons) of water to lock
a ship through the Canal-or 157 million
for an average day of 21 lockages.
When that is used, it is gone forever
from Gatun Lake, the main storage basin
that forms 28 miles of the ship channel
between Gatun and Pedro Miguel Locks
and is the real heart of the lock-type
Panama Canal. Madden Lake serves as
an auxiliary reservoir for Gatun Lake.
Another heavy water expenditure goes
for hydroelectric power. The Gatun
Hydroelectric Plant at Gatun Dam uses
an average of 2,500 cubic feet per second.
Water used at the Madden Hydroelectric
Plant at Madden Dam-about 1,700
cubic feet per second-runs on down into
Gatun Lake, where it is used over again.
Losses By Evaporation Heavy
About 47 cubic feet of water every
second goes into Isthmian faucets for
drinking water and Saturday night baths.
Another 700 cubic feet per second dis-
appear into thin air by evaporation and
22 more cubic feet per second leak out of
the lock chambers.
Which all goes to show that there's a
lot of water that doesn't go over the dams.


a ~ I


THIS "WEATHERMAN" at work is James
Thompson, Jr., Engineering Aid, again, hitting the
jungle trail that takes him to remote weather stations
to gather the statistics on which the Canal water
"budget" is based.

Between elevation 82 feet (the lowest that
provides a minimum depth of 40 feet in
the Canal), and 87 feet, Gatun Lake holds
22y billion cubic feet of usable water-
enough to supply the entire city of New
York for six months.
Madden Lake holds 28 billion cubic feet
when it is full, practically all of which is
usable.
With that much water to start with,
the budgeting of the available supply
seems simple enough-the object being to
store the rain that runs into the lakes
during the rainy season and use it during
the four or five months of dry season. But
there are complications.
When hnth laroa r )Q frll *Q 4-hvr .


Weather-





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


W. H. ESSLINGER, Chief Hydrographer in charge of the Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch,
and his assistant, T. C. Henter, left, are shown here with some of the weather equipment in the headquarters
office at Balboa Heights.
On the desk is a quadruple register which records wind direction and velocity, sunshine, and rain.
The tall old barograph, flanked by two barometers in the background, was inherited from French Canal
diggers and is known to have been in constant operation since the 1880's.


-operation with safety. Only the spillway
gates can be used quickly.
In an extreme emergency, about
300,000 cubic feet of water per second
could be poured out of the lake-if all 14
spillway gates were open and if Canal
traffic were stopped and the water were
spilled out through the emergency dams
at the locks and the huge lock culverts
which ordinarily supply water for lockages.
When the rains pour and the rivers rage
up in the hills of the continental divide,
Houston Esslinger, who heads the Mete-
orological and Hydrographic Branch, the
first-hand observers on the spot and the
men who man the gates and valves could
wish they had been postmen or bus drivers.
Many Floods At Night
Floods have a habit of happening at
night and they can't be stuffed in desk
drawers until morning. So the midnight
oil burns and telephone messages of in-
formation from the field and instructions
from Balboa Heights shuttle back and
forth until the danger is past.
In the dry season it's just the opposite.
When the water is being used too fast the
"budget" has to be adjusted by economy


rainfall and river gauging stations over a
large piece of the Isthmus. Most of the
weather outposts are located within the
confines of the huge oval-shaped ridge
that roughly encloses the 1,300 square
miles of territory from which water runs
into Gatun and Madden Lakes-the
Gatun Lake Basin.
Rainfall observations are collected from
50 stations in the Canal Zone and Panama,


BALBOA
August 15th


34 of which have automatic recorders
from which statistics in wiggle form on
graph paper are gathered. There are
eight river stations on the rivers that run
into Gatun Lake.
Trips to gather statistics from weather
outposts start from the Madden Dam sta-
tion where Charles Howe, Hydraulic En-
gineer, is in charge of the field work of the
Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch.
He is assisted by Engineers Jim Million
and Elmer Kanz, seven engineering aids
and 25 local-rate cayuco men, motorboat
operators, observers, and helpers.
Palancamen Are Used
To get to the San Miguel station, for
instance, some 9 miles above the upper
tip of Madden Lake, an engineer and
three local-rate "palancamen" (from pa-
lanca, the pole used to push a cayuco
through the water) set out by launch
across Madden Lake.
They have cayucos in tow and carry
food and clothing for three days to a week
(and might need more in event of a flood),
a current meter, tool kit, and ink and
graph paper to maintain weather instru-
ments at the outposts.
From the head of navigation on the
lake, an hour of poling their cayucos takes
them to the Candelaria River Station on
the Pequeni River. A local-rate observer
is stationed here-and also at the Chico
Station on the Chagres River-to keep a
constant watch on the river.
At Candelaria the engineer removes the
record of river heights from a recording
gauge housed in a little 35-foot perpen-
dicular tower that rests on a level with
the river bottom and reaches up toward
the trees on the river bank.
To measure the amount (See page is)


nm *u ~?. -...<:4 ~Q;*j <;x




THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


ANNIVERSARIES


Employee- who observed important anni-
versaries during the month of July are listed
alphabetically below. The number of years
includes all ()overnment service with the
Canal or other agencies. Those with con-
tinuous service with lie Canal are indicated
with (*).
41 YEARS


Joseph C.
Atlantic Locks.


Hannigan,


Lockmaster,


41 YEARS


Ossa,
)ivision-.


LAca I


Agent,


40 YEARS


ell,


Assistant


Foreman


Chief,


Stevedore,


35 YEARS


George W. Smith, Property and
Control Clerk, Pacific Locks.
Randolph N. Trower, General For
Dredging Division.


Stock

emailn,


30 YEARS


Smith,


Plumber,


Mainte-


F. Yost, Marine Dispatcher,
Canal), Navigation Division.


25 YEARS
C. F. Bertoncini, Cartographic and
Compilation Aid, Dredging Division.
Nolan A. Bissell, Postal Clerk, Postal,
Customs and Immigration Division.
*Joseph A. Corrigan, Jr., Storekeeper
(Checker), Terminals Division.
James A. Driscoll, Assistanit Dredging
Chief, Dredging Division.
*Lyman Jackson, Locomotive Machin-
ist, Railroad Division.
Russell L. Klotz, Chief, Housing Divi-
sion.
Jacques K. Lally, Postal Clerk, Postal,
Customs and Immigration Division.
Lew W. Mcllvaine, Assistant Supply
Officer (Housewares-Toys), Commissary
Division.
*Herbert K. Peterson, Planning Esti-
mator, Industrial Bureau.
*Anastasio Sogandares, Boilermaker,
Industrial Bureau.
Oscar M. Sogandares, Signalman, Navi-
gation Division.
Anthony Tezanos, Chief Towboat En-
gineer, Ferry Service, Dredging Division.
*Wells D. Wright, Assistant Designing
Engineer, Engineering Division.
20 YEARS


W. H. Clinchard, Jr., Dental Officer,
Hospitalization and Clinics, Health Bureau.
Oliver C. Culp, Supervisor Plumber,
Maintenance Division.
Leon V. Heim, Customs Inspector, Post-
al, Customs and Immigration Division.
Caroline Hunt, Nurse, Gorgas Hospital.
Donald H. Spencer, Foreman Painter
(Locks Division) and Diver, Pacific Locks.


1st American Legion, Post No, 6, Gamin-
boa Legion Home, 7:30 p. in.
2d-Track Foremen, No. 2741, B & B
Shops, Balboa.
3d-VFW, Post No. 3857, Veterans' Club,
Cristobal, 9 a. m.
4th- Pedro Miguel Civic Council,


Community House,


Cristobal-Margarita Ci
Margarita Clubhouse,
VFW, Post No. 727, F
7:30 p. m.
VFW, Post No. 3822, Ci
7:30 p. m.
American Legion, Post
Legion Hall, 7:30 p. m.
Postal Employees, No.
C. Hall, 7:30 p. m.
5th-Machinists, No. 811,
Hall, 7:30 p. m.


Gamboa Civic Counc
Center, 7:30 p. m.
Gatun Civic Council
house, 7:30 p. m.
VFW, Post No. 100,
Building, Cristobal, 7
6th-VFW, Post No. 40,
nT\ 1 '- nfl-


I. nm.


vice
1:30
ort


Council,
p. m.
Clayton,


urundu Road,


No. 3,


Gatun


23160, K. of


Balboa


Lodge


il, Community
, Gatun Club-

Old Boy Scout
:30 p. m.
Balboa, Wirz


Memorial, :3u p. nm.
7th-Carpenters and Joiners, No. 667,
Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m.
8th-Blacksmiths, No. 400, with Boiler-
makers No. 462 and No. 471, K. of
C. Hall, Margarita, 7:30 p. m.
10th-Plumbers, No. 606, Balboa Lodge
Hall, 9:30 a. m.
Pipefitters, Margarita Clubhouse, 9:30
a. Im.


57. Bal-


C. Hall,

7. Fort


Sailings


August


From Cristobal


August
August


Cristobal _
Ancon_ ..
Panama. _
Cristobal


---August 15
_ August 22
_ August 29


Ancon


From New York


Panama
Cristobal
Ancon _
Panama_


_August 6
__August 13
__ August 20
August 27


American Legion Auxiliary, No. 1,
Balboa Legion Home, 7:30 p. m.
Electrical Workers, No. 397, Wirz
Memorial, 7:30 p. m.
13th Pacific Civic Council, Board Room,
Administration Building, Balboa
Heights, 7:30 p. inm.


American Legion, Post


2, Legion


Home, Old Cristobal, 7:30 p. m.
Carpenters and Joiners, No. 913,
Balboa Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. inm.
17th-CLU-MTC, Margarita Clubhouse,
8:30 a. m.
18th--Truckdrivers, Balboa Lodge Hall,
7:30 p. m.
Electrical Workers, No. 677, Masonic
Temple, Gatun, 7:30 p. nm.
19th-Machinists, No. 811, Balboa Lodge
Hall, 7:30 p. m.
Operating Engineers, No. 595, K. of
C. Hall, Margarita, 7 p. m.
20th-AFGE, No. 14, Balboa Clubhouse,
7:30 p. m.
American Legion Auxiliary, No. 3,
Legion Hall, Gatun, 7:30 p. inm.
21st-American Legion Auxiliary, No. 6,
Gamboa Legion Hall, 7:30 p. m.
25th-VFW Auxiliary, Post No. 3822 Post
Home, 7:30 p. m.
Machinists, No. 699, K. of C. Hall,
Margarita, 7:30 p. m.
26th-VFW, Post No. 100, Old Boy Scout
Building, Cristobal, 7:30 p. m.
American Legion, Post No. 7, Fort
Clayton, 7:30 p. m.
Operating Engineers, No. 595, Lodge
Hall, Balboa, 7 p. m.
Marine Engineers Beneficial Asso-
ciation, Gamboa Golf and Country
Club, 7 p. m.
27th-American Legion Auxiliary, No. 2,
Legion Home, Old Cristobal, 7:30


p. im.
AFGE,


Lodge


No. 88, Margarita Club-


house, 7:30 p. m.
28th-Governor's Conference, Board
Room, Administration Building, Bal-
boa Heights, 2 p. m.
SEPTEMBER
1st-Pedro Miguel Civic Council, Com-
munity House, 7 p. m.
Cristobal-Margarita Civic Council,
Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m.
VFW, Post 727, Fort Clayton, 7:30


p. Im.
VFW, Post


Curundu Road, 7:30


p. im.
American Legion, Post No. 3, Gatun
Legion Hall, 7:30 p. m.
2d-Machinists, No. 811, Balboa Lodge
Hall, 7:30 p. m.
Gamboa Civic Council, Community
Center, 7:30 p. m.
Gatun Civic Council, Gatun Club-
house, 7:30 p. m.
3d-VFW, Post No. 40, Wirz Memorial,
7:30 p. m.


4th-Carpenters and Joiners, No. I


THIS MONTH'S CALENDAR


*Enrique de la
I'Panama, Terminals I


George H. Cass
Ilousing I)ivision.
Eddie Holgerson,
Terminals I)ivision.


B.
ision.


George
nance Divi
Stanley
(Port and


Sheet Metal Workers, No. 1
boa Clubhouse, 9:30 a. m.
11th-American Legion, Post
Legion Home, 7:30 p. m.
Machinists, No. 699, K. of (
Margarita, 7:30 p. m.
12th-American Legion, Post No.
Clayton, 7:30 p. m.






August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13


PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
HEALTH BUREAU
Dr. John E. Marshall, Dr. Jack D.
Summerlyn, Dr. Homer L. Graff, Jr.,
Dr. William T. Bailey, from Intern to
Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Steve R. Maharry, from Hospital
Resident to Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Robert W. Bonifaci, Dr. Rodolfo
V. Young, Dr. Douglas M. Hardy, from
Resident to Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Jesse E. Douglass, from Intern,
Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer, Atlan-
tic Medical Clinics.
Dr. Joseph G. Sebrand, Dr. Michael J.
Takos, Dr. James M. Young, Jr., Dr.
Alfred B. Hinkle, from Intern to Hospital
Resident, Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Thomas G. Bouland, from Hospital
Resident No. 1 to Hospital Resident No. 2,
Gorgas Hospital.
Dr. Russell H. Mitchell, from Intern,
Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer, Pacific
Medical Clinics.
Mrs. Mary C. Holmer, from Clerk
Typist, Contract and Inspection Division, to
Clerk Typist, Sanitation Division.
INDUSTRIAL BUREAU
Daniel C. Zitzmann, from General Sup-
ply Clerk, Housing Division, to Fiscal Ac-
counting Clerk, Industrial Bureau.
MARINE BUREAU
Mrs. Velma D. Todd, from Clerk-Steno-
grapher, Personnel Bureau, to Clerk-Steno-
grapher, Navigation Division.
Benjamin R. Brundage, from Second
Assistant Marine Engineer, Aids to Naviga-
tion Section, to Chief Towboat Engineer,
Navigation Division.
Charles T. Jackson, Jr., from Adminis-
trative Assistant, Navigation Division, to
Administrative Assistant, Office of the
Director.
Peter M. Riley, from Clerk (Shorthand
Reporter) to Administrative Assistant, Nav-
igation Division.
Thomas B. Idol, from Physical Science
Aid, Engineering Division, to Guard Super-
visor, Dredging Division.
Albert L. Taylor, from Dipper Dredge
Engineer to Chief Towboat Engineer,
Dredging Division.
Lloyd M. Kent, from Property and
Supply Clerk to Small Tug Operator,
Dredging Division.
Frank P. Marczak, from Meatcutter-in-
charge, Commissary Division, to Senior
Foreman, Dredging Division.
Herman H. Keepers, from Electrical
Assistant, Aids to Navigation Section, to
Electrical Supervisor, Aids to Navigation
Section, Atlantic.
Alexander Watt, from Steam Engineer
(Floating Crane) to Dipper Dredge Engi-
neer, Dredging Division.
Norman A. Terry, from Towboat Mas-
ter to Senior Towboat Master, Ferry Ser-
vice, Dredging Division.
Albert H. Shockey, from Lockmaster to
Mechanical Supervisor, Pacific Locks.
Frank O. Bryan, from Lock Operator,
Machinist Leader, to Lockmaster, Pacific
T I ,i,.


Lt. Gov. Paxson Meets Civic, Labor
Leaders At Monthly Conference

(Continued from page 3) overhaul time.
Mr. Hoffmeyer questioned what he
termed the "unofficial recruitment" of
employees for certain types of work. They
come to the Canal Zone at their own ex-
pense and are hired here. They fail to
understand why employees recruited in
the United States are entitled to provi-
sions of Public Law 600 while employees
hired locally are not.
Edward A. Doolan, Personnel Director,
and Forrest G. Dunsmoor, Administrative
Assistant to the Governor, pointed out
that personnel for certain types of work is
available locally; the administration has
no authority for States recruitment of this
group. The administration, they said, is
not responsible for paying the travel ex-
penses of someone who has been told by a
friend that there are jobs which he might
get if he comes to the Isthmus.
Lt. Gov. Paxson agreed to take up with
the Health Bureau the question of the
copra bugs which are believed to come
from ships and are a nuisance in towns
along the Canal. He will also discuss with
the new Health Director, Brig. Gen. Don
Longfellow, the matter of facilities at
Colon Hospital.
Just before the meeting adjourned,
Charles W. Hammond, Chairman of the
General Committee of Civic Councils,
asked for a later answer on the future of
Corozal and the disposition of the present
town of Pedro Miguel and its residents.
Employee representatives attending the
conference were: Andrew Lieberman of
the Marine Engineers; Walter Wagner,
Owen J. Corrigan, Mr. Hoffmeyer, Mr.
Tobin and Mr. Hatchett of the Central
Labor Union-Metal Trades Union; Mr.
Kiley of the Pacific Locks Association;
Rufus Lovelady and H. J. Chase of the
AFGE; Mr. Daniels of the Railway Con-
ductors; Mr. Hammond, of the General
Committee of Civic Councils; Mrs. Bron-
son Rigby of the Pacific Civic Council;
Rev. Havener of Cristobal-Margarita;
Raymond Ralph of Gatun, and William
H. Ward of Gamboa.


Everybody Talks About The Weather-
Some People Do Something About It
(Continued from page 11) of water in the
river, he raises himself up to the cable car
that runs across the river and from this
perch takes soundings of the depths at
five or ten-foot intervals across the river.
How Streams Are Measured
Then he dons headphones, lowers his
.".
current meter into the water and clocks
the clicks made by a certain number of
revolutions of the windmill-like cups of
the meter. The current is then clocked at
two different depths at each of his meas-
ured intervals across the river.
From computations of the size of the
blocks of water measured off in the river
and the speed of the current, the amount
of water passing a certain point is figured.
Then, using the recorded gauge height
and the slope of the river, so-called dis-
charge curves are drawn by weather sta-
tisticians in the headquarters office which
show the amount of water in the entire
range of the river.
Then, when the measurements are made
and the curve plotted, a flood shifts the
sand and rock and changes the shape of
the river bottom so the computations
must be started at the beginning again.
And this is a continuous process.
Floods Are Measured
To measure a river at flood stage, the
engineer must get up the river before the
flood happens (you can't pole a cayuco in
a flood) wait until it occurs, get the meas-
urements, and get out when the water
goes down.
Back to the engineer at Candelaria.
He and his palancamen stay there over-
night and start out in cayucos the next
morning for a two-hour trip up the
Pequeni. They turn at the San Miguel
River and follow it to the beginning of
the climbing trail on which they walk for
several hours to the San Miguel Station,
1,700 feet above sea level.
There, they remove from the rainfall
recorder its graphed statistics and put it
in good order for the month ahead and hit


the trail back fo
stay overnight
Madden Station
Other weather


r Candelaria, where they
before returning to the
Information comes into
r information comes into


the Balboa Heights headquarters from
larger regular stations.
Meteorological Aid Raymond Osman,
in charge of the Cristobal station, looks
out for rains and storms coming off the
S-I *1 1 .. ... -1 1 .. . ... I


RETIREMENTS

IN JULY





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


Cricket


Holds


Calenda


High

rOf


Place


Local


In


Rat


Sports

e Communities


The grand old British game of cricket is


dear to many hear
Those who play
field for matches at
Mount Hope Stad
old time Panama
* 1it* I f


ts in the Canal Zone.
the game and line the
La Boca Ball Park and
ium include both the
Canal diggers who
11i "I t .2j- T -* -


brought cr(icket irom me West indies to
the Canal Zone and the younger genera-
tion who have also caught the American
enthusiasm for baseball.
In recent years the younger group has
taken more and more to baseball but
cricket holds its own as one of the major
attractions on sports calendars in all
local-rate Canal communities.
The Canal Zone version of the "gentle-
- AX f lt


man s game
version only
trimmings.


game


that has


Srefierd irom
i a few of the
1 in all, it's tt


been played


ne Dhriishn
traditional
he same old
d since the


Middle Ages.
The white cricket uniform of flannel
trousers and silk shirts, that has come
down from its blue blood originators, has
given way in the Canal Zone to clothing
more fitting for strenuous exercise in the
tropics.
The local umpire also often adds an
"elephant hunter" hat to his traditional
white duck "duster."
In the British and traditional game,
there is tea between the long-drawn-out
mnmnings (after ten men on a team have
been out). At the end of the two or three-
day matches, of the type played in inter-
national competitions, there is a gathering
at which there are speeches and toasts
honoring both winners and losers.
When opponents fraternize after a
match, it's a gentlemanly gathering of
friends, just as it was in early times when
cricket was first played on castle grounds.
Cricket hospitality, Canal Zone style,
omits the traditional tea. It's more of a
banquet plus a family reunion when local
cricketers get together.
When the La Boca eleven play at
Mount Hope, they are met with to-do at
the station, to be escorted to the playing
field-the pitch. After the match, dinner
is laid out at the home of a home-town
team member. Then a party follows to


THE LA BOCA CRICKET CLUB, three-time Canal Zone champions, is shown here with Umpire
John Tudor (back left). The team members who played in the match with the team from the HMS
Sheffield, are left to right, back row: Van McLeod, Kenneth Brathwaite, E. Belgrave, Alfred Bowen,
Christopher Greaves, Leonard Roberts, A. Williams. Front row: M. Forde, Captain; Marcus Grannum,
James Lord, Edgar Roberts, and E. Wiltshire.


make anyone forget the most wicked
battle at the wickets.
Canal Zone cricket aficionados say the
local game has benefited from the influ-
ence of baseball-particularly in the qual-
ity of the fielding. This view, however,
has been questioned warmly by visiting
British cricketers. But whatever the
effect on cricket skills. many voung men


on Car
stand
In o
Gambe


ial Zone cricket teams are also out-
ng in baseball.
ne respect, cricket is the same-in
a, Oxford, or Sydney. The um-


pires call the plays and what
goes without boos or bouquets
grandstand. It isn't cricket to
a decision or show undue feeling
game or its outcome.


they say
from the
question
about the


The ethics of cricket are a most revered
tradition with followers of the English
national game.
There are small points of etiquette that
might seem strange to followers of base-
ball. When a bowler bowls a very good
ball (like the pitcher, in baseball language)
or a batsman smothers a "yorker," he is
politely applauded by his opponents, in
and out of the stands. On the other hand,


On the Pacific side, 98 players on six
teams fight it out on Sunday afternoons
from January to May. The teams are the
La Boca, Clovelly, Ancon, Red Tank,
Spartan, and Gamboa Cricket Clubs
(usually called just "C. C.'s").
There are 171 players in eight cricket
clubs on the Atlantic side, that sound like
Merrie Olde England. They are the
Excelsior, Fenwicks, Midland, Surrey,
Moreland, Rainbow City, Wanderers, and
Sussex C. C.'s. They play from January
to July.
The Atlantic Cricket Board of Control
serves as the regulatory body for that
side of the Isthmus. The members are:
Sidney Anderson, President; Charles
Davis, Vice President; B. Clarke, Secre-
tary-Treasurer; S. Cross, Assistant Secre-
tary-Treasurer; and George Newton and
Harold Clarke.
The Pacific Cricket Council, in charge
of cricket on the Pacific side, consists of
Hilton D. Perkins, President; William
Griffith, Vice President; and Roy Best,
Secretary-Treasurer.
The playoffs for the Canal Zone cham-
pionship will be held this month, with


.. ........
.
...
.
..





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Most


Former


Are


Canal


Broken


Traffic


In


Past


Records

12-Month


Period


Although many new records were set in
commercial traffic through the Canal
during the past fiscal year, which ended
June 30, total traffic failed by more than
450 transits to equal the all-time high of
9,586 transits established in the fiscal
year 1946.
The chart on this page shows the fluctu-
ations of Canal traffic, both of commercial
shipping and total traffic during the past
14-year period. It was during this period
that ocean-going commercial traffic
reached its lowest and highest levels since
the close of World War I.


Last fiscal year was the fourth time in
the Canal's operating history that ocean-
going commercial traffic exceeded 6,000
transits and the second time when total
transits exceeded the 9,000-mark.
The heavy traffic in the fiscal year 1946,
composed chiefly of tolls-free vessels, re-
sulted from the mass movement of ship-
ping in the Pacific to the Atlantic after
the close of World War II.
New Records Last Year
Several new traffic records were set by
commercial shipping through the Canal
during the past year. A new monthly
record of 613 ocean-going commercial
vessels was set in March, only to be
broken two months later by the 622 trans-
its in May. New monthly records also
were established on the amount of tolls,
cargo shipments, and net tonnage of
vessels.


Yearly records were established in the
number of transits, net tonnage of vessels,


and cargo tonnage.
The new record in cargo ton
year was established as the result
commodity shipments from the
to the Pacific. The tonnage of co
shipments in this direction in
fiscal year was 15,129,000 tons,
pared with 11,132,000 tons in the
fiscal year. an increase of al


nage last
; of heavy
Atlantic
'mmodity
the past
as cornm-
previous
Most 40


percent.
West-East Shipments Drop
There was a slight decrease last year in
the amount of cargo shipped from the
Pacific to the Atlantic from the previous
year's figures.
The amount of mineral oil shipped
through the Canal last year from the
Atlantic to the Pacific was more than
double the tonnage of the See page 18)


CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
FISCAL YEAR
1952 1951 1938
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic
Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going.-_. -- ---- 3,184 3,340 6,524 5,593 5,524
*Small_ --....._.. ..-- -.-.---- 725 676 1,401 1,113 931
Total, commercial-- -------- 3,909 4,016 7,925 6,706 6,455
**U. S. Government vessels:
Ocean-going.--- 409 365 774 693 441
---------------- I4 4 1
*Smal- 1 ----- -------------.. 237 192 429 315 J
Total commercial and U.S. Government_ 4,555 4,573 9,128 7,714 6,896
Vessels under 300 net tons Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement
tons on vessels assessed on displacement tonnage).
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.


NUMBER
SHIPS
10000


*9000

8000


1938 1939 19401941 19421943 19441945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951


1952


STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC
For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for
the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939.





THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


Canal


Celebrates


38th


Anniversary


August


15


Early


ransits


Listed


The Panama Canal will observe its 38th
birthday on August 15 as an interoceanic
link for commercial ship traffic.
The inaugural voyage for the new chan-
nel was made August 15, 1914 by the
Panama Railroad steamer Ancon with a
cargo of freight for transshipment at
Balboa and about 200 specially invited
guests. The Ancon made the voyage from
deep water in the Atlantic to deep water
in the Pacific, the trip requiring the entire
day. The ship discharged its cargo at
Balboa and returned through the Canal
eight days later.
Although the Ancon's trip was listed as
the first commercial transit, it was not the
first self-propelled vessel to make the trip
nor the first cargo to be shipped through
the Canal between the two oceans.
The first transit by a self-propelled
vessel was made by the craneboat Alex
LaValley on January 7, 1914. The crane-
boat had been in use at the Atlantic en-
trance, but was moved to Culebra (now
Gaillard) Cut for some work. After com-
pleting the work there, it was sent to the
Pacific side rather than back to Cristobal.
Many Inquiries Received
Many inquiries are received from time
to time concerning the first trips through
the Canal by various types of vessels. A
summary of this information was com-
piled and printed in THE PANAMA CANAL
RECORD in the September 15, 1933 issue.
The summary, except for the description
of the Alex LaValley's trip, follows:
"On February 1,1914, the tug Reliance,
passing through Gatun Locks, completed
a voyage around South America; it had
sailed from Colon for Balboa via the
Strait of Magellan on February 11, 1912,
and arrived at Balboa on June 17, 1912.
"On May 18, 1914, three barges loaded
with sugar transferred to them at Balboa
from the steamer Alaskan were towed as
far as the lower end of Pedro Miguel
Locks; and their transit, after a change of
towboats, was completed at 9 p. m. on
May 19. This was the first handling of
cargo through the Canal.
"On May 19, 1914, the tug Mariner
towed two empty barges through the
Canal from Cristobal to Balboa. arriving


sit of an ocean steamship in
service. The ship discharge(
Balboa and returned through
to Cristobal on August 23.
"On August 15, 1914, fol
departure of the Ancon, train
Canal was begun by the
Arizonan of the American-HaM


commercial
d cargo at
the Canal


lowing the
nsit of the
steamship
raiian Line,


leaving Cristobal at 10:23 a. m.; this
vessel completed transit on the following
day, passing Balboa at 4:10 p. m., August
16. The Arizonan carried cargo. The
yacht Lasata, owned by Morgan Adams,
started transit through the Canal appar-
ently about 1 p. m., August 15, and com-
pleted transit at 5:35 p. m. on the 17th.
The steamship Missourian of the Ameri-
can-Hawaiian Line, carrying cargo, left
Cristobal at 2 p. m. on August 15 and
passed Balboa at 11:05 a. m. August 17.
First Northbound Transits
"The Pleiades, of the Luckenbach
Steamship Company, transited the Canal
on August 16, 1914, from Pacific to At-
lantic. She left Balboa at 6:50 a. m. and
arrived at Cristobal at 5:30 p. m. the same


day. The Pleiades was
Pennsylvanian of the Am,
Line, which left Balboa
August 16, and arrived
8:50 a. m., August 17.
"These early transits
chant vessels may be
follows:


followed by the
erican-Hawaiian
at 9:40 a. m.,
at Cristobal at


of seagoing mer-
summarized as


Test Transits
Atlantic to Pacific-August 3, Cristobal;
August 9, Advance; August 11, Panama.
Pacific to Atlantic-August 4, Cristobal;
August 9-10, Advance; August 11-12,
Panama.
Opening Voyage
Atlantic to Pacific-Steamship Ancon,
August 15; return through Canal, August
23.
F :*;< ---- liilll | |ll.II~l~ll.^-: *-, ---w---- ^- r-^^---,..^ --- ^ ---,-.^^, -^ ^.."TV- ^~l^ f^ K:--~" W~ -''-"-.~ ~-.

I '


Normal Commercial Transits
(Atlantic to Pacific)
Arizonan, began transit August 15 at
10:23 a. m.; arrived at opposite terminal
August 16 at 4:10 p. m.
Lasata, began transit August 15 at 1
p. m.; arrived at opposite terminal August
17 at 5:35 p. m.
Missourian, began transit August 15 at
2 p. m.; arrived at opposite terminal Au-
gust 17, 11:05 a. m.
Pacific to Atlantic
Pleiades, began transit August 16 at
6:30 a. m.; arrived at opposite terminal
August 16 at 5:30 p. m.
Pennsylvanian, began transit August 16
at 9:40 a. m.; arrived at opposite terminal
August 17 at 8:50 a. m.
"From the foregoing it may be stated
that the first self-propelling, ocean-going
vessel to pass through the Canal was the
LaValley, completing transit on January
7, 1914; the first passage of commercial
cargo was on May 18-19, 1914; the first
vessel to make a direct, continuous voy-
age from ocean to ocean through the
Canal was the tug Mariner on May 19,
1914; the first regular merchant vessel to
transit the Canal in commercial service
was the Ancon on August 15, 1914; and
the first merchant vessel to use the Canal
on a voyage between ports beyond the
Canal terminals was the Arizonan on Au-
gust 15-16, 1914."
Other commercial vessels which trans-
ited during the first few days the Canal
was open included the Arizonian, Ken-
tuckian, and Montanan, of the American-
Hawaiian Steamship Company, and the
Santa Catalina, of the W. R. Grace and
Company, all northbound; and the
Missourian, American-Hawaiian Line,
the Isabella, Luckenbach Line, and
Admiral Dewey, of the Pacific-Alaska
Navigation Company, all southbound.


I ~. ->.





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


w


Canal


world


Traffic


Changes


Figures

During


Show


Past


25


ears


Some of the vast economic and politi-
cal changes which have taken place in the
world during the past quarter century are
indicated min comparative statistics on
Panama Canal traffic for the fiscal years
1929 and 1952, the two peak years in its
38 years of operation.
Most of the Canal records for commer-
cial shipping established in the fiscal year
1929 were broken during the past fiscal
year. New records were set last year in
the number of large, ocean-going commer-
cial vessels, the net tonnage of commercial
shipping, and the amount of cargo shipped
through the Canal.
Comparative figures on transits, ton-
nage of vessels, amount of cargo and tolls
are shown in the accompanying chart at
the bottom of this page for the two peak
years.
The amount of tolls collected on ocean-
going commercial vessels using the Canal
last year was nearly $200,000 under the
tolls for the fiscal year 1929, even though
the number of vessels and the aggregate
net tonnage of these vessels were higher
last year. This variance was caused by
the change in the rules of measurement
and rate of tolls which was made in 1938.
Economic and Political Changes
Although most of the principal statis-
tics on Canal traffic for the two years are
within a comparative range, the changes
which have taken place in the world's
economic and political pattern are re-
vealed in more detailed statistics for
the two years on cargo shipped over the
various trade routes, commodity tonnage
figures, and the nationality of vessels
using the Canal.
Some of the major changes in the move-


ment of cargo over the principal trade
routes as shown in the comparative sta-
tistics for 1929 and 1952 are the following:
The cargo shipments in the United
States intercoastal trade last year were
less than half of those in 1929;
Shipments of commodities between the
east coast of the United States and the
Far East last fiscal year were almost triple
those of 1929;
Cargo tonnage moved over the trade


route between Europe and Australia in
1952 was more than double that of 1929.
South American Trade Doubles
And, the South American trade has
almost doubled within the 23-year period
over the routes through the Canal to the
East Coast of the United States and to
Europe.
The following shows the relative posi-
tion of the ten leading (Continud on page t)


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
By fiscal years
STolls
MnhTransits (In thousands of dollars)
Month
1952 1951 1938 1952 1951 1938
July -... ..----...------ --- 463 513 457 $1,981 $2,373 $2,030
August--------------------- 490 453 505 2,103 2,093 2,195
September------------------ 516 446 444 2,189 1,982 1,936
October-..------------------- 544 480 461 2,230 2,068 1,981
November- .. ------------ 502 446 435 2,053 1,845 1,893
December_...--.-- 550 452 439 2,347 1,886 1,845
anuary----- ----------- 522 452 444 2,121 1,854 1,838
February ------------------ 507 444 436 2,082 1,853 1,787
March--------. .-------- 613 474 506 2,512 1,943 2,016
SApril -- ---------601 470 487 2,423 2,007 1,961
May----- --.------------ 622 485 465 2,481 2,020 1,887
June----- .....------------------ 594 478 445 2,401 1,982 1,801
Totals for fiscal year------- -6,524 5.593 5,524 $26,923 $23,906 $23,170


I *- I- t


Panama


t 4ou1s
4 4 +
S4 4 4
4CREODT5 4
4
+ 203 ^


SMALL .
+40A + +
,+ 4 ,

;COMMEALL%
K.QMMERC*A


1929


1929


1929


1929


; FREE
?66


+ + 4 4
4 +
TOLLS
4 CREDITS
$341372B
+ 4 +


1952


1952


I I





THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


Panama Canal Traffic Figures Show
World Changes During Past 25 Years
(Continued from pdg 17 commodity ship-
ments, in total tonnage, for the two years:


ATLANTIC TO PI
1929
1. Mfg'res of iron and steel
2.' Mineral toils
3. Cement Mfg'res of


Cotton
Phosphates
Tinplate
Automobile
Railroad m
Sulphur
Coal and co


PACIFIC
1929
Mineral oils
Lumber
Nitrate
Wheat
Various ores
Canned goods
Sugar
Various metal
Cold storage f


10. Dried fr


Col
uit


Paper and
atrial
ate rial


PACIFIC
1952


Mineral oils
Coal and coke
iron and steel


Phosphates
Sugar
paper products
Automobiles
Machinery
Sulphur
Cement


758,000 long tons last year, as compared


with 505,00(
Increased
last fiscal y
totals on all
through the
the United
which drop
in 1951 to
The heavi
last year we


Stones in the fiscal year 1951.
cargo tonnage was reported
ear over the previous year's
of the principal trade routes
Canal with the exception of
States intercoastal trade,
ed from 5,731,000 long tons
1,279,000 tons last year.
iest gains in cargo shipments
re shown on the trade routes


between the east coast of the United
States and the Far East; the United
States and Canada east coast and Austral-
asia; Europe and the west coast of the
United States and Canada; and Europe
and Australasia. Lesser gains were shown
on the routes between the east coast of the
United States and Central America;
Europe and South America; and the east
coast of the United States arid South
America.


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the cargo shipments, in thousands of long tons, of large,
commercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:


TO ATLANTIC


Canned fo


s Va


Various ores
Lumber
Wheat
Nitrate
'od products
Sugar
Bananas
rious metals


ood products
d storage food products
Mineral oils


The number of nationalities represented
in the commercial shipping moved through
the Canal increased from 24 in 1929 to
34 last year. Flags in Canal traffic last
year which were not listed in 1929 in-
cluded those of Brazil, China, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, Iran,
Eire, Liberia, Nicaragua, Philippines,
Portugal, Switzerland, and Venezuela.
Among the flags listed in 1929 which
were not represented mn the 1952 traffic
were those of Belgium, Cuba, Danzig,
and Yugoslavia.
The major shift in the nationality of
vessels was indicated by the number of
ships under flags last year which were not
listed in 1929. Of the 6,524 transits by
ocean-going commercial vessels last year,
more than 800, or more than one-eighth
of this traffic, were under flags not listed
in the 1929 Canal transit records.


Most Former Canal Traffic Records
Are Broken In Past 12-Year Period
(Continued from pogz 15) previous year.


United States IntercoastaL ..--........
East Coast of U. S. and South America -- -
East Coast of U. S. and Central America _
East Coast of U. S. and Far East .---...
U. S./Canada East Coast and Australasia__
Europe and West Coast of U. S./Canada__
Europe and South America .....


Europe and Australasia ....
All other routes .-------. .


Total Traffic-----..-----.. .


FISCAL YEAR


1952
4,279
5,098
528
6,146
1,634
5,970
1,706
2,478
5,772
33,611


1951
5,731
5,063
389
4,900
962
4,096
1,642
1,611
* 5,679
30,073


1938
6,395
2,652
46
4,850
992
4,237
2,974
1,251
3,989
27,386


Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in thousands of long tons)
Figures in parentheses in 1938 and 1951 columns indicate
relative positions in those years
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC


Commodity
(in thousands of long tons)


Mineral oils--...
Coal and Coke--
Manufactures of
Phosphates.....
Sugar _
Paper and paper
Automobiles -.


iron and steel_ _


products


Machinery ... .. .
Sulphur . . . .
Cement
Raw cotton .....
Tinplate .
Ammonium compounds_
Canned food products --
Ores, various


FISCAL YEAR
1951
1,759 (1)
867 (3)
1,600 (2)
502 (4)
354 (7)
370 (5)
286 (10)
223 (11)
296 (9)
174 (15)
362 (6)
218 (13)
210 (14)
130 (17)
71 (26)


907 (3)
137 (15)
1,859 (1)
328 (6)
57 (31)
423 (5)
208 (9)
168 (10)
297 (7)
154 (11)
142 (13)
238 (8)
71 (22)
133 (16)
104 (18)


August 1,1952





August 1,1952


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Intercoastal


Traffic

ecreases


Through


25%


in


Canal


Past


Fiscal


ear


A 25 percent decrease in the amount of
cargo shipped through the Panama Canal
over the United States intercoastal route
from the previous fiscal year was one of
the most significant factors in the shipping
statistics of the fiscal year 1952, which
ended June 30.
The intercoastal trade has been the
most important of the Panama Canal
traffic in peacetime operation since the
waterway was opened. In most years it
has led all other of the trade routes in the
cargo tonnage figures.
The heavy decrease in the intercoastal
trade was reflected in comparative sta-
tistics with cargo tonnage moved over
other routes. During the past fiscal year
the tonnage moved over the intercoastal
route was the fourth highest, being ex-


ceeded by the tonnage on routes between
the east coast of the United States and
the Far East; Europe and the West Coast
of the United States and Canada; and the
East Coast of the United States and South
America.
Only 12% Of Total Tonnage
The amount of cargo moved over the
inter-coastal route during the past fiscal
year represented only 12 percent of the
total shipped through the Canal on all
routes.
During the late 1920's cargo tonnage
over the intercoastal route was approxi-
mately one-third of the total. In the five-
year period immediately proceeding World
War II the cargo shipped between Pacific
ports and those on the Gulf and Atlantic
seaboard constituted slightly more than
25 percent of the total. Throughout both
of these periods the cargo tonnage over
the intercoastal route was the highest of
any major trade route through the Canal.
This intercoastal trade-on a commer-
cial basis-was practically eliminated
during the past year when the War
Shipping Administration early in 1942
requisitioned all American flag vessels of
more than 1,000 tons burden.
The trade was gradually revived after
the close of the war with the release of
both dry cargo vessels and tankers for
commercial shipping. By the fiscal year
1949 cargo tonnage moved over the inter-
coastal route amounted to 3,091,000 long
tons out of a total of 24 30f000 nor an-.


vessels using the Canal in the fiscal years
1951 and 1952. There were 2,084 Ameri-
can flag ships listed in last years Canal
traffic, as compared with 2,203 in the


Inspect


Miraflores


fiscal year 1951. The total amount of
cargo shipped on these vessels was ap-
proximately 1,200,000 tons less in 1952
than the previous fiscal year.


Diesel


Plant


AN EXPLANATION of the work involved in the overhaul of one of the big Diesel power generators
at Miraflores Power Plant is being given to Colonel Craig Smyser, new Engineering and Construction
Director, left, in picture above, by Walter E. Benny, Mechanical Supervisor of the Power Branch on the
Pacific side. The visit to the Miraflores power station was one of many inspection trips Colonel Smyser
has made since his arrival early last month. He was accompanied on this trip by Col. George K. Withers,
(facing camera), whom he succeeds as head of the Engineering and Construction Bureau, who is scheduled
to leave today for his new assignment in Omaha, Nebr., and J. Bartley Smith, Electrical Engineer, right.


Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels


Nationality


Argentinian
Brazilian _
Belgian _._..
British .. _
Chilean . ..
Chinese -_ _.
Colombian.
Costa Rican .
Cuban .. ...
Danish .
Ecuadorean ...
~tn miann


FISCAL YEARS


1952


Num-
ber of
transits
2
7
1,267
49
24
109
10
206
143


Tons
of cargo


7,967,866
209,541
211,855
115,389
36,370


978,9
98,1


Num-
ber of
transits


Tons
of cargo


8,489
6,414,452
252,056
49,024
76,863
9,994
708,735
98,358


Num-
ber of
transits


1,28l
9
2


I


Tons
of cargo


6,417,01
28,78
13,11


865,235
- i c






THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


August 1,1952


acht


a.---
a-
I r
IhIMI~isa ii


Club


Provides


Fun


.--
^- "a^


- s.Ui .


For


Seagoers


.- -""iI I
S-~ -'.. .._.
-..'


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Iw


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75 BOATS belonging to members of the Balboa Yacht Club anchor here in the Club's moorings on the east side of the Canal channel


Yacht Club of some 125


members is founded on the near-universal
appeal of fishing and faraway places and
the feeling for skippering your own good
boat to your choice of destinations.
On the Isthmus of Panama, nearly
surrounded with water and busy with
seagoing business, it is not surprising the
general fascination of boats has fostered
several such organizations.
Home port for the Balboa Club extends
from Navy Pier 2, reaching out toward
the Panama Canal channel from Fort
Amador, to the wartime mine dock just
inside the anchorage for ships entering the
Canal from the Pacific.
There, in the Club's moorings on the
east side of the channel, the members' 75-
odd boats lie at anchor, using only about
half of the waters assigned for their use
by the Panama Canal Marine Bureau.
Biggest of the boats that bob up and
down as the big ships stir the waters in
the channel is the Tondelayo, a 46-foot
sailing ketch owned by a Navy employee,
Walter E. (Wally) Pearson.
The Tondelayo raced to first place in
the Club's 1952 racing season and was
flagship last year when her owner was
the Club's Commodore.
"Waif" is Flagship
The flagship now is the Waif, a 16-foot
sailing sloop owned by a Balboa High
School instructor, Charles R. (Bob)
Bowen, who is now Commodore.
The former Navy Officers' Club at Fort
Amador has served as clubhouse for the
Yacht Club since 1946, when it was trans-
ferred by the Navy to the Yacht Club


from all parts of the world that put into
their hospitable pier.
Some visitors like the place so well-
like Lee and Ann Gregg off the ketch
Novia, and "Buzz" and June Champion
of the ketch Little Bear all of whom came
from San Diego-that they come ashore
and go to work and stay in the Canal Zone.
It sometimes works the other way.
Yacht Club members catch the fever of
faraway places and take their own boats
or join the crew of a visiting yacht bound
for a faroff atoll in the Pacific.
For instance, Mr. and Mrs. John W.
Litton and their small daughter left re-
cently in the ketch Calypso for the Society
Islands to visit the Kim Powells (Mrs.
Powell and Mrs. Litton are sisters), former
Yacht Club members who now make
their home in Tahiti.
Listed in Lloyd's Register
The Balboa Yacht Club enjoys full
recognition by other such clubs through-
out the world and is listed in Lloyd's. It
also is a member of the North American
Yacht Racing Union, and the Interna-
tional Game Fishing Association.
Among the visitors who use the Club's
facilities on a reciprocal basis are members
of the Panama Canal Yacht Club of
Cristobal and the Pedro Miguel and
Gamboa Boat Clubs, who visit most often
during the red snapper and corbina sea-
sons when they come to try their luck in
Panama Bay.
Fishing members of the Balboa Yacht
Club receive timely tips in a bulletin
issued monthly by the Club's Fishing


Committee, whose chairman is Sam R.
Moody. For instance, this month the
committee advises that sailfish and marlin
come into the inner bay in August and
that marlin are best baited with whole
bonita.
When the dry season winds blow strong
and steady, the Racing Committee goes
into action, scheduling races and cruising
picnics (luaus) and an annual treasure
hunt on Taboga or Taboguilla Island.
Bill Clark is Chairman of the Sail Yacht
Racing Committee.
Winners of Sail Races
In the last racing season, the Tondelayo
placed first; Bill Clark's Kdelpie, second;
Lee Greg's Novia., third: and Bill


Wymer's Kon
The Balboa
flown in several
States coasts.
Chiriqui, with


f
Hiro, fourth.
Yacht Club burgee has
I ocean races off the United
Tucker McClure's ketch
his local manager, George


Bobbitt aboard, last year won the Class
"B" trophy, and was second on corrected
time for the Time Prize in the Los
Angeles-Honolulu Yacht Race.
Ed McIntosh's Starcrest has also com-
peted in winter races around Florida, the
most notable being the St. Petersburg-
Havana Ocean Race in 1950, in which
Starcrest placed third in Class "C."
The Balboa Yacht Club was organized
in 1946 from the remaining interested
members of the former Balboa Boat Club,
which operated before the war from the
present home base of the Yacht Club and
the Panama Bay Yacht Club, which
operated in Panama during the war.


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ABOUT

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Full Text

PAGE 1

.^J^m of the Panama Canal Museum BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 1, 1952 5 cents VoL 3, No. 1 MAJOR CANAL OPERATIONS AND FINANCES CONSIDERED BY BOARD A T JULY JEETING 1953 Housing Program One Of Many Problems Slated For Discussion Girls' Nation Representatives CANAL ZONE representatives to the sixth annual Girls' Nation, now being conducted in Washington by the American Legion Auxiliary, are shown above shortly before sailing July 25 for the States. They are Arline Schmidt, \ejl, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. T. Schmidt, of Balboa, who was elected Lieutenant Governor of Caribbean Girls' State which convened at Fort Wm. D. Davis in April, and Joyce CoUinge, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Collinge, of Balboa, who was elected Governor. Both girls are outstanding students of Balboa High School and both take an active part in high school athletics. Canal Zone School Enrollment This Year is Expected To Reach Ne w AU-Time High Canal Zone school buildings will be filled to overflowing with an expected alltime record high enrollment of about 10,600 when schools reopen this fall. There were 9,832 in Canal Zone schools last year. Colored schools reopen August 4, while the white schools and the Canal Zone and La Boca Junior Colleges will open September 4. An expected increase of about 10 percent in white elementary school enrollment — reflecting a sharp upswing in the national birthrate starting in 1942 — will fill every available school room on the Atlantic side and necessitate some redistricting on both sides of the Isthmus. The number of students in the white secondary schools and the Canal Zone Junior College is expected to be slightly higher than last year. Colored elementary school enrollment is expected to be about five percent greater than last year with a slight increase in the number of students in colored secondary schools. Primary changes in school curriculum will be the teaching of Spanish in grades four, five, and six, if funds are made available, and the addition of elementary school classes in instrumental music. School Redistricting Redistricting on the Atlantic side to accommodate the larger number of elementary school students will involve the transfer of most children living in Coco Solito from the Margarita to the Cristobal Elementary School. On the Pacific side, children from Fort Clayton, who were formerly divided between the Pedro Miguel and Diablo Heights Elementary Schools, will be divided this year between Pedro Miguel and Cocoli Schools. About 20 new elementary school teachers have been employed in the United States and six new teachers have been employed for the white secondary schools. There will be 20 new teachers in the colored schools, all of whom were member's of the first class graduated this spring from the La Boca (Sse yaqe i) Many important decisions concerning the various Canal operations this year, especially those relating to the fiscal program, were expected to be reached at the meeting of the Board of Directors held this week in Washington. The meeting, which opened last Monday, was attended by Governor Seybold— his first since becoming President of the Company. The Governor is scheduled to return to the Isthmus this week. Also attending the meeting was Lindsley H. Noble, Comptroller, whose election as a general officer of the Company was on the July agenda. Of the many questions slated for discussion by the Board members this week, — two of immediate interest to the average Canal employee were the housing program and the Panama Line operations. The steamship line operations have been under study now for the past several months and reports on various phases were scheduled for presentation to the Board this week. Housing Plans For 1953 The extent of this year's housing program and the individual projects to be undertaken as a part of the 19.53 fiscal year program probably will be announced at an early date. Governor Seybold stated last month after final Congressional action on the Canal Company and Canal Zone Government budgets that the program will be continued at "an appreciable" rate this year. A considerable amount of the work remains to be completed under contracts awarded during the past fiscal year for both quarters construction and site development. Some of these contracts will not expire until late this fiscal year although the bulk of the work is expected to be finished during this calendar year. It is not presently expected that bids on individual housing projects for this fiscal year will be advertised until late this calendar year. Aside from the housing program, the allocation of funds for (See pag? 6) AUGUST FEATURES # Canal's record year in shipping — six pages Pages 15-20. # Signalmen's Union has two members -Page 2. 9 The story of what Is done about your weather Is told on Pages 10 and 11. # Cricket— how It's played and who plays It -See Page 14. # Progress of townsite development at Cardenas — Page 6.

PAGE 2

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1,1952 Slogan Of "Every Member An Officer" Fits Union Local Of Two Signalmen Every member is an officer — and that means both of them —in Local 133 of the Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen of America. Spencer B. Smith is Chairman and Tracy P. White is Secretary-Treasurer. That's a quorum and a roster of the loral. It's the smallest local in the entire union of signalmen in the United States :uid Canada. It is also the only local south of the Rio Grande and the smallest union in the Canal Zone. The local has no meeting time or place. They meet frequently anyway. Mr. White putt-putts over "to Mr. Smith's on his little railroad motor speeder or Mr. Smith putt-putts over from Balboa to Clatun to see the Secretary-Treasurer. (Jr, there are times when they both puttputt to meet each other half way. No Dues To Local They pay no dues to Local 133— only to the National Brotherhood. If there's disagreement between members about union business, the business probably just doesn't come off. If one thinks so, the other thinks not, the matter is usually dropped. Organizing activities are completely nil for lack of potential members. Mr. Smith and Mr. White are the only local railroad men eligible for union membership. As Signal Maintainer for the Northern District of the 50-mile Panama Railroad, Mr. White tends the signals to the "24mile," a mile north of Darien, and Mr. Smith, Signal Maintainer for the Southern District, is responsible for the other half of the line. Local 133 was not always ro small. When it was organized in November 1927, there were five full-fledged charter members. Supervisor Loses Membership There was R. S. Wood of Ancon, a hard worker at union bu?iness. He became Supervisor of Railroad Signals in 1948 and withdrew in accordance with union custom. As elder statesman without portfolio, he is still an interested consultant and advisor. It was largely because of Mr. Wood, Local 133 in 1935 became affiliated with the Central Labor Union. G. A. Sausel, an original member, transferred to the Locks Division in 1935 and is now a control house operator. Other charter members have now retired and are living in the United States. Equipment Changes made The signal system in early union days employed not only two signal maintainers, and a signal supervisor, but two battery men, a construction man and one relay repairman. Changes in equipment and in the system have reduced the number to three who double in brass as signal maintainers, batterymen, construction men, and repairmen. The signal system also has eight localrate employees who, together, have 309 years of Panama Canal service. The Panama Railroad signal system, which the signalmen keep in operation, includes 84 automatic signals which tell locomotive engineers on the trains to proceed, stop, proceed slowly, etc.; three large signals with colored lights; and 24 THIiS 18 LOCAL 133 of the Brotherhood of liailroad Sii^nalmen of America. The Sij;nalmen are Spencer B. Smith (left), Chairman, and Tracy P. White, (light), Secretary-Treasurer. That's all there is to the local. automatic flashing lights or wigwags at grade crossings; all of which operate from signal lines in underground cable. Automatic Signal System The present track circuit is gradually being replaced with coded track in which the track itself carries the impulses between signals, eliminating much of the underground cable. Chairman of Local 133 is almost native to the Canal Zone, having come to the Isthmus when he was ten months old, with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. William C. Smith, who now live in Gatun where his father is a control house supervisor at the locks. He became an apprentice railroad signalman in 1943 and became a journeyman signal maintainer in January 194S -with time out for service with the Air Force during World War II. Mr. White, who came from a railroad family, went into the railroad business himself in 1929 with the Maine Central Railroad. He was employed in the signal system of the Panama Railroad in December 1946. Lifelong Zonian Mr. Wood, who is something of a godfather to the present Local 133, is also almost a native. He came to the Canal Zone when he was 11 months old when his father, the late Joseph C. Wood, was working at Empire. He was first a helper in the Canal organization during summer vacation periods and was a helper in the Mechanical Division for about four months before he went to work in the signal department of the Electrical Division in April 1927. The Signal Section was transferred to the Panama Railroad in July 1949, and at about the same time Mr. Wood was promoted to his present position of Signal Supervisor. Six of eleven new temporary fire stations being built in Canal comnninities were opened 10 years ago. They were the Aneon Si(hstati
PAGE 3

August 1,1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Lt Gov. Paxson Meets Civic, Labor Leaders At Monthly Conference Representatives of Canal Zone labor and civic groups had an opportunity to meet their new Lieutenant Governor on July 24 and they made the most of it. They made so much of it, in fact, that the July session of the Governor-Employee Conference went well over the usual closing time. The Lieutenant Governor, Col. H. 0. Paxson, conducted the conference in the absence of Gov. J. S. Seybold, who was in Washington to attend a meeting of the Company Board of Directors. At the end of the conference, which occurred just two weeks after Lt. Gov. Paxson's arrival in the Canal Zone and which was concerned with a wide variety of matters, he commented that it had been a new and different type of orientation for him. "It's much better than reading papers and documents," he said. A number of new subjects— copra bugs, per diem allowances, method of employee recruitment, speed limits, the price of moving picture admissions— were taken up at the July meeting, as well as the more familiar subjects such as commissary prices, housing, civil defense, and Colon Hospital facilities. As usual, the conference was started with answers to questions raised at the previous meeting and left for further study. Among these were the size of bachelor apartments. In answer to a question which had been raised by the Rev. Philip Havener of the CristobalMargarita Civic Council, Lt. Gov. Paxson answered that the long-range housing program was still unapproved and that no final decision had been reached as to what types of buildings, or how many, are to be constructed. The additional cost involved in providing a separate bedroom or underbuilding garage space for the bachelor quarters would tend to discourage any such enlargement, he believed. Robert Daniels, of the Railway Conductors, suggested that the administration consider the assignment to bachelors of existing single-bedroom, four-family quar'ters rather than to demolish such buildings as the program continues. Lt. Gov. Paxson said that in the quarters program there will be an attempt to keep a balance, provid'ng quarters for single men and women, as well as for families of various sizes. After a lengthy, general discussion on civil defense, Lt. Gov. Paxson promised to look into the Army's handling of its disaster control program. He asked the employee representatives to fletermine from their groups if an educational program of this sort, started with the administration's help, would be satisfactory. Funds for civil defense had been requested by the administration but cut out of appropriations by Congress. Another long discussion followed Lt. Gov. Paxson's report that the Pure Food and Drugs Act does not include the Canal Zone. Daniel P. Kiley of the Pacific Locks Association expressed the belief that a government agency should be recjuired to maintain standards required of private corporations. The Lieutenant Governor Ten Years Ago In July WAR TALK AND TRAININU were occupying much attention of Canal Zone residents ten years ago, and an intensive civilian defense program was being carried forward early in 1942. The picture above shows five pretty Canal employees being given instruction in the use of the gas mask. The instructor, Maj. Charles H. Earth, .Jr., later Brigadier General, was then Assistant Supervising Engineer of the Special Engineering Division and was in charge of the civilian defense program. He later was transferred to the European Theater whei-e he became Chief of Staff in that Command. He lost his life in a plane accident in Iceland. The five young women students in the use of gas masks were Miss Regina Quinn, now Mrs. Tristan Enjuto, of Panama City; Miss Katherinc Adams, now Mrs. Robert Lessiack who is employed in the Personnel Bureau; Mrs. Marjorie Clarke, then employed in the Personnel Bureau who now lives in the States; Miss Macel Goulet, now Mrs. J. Morton Thompson, of Balboa, whose husband is employed in the General Counsel's Office; and Mrs. Beulah W. Sandford, whose husband, G. H. Sandford, is Supervisor of the Reproduction Plant at Diablo Heights. War work and war talk filled the columns of Isthmian newspapers 10 years ago. There seemed to be little else in the Canal Zone. The Governor warned that war-working transportation facilities would have little space for Canal employees and that vacations might have to go hy the board. Armed forces authorities let correspondents take their first look at barrage balloon sites. The balloons could then be operated effectively in local tricky tropical winds, they said. Unreliable and "capricious creatures" a few months before, the balloons had been converted into "a smooth-functioning airplane net of lethal cables that keeps constant watch over vital Canal installations." A shipment of potatoes, eggs, and vegetables was welcomed by the Commissaries and Commissary customers, who had been without several cold storage items for some time. The Army Engineers also had a pronouncement. They said they were far ahead of schedule in hewing out of virgin jungle and raising from swampy land an outer ring of powerful defenses— airfields, gun positions, barracks, warehouses, magazine roads, wharves, water supply, etc., for the Panama Canal. Miss Verona Herman, daughter of Captain {now Major and Chief of the Police Division) and Mrs. George Herman, became the first Canal Zone girl to be accepted in the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. The Tivoli USD was formally opened with festivities attended by more than 2,000. And on the civilian front: Pacific side civilian defense personnel received instruction in the use of gas masks. The number of Canal oldtimers was dwindling. According to an account of 10 years ago, there icere only 64 Canal employees remaining of "the small army of American workers employed by the Isthmian Canal Commission during the first 4 years of Canal construction." promised to have further information oh this question. In answer to another early inquiry, Lt. Gov. Paxson reported that the price of gasoline delivered in the Canal Zone was 12.7 cents. This does not include any handling, trucking, storage, or sales costs. The Lieutenant Governor reported on the assignment of quarters in the Morgan Avenue-Pyle Street area. These will be made from the regular quarters assignment list rather than on priority for residents of Ridge Road and Empire Street. Among the new matters which were raised was a question by E. W. Hatchett of the Central Labor Union, who questioned the I5-mile-an-hour speed limit on Barneby Street and a portion of Ancon Boulevard. He pointed out that a 25-mile speed limit is in effect on streets paralleling Barneby Street. This will be referred to the Trafiic Committee for further study. J. J. Tobin, Central Labor Union, asked why Commissary customers could not have a choice of products, citing especially sugar. He asked that customers be given an opportunity to purchase United States sugar if they preferred, rather than having only Panama sugar available. Mr. Tobin also requested an increased subsistence allowance for employees who are on temporary duty status such as Atlantic Locks workers who will come to the Pacific Locks at (*3 fage 13)

PAGE 4

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1,1952 Murals of Construction Era Attract Universal Interest Few attractions on the Isthmus have a more universal interest for visitors than the murals in the rotunda of the Administration Building at Balboa Heights. The paintings, consisting of four large panels and a frieze, were done by W. B. Van Ingen, of New York, at about the time the Canal was opened in 1914 and were placed on the walls of the rotunda early in 1915. He was a.ssisted in his work by C. T. Beri-y and Ira Remsen. The five pieces of art represent scenes during the Canal construction period. The four main panels are of scenes of Culebra Cut at Gold Hill, construction of the Gatun Spillway, erection of a lock gate, and the construction of Miraflores Locks. The frieze is a panorama of the excavation of Culebra (Gaillard) Cut. The paintings contain a wealth of detail but they are more impressive for their massive scale and the sweeping artistic conception of the modern mii-acle of building the Panama Canal. Muralist Was Noted Mr. Van Ingen was a painter of considerable reputation before his murals for the Administration Buildmg were painted. He had done several other paintings of a similar nature for buildings in the United States, including the Congressional Library in Washington and the United States Mint at Philadelphia. Sketches for the murals were made by the artist on two visits to the Isthmus during the latter part of the construction period. The paintings were executed in his New York studio and were shipped to the Isthmus and placed on the rotunda walls under his personal supervision. Col. George W. Gocthals, then Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission, took a personal interest in Mr. Van Ingen's work and it was primarily through his initiative that a contract for the murals was made with the artist shortly before the completion of the Administration Building in 1914. The paintings cover nearly 1,000 square feet of space and the cdiitr^K't price, including the placing of the murals, was $25 a square foot, or nearly .$25,000. An interesting sidelight of the Canal's early history is the correspondence concerning the murals exchanged in 1913 by Colonel Goethals and Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison. Secretary Of War Writes When the question of the paintings was first brought to Secretary Garrison's attention, he expressed some doubt as to the advisability of spending so much money for the art work. He wrote Colonel Goethals, in part, as follows: "The amount is, of course, large to spend for decoration, unless there is some significant reason why such an expenditure is justified. Even if the Fine Arts Commission has made a recommendation to this effect, I suppose the responsibility is ours, so far as justifying the expenditure of the money. "It occurs to me in passing that if we insist, as I am sure we both feel we should, that the Administration Building and everything else on the Isthmus is secondary to the operation of the Canal as an instrument of commerce, it might seem contradictory for us to expend so large a sum of money in a mere matter of decoration. In other words, since we take the view that everything is subordinate to operation, it might be inconsistent to expond money as if the Zone itself were to be a thing of interest." Opinion Of Colonel Goethals Colonel Goethals' opinion that the Canal was built for the primary purpose of benefitting world commerce was already on record and he did not touch on this point again in his reply to Secretary Garrison. Excerpts from his reply follow: "For the transaction of the business of the Canal and the Railroad, an administration building is necessary. The site selected and the general plans of the building were submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts, and the location of the building on the site was fixed to meet their views. Since the building is a nece.sTHE MAID OF COTTON, Miss Pat Mullarkey, was one of the many thousands of visitors to the Administration Building at Balboa Height.s who stopped to admire the murals in the rotunda. The "Maid of Cotton" paid a call on Governor .Seybold during her recent visit to Panama to stage a cotton style show at £1 Panama Hotel. sity for the operation of the Canal, it should be made creditable in every respect, not only to the Canal but to the United States. It may be called the Capitol of the Zone. "With the exception of the rotunda, there will be practically no ornamentation of the building of any kind and it is expected to make this the feature of the building and to be attractive to all who will come to the Zone for business or other purpose. The cost of the building contemplated some decoration of the nature described and follows in this respect the practice of practically all Government buildings in the States. The advisability and propriety of this work I have never doubted. The expense was anticipated when it was determmed to make this THE building in the Zone." In his letter, Colonel Goethals explained further details about the proposed contract with Mr. Van Ingen and a short time later received Secretary Garrison's full approval of the project. Canal Receives Thanks For "Courier" Visit Aid An expression of appreciation has been received from the Department of State for the cooperation of the Canal organization during the recent goodwill visit to the Isthmus by the Voice of America's floating transmitter, the United States Coast Guard Cutter, Courier. Special mention of the assistance rendered by the Canal organization during the Courier's visit several weeks ago was made in a letter from the Secretary of State to the Secretary of Defense. "It would be appreciated if this expression of thanks for assistance rendered were conveyed to the Commanding General of the Caribbean Command, the Governor of the Canal Zone, and their respective staffs," the letter stated. The message was forwarded to Governor Seybold by Maj. Gen. F. L. Parks, Chief of Information of the Department of the Army. In his letter to the Governor, General Parks said in part: "I want to take this opportunity to express the appreciation of the Department of the Army and to extend my own congratulations on the accomplishment of a job well done." Canal Zone School Enrollment This Year Is Expected To Reach New All-Time High [Continued from pags I) Junior College. Enrollment Estimates Given Enrollment is expected to total 1,630 in the white secondary schools; 1,490 in the colored secondary schools; about 4,370 in kindergarten through grade six in the white schools; and 2,920 in the same grades in the colored schools. Canal Zone Junior College enrollment is expected to be about 125 this year as compared with 92 last year. The La Boca Junior College will enroll 40 this year as compared with 45 last year. White secondary school enrollment last year was 1,611; students in the colored secondary schools totaled 1,411; white elementary schools, 3,898; and colored elementary schools, 2,775. The apprentice school will have about 65 students in 20 crafts. There will also be an expansion of the extension work for journeymen by the e^tabli-shment of additional seminars for those interested in technical work.

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August 1,1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW FOR YOUR A INTEREST AND /LML GUIDANCE CJL ^ CCIDENT PREVENTION Shipboard Safety Safety in the Navigation Division and Aids to Navigation Section is divided into two categories: The safety of the ship during its transit of the Panama Canal and safety of the employees handling the ship. The pilot has more personal responsibility for the safety of the ship during the transit as a whole than any other employee in the Panama Canal Company. Of course, other divisions have responsibility, but theirs is more that of a team. The pilot is usually alone on the bridge, except for the ship's officers. From the minute he sets foot on the bridge until he leaves at the end of the transit, he must be constantly on the alert for those dangers, which not only are typical of those at sea, but for those which he encounters only while transiting the Canal. Occasionally, when the ship is tied up to a lock wall he can relax and have a cup of coffee. Even there, he cannot leave the bridge for he must be ready to proceed when the way is cleared His problems are those of bad weather, floods, contrary currents, and those resulting from a big ship, a heavily loaded ship, or an unbalanced cargo. Old unreliable engines, slow to reverse, or rudder mechanism failures at critical moments often make safety for the ship a matter of how quickly the pilot and crew can act in an emergency. In addition to the pilot, a group of localrate employees are placed aboard to handle ropes and cables, which are attached to the ship from time to time to guide it through HONOR ROLL Bureau Award For BEST RECORD June ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Community Services. 4 I ndus trial 2 Civil AHairs 1 Engineering and Construction 1 Health 1 Marine Railroad and Terminals Supply and Service Division Awards For NO DISABLING INJURIES June HOSPITALIZATION AND CLINICS GROUNDS MAINTENANCE DIVISION AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR Grounds Maintenance 5 Clubhouses 4 Hospitalization and Clinics 3 Electrical 3 Storehouses 3 Dredging 2 Motor Transportation 2 Railroad.. 2 Sanitation 2 Navigation 1 Commissary Locks Maintenance Terminals the locks. The size of the ship determines the size of this group. A small ship requires only eight men, a large ship from sixteen to twenty men, all under the direct supervision of a boatswain. It is the ship's duty to furnish a pilot's ladder, or an accommodation ladder, which is a flight of steps with a platform at the bottom. In addition, the ship must furnish lines and cables to tie the ship up to a pier or lock wall. There are rules and regulations with which a ship must comply before being allowed to transit the Canal. The pilot has the authority not to board, or move a ship, which does not in his estimation comply with these rules and regulations, but more than likely the ship has been through the Canal before, and unsafe conditions are the result of unexpected causes, which do not become apparent until an emergency arises in transit. The pilot has tugs at his disposal and to aid him radio telephone and signal stations along the route. The Aids to Navigation Section maintains additional aids to navigation such as channel, range lights, and buoys. Some of these lights are many miles up and down the coast on each side of the Isthmus from the entrances of the Canal. The salvage tug Taboga and craneship Toro often make trips to sea to help a ship in distress, or service a light belonging to the Coast Guard. Others who give aid to the pilot, while he is transiting on a ship, are the Assistant Port Captains, Harbormasters, and Dispatchers who control the movement and disposition of ships as long as they are in Canal waters. There are also launches, which transport pilots, crews, agents, passengers, supplies, and others having business on board ship. Two of these launches make trips from Balboa to Taboga daily for the convenience of tourists and swimmers. In addition to the training and experience the pilot and other employees must have in order to insure the safe transit of all ships in their care, there is also the training and experience all employees must have to protect themselves from the loss of life and limb. With the sea so near to their daily DANIEL H. RUDGE Safety Inspector, Navigation Division lives, and the sometime hazardous conditions encountered in their regular work, all employees must be taught to recognize these dangers and how to protect themselves. They are also taught first aid and rescue, for it is important that all employees, from the lowest to the highest, know and practice this safety training, since there is always the possibility that any one of them may be called upon, to save a life from drowning, or serious injury. Also wherever practical, the unsafe conditions on board a ship are removed, or remedied, to insure both a safe transit for the ship and safety for the employees who navigate the ship. The fact that these units have consistently improved their safety record, in spite of such hazardous and dangerous conditions encountered, points to an active and progressi^'e safety program among the employees of the Navigation Division and .WAs to Navigation Section. Due to the retirement of Francis F. Hargy, safety representative for the Marine Bureau, Charles T Jackson has been appointed to fill the vacancy. Disabling Injuries per 1.096,000 Man-Haurs Worked (Frequency Rale) JUNE 1952 Engineering and Conslruclion Bureau Community Services Bureau Marine Bureau Supply and Service Bureau C. 1. Gov'l-Panama Canal Co.(19S2 lo Dale) Civil Affairs Bureau C. Z. Gov't Panama Canal Co. (This month) C. Z. Gov'l-Panama Canal Co. (Best Year) Health Bureau Industrial Bureau Railroad and Terminals Bureau Numher of Disabling Injuries 42 Man-Hours Worked 2,S06,590 LEGEND I I Amount Better Than Panama Canal Company— Canal Zone Government Best Year l^^^S Amount Worse Than Panama Canal Company — Canal Zone Govamment Best Year

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1,1952 1953 Housing Program One Of Many Problems Slated For Discussion (Coniinuid from page 1} other CompanyGovernment operations for this fiscal year are still under study. Final allocation of funds, as approved in the appropriations measure, will be made at an early date, according to an announcement by the Comptroller before his departure for Washington last month. Alterations Are Required Alterations in the Canal's fiscal program this year have been required in part by the refusal of Congress to approve as "non-reimbursable" items the sum of •$1,676,300 as contained in the budget request. Although the expenditure of this amount was approved. Congress directed that it be listed with other Canal Zone (lovernment net expenditures as being reimbursable to the U. S. Treasury by the Panama Canal Company. In view of the many complicated problems relating to the Canal's fiscal policies and program for this year the meeting of the Jioard of Directors this month was one of the most important held since the formation of the Panama Canal Company in July of last year. Most (if these fiscal problems are of a continuing nature although their importance was heightened at the July meeting of the Board by the necessity of making full plans for the current fiscal year on the allocation of funds for various operations under this year's budget. Officers To Be Elected Among the various items of business at the Board's meeting this week was the election of two general officers of the Company— the Comptroller and Secretary. The election of the Comptroller was required by a change in the Company's bylaws at the Board's meeting in April which provided for the establishment of the office of the Comptroller as a general officer instead of the Finance Director. Mr. Noble's appointment as Comptroller was made soon after the position was established. He was formerly employed as Comptroller of the Atomic Energy Commission. He arrived on the Isthmus early in June after about three weeks of duty in the Canal's Washington Office. The election of a new Secretary of the Company was required by the recent resignation of James C. Hughes to accept a position with another Government agency. Since his resignation, W. M. Whitman, Attorney of the Canal Company in Washington, has been acting as Secretary of the Company. Cardenas Site Work Over One -Third Done Approximately 1,000,000 cubic yards of earth are being moved in the major clearing and grading job required in the preparation of the new local-rate townsite of Cardenas. The work is being done under contract by Macco-Panpacific, Inc., at a cost of .$1,225,000. It is the second largest project of the 1952 housing program on the Pacific side. The contract was awarded last February in two parts, one for the clearing and grading of approximately 175 acres of hilly and heavily wooded land north of ('orozal; and another for the installation of an access road from Gaillard Highway, construction of two large water tanks, and the provision of sewerage and drainage facilities. The contract completion date of the project is next May and the work is on schedule with more than one-third already completed. The Contracts and Inspection Division is supervising the administration of this contract under the direction of C. A. Bchringer, Pacific Area Project Inspector. The other inspectors are Charles P. Morgan, R. J. Mahoney, and Francisco A. Lopez. New Highway To Town A new reinforced concrete highway is being built to the new townsite from Gaillard Highway. The new road leaves the main highway a short distance from the existing entrance to Corozal Hospital. Paving of the new road has already been started and the roadbed has been graded and ballasted for its full length of about three quarters of a mile. Because of the nature of the terrain, a large storm drainage structure is being installed. It is slightly over one mile in length. The contractor also is installing a large sanitary sewer, 4,230 feet in length, which will connect with Cardenas River north of Gaillard Highway. Two 250,000-gallon capacity water tanks, each, are being erected at the new townsite. 'The footings and foundations for these tanks have been poured and the contractor is now engaged in placing the forms for the tank walls. AERIAL VIEW of the new townsite of Cardenas. Heavy grading is now well advanced as can be seen in the above view of the new local-rate townsite. The contract work being done under the 19.52 fiscal year program by Maceo-Panpacific, Inc., includes clearing and grading 175 acres of land, contraction of the main entrance road to the area, as indicated above, ami tln' installiiiiiin uf w.drr tanks and other facilities. The above view of Cardenas is looking toward Corozal, shown upper center. Some of the principal public facilities planned for the new town, including the main streets, are indicated in the aerial picture of the area. The road which formerly ran through the new townsite joined the Post of Corozal and the CurunduFort Clayton Road. The road has been cut by the grading but the section from Fort Clayton is still in use by the contractor. It can be identified in the lower right hand part of the picture above with four cars parked near the grading site.

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August 1,1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW J..!^ ^euiJafc^L Official Panama Canal Company Publication Published Monthly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE Printed by the Printing Plant Mount Hope, CanalZone John S. Seybold, Governor-President H. 0. Paxson, Lieutenant Governor E. 0. Lombard, Executive Secretary J. RuFus Hardy, Editor Eleanor H. McIlhenny Oleva Hastings Editorial Assistants LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters containing inquiries, suggestions, criticisms, or opinions of a general nature will be welcomed. Those of sufficient interest will be published but signatures will not be used unless desired. SUBSCRIPTIONS— $1.00 a year SINGLE COPIES— 5 cents each On sale at all Panama Canal Clubhouses, Coramtssaries, and Hotels for 10 days afier publication date. SINGLE COPIES BY MAIL— lOcents each BACK COPIES— 10 cents each On sale when available, from the Vault Clerk. Third Floor, Administration Building, Balboa Heights. Postal money orders should be made payable to the Treasurer, Panama Canal Company, and mailed to the Editor, The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights, C. Z. TO SUSCRIBERS Please notify us promptly of any change in your mailing address. Post Offices everywhere have prepared postal card forms for notices of changes of address. THE EDITOR'S MAIL Editor, The Panama Canal Review: May I suggest that you start a movement to send the Commissary Division calendars to widows of retired employees? Many of them have expressed their desire for it and feel the loss of it keenly when the head of the household has passed on. After all, the wives of Canal employees played a very important part during the years of their husbands' employment on the Isthmus. Is it not a small recognition of gratitude the Canal could show them? A. R. McDaniel 530 East Massachusetts Ave. Southern Pines, N. C. This suftftestion was referred to the Commissary Division and the management of that division has replied that the calendars, so popular with retired employees, will be mailed to widows of former employees upon written request. The Panama Canai, Rr-;\ii;\v is belnf^ sent by subscription to nearly 1.000 former Canal employees. Many letters expressing complimentary remarks from these are being constantly received and are too numerous for publication. Suggestions like that submitted by Mr. McDaniel are very welcome from retired or active employees. To those old-timers who have taken the trouble to write and say they like the Review, the editorial staff expresses its thanks for their letters. OF CURRENT INTEREST Health Director Visits Gorgas A VISIT TO GORGAS HOSPITAL was made by Brig. Gen. Don Longfellow, Health Director, facing camera in picture above, soon after his arrival in the Canal Zone. General Longfellow was accompanied on his trip through the hospital by Col. Clifford G. Blitch, Superintendent of the Hospital (left, above) and Miss Beatrice H. Simonis, Chief Nurse. They visited briefly with various patients during their trip through the wards. They are shown above examining the medical chart of Howard Smith, patient, who is also an employee at the hospital in the Laboratory. Assignments to the houses now under construction in Diablo Heights in the area between Walker Avenue and Diablo Road will be made before the houses are actually ready for occupancy to eliminate the time lag which has formerly elapsed between the assignment and occupancy of quarters. Applications for these houses — the duplexes and the cottages — will be accepted up to August 29. The only applications which will be considered in making the assignments will be those which refer specifically to this group of houses in Diablo Heights — either new applications or old applications which have been amended to request a specific house or type of house in this area. The houses are expected to be ready for occupancy as they are completed, starting in early October and continuing up to about November 10. It is expected that construction will have advanced to the point by early September that potential occupants may inspect the houses and make application by house number or type. A total i)f 287 of the 345 chauffeurs in the Motor Transportation Division recently received safe driving awards for operating official vehicles without an accident which caused personal injury or property damage throughout the entire 1952 fiscal year. Of that number, 109 dri\ers who have continuDus service received awards fur seven years of driving without accidents. Many of these probably have much longer safety records but records have been kept and awards issued only for seven years. It is estimated that the average Motor Transportation Di\ision chauffeur drives about 10,000 miles anuualh' in the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama. There were no fatal accidents during the 1952 fiscal year and those that did occur were of a minor nature. Any accident or violation of the law, no matter how small, prevents the issuing of a safe driving award. will be made only upon the request of the employer for apprentices in craft programs approved by Selective Service headquarters in each State. A new Selective Service regulation provides that full-time apprentices in designated crafts are now eligible for occupational deferment, it has been announced by A. C. Medinger, State Director of the Selective Service organization in the Canal Zone. Deferments under this regulation .'\pproximately 175 classified employees of the Company-Government who had been in temporary status because of provisions of the VVhitten Amendment have been converted to permanent status. The transfer was possible because of the recent changes in the Whitten rider which delegate certain responsibilities to affected agencies, rather than to the Civil Service Commission. Employees on permanent status are eligible for retirement benefits; those on tempoporary status are not so eligible. The conversion to permanent status of those employees who were c|ualitied and eligible was started by the Personiiel Bureau in July and was completed late in the month. In addition 21 employees whose position grades had been held at lower levels because of time-in-grade requirements have been promoted to higher grades. The Whitten .Amendment, which has been attached to a niunber of appropriations bills since the outbreak of the Korean fighting, is designed to keep government agencies at the force and permanent position levels which existed in 1950. Practically all of the coal in stock at the Cristobal Coaling Plant has been sold and when the present supply is exhausted this once-important phase of Canal operations will be closed. Notice that the Panatna Canal Company would retire from coaling bunkering operations was issued to shipping interests at the first of last year. The plant in Cristobal was closed at the end of last year although the remaining stock has been made available for sale to vessels or others. The sale of coal was one of the most important phases of the Canal's operation soon after the opening of the waterway in 1914 when coal-burning ships were still in predominance. The business declined rapidly after the close of the first World War and the sight of a coal-burner in Canal waters now is a rarity. A limited stock of run-of-mine and galley coal will be maintained for sale by the Division of Storehouses in the future after marine bunkering is discontinued.

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1, 1952 The young ones around will be off before long for grade schools, iniixersilies, and high schools, But before the\' go there'll be tabletsand l\ pcwriters, o.\fords and anklets, books and blouses to bu\'. Since shoes are a must that head many lists of things to be bought for the school ci.„.o crowd, the Wholesale Shoe Section Shoes ,.„•_ ,, f f .„. for offers these facts about footwear for School '^'i''''''^'" ^"'' ''if" henelU of the [larents who buy them. Top quality and sturdiest of children's shoes are those of welt construction. The welt is, in effect, a strip of leather to which both the shoe upper and the sole are .sewed, gi\-ing Ihe shoe strength and dnrabilit\and holding it in shape. Children's shoes of this type in Canal Commissaries range in price from $4.45 to $8.25. They include "I'ro-tek-tiv's," moccasin toe oxfords at $8.25, the best sold in the Commissaries; "Modern .^ge" and "Trim Foot," moca.ssin toe, saddle, and plain o.xfords at $5.45 and S5.50; and "Blue Bonnet," tip o.xfords and straps at $4.45. The price \ariations on welt construction shoes reflect differences in leather and workmanship. Shoes of similar quality — but priinarily for girls because of their lighter and daintier appearance — are those with .soles fastened on with cement. Those of this type in Canal Commissaries, primarily for girls, are straps and sandals which are priced at $4 to $5.50. The most popular and least costly of children's shoes are the "stitch-down's," in which the shoe upper is turned out and stitched down to the sole. Commissary shoe people guesstimate that 90 percent of the children's shoes sold, here and elsewhere, are stitch-down's. It is a simple t>'pe of construction which tnakcs a flexible and comfortable shoe. Commissaries have a wide range of styles in this kind of shoes which range in price from $2.75 to $.5.75. Golfing demons can work the kinks out of their games with knitted practice golf balls, new in the stores. Native fresh rhubarb and leeks are now being .sold in the Cominissaries. Thev were Rhubarb'•fcently purchased for the first It's time by the Commi.ssary DiviFresh ^'"'^ from a grower in Chiriqui Province, with whom these plants are a new crop and a new enterprise. Nvlon ^'^^^ time since the public first learned Prices '^ '^^ *'^'^ ^''^^ synthetic "miracle" Down f'''"'''^' there's enough on the market to push prices down to near their natural level. Soon after nylon made its debut before an impressed buying public, World War II came along and took it away to help fight the Nazis and Fascists. When nylon came back from its war-time career the ladies clamored to buy it — for themselves and their husbands and grandpas and children who had all found a use for the fabric. The buyers who strain to provide for the public whatever the public will pay for bid up the price for the available supply which never quite caught up with the demand. Then came the Korean war and manufacturers made more and more nylon to hll, or anticipate, wartime orders. War uses didn't absorb all the nylon that was made and a lot of it fell back on civilian markets. In terms of prices in Panama Canal Commissaries the consequent drop in prices means that nylon dres.ses that formerly sold for about $8.50 are now priced at $5.50, with similar drops in price on blouses, lingerie, and hose. New for automobiles are: Gasometers which check mileage and gas; auto bottlewarmers which plug into cigarette lighters; uni\-ersal hubcaps which fit any car; window rattle eliminators; and auto crests and initials that cost 30 cents for the gold crest and 15 cents for each initial to make your buggy a plutocrat among cars. .Arriving in the Commissaries in August will be new blouses, skirts, and dresses in the Back-to-School ^'" 6.'"'^ 1t. '-i-^j^e Clothes groups— just in time for going-back-to-school girls. And for those who will be leaving for school in the States, the Commis.saries will have coats, sweaters, and hats for girls, and gabardine topcoats, among others, for boys in the teen-age group. The price on nylon is now as nice as its looks, launderability, and wear. For the "Liquid Smoke," a new barbecue sauce in the Commissaries, is as good for beans and other vegetables as it is to give spare ribs and other barbecues a new kind of zip. Cash Sale System Is Inaugurated In Three Atlantic Side Local-Rate Commissaries 5212 I. P. No. NAME Limit The employee may authorize wholly dependent, legal memt)er3 of his immediate family residing with him, such as his wife and minor children, to purchase in his name by designating them in the spaces indicated For the President: E. C. Lombard MR 52051— Panama Canal— 5-2-52— 50.000 Executive Secretary Signature of E moloyee 81 a o C 1 j h e c o ? 2 o Name of Dependent RglatioDship 5 o Name of Dependent Relationship S 53 |R s|iC?|9!S|s;3StSS S3 9! % s 3 s = § s s s S 3 s 8g ^1* 8 s s s s s ift 1 55 So S s S S 8 s s S S? s s s s s s s s s s s S5 "-IsssRsslg: 9 9S 3! 3 |S {tC {e 3 |S St s s s = 2 s s s S = S u o s s|s s s s b^ 25 o5 35 1 S K u5 s s s 1 s 1 S s s s s? s |s s s S5 s s S t iii r^ go #2 S n S R 9 9{ci K C3 3 R !S S3 Sg s SR s s s 2 a s 3 S 2 9 1 i=l|l OS u^ A 5s5s 5) 5^5^ io u5 1 uS u5 u5 u5 s s s s s S5 s s s s s s s s s S M r* fsj "^ 1 JH K:{n ^\ti !; aJK Q is K i::|sii{So 0k s = s Is a K P; !Si r*. s s s s s s sis s s s s s s s s|s s s s s s 35 u5 S5 S5 s s s S Q 1— ( -"ssKsess^^s |s tie 5 {sg t: % s i 5 = 5 g 2 lO s s s s 1 s s s 1 s 1 s s s s 1 s s 1 s s s s s s s S s s 1 s s s S S S The cash sale system in the Commissary Division retail stores will be extended today to the three local-rate stores on the Atlantic side, Camp Bierd, Rainbow City, and Chagres Commissaries. Cash sales will be extended to the local-rate commissary stores on the Pacific side about November 1 under the present plans. A facsimile of the new identification and authority purchase card is shown above. These were distributed to Canal employees recently and have been in use now since July 1. These cards will be distributed monthly to Canal employees. Different colored cards are to be'used by various others who have purchase privileges. These include civilian employees of other Government agencies in the Canal Zone, and retired employees. The new system is expected to prove more effective in the prevention of unauthorized purchases than the coupon system. Unused Coupons Cashed Cashiers in stores have been authorized to redeem unused coupons for a 30-day period after the cash sales system is adopted upon proper identification. Instructions concerning these cash redemptions of coupons have already been furnished the various stores by the Commissary Division headquarters. As seen in the facsimile above, the new cards show the name and identification number of the employee; the employee's signature; the name and relationship of dependents; the expiration date of the identification-privilege card; and the monthly purchase limit. Only one card will be issued to each bachelor employee, while two cards will be issued to married employees. The cards are marked in purchase denominations of 50 cents each which will be marked out on the cards with each purchase of a corresponding amount. The change to the cash purchase system in the local-rate commissaries has been under consideration for several weeks. The plan adopted for the control of unauthorized purchase is the result of experience gained in handling cash sales in U. S.-rate commissary stores.

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August 1, 1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Summer Recreation Program Attracts Many Youngsters from 5 to 18 wind up this month a summer of fun in the thij-d Summer Recreation Program organized for the entire Canal Zone. This year, fathers toe, and pets and dolls and even mothers' hats, dresses, and high-heeled shoes played a part in the activities. Fathers and sons pitted skills against each other in father and son hoi'seshoes, one of the special events emphasized in this year's playground program. "Me and My Dog Day" gave Bowser his place in the fun. Small fi-y sirens modeled their own creations in feminine headgear in a Little Ladies' Hat Show. Then there have been Hobo Day, on the opening day of the U.S. rate activities June 16; a pet show; a scavenger hunt and other special activities. Before the U. S.-rate program closes August 30, there will be more special events in addition to the many arts, crafts, and sports activities which form the backbone of the program this year as in the past. Youngsters in local-rate communities have had their tiaditional scooter derby and in inter-playground tournaments have played championship matches in basketball, volleyball, swimming, baseball, track, and Softball. There have also been domino, checkers, archery, and shuffleboard tournaments. Square-dancing, sewing, hjindicrafts, weight-lifting, boxing, skating, and even jacks also provided entertainment and instruction for children in the local-rate programs, which opened June 11 and closed August 1. The arts and crafts program, a community Chest function, is directed by the Canal Zone Recreation Committee. Mrs. G. 0. Parker served for the second year as coordinator of the program in the U. S.rate communities and E. Stanley Loney was coordinator, for the third year, of the local-rate program. The playground program was under the general supervision of G. C. Lockridge flower making attracts all age groups. Even a few boys lose their timidity and talvo instruc^irootrvr nf flio Phvoipnl Vrliifptinn nnH ''""s in this phase of the summer recreation prop-am. The volunteer instructor for this group of fiowermrector OI me rnysicdl Ji,uucdUon_ anu ^^|.^_,_, ^^^^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^ j^^^^^ Medrick, center, who is showing Violet Reid at her left how to mal
PAGE 10

10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1, 1952 Everybody Talks About The Weather — Some People Do Something About It Water makes the Panama Canal work and the Canal's Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch budgets the water so it will safely transit ships from ocean to ocean, fill Isthmian faucets, light the Canal Zone, and run its hoists and toasters. The weather and water men -there is not a woman in the unit— also furnish authoritative information for the very large part of the population who talk about the weather or do something about it. Ringing telephones at the Balboa Heights headciuarters or Cristobal station may announce a housewife who wants to know if she should hang out her wash; an Isaak Walton inquij'ing about the water temperature in Panama Bay; or a ship captain who asks if there were an eatthquake at 2:10 a. m. on July 30 — if not, his ship must have hit an obstruction, he explains. Or the caller may be a Dredging Divison official who wants to know about the tide level in the bay; an obscure fact fancier who is curious about the average humidity at 3 a. m.; or the people after people who seek assurance that it is unusually hot or dry or wet or windy. Weather Over 1,300 Square Miles Most of the answers come originally from ink wiggles recorded on graph paper by instruments at weather recording stations spread over more than 1,300 square miles of Isthmus covered by Canal weather work — meteorology, hydrography, seismology, and climatology. There's a lot of water in this area of rainy season tropical downpours and it takes a lot to run the Canal. Just how much there is and what to do with it to pre\'ent either flood or water famine are the primary questions for which there is a Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch to supply the answer. Back in the bush as far as 35 miles from the Canal channel, hydrographers travel by launch, cayuco, and pack mules or trudge long jungle trails on foot to find out how much water there is and how much can be expected. That is the question which hydrographic people labor constantly to reduce to reliable facts which they must have to beat floods to the draw and at the same time assure suflicient water for all Canal needs. Must Meet Water Needs Among the water expenditures, there are some fixed obligations that must be met— come high or low water. The first of these is the business of shuttling ships from ocean to ocean. It takes 7k million cubic feet (a cubic foot is about 7'-^ gallons) of water to lock a ship through the Canal— or 157 million for an average day of 21 lockages. When that is used, it is gone forever from Gatun Lake, the main storage basin that forms 28 miles of the ship channel between Gatun and Pedro Miguel Locks and is the real heart of the lock-type Panama Canal. Madden Lake serves as an auxiliary reservoir for Gatun Lake. Another heavy water expenditure goes for hydroelectric power. The Gatun Hydroelectric Plant at Gatun Dam uses an average of 2,500 cubic feet per second. Water used at the Madden Hydroelectric Plant at Madden Dam— about 1,700 cubic feet per second — runs on down into Gatun Lake, where it is used over again. Losses By Evaporation Heavy .\bout 47 cubic feet of water every second goes into Isthmian faucets for drinking water and Saturday night baths. Another 700 cubic feet per second disappear into thin air by evaporation and 22 more cubic feet per second leak out of the lock chambers. il^ Which all goes to show that there's a lot of water that doesn't go over the dams. THIS "WEATHERMAN" at work is James Thompson, Jr., Engineering kiA. again, hitting the jungle trail that takes him to remote weather stations to gather the statistics on which the Canal water "budget" is based. H. J. MILLION, Hydraulic Engineer, kfl, and James Thompson, Jr., Engineering Aid, are shown here using a current meter to clock the current of the Chagres River at Madden Dam. one step in the process of determining the amount of water coming into Gatun and Madden Lakes from the rivers in the huge Gatun Lake drainage basin. Between elevation 82 feet (the lowest that provides a minimum depth of 40 feet in the Canal), and 87 feet, Gatun Lake holds 22i^ billion cubic feet of usable water — enough to supply the entire city of New York for six months. Madden Lake holds 28 billion cubic feet when it is full, practically all of which is usable. With that much water to start with, the budgeting of the available supply seems simple enough — the object being to store the rain that runs into the lakes during the rainy season and use it during the four or five months of dry season. But there are complications. When both lakes are as full as they can, or should, be at the end of the rainy season, the rains are still coming and there is always the possibility that rampaging rivers may build up a water volume that couldn't be spilled safely before it damaged the dams and locks. Again, it would seem simple in a case like that to open the spillway gates and let some water run out. But that is a ticklish and technical business that also takes time. If the spilling were delayed until floods happen it would be too late. Dry Season Needs Urgent The water budgeters must also consider first, last, and always the primary necessity of keeping water in storage for the dry season that comes around like death and taxes and the people who start worrying when Gatun Lake drops noticeably. They can't just let the water go if there seems to be too much of it. There are emergency measures that could be used to hurry a dangerous amount of water out of the lake but it would take several hours to get them into

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August 1, 1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 W. H. ESSLINGER, Chief Hydrographer in ciiarge of the Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch, and his assistant, T. C. Henterjeft, are shown here with some of the weather equipment in the headquarters office at Balboa Heights. On the desk is a quadruple register which records wind direction and velocity, sunshine, and rain. The tall old barogi'aph. flanked by two barometers in the background, was inherited from French Oanal diggers and is known to have been in constant operation since the 1880's. operation with safety. Only the spillway gates can be used quickly. In an extreme emergency, about 300,000 cubic feet of water per second could be poured out of the lake — if all 14 spillway gates were open and if Canal traffic were stopped and the water were spilled out through the emergency dams at the locks and the huge lock culverts which ordinarily supply water for lockages. When the rains pour and the rivers rage up in the hills of the continental divide, Houston Esslinger, who heads the Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch, the first-hand observers on the spot and the men who man the gates and valves could wish they had been postmen or bus drivers. Many Floods At Night Floods have a habit of happening at night and they can't be stuffed in desk drawers until morning. So the midnight oil burns and telephone messages of information from the field and instructions from Balboa Heights shuttle back and forth until the danger is past. In the dry season it's just the opposite. When the water is being used too fast the "budget" has to be adjusted by economy measures such as short chamber and tandem lockages, Diesel operation of power generating plants, or shifting of the power load from one station to another. The hydrographers certainly think twice before recommending the Diesel operation of power plants since the increased cost of Diesel operation pushes electric rates up in proportion. Another consideration in manipulating the power generation for the sake of water economies is that the Madden power plant generates twice as much power from a given amount of water as the Gatun station because the water falls farther at Madden Dam. The ammunition used against either flood or water famine is a battery of statistics. They detail for weather men the situation that must be met— today and tomorrow or during that theoretical "1,000-year flood," the maximum eventuality, based on past weather records. Network Of Weather Stations The statistics come from a network of rainfall and river gauging stations over a large piece of the Isthmus. Most of the weather outposts are located within the confines of the huge oval-shaped ridge that roughly encloses the 1,300 square miles of territory from which water runs into Gatun and Madden Lakes—the Gatun Lake Basin. Rainfall observations are collected from 50 stations in the Canal Zone and Panama, 34 of which have automatic recorders from which statistics in wiggle form on graph paper are gathered. There are eight river stations on the rivers that run into Gatun Lake. Trips to gather statistics from weather outposts start from the Madden Dam station where Charles Howe, Hydraulic Engineer, is in charge of the field work of the Meteorological and Hydrographic Branch. He is assisted by Engineers Jim Million and Elmer Kanz, seven engineering aids and 25 local-rate cayuco men, motorboat operators, observers, and helpers. Palancamen Are Used To get to the San Miguel station, for instance, some 9 miles above the upper tip of Madden Lake, an engineer and three local-rate "palancamen" (from palanca, the pole used to push a cayuco through the water) set out by launch across Madden Lake. They have cayucos in tow and carry food and clothing for three days to a week (and might need more in event of a flood), a current meter, tool kit, and ink and graph paper to maintain weather instruments at the outposts. From the head of navigation on the lake, an hour of poling their cayucos takes them to the Candelaria River Station on the Pequeni River. A local-rate observer is stationed here — and also at the Chico Station on the Chagres River — to keep a constant watch on the river. At Candelaria the engineer removes the record of river heights from a recording gauge housed in a little 35-foot perpendicular tower that rests on a level with the river bottom and reaches up toward the trees on the river bank. To measure the amount (See page 13) BALBOA August 15th CRISTOBAL August 22d Three years in the making! Thousands In the cast! ActuaLlyfllmed in Rome by M-G-M! ...,:Sia.ijaiM ;;;:yWA:^:>:^>^x^^K^i:::^;-^f•^;^:•^:^^^^^ XE£MMl£Akill™.i BALBOA August 29th CRISTOBAL September 5th ACTUALLY FILMED p^ :j ^, DeMlJIp 'rr UNDER THE BIG TOP! IjVl^** iiaBB^J.:'*^ \^0^*^ Color by TECHNICOLOR • starring efrtY cornel Charlton DOROTHy gloria • HlN-WliHfflMIEiiyiS CORNEL CHARLTON DOROTHy I •ih HttUI KIICOKONl!li Ifllttl -UMiNtt IBNil fMBll ttlH -tUtClOU -JNlOlliim CONtiUll ftodicit ind tiiKlid t| titil I. mm. Fridieid mH U ciopmlioi il H\n BiosliinuB i liilij tircis Saiiiplii li Fiidie IH I* Biri Ipiioii iH tadtn SI
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12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW AugusH,1952 ANNIVERSARIES THIS MONTH'S CALENDAR KniploN'cfs who observed imporlaiU anniversaries diirinj; the month of July are listed alphabeticalhlielow. The number of years inchides all Government service with the Canal or other agencies. Those with continuous service with the Canal arc> indicated with (*). 4t YEARS Joseph C. Hannigan, Lockmaster, Atlantic Locks. 41 YEARS *Enrique de la Ossa, Local .Agent, Panama, Terminals Division. 40 YEARS George H. Cassell, .\ssistant Chief, Housing Division. Eddie Holgerson, Foreman Stevedore, Terminals Division. 35 YEARS George W. Smith, Property and Stock Control Clerk, Pacific Locks. Randolph N. Trower, General Foreman, Dredging Dixision. 30 YEARS George B. Smith, Plumber, Maintenance Division. Stanley F. Yost, Marine Dispatcher, (Port and Canal), Navigation Division. 25 YEARS C. F. Bertoncini, Cartographic and Compilation .\id. Dredging Division. Nolan A. Bissell, Postal Clerk, Postal. Customs aTid Immigration L^ixision. *Joseph A. Corrigan, Jr., Storekeeper (Checker), I erminals Division. James A. Driscoll, .Assistant Dredging Chief, Dredging Division. *Lyman Jackson, Locomotive Machinist, Railroad Division. Russell L. Klotz, Chief, Housing Division. Jacques K. Lally, Postal Clerk, F'ostal, Customs and Immigration Division. Lew W. Mcllvaine, Assistant Supplv Officer (Housewares — Toys), Commissary Division. *Herbert K. Peterson, Planning Estimator, Industrial Bureau. *Anastasio Sogandares, Boilermaker, Industrial Bureau. Oscar M. Sogandares, Signalman, Navigation Division, Anthony Tezanos, Chief Towboat Engineer, Ferry Service, Dredging Division. *WelIs D. Wright, .Assistant Designing Engineer, Engineering Division. 20 YEARS W. H. Clinchard, Jr., Dental Officer, Hospitalization and Clinics, Health Bureau. Oliver C. Gulp, Supervisor Plumber, Maintenance Division. Leon V. Heim, Customs Inspector, Postal, Customs and Immigration Division. Caroline Hunt, Xurse, Gorgas Hospital. Donald H. Spencer, Foreman Painter (Locks Division) and Diver, Pacific Locks. John R. Szima, Operator-Electrician and Electrician, Terminals Division. 15 YEARS *Errett R. Albritton, Train Dispatcher, Railroad Division. *Harlan P. Crouch, Telephone Maintaincr. Electrical Division. Philip T. Green, Department Head (Wicational Subjects), Schools Division, (Industrial Training Coordinator). Robert B. Grier, Lock Operator, Pacific Locks. Reed E. Hopkins, Jr., Heavy Truck Driver, Motor Transportation Division. *Teddy A. Marti, Lock Operator (Machinist), Pacific Locks. *Richard H. McConaughey, Lock Operator (Pipefitter), Pacific Locks. John A. McLain, Jr., Gauger and Foreman Cribtender, Terminals Division. Sumner E. Parker, Lock Operator (Wireman), Pacific Locks. William J. Stevenson, Hydraulic Grader, Dredging Division. James G. F. Trimble, Construction Inspector (Electrical), Contracts and Inspection Division. Dorothy Webb, File Clerk, Local-Rate Records Branch, Personnel Bureau. 'William G. Wood, Yard and Road Locomotive Engineer, Railroad Division. 1st American Legion, Posi .No. (>, (iamboa Legion Home, 7:M) p. ni. 2d~Track JForemen, No. 2741, B & B Shops, Balboa. 3d— VFW, Post No. .?857, \eterans' Club, Cristobal, ') a. m. 4th Pedro Miguel Civic Council, Conimunitv' House, 7 p. ni. CristobalMargarita Civic Council, Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. VFW, Post No. 727, Fort Clavlon, 7:,) p. m. VFW, Post No. 3822, Curundu Road, 7:30 p. in. American Legion, Post No. 3, Gatun Legion Hall. 7:30 p. m. Postal Employees, No. 23160, K. of C. Hall, 7:30" p. m. 5th~Machinists, No. 811, Balboa Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. m. Gamboa Civic Council, Community Center, 7:30 p. m. Gatun Civic Council, Gatun Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. VFW, Post No. 100, Old Boy Scout Building, Cristobal, 7:30 p. m. 6th— VFW, Post No. 40, Balboa, Wirz Meiiiorial, 7:30 p. m. 7th — Carpenters and Joiners, No. 667, Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. 8th— Blacksmiths, No. 400. with Boilermakers No. 462 and No. 471, K. of C. Hall, Margarita, 7:30 p. m. 10th— Plumbers, No. 606, Balboa Lodge Hall, <)J0 a. m. Pipefitters, Margarita Clubhouse, 9:30 .1. m. Sheet Metal Workers, No. 157, Balboa Clubhouse, 9:30 a. m. 11th — American Legion, Post No. 1, Legion Home, 7:30 p. m. Machinists, No. 699, K. of C. Hall, Margarita, 7:30 p. m. 12th — American Legion, Post No. 7, Fort Clayton, 7:30 p. m. August Sailings From Cristobal Cristobal August 1 Ancon August 8 Panama August 15 Cristobal August 22 Ancon August 29 From New York Panama August G Cristobal August 13 A neon August 20 Panama August 27 American Legion Auxiliary, No. 1 B;dboa Legion Home, 7:30 p. m. Electrical Workers, No. 397, Wirz Memorial, 7:30 p. m. 13th — Pacific Civic Council, Board Room, .\dministration Building, Balboa Heights, 7:30 p. m. American Legion, Post No. 2, Legion Home. Old Cristobal, 7:30 p. m. Carpenters and Joiners, .\o. 913, Balboa Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. m. 17th— CLU-MTC, Margarita Clubhouse, 8:30 a. m. 18th — Truckdrivers, Balboa Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. m. Electrical Workers, No. 677, Masonic Temple, Gatun, 7:30 p. ni. 19th — Machinists, .\'o. 811, Balboa Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. m. Operating Engineers, No. 595, K. of C. Hall, Margarita, 7 p. m. 20th— AFGE, .\o. 'l4, Balboa Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. American Legion Auxiliary, No. 3, I^cgion Hall, Gatun, 7:30 p. m. 21st — American Legion Auxiliary, No. 6, Gamlioa Legion Hall, 7:30 p. m. 25th— VFW Auxiliary, Post No. 3822 Post Home, 7:.?0 p. m. Machinists, No. 699, K. of C. Hall, Margarita, 7:30 p. m. 26th— VFW, Post No. 100, Old Boy Scout Building, Cristobal, 7:30 p. m. American Legion, Post No. 7, Fort Clavton, 7:30 p. m. Operating Engineers, No. 595, Lodge Hall, Balboa. 7 p. m. Marine Engineers Beneficial Association, Gamboa Golf and Country Club, 7 p. m. 27th — American Legion Auxiliary, No. 2, Legion Home, Old Cristobal, 7:30 p. m. AFGE, Lodge No. 88, Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. 28th — Governor's Conference, Board Room, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, 2 p. m. SEPTEMBER 1st — Pedro Miguel Civic Council, Community House, 7 p. m. Cristobal-Margarita Civic Council, Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. VFW, 'Post 727, Fort Clayton, 7:.W p. m. VFW, Post 3822, Curundu Road, 7:30 p. m. American Legion, Post No. 3, Gatun Legion Hall, 7:30 p. m. 2d — Machinists, No. 811, Balboa Lodge Hall, 1:M) p. m. Gamboa Civic Council, Community Center, 7:30 p. m. Gatun Civic Council, Gatun Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. 3d— VFW, Post No. 40, Wirz Memorial, 7:30 p. m. 4th — Carpenters and Joiners, No. 667, Margarita Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m. June 15 Through July 15 The following list contains the names of those V. S.-rate employees who were transferred from one division to another (unless the change is administrative) or from one type of work to another. It does not contain within-grade promotions or regradings. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Bruno L. Emanuele, from Security Guard, .Atlantic Locks, to Fireman, Fire Division, Joseph L. Sestito, from Security Guard, Paiilie Locks, to Postal Clerk. Postal Service. Shirley S. Makibbin, from Elementary School Teacher to Substitute Teacher, Schools Division. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Walter E. Marek, from Plumber. Maintenance Division, to Plumbing Inspector, Contract and Inspection Division. Joe W. Crawford, from Junior Foreman, FerrvService, to .Apprentice Wireman, T~lectrical Division. James A. Eraser, Jr., from Policeman, Police Division, to .Apprentice Cablesplicer, Electrical Division. Joseph G. Black, Sr., from .Armature Winder to Electrical Machinist, Electrical I^ivision. William J. Turner, Richard Swearingen, Richard C. Scheidegg, from .Apprentice Wiremen to Wiremen, Electrical Div. Philip R. Sanders, from .Armature Winder .Apprentice to Armature Winder, Electrical Division. Burman S. Spangler, from Planing Mill Hand to Carpenter Leader, Maintenance Division.

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August 1, 1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS HEALTH BUREAU Dr. John E. Marshall, Dr. Jack D. Summerlyn, Dr. Homer L. Graff, Jr., Dr. William T. Bailey, from Intern to Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Steve R. Maharry, from Hospital Resident to Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Robert W. Bonifaci, Dr. Rodolfo V. Young, Dr. Douglas M. Hardy, from Resident to Medical Officer, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Jesse E. Douglass, from Intern, Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer, .Atlantic Sledical Clinics. Dr. Joseph G. Sebrand, Dr. Michael J. Takos, Dr. James M. Young, Jr., Dr. Alfred B. Hinkle, from Intern to Hospital Resident, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Thomas G. Bouland, from Hospital Resident .\o. 1 to Hospital Resident No. 2, Gorgas Hospital. Dr. Russell H. Mitchell, from Intern, Gorgas Hospital, to Medical Officer, Pacific Medical Clinics. Mrs. Mary C. Holmer, from Clerk Typist, Contract and Inspection Division, to Clerk Typist. Sanitation Division. INDUSTRIAL BUREAU Daniel C. Zitzmann, from General .Supply Clerk, Housing Division, to Fiscal Accounting Clerk, Industrial Bureau. MARINE BUREAU Mrs. Velma D. Todd, from Clerk-Stenographer, Personnel Bureau, to Clerk-Stenographer, Navigation Division. Benjamin R. Brundage, from Second Assistant Marine Engineer, .Aids to Navigation Section, to Chief Towboat Engineer, Navigation r)i\ision. Charles T. Jackson, Jr., from .Administrative .Assistant, Navigation Division, to .Administrative Assistant, Office of the Director. Peter M. Riley, from Clerk (Shorthand Reporter) to .Administrative Assistant, Navigation Division. Thomas B. Idol, from Physical Science Aid, Engineering Division, to Guard Supervisor, Dredging Division. Albert L. Taylor, from Dipper Dredge Engineer to Chief Towboat Engineer, Dredging Division. Lloyd M. Kent, from Property and Supply Clerk to Small Tug Operator, Dredging Division. Frank P. Marczak, from Meatcutter-incharge, Comniissar\' Division, to Senior Foreman, Dredgiiig Division. Herman H. Keepers, from Electrical Assistant, .Aids to Navigation Section, to Electrical Supervisor, Aids to Navigation Section, Atlantic. Alexander Watt, from Steam Engineer (Floating Crane) to Dipper Dredge Engineer, Dredging Division. Norman A. Terry, from Towboat Master to Senior Towboat Master, Ferry Service, Dredging Division. Albert H. Shockey, from Lockmaster to Mechanical Supervisor, Pacific Locks. Frank O. Bryan, from Lock Operator, Machinist Leader, to Lockmaster, Pacific Locks. Ferdinand G. Berwanger, from Lock Operator Machinist to Lock Operator Machinist Leader, Pacific Locks. Curtis L. Coate, from Wireman, Electrical Division, to Lock Operator Wireman, .Atlantic Locks. PERSONNEL BUREAU Billy Gene Mauzy, from Personnel .Assistant to General Fields Training Officer, Personnel Bureau. Mrs. Shirley L. Cozzens, from ClerkStenographer, .Administrative Branch, to Secretar\-, Office nf the Director. Mrs. Dorothy A. Andress, from ClerkStenographer, Wage and Classification Division, to .Secretary, Office of the Director. RAILROAD AND TERMINALS BUREAU Arba E. Beck, from Chief Stevedore Foreman to Marine Terminal Superintendent, Terminals Division. John W. B. Hall, from Principal Stevedore Foreman to Chief Stevedore Foreman, Terminals f^ixision. David S. Brown, from Head Stevedore Foreman to Principal Ste\edorc Foreman, Terminals Division. Peter A. Tortorici, from Stevedore Foreman to Head Stevedore Foreman, Terminals Division. SUPPLY AND SERVICE BUREAU Carleton F. Hallet, Jr., from Lifeguard, Lt. Gov. Paxson Meets Civic, Labor Leaders At Monthly Conference Everybody Talks About The Weather— Some People Do Something About It (Continued from page S) overhaul time. Mr. HofTmeyer questioned what he termed the "unofficial recruitment" of employees for certain types of work. They come to the Canal Zone at their own expense and are hired here. They fail to understand why employees recruited in the United States are entitled to provisions of Public Law 600 while employees hired locally are not. Edward A. Doolan, Personnel Director, and Forrest G. Dunsmoor, Administrative Assistant to the Governor, pointed out that personnel for certain types of work is available locally; the administration has no authority for States recruitment of this group. The administration, they said, is not responsible for paying the travel expenses of someone who hab been told by a friend that there are jobs which he might get if he comes to the Isthmus. Lt. Gov. Paxson agreed to take up with the Health Bureau the question of the copra bugs which are believed to come from ships and are a nuisance in towns along the Canal. He will also discuss with the new Health Director, Brig. Gen. Don Longfellow, the matter of facilities at Colon Hospital. Just before the meeting adjourned, Charles W. Hammond, Chairman of the General Committee of Civic Councils, asked for a later answer on the future of Corozal and the disposition of the present town of Pedro Miguel and its residents. Employee representatives attending the conference were: Andrew Lieberman of the Marine Engineers; Walter Wagner, Owen J. Corrigan, Mr. Hoffmeyer, Mr. Tobin and Mr. Hatchett of the Central Labor Union-Metal Trades Union; Mr. Kiley of the Pacific Locks Association; Rufus Lovelady and H. J. Chase of the AFGE; Mr. Daniels of the Railway Conductors; Mr. Hammond, of the General Committee of Civic Councils; Mrs. Bronson Rigby of the Pacific Civic Council; Rev. Havener of Cristobal-Margarita; Raymond Ralph of Gatun, and William H. Ward of Gamboa. RETIREMENTS IN JULY Employees who retired at the end of July, their birthplaces, titles, length of .service at retirements, and their future addresses are: Harry A. Comley, Pennsylvania; Surveying Officer; 39 years and 17 days; Washington, D. C. Grover C. Gravatt, New Jersey; Truck Driver and Hea\\Craneman, Motor Transportation Di\ision; 31 years, 9 months, and 13 days; Canal Zone. Mrs. Jewell W. Hobby, Georgia; Property and Stock Control Clerk, Balboa Storehouses; 12 vears, 1 month, and 1 dav; Balboa, C. Z". John H. Schneider, Penns>lvania; Secretary to the Governor; 23 years, 6 months, and 9 days; probably Florida. George B. Smith, Texas; Plumber, Maintenance Division; 22 years, 9 months, and 16 tla\s; Browns\ille, Tex. Wilbur A. White, Tennessee; .Assistant Superintendent, Terminals Division; 29 years, 2 months, and 13 days; Houston, Tex. Schools Division, to Student .Assistant, Commis.sary Division. Grady G. Galley, from Utility Operator, Maintenance Division, to .Automobile Serviceman, Motor Transportation Division. (Continued from page 11) of water in the river, he raises himself up to the cable car that runs across the river and from this perch takes soundings of the depths at five or ten-foot intervals across the river. How Streams Are Measured Then he dons headphones, lowers his current meter into the water and clocks the clicks made by a certain number of revolutions of the windmill-like cups of the meter. The current is then clocked at two different depths at each of his meastired intervals across the river. From computations of the size of the blocks of water measiu-ed oflt in the river and the speed of the current, the amount of water passing a certain point is figured. Then, using the recorded gauge height and the slope of the river, so-called discharge curves are drawn by weather statisticians in the headquarters office which show the amount of water in the entire range of the river. Then, when the measurements are made and the curve plotted, a flood shifts the sand and rock and changes the .shape of the river bottom so the computations must be started at the beginning again. And this is a continuous process. Floods Are Measured To measure a river at flood stage, the engineer must get up the river before the flood happens (you can't pole a cayuco in a flood) wait until it occtu-s, get the measurements, and get out when the water goes down. Back to the engineer at Candelaria. He and his palancamen stay there overnight and start out in cayticos the next morning for a two-hour trip up the Pequeni. They tm-n at the San Miguel River and follow it to the beginning of the climbing trail on which they walk for several hours to the San Miguel Station, 1,700 feet above sea level. There, they remove from the rainfall recorder its graphed statistics and put it in good order for the month ahead and hit the trail back for Candelaria, where they stay overnight before rettu-ning to the Madden Station. Other weather information comes into the Balboa Heights headquarters from larger regular stations. Meteorological Aid Raymond Osman, in charge of the Cristobal station, looks out for rains and storms coming off the Caribbean and keeps tide records and other weather data. Another tide station in the one-time jail building at Dock 17 in Balboa keeps tab on the Pacific. Seismological Equipment In a darkened spooky room in the basement of the Administration Building at Balboa Heights, a tiny light beam records on a revolving drum more wiggles on a photographic sheet that tell the weathermen the distance and intensity of earthquakes. This is a seismological observatory. Then there is more weathei information recorded on instruments in the headquarters office, .some of which were inherited from the French canal builders, whose weather records starting in 1S81 formed the basic data for the original American hydrologic studies for the construction of the Canal. A "Division of Meteorology and River Hydraulics" was created by the American canal diggers in June 1905 about a year after the United States acquired the interests of the French New Panama Canal Company.

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1, 1952 Cricket Holds High Place In Sports Calendar Of Local Rate Communities The grand old British game of cricket is dear to many hearts in the Canal Zone. Those who play the game and line the field for matches at La Boca Ball Park and Mount Hope Stadium include both the old time Panama Canal diggers who brought cricket from the West Indies to the Canal Zone and the younger generation who have also caught the American enthusiasm for baseball. In recent years the younger group has taken more and more to baseball but cricket holds its own as one of the major attractions on sports calendars in all local-rate Canal communities. The Canal Zone version of the "gentleman's game" differs from the British version only in a few of the traditional trimmings. All in all, it's the same old game that has been played since the Middle Ages. The white cricket uniform of flannel trousers and silk shirts, that has come down from its blue blood originators, has given way in the Canal Zone to clothing more fitting for strenuous e.xercise in the tropics. The local umpire also often adds an "elephant hunter" hat to his traditional white duck "duster." In the British and traditional game, there is tea between the long-drawn-out innings (after ten men on a team have been out). At the end of the two or threeday matches, of the type played in international competitions, there is a gathering at which there are speeches and toasts honoring both winners and losers. When opponents fraternize after a match, it's a gentlemanly gathering of friends, just as it was in early times when cricket was first played on castle grounds. Cricket hospitality, Canal Zone style, omits the traditional tea. It's more of a banquet plus a family reunion when local cricketers get together. When the La Boca eleven play at Mount Hope, they are met with to-do at the station, to be escorted to the playing field— the pitch. After the match, dinner is laid out at the home of a home-town team member. Then a party follows to B.\TSMAN RONALD ASIIUOW.N, from the HMS Sheffield, is shown here making a forward stroke in a game with the La Boca Cricket Club, in one of three matches played by teams from the Sheffield when the British cruiser visited recently in Canal waters. Behind the batting crease is .James Lord, wicket keeper for La Boca. The visitors drew one and lost two of their matches with Canal Zone cricket clubs. T?IE LA BUC'A CKICKKT C'Lt'B, three-time Canal Zone champions, is shown here with Umpire .John Tudor (back left). The team members who played in the match with the team from the HMS Sheffield, are left to right, back row: Van McLeod, Kenneth Brathwaite, E. Belgrave, Alfred Bowen, Christopher Greaves, Leonard Roberts, A. Williams. Front row: M. Forde. Captain; Marcus Grannum, James Lord, Edgar Roberts, and E. Wiltshire. make anyone forget the most wicked battle at the wickets. Canal Zone cricket aficionados say the local game has benefited from the influence of baseball — particularly in the quality of the fielding. This view, however, has been questioned warmly by visiting British cricketers. But whatever the eflFect on cricket skills, many young men on Canal Zone cricket teams are also outstanding in baseball. In one respect, cricket is the same — in Gamboa, Oxford, or Sydney. The umpires call the plays and what they say goes without boos or bouquets from the grandstand. It isn't cricket to question a decision or show undue feeling about the game or its outcome. The ethics of cricket are a most revered tradition with followers of the English national game. There are small points of etiquette that might seem strange to followers of baseball. When a bowler bowls a very good ball (like the pitcher, in baseball language) or a batsman smothers a "yorker," he is politely applauded by his opponents, in and out of the stands. On the other hand, if he's hit "for a six," the crowd and players keep still. When the captain of a team comes up to bat— be he a "William Tell" or just awful— the crowd and the players note his position with a good rousing ovation. This isn't to say cricket competition isn't keen or that spectators find it dull. When a slugger of a batsman comes up to the crease in a hotly fought match at La Boca, the crowd and the players react the same as they do for Ralph Kiner in the Series. If he "snicks" a four across the boundary — "over the tanks" at La Boca — everyone can relax while four points are scored automatically without any baseball-type runnmg around bases. Cricket in local-rate Canal communities is played under the sponsorship of the Atlantic and Pacific Cricket Leagues, organized five years ago. The Atlantic and Pacific Championship Series have been played for three years under the sponsorship of the Physical Education and Recreation Branch of the Schools Division. On the Pacific side, 98 players on six teams fight it out on Sunday afternoons from January to May. The teams are the La Boca, Clovelly, Ancon, Red Tank, Spartan, and Gamboa Cricket Clubs (usually called just "C. C.'s"). There are 171 players in eight cricket clubs on the Atlantic side, that sound like Merrie Olde England. They are the Excelsior, Fenwicks, Midland, Surrey, Moreland, Rainbow City, Wanderers, and Sussex C. C.'s. They play from January to July. The Atlantic Cricket Board of Control serves as the regulatory body for that side of the Isthmus. The members are: Sidney Anderson, President; Charles Davis, Vice President; B. Clarke, Secretary-Treasurer; S. Cross, Assistant Secretary-Treasurer; and George Newton and Harold Clarke. The Pacific Cricket Council, in charge of cricket on the Pacific side, consists of Hilton D. Perkins, President; William Griffith, Vice President; and Roy Best, Secretary-Treasurer. The playoffs for the Canal Zone championship will be held this month, with matches at both La Boca and Mount Hope. The Excelsior C. C. again will try to down the three-time top team, La Boca. AUTOMATIC TELEPHONES INSTALLED AT LOCKS Work has been started by Electrical Division forces on the installation of an automatic telephone system for Pedro Miguel Locks, similar to that recently placed in operation at Miraflores Locks. Both of the systems, which will be separate, will operate through automatic equipment installed in the Pedro Miguel telephone exchange. It will be sexeral months yet before the new system is ready for use at Pedro Miguel Locks since the necessary rewiring is being done in connection with the general rehabilitation program of the electrical system at all locks. Work on the modernization program at Gatun Locks was recently begun and installation of aTi automatic telephone system is a part of that long-range program which probably will extend over the next two years. Mimeographed lists of the new telephone lumibers at Miraflores Locks were distributed last month to various Canal offices. The information luimber of the automatic exchange at Miraflores is 4-833.

PAGE 15

August 1, 1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace time than those for 1939. Most Former Canal Traffic Records Are Broken In Past 1 2-Month Period Although many new records were set in commercial traffic through the Canal during the past fiscal year, which ended June 30, total traffic failed by more than 450 transits to equal the all-time high of 9,586 transits established in the fiscal year 1946. The chart on this page shows the fluctuations of Canal traffic, both of commercial shipping and total traffic during the past 14-year period. It was during this period that ocean-going commercial traffic reached its lowest and highest levels since the close of World War I. Last fiscal year was the fourth time in the Canal's operating history that oceangoing commercial traffic exceeded 6,000 transits and the second time when total transits exceeded the 9,000-mark. The heavy traffic in the fiscal year 1946, composed chiefly of tolls-free vessels, resulted from the mass movement of shipping in the Pacific to the Atlantic after the close of World War II. New Records Last Year Several new traffic records were set by commercial shipping through the Canal during the past year. A new monthly record of 613 ocean-going commercial vessels was set in March, only to be broken two months later by the 622 transits in May. New monthly records also were established on the amount of tolls, cargo shipments, and net tonnage of vessels. Yearly records were established in the number of transits, net tonnage of vessels, and cargo tonnage. The new record in cargo tormage last year was established as the result of heavy commodity shipments from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The tonnage of commodity shipments in this direction in the past fiscal year was 15,129,000 tons, as compared with 1 1,132,000 tons in the previous fiscal year, an increase of almost 40 percent. West-East Shipments Drop There was a slight decrease last year in the amount of cargo shipped from the Pacific to the Atlantic from the previous year's figures. The amount of mineral oil shipped through the Canal last year from the Atlantic to the Pacific was more than double the tonnage of the iSee page iS) CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U S. GOVERNMENT FISCAL YEAR 1952 1951 1938 Atlantic to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Commercial vessels: Ocean-going __ ._ 3,184 3,340 6,524 5,593 5,524 Small 725 676 1,401 1,113 931 Total, commercial _ __ 3,909 4,016 7,925 6,706 6,455 **U. S. Government vessels; Ocean-going .. _. ._ 409 365 774 693 ] [ 441 Small 237 192 429 315 Total commercial and U. S. Government. 4,555 4,573 9,128 7,714 6,896 Vessels under 300 net tons Panama Canal measurement (or under 500 displacement tons on vessels assessed on displacement tonnage). ** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited free. NUMBER jQE SHIPS 10000 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952

PAGE 16

16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August!, 1952 Canal Celebrates 38th Anniversary August 15 Early Transits Listed The Panama Canal will observe its 38th birthday on August 15 as an interoceanic link for commercial ship traffic. The inaugural voyage for the new channel was made August 15, 1914 by the Panama Railroad steamer Ancon with a cargo of fi'eight for transshipment at Balboa and about 200 specially invited guests. The Ancun made the voyage from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific, the trip requiring the entire day. The ship discharged its cargo at Balboa and leturned through the Canal eight days lati^r. Although the Ancoiis trip was listed as the first commercial transit, it was not the first self-propelled vessel to make the trip nor the first cargo to be shipped through the Canal between the two oceans. The first transit by a self-propelled vessel was made by the craneboat Alex LaValley on January 7, 1914. The craneboat had been in use at the Atlantic entrance, but was moved to Culebra (now Gaillard) Cut for some work. After completing the woi'k there, it was sent to the Pacific side rather than back to Cristobal. Many Inquiries Received Many inquiries are received from time to time concerning the first trips through the Canal by various types of vessels. A summary of this information was compiled and printed in The Panama Canal Record in the September 15, 1933 issue. The summary, except for the description of the Alex LaValley' s trip, follows: "On February 1, 1914, the tug Reliance, passing through Gatun Locks, completed a voyage around South America; it had sailed from Colon for Balboa via the Strait of Magellan on February 11, 1912, and arrived at Balboa on June 17, 1912. "On May 18, 1914, three barges loaded with sugar transferred to them at Balboa from the steamer Alaskan were towed as far as the lower end of Pedro Miguel Locks; and their transit, after a change of towboats, was completed at 9 p. m. on May 19. This was the first handling of cargo through the Canal. "On May 19, 1914, the tug Mariner towed two empty barges through the Canal from Cristobal to Balboa, arriving at 6:40 p. m. This was the first direct or continuous voyage of a vessel through the Canal from ocean to ocean. "In anticipation of the opening of the Canal, a test voyage from Cristobal to Balboa was made by the steamship Cristobal of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line on August 3, 1914, and a return trip was made on August 4. The Advance of the same line was sent from the Atlantic to the Pacific and back as far as Gatun Locks on August 9, 1914, completing the return transit on August 10. The Panama made a similar trip on August 11, completing the return transit on August 12. Guest passengers were carried on these trips but no cargo was handled. S. S. "Ancon" Led Procession "The Ancon of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line was sent through the Canal from Cristobal to Balboa on August 15, 1914, carrying cargo for transshipment at Balboa and about 200 passengers who were invited by direction of the Secretary of War. This is considered the first transit of an ocean steamship in commercial service. The ship discharged cargo at Balboa and returned through the Canal to Cristobal on August 23. "On August 15, 1914, following the departure of the Ancon, transit of the Canal was begun by the steamship Arizonan of the American-Hawaiian Line, leaving Cristobal at 10:23 a. m.; this vessel completed transit on the following day, passing Balboa at 4:10 p. m., August 16. The Arizonan carried cargo. The yacht Lasata, owned by Morgan Adams, started transit through the Canal apparently about 1 p. m., August 15, and completed transit at 5:35 p. m. on the 17th. The steamship Missourian of the American-Hawaiian Line, carrying cargo, left Cristobal at 2 p. m. on August 15 and passed Balboa at 11:05 a. m. August 17. First Northbound Transits "The Pleiades, of the Luckenbach Steamship Company, transited the Canal on August 16, 1914, from Pacific to Atlantic. She left Balboa at 6:.50 a. m. and arrived at Cristobal at 5:30 p. m. the same day. The Pleiades was followed by the Pennsylmnian of the American-Hawaiian Line, which left Balboa at 9:40 a. m., August 16, and arrived at Cristobal at 8:50 a. m., August 17. "These early transits of seagoing merchant vessels may be summarized as follows: Test Transits Atlantic to PacificAugust 3, Cristobal; August 9, Advance; August 11, Panama. Pacific to Atlantic August 4, Cristobal; August 9-10, Advance; August 11-12, Panama. Opening Voyage Atlantic to Pacific—Steamship Ancon, August 15; return through Canal, August 23. Normal Commercial Transits (Atlantic to Pacific) Arizonan, began transit August 15 at 10:23 a. m.; arrived at opposite terminal August 16 at 4:10 p. m. Lasata, began transit August 15 at 1 p. m.; arrived at opposite terminal August 17 at 5:35 p. m. Missourian, began transit August 15 at 2 p. m.; arrived at opposite terminal August 17, 11:05 a. m. Pacific to Atlantic Pleiades, began transit August 16 at 6:30 a. m.; arrived at opposite terminal August 16 at 5:30 p. m. Pennsylvunian, began transit August 16 at 9:40 a. m.; arrived at opposite terminal August 17 at 8:50 a. m. "From the foregoing it may be stated that the first self-propelling, ocean-going vessel to pass through the Canal was the LaValley, completing transit on January 7, 1914; the first passage of commercial cargo was on May 18-19, 1914; the first vessel to make a direct, continuous voyage from ocean to ocean through the Canal was the tug Mariner on May 19, 1914; the first regular merchant vessel to transit the Canal in commercial service was the Ancon on August 15, 1914; and the first merchant vessel to use the Canal on a voyage between ports beyond the Canal terminals was the Arizonan on August 15-16, 1914." Other commercial vessels which transited during the first few days the Canal was open included the Arizonian, Kentuckian, and Montanan, of the AmericanHawaiian Steamship Company, and the Santa Catalina, of the W. R. Grace and Company, all northbound; and the Missourian, American-Hawaiian Line, the Isabella, Luckenbach Line, and Admiral Dewey, of the Pacific-Alaska Navigation Company, all southbound. SEVERAL TEST RUNS were made in the operation of the Panama Canal Locl
PAGE 17

August 1, 1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 Panama Canal Traffic Figures Show World Changes During Past 25 Years Some of the vast economic and political changes which have taken place in the world dui'ing the past quarter century are indicated in comparative statistics on Panama Canal traffic for the fiscal years 1929 and 19.52, the two peak years in its 38 years of operation. Most of the Canal records for commercial shipping established in the fiscal year 1929 were broken during the past fiscal year. New records were set last year in the number of large, ocean-going commercial vessels, the net tonnage of commercial shipping, and the amount of cargo shipped through the Canal. Comparative figures on transits, tonnage of vessels, amount of cargo and tolls are shown in the accompanying chai't at the bottom of this page for the two peak years. The amount of tolls collected on oceangoing commercial vessels using the Canal last year was nearly $200,000 under the tolls for the fiscal year 1929, even though the number of vessels and the aggregate net tonnage of these vessels were higher last year. This variance was caused by the change in the rules of measurement and rate of tolls which was made in 1938. Economic and Political Changes Although most of the principal statistics on Canal traffic for the two years are within a comparative range, the changes which have taken place in the world's economic and political pattern are revealed in more detailed statistics for the two years on cargo shipped over the various trade routes, commodity tonnage figures, and the nationality of vessels using the Canal. Some of the major changes in the movement of cargo over the principal trade routes as shown in the comparative statistics for 1929 and 1952 are the following: The cargo shipments in the United States intercoastal trade last year were less than half of those in 1929; Shipments of commodities between the east coast of the United States and the Far East last fiscal year were almost triple those of 1929; Cargo tonnage moved over the trade route between Europe and Australia in 1952 was more than double that of 1929. South American Trade Doubles And, the South American trade has almost doubled within the 23-year period over the routes through the Canal to the East Coast of the United States and to Europe. The following shows the relative position of the ten leading (Continued on page If) MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years Month Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars) 1952 1951 1938 1952 1951 1938 iiilv 463 513 457 $1,981 $2,373 $2,030 490 453 505 2,103 2,093 2,195 516 446 444 2,189 1,982 1,936 October .. 544 480 461 2,230 2,068 1,981 November 502 446 435 2,053 1,845 1,893 December 550 452 439 2,347 1,886 1,845 522 452 444 2,121 1,854 1,838 507 444 436 2,082 1,853 1,787 March.-. .__.__ 613 474 506 2,512 1,943 2,016 April 601 470 487 2,423 2,007 1,961 May 622 485 465 2,481 2,020 1,887 594 478 445 2,401 1,982 1,801 Totals for fiscal year 6,524 5,593 5,524 $26,923 $23,906 $23,170 1929 1952 TRANSITS 1952 COMMERCIAL 30,674,302 P. C. TONNAGE LARGE COMMERCIAL 1952 30.647.768 CARGO TONS LARGE COMMERCIAL 1929 1952 . CREDITS $3,413,726 ^ SMALL AWD M SMALL AND = ocean-goisj:, OCEAN-GOING:; COMMERCIAL lomme:r^.(al i $27,128,893 $26,995.772| TOLLS COLLECTED

PAGE 18

18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1, 1952 Panama Canal Traffic Figures Show World Changes During Past 25 Years {Continued fnm page 17) Commodity shipments, in total tonnage, for the two years: ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC 1929 1952 1. Mfg'res of iron and steel Mineral oils 2. Mineral oils Coal and coke 3. Cement Mfg'res of iron and steel 4. Cotton Phosphates 5. Phosphates Sugar 6. Tinplate Paper and paper products 7. Automobiles Automobiles 8. Railroad material Machinery 9. Sulphur Sulphur 10. Coal and coke Cement PACIFIC 1929 1. Mineral oils 2. Lumber 3. Nitrate 4. Wheat 5. Various ores 6. Canned goods 7. Sugar 8. Various metals TO ATLANTIC 1952 Various ores Lumber Wheat Nitrate Carmed food products Sugar Bananas Various metals 9. Cold storage food products Cold storage food products 10. Dried fruit Mineral oils The number of nationalities represented in the commercial shipping moved thi-ough the Canal increased from 24 in 1929 to 34 last year. Flags in Canal traffic last year which were not listed in 1929 included those of Brazil, China, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, Iran, Eire, Liberia, Nicaragua, Philippines, Portugal, Switzerland, and Venezuela. Among the flags listed in 1929 which were not represented in the 1952 traffic were those of Belgium, Cuba, Danzig, and Yugoslavia. The major shift in the nationality of vessels was indicated by the number of ships under flags last year which were not listed in 1929. Of the 6,524 transits by ocean-going commercial vessels last year, more than 800, or more than one-eighth of this traffic, were under flags not listed in the 1929 Canal transit records. Most Former Canal Traffic Records Are Broken In Past 12-Year Period (Continued from pag; 15) previous year. Coal and coke shipments also were more than double the 1951 figures. There was a substantial increase in the tonnage of most of the 15 leading commodities listed in the Atlantic-Pacific trade. These included phosphates, sugar, paper and paper products, automobiles, machinery, sulphur, cement, tinplate, and various ores. The shipments of raw cotton, ammonium compounds, and canned food products were all lower in 1952 than the previous year. Wheat Shipments Heavy Two of the most notable increases in commodity shipments from Pacific to the Atlantic last year were in the tonnage of bananas and wheat shipments. Wheat shipments through the Canal increased from 1,404,000 long tons in the fiscal vear 1951 to 2,105,000 long tons last year. The shipment of bananas from the Pacific tc the Atlantic, which has been constantly increasing during the past few years because of the development of new banana plantations in Ecuador, amounted to 758,000 long tons last year, as compared with 505,000 tons in the fiscal year 1951. Increased cargo tonnage was reported last fiscal year over the previous year's totals on all of the piincipal trade routes through the Canal with the exception of the t.Inited Stat<\s intercoastal trade, which dropped from 5,731,000 long tons in 1951 to 4,279,000 tons last year. The heaviest gains in cargo shipments last year were shown on the trade routes between the east coast of the United States and the Far East; the United States and Canada east coast and Australasia; Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada; and Europe and Australasia. Lesser gains were shown on the routes between the east coast of the United States and Central America; Europe and South Ameiica; and the east coast of the United States and South America. TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the cargo shipments, in thousands of long tons, of large, lunimercial vessels (300 net tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: FISCAL YEAR 1952 1951 1938 United States I ntercoastal 4,279 5,731 6,395 East Coast of V. S. ami South America 5,098 5,063 2 652 East Coast of U. S. and Central America-_. . 528 389 46 t2ast Coast of U. S. and Far East 6,146 4,900 4,850 I'. S./Canada East Coast and Australasia 1,634 962 992 Europe and West Coast of U. S./Canada 5,970 4,096 4,237 Europe and South America 1,706 1,642 2,974 Europe and Australasia 2,478 1,611 1,251 All other routes. 5,772 • 5,679 3 989 Total Traffic. _. 33,611 30,073 27,386 Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in thousands of long tons) Figures in parentheses in 1938 and 1951 columns indicate relative positions in those years ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity (in thousands of long tons) M ineral oils Coal and Coke Manufactures of iron and steel Phosphates Sugar Paper and paper products Au tomobiles Machinery Sulphur Cement Raw cotton I'inplate .\mnioniuni compounds Canned food products Ores, various All others Total FISCAL YEAR 1952 3,704 2,061 1,635 777 476 453 345 312 309 296 271 246 135 121 80 3,908 15,129 1951 (1) (-3) (2) (4) (7) (5) 1,759 867 1,600 502 354 370 286 (10) 223 (11) 296 (9) 174 (15) 362 (6) 218 (13) 210 (14) 130 (17) 71 (26) 3,710 11,132 1938 907 (3) 137 (15) 1,859 (1) 328 (6) 57 (31) 423 (5) 208 (9) 168 (10) 297 (7) 154 (11) 142 (13) 238 (8) 71 (11) 133 (16) 104 (18) 4,463 9,689 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC FISCAL YEARS (in thousands of long tons) 1952 1951 1938 Ores, various 3,574 3,466 2,105 1,239 1,127 955 758 659 612 481 227 280 198 166 144 2,491 3,722 (1) 3,575 (2) 1,404 (4) 1,371 (5) 1,164 (6) 941 (7) 505 (9) 632 (8) 462 (10) 1,664 (3) 219 (12) 209 (13) 140 (17) 149 (15) 127 (19) 2,657 2,1 '7 (3) 2,851 (2) Wheat 706 (7) 1,401 (5) Xitrate 991 (6) Sugar 1,487 (4) 53 (29) Metals, various Refrigerated food products (except fresh fruit) . 698 (8) 335 (10) Mineral oils Wool 2,875 (1) 175 (16) Coffee F"resh fruit (except bananas) 123 (21) 348 (9) 127 (20) Dried fruit All others .. 291 (12) 3,109 Total 18,482 18,941 17,697

PAGE 19

August 1, 1952 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 Intercoastal Traffic Through Canal Decreases 25% in Past Fiscal Year A 25 percent decrease in the amount of cargo shipped through the Panama Canal over the United States intercoastal route from the previous fiscal year was one of the most significant factors in the shipping statistics of the fiscal year 1952, which ended June 30. The intercoastal trade has been the most important of the Panama Canal traffic in peacetime operation since the waterway was opened. In most years it has led all other of the trade routes in the cargo tonnage figures. The heavy decrease in the inteicoastal trade was reflected in comparative statistics with cargo tonnage moved over other routes. During the past fiscal year the tonnage moved o\'er the intercoastal route was the fourth highest, being exceeded by the tonnage on routes between the east coast of the United States and the Far East; Europe and the West Coast of the United States and Canada; and the East Coast of the United States and South America. Only 12' c Of Total Tonnage The amount of cargo moved over the inter-coastal route during the past fiscal year represented only 12 percent of the total shipped through the Canal on all routes. During the late 1920's cargo tonnage over the intercoastal route was approximately one-third of the total. In the fiveyear period immediately preceeding World War II the cargo shipped between Pacific ports and those on the Gulf and Atlantic seaboard constituted slightly more than 25 percent of the total. Throughout both of these periods the cargo tonnage over the intercoastal route was the highest of any major trade route through the Canal. This intercoastal trade— on a commercial basis— was practically eliminated during the past year when the War Shipping Administration early in 1942 requisitioned all American flag vessels of more than 1,000 tons burden. The trade was gradually revived after the close of the war with the release of both dry cargo vessels and tankers for commercial shipping. By the fiscal year 1949 cargo tonnage moved over the intercoastal route amounted to 3,091,000 long tons out of a total of 24,306,000, or approximately 12 percent. The percentage figures increased to 26 percent during the fiscal year 1950 but dropped to 19 percent in 1951, when the cargo tonnage figures were 7,376,000 and 5,741,000 tons, respectively. During the past fiscal year the amount of cargo totaled only 3,704,000 long tons, or slightly less than 12 percent of the 3.3,661,000 total. Drop In Oil Shipments The comparatively high tonnage figures for the intercoastal route in the fi.scal year 1950 were attributed primarily to •heavy oil shipments made during that year from the west coast to Atlantic ports. The shipments dropped over 2,000,000 tons during the fiscal year 1951, but dry cargo shipments maintained a steady pace. The decrease this year of more than 2,000,000 tons represented chiefly a loss in dry cargo shipments. The major decrease in traffic over the intercoastal trade route was reflected in the comparative number of American flag vessels using the Canal in the fiscal years 1951 and 1952. There were 2,084 American flag ships listed in last years Canal traffic, as compared with 2,203 in the fiscal year 1951. The total amount of cargo shipped on these vessels was approximately 1,200,000 tons less in 1952 than the previous fiscal year. Inspect Miraflores Diesel Plant AN EXPLANATION of the work involved in the overhaul of one of the big Diesel power generators at Miraflores Power Plant is being given to Colonel Craig Smyser, new Engineering and Construction Director, left, in picture above, by Walter E. Benny, Mechanical Supervisor of the Power Branch on the Pacific side. The visit to the Miraflores power station was one of many inspection trips Colonel Smyser has made since his arrival early last month. He was accompanied on this trip by Col. Ceorge K. Witliers. (facing camera), whom he succeeds as head of the Engineering and Construction Bureau, who is scheduled to leave today for his new assignment in Omaha, Nebr., and J. Hartley Smith, Electrical Engineer, right. Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels FISCAL YE.^RS Nationality 1952 1951 1938 Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Argentinian 2 7 18,507 6,319 Brazilian Belgian 1 1,004 52 6 75 3 8,489 6,414,452 252.0.S6 49,024 76,863 9,994 British-. 1,267 49 24 109 10 7,967,866 209,541 211,855 115,389 ,S6,370 1,281 9 2 6,417,016 28,787 13,113 Chilean. Chinese Colombian Costa Rican Cuban.. 2 223 Danish.. 206 143 978,969 98,104 191 247 708,735 98,358 865,235 Ecuadorean. ._ Estonian 2 1 4,695 A 091 Finnish 2 134 30 2 89 7,680 559,073 105,632 3,152 814,429 i 108 4 196 584,476 4,994 French 105 ^fi7'^SH German 357 1,518,593 Guatemalan Greek 103 814,064 94 5 22 525,351 24,411 8,478 Htingarian. Horiduran Icelandic .. .. 476 3 1 26 86 105 575,457 746 9.220 13,164 462,451 696,794 346 3 546,821 346 Iranian, Irish Italian 70 40 353,177 317,796 52 300 3 153 417 Japanese Latvian 1,877^502 4,900 Liberian 106 7 106 2 830 352 17 27 5 337,271 19,916 506,607 1,027 3,067,799 1.858.041 13.788 l.S9,299 21,167 23 9 115 8 513 220 26 25 9 96,595 34,359 492,295 1,751 2.090,632 1,270,909 64,770 141,972 30,089 Mexican. Netherlands Nicaraguan 285 749,642 Norwegian Panamanian Peruvian Philippine Portuguese 667 182 5 3 3,433.571 415,561 7,151 8,441 Soviet 5 2 10 419 Spanish 22 165 11 2,084 19 130,992 761,701 58,567 13,693,521 30,095 23 148 86,752 15,280 625,179 ; 119 763,049 Swiss I'nited States Venezuelan 2,203 17 14,881,540 16,338 1,780 4 14 9,892,619 3,971 73 413 Total... 6,524 33,610,509 5,593 30,073,022 5,524 27,385,924

PAGE 20

20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW August 1,1952 Yacht Club Provides Fun For Seagoers ^m^ ABOUT 75 BOATS belonging to members of the Balboa Yacht Club anchor here in the Club's moorings on the east side of the Canal channel The Balboa Yacht Club of some 125 members is founded on the near-universal appeal of fishing and faraway places and the feeling for skippering your own good boat to your choice of destinations. On the Isthmus of Panama, nearly sun'ounded with water and busy with seagoing business, it is not suiprising the genera! fascination of boats has fostered several such organizations. Home port for the Balboa Club extends from Navy Pier 2, reaching out toward the Panama Canal channel from Fort Amador, to the wartime mine dock just mside the anchorage for ships entering the Canal from the Pacific. There, in the Club's moorings on the east side of the channel, the members' 75odd boats lie at anchor, using only about half of the waters assigned for their use by the Panama Canal Marine Bureau. Biggest of the boats that bob up and down as the big ships stir the waters in the channel is the Tondelayo, a 46-foot sailing ketch owned by a Navy employee, Walter E. (Wally) Pearson. The Tondelayo raced to first place in the Club's 1952 racing season and was flagship last year when her owner was the Club's Commodore. "Waif" is Flagship The flagship now is the Waif, a 16-foot .sailing sloop owned by a Balboa High School instructor, Charles R. (Bob) Bowen, who is now Commodore. The former Navy Officers' Club at Fort Amador has served as clubhouse for the Yacht Club since 1946, when it was transferred by the Navy to the Yacht Club and the Pacific Sailfish Club. Now the building is occupied jointly with the American Legion, whose members fish off the Yacht Club pier and receive other small friendly considerations in return for which Yacht Club members use some American Legion facilities. Smallest of the sailboats in the Yacht Club fleet are the centerboard sloops from about 18 to 25 feet long. The power boats start at about that size— those with little inboard motors~ and go up to the cabin cruisers, topped in size among the Yacht Club boats by Kyle G. Bishop's 42-foot twin-screw cruiser, Martha. In between, craft of many shapes and sizes add their individualities to the Yacht Club's boat collection. Big or little, trim or tublike, one or more owners love them— or at least look on them with mixed pai-ental feelings for the cost, care and time they consume. Although most Yacht Club boats usually stay close to home, the members get the feel of faraway places from yachts from all parts of the world that put into their hospitable pier. Some visitors like the place so well — like Lee and Ann Gregg off the ketch Novia, and "Buzz" and June Champion of the ketch Little Bear all of whom came from San Diego— that they come ashore and go to work and stay in the Canal Zone. It sometimes works the other way. Yacht Club members catch the fever of faraway places and take their own boats or join the crew of a visiting yacht bound for a faroff atoll in the Pacific. For instance, Mr. and Mrs. John W. Litton and their small daughter left recently in the ketch Cah/pso for the Society Islands to visit the Kim Powells (Mrs. Powell and Mrs. Litton are sisters), former Yacht Club members who now make their home in Tahiti. Listed in Lloyd's Register The Balboa Yacht Club enjoys full recognition by other such clubs throughout the world and is listed in Lloyd's. It also is a member of the North American Yacht Racing Union, and the International Game Fishing Association. Among the visitors who use the Club's facilities on a reciprocal basis are members of the Panama Canal Yacht Club of Cristobal and the Pedro Miguel and Gamboa Boat Clubs, who visit most often during the red snapper and corbina seasons when they come to try their luck in Panama Bay. Fishing members of the Balboa Yacht Club receive timely tips in a bulletin issued monthly by the Club's Fishing Committee, whose chaii'man is Sam R. Moody. For instance, this month the committee advises that sailfish and marl in come into the inner bay in August and that marlin are best baited with whole bonita. When the dry season winds blow strong and steady, the Racing Committee goes into action, scheduling races and cruising picnics (luaus) and an annual treasure hunt on Taboga or Taboguilla Island. Bill Clark is Chairman of the Sail Yacht Racing Committee. Winners of Sail Races In the last racing season, the Tondelayo placed first; Bill Clark's Kelpie, second; Lee Gregg's Novia, third; and Bill Wymer's Kon Hiro, fourth. The Balboa Yacht Club burgee has flown in several ocean races off the United States coasts. Tucker McClure's ketch Chiriqui, with his local manager, George Bobbitt aboard, last year won the Class "B" trophy, and was second on corrected time for the Time Prize in the Los Angeles-Honolulu Yacht Race. Ed Mcintosh's Starcresl has also competed in winter races around Florida, the most notable being the St. PetersburgHavana Ocean Race in 1950, in which Stareresi placed third in Class "C." The Balboa Yacht Club was organized in 1946 from the remaining interested members of the former Balboa Boat Club, which operated before the war from the present home base of the Yacht Club and the Panama Bay Yacht Club, which operated in Panama during the war. .\T THE HELM ill' 1 111: liALBuA \ Al'HT ( 'lA li authi'Mnii-nil.i-i^ ..[ ihf l;,,anl c.f (inuTnors Ueft to right): Edwin F. Rigby, Secretary; Charles K. Bowen, Commodore; Captain Clinton Baverstock Mooring ^laster; James L. Harned, Treasurer; Frank C. Stockton, Railways Master; and John L. Haas, Vice Commodore. The seventh Board Member who is not shown in this picture, is Kyle G. Bishop,, House Officer.


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