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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
97- /-( 70
Gift of the Panama Canal Museum
Vol. 2, No. 1 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 3, 1951 5 cents
Hundreds of visitors have watched with interest this year's building program in Diablo Heights where two
new types of masonry houses are under construction. None has attracted more attention than the "breezeway"
houses. The basic design for this house was prepared by the housing consultants who helped plan the
$80,000,000 quarters replacement and construction program.
The first of the new quarters being
built under the $80,000,000 new-housing
program are rapidly nearing completion at
Margarita, Gatun, Diablo Heights, and
Silver City. Panama Canal people now
have an opportunity to see what the new
quarters look like, and to make comments
Many improvements in design and ar-
rangement have already been scheduled
for inclusion in this year's building pro-
gram. Plans for the new quarters un-
doubtedly will be improved as the
program develops. Many different types
of quarters will be necessary to satisfy the
requirements and preferences of different
Everyone is vitally interested in the
kinds of new quarters being built in the
Canal Zone, and, of course, everyone has
isc nm dn +A100 aniK 4oQa oh .ona
Despite the technological and scientific
advances of the past 50 years, new houses
cannot be as spacious, livable, and, per-
haps, as comfortable, as was possible a
half century ago. This is equally true in
the Canal Zone and in the United States.
When lumber and labor were cheap,
houses had wide porches, and large rooms
with high ceilings. Houses which cost
$10,000 in the United States in 1939 now
sell for well over $20,000. The cost of
new construction has increased similarly.
Practically all modern houses are being
built with flat, composite type roofs,
exposed beams and with rather plain
external appearance of a cube, or as some
say a "chicken coop." This is done solely
to save money. Most people, other than
architects, agree that this new architec-
ture is too practical and plain to give it
the grace and beauty usually expected in
Preliminary studies to determine the
possible advantage of uming a more
southerly port than New York for the
northern terminus of the Panama Line
have been initiated by the Management
If the present studies indicate substan-
tial advantages in the use of some other
harbor as the Line's home port in the
United States, Governor Newcomer plans
to submit the question to the Board of
Because of the complex nature of such
a move, it is presently believed unlikely
that any definitive action will be taken at
an early date and without much more
Although still in the initial stage, the
present studies will include such perennial
questions as the continued use of New
York as the home port but with calls into
one of the southern ports of the Atlantic
Coast on scheduled runs; moving the
terminus southward to Philadelphia,
Baltimore, Norfolk, or some other port;
and the desirability of making trips to the
West Coast and Gulf ports.
Problem One of Economy
The problem is both an economic one
and one of rendering the maximum serv-
ice. Factors which will have consider-
able weight in determining the merit of
Trend Toward Smaller
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Officers of the Canal Zone's two Electrical Unions get together frequently to discuss overall policy matters. The two locals are the oldest labor umons
in the Canal Zone and presently have a membership of 480. In the above picture, left to right, are: John J. Tobin, Business Manager of Local 677; Arthur R.
Lane, President of Local 677; and Albert Saarinen, President and acting Business Manager of Local 397.
On September 10, Local 677 of the
International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers will celebrate its 41st birthday.
On December 28, Local 397 of the
I. B. E. W. will turn 39. The average age
of the two locals makes them about the
oldest trade union still functioning in the
From their charter membership of 48-
34 in Local 677 and 14 in Local 397-the
two unions have grown to a present mem-
bership of 480.
Each local has its own jurisdiction,
officers and bylaws; each acts independ-
ently on matters pertaining to its in-
dividual interests. But the Executive
Boards of each meet as a joint Executive
Board through which all Canal Zone
Electrical Workers act as one solid unit.
When their original charters were
granted by the then still comparatively
young I. B. E. W., each Local was given a
territory. To Local 677 was assigned the
section of the Canal Zone from the Carib-
bean to and including the old Darien
radio station. Local 397 was given
control from Darien to the Pacific.
Rules On Temporary Transfers
On flip ronmmonanfsinn nf tho tuwn
pay monthly dues of $5.35; Local 397's
members pay $4.60 monthly. The dif-
ference is due to the fact that Local 677
members pay 40 cents more per month
than their colleagues in 397 for a local
general fund. Another 35 cents of Local
677's dues goes to a local legislative fund.
Dues And Benefits
But for all of the electrical workers,
$1.60 monthly of their dues goes into an
I. B. E. W. pension plan which pays $50
per month after age 65 to each member
who retires with 20 years continuous good
standing. Another $1.20 is paid monthly
Trademarks of an electrician are his pliers and tape.
With them he makes many repairs that appear com-
plicated to the unitiated. Above is Maurice Thatcher
working on one of the complicated panel boards at
the Pacific Locks.
Panama Canal Company, seven for the
A n,, f t A n m nt nt\. nnnHn .,, Qn n./i 4
by each electrical worker-also
dues-for death benefits. This
the premium on a policy which
after one year's good standing,
two years of good standing,
three years, $825 after four
$1,000 after five years.
Both locals take an active part in Canal
Zone labor affairs. In 1914 the Electrical
workers were instrumental in helping
form the Metal Trades Council and, four
years later, the Canal Zone Central Labor
Union. During the construction period of
1942, the Electrical workers, along with
other building crafts, requested and
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
. . *
Employees who retired at the end of
July, their birthplaces, titles, and length
of service at retirement, and their future
ANGEL E. BERRIOS, Puerto Rico,
Seaman, Dredging Division; 23 years, 7
months and 13 days; General Delivery,
rER BOWEN, England, Machin-
ustrial Bureau; 21 years, 8 months
days; address, undecided.
J. FLETCHER, Georgia, Chief of
s Branch, Dredging Division; 30
month and 1 day; Dawson, Ga.
ID P. HOWE, Massachusetts,
;al Supervisor, Gatun Locks; 28
I month and 26 days; Hampton,
WALTER A. KOERBER, Massachu-
setts, Supervisor of Power Generation and
Transmission, Northern District; 34 years,
2 months and 10 days; Grass Valley,
ELMER B. OBERG, Colorado, Postal
Inspector; 37 years, 1 month and 2 days;
JOHN L. WILLIAMS, Pennsylvania,
Wireman, Electrical Division; 22 years,
7 months and 11 days; Cerro Punto,
El Volcan, Panama.
Electrical Workers Form Two Oldest
Organized Unions of Canal Employees
ued from page }) affect their per-
and working conditions. Recently
397 had as guest speaker Lieutenant
'nor Herbert D. Vogel who discussed
mization. A speaker at a Local 677
ng was Assistant Electrical Engineer
rtley Smith, who talked on the 60-
Both Locals use the Shop Steward
system. Each "shop steward" is always
alert to improve safety and working con-
ditions. He attempts to keep petty
difficulties from developing into major
grievances and to assist both worker and
his supervisor in correcting the cause.
Closely Linked With A. F. of L.
As offspring of the International Bro-
therhood of Electrical Workers, with its
half million members, the two Canal Zone
locals are closely linked to the American
Federation of Labor in five of the six
major A. F. L. departments.
The complex readjustments required by
the change in the Canal organization at the
beginning of this fiscal year have imposed a
heavy burden on a relatively small group of
our employees. Since the
changes involve primarily
fiscal, legal, and manage- -' - .'
ment functions, the bulk ' . :"
of the work has fallen on . . . ,
employees engaged in these t'
types of work.
Preparations for the
change have been in con-
stant progress since last
September when President
Truman signed Public
Law 841 and fixed July 1,
1951, as the date for the
transition. Since that
time, there have been few,
if any, days when some
employees have not worked extra hours.
Only those most intimately acquainted
with the work involved could realize the
magnitude of the task. The work has been
exacting, the hours for many concerned
have been long, and the problem as a whole
has been a trying one.
To those who have had a part in this
work, I desire to express publicly my com-
mendation for their cooperation, interest,
The recent realignment of Canal-Railroad
fiscal and administrative procedures was,
without doubt, a major event in the history
of the Panama Canal.
While much has been accomplished and
the transition last month was made without
If Congress will credit back to the Canal
Zone the income tax collected locally,
many financial problems of the Panama
Canal Company and Canal Zone Govern-
ment will be largely solved, Governor
F. K. Newcomer told the "Shirt Sleeve
Conference" last Thursday.
This amount would about equal the
cost of the Canal Zone Government, he
The Governor's statement was made
when several of the employee representa-
tives attending the conference-it is a
incident, there are still many problems to be
solved in the operation of the new Panama
Canal Company. The Board of Directors
will hold its quarterly meeting in September
on the Isthmus at which
s time the members will re-
-. . .^. examine the fiscal set-up
F ^ and the financial results
of operations up
". _Previous issues of THE
PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
have presented summaries
of the law and what it re-
"''" quired, the methods of pro-
cedure informing the new
*' entities, and steps being
taken to accomplish the
L purpose of Public Law
In this issue, a general
review of the financial picture is presented
in pictorial and descriptive form. The
actual amounts in dollars and cents as
shown are subject to wide revision. The
material does give, however, a broad picture
of the Company and Government, their
assets. their sources of income, and the
expenses they will be required to bear.
The Board of Directors has adopted what
I consider a wise course by delaying any
major changes in the fiscal affairs of the
new company until after the transition
period when it will be possible to judge more
clearly the financial effects under actual
broken down and this break-down pre-
sented at the next employee conference to
show just what the surcharge covered.
Chester A. Luhr, of the Locks Employ-
ees Association, asked if it was not sub-
stantially true that charges to shipping
companies had been lowered while those
to employees had been increased. The
Governor and Lieutenant Governor H. D.
Vogel explained at some length that the
new system sets up only two classes of
purchasers, mtra-company and others.
Thp Qrharohr it nl d nnt nlaced on intra-
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 3, 1951
To more than a generation of Zonians,
he is known as "Sam." But in Barbados,
where he was born on a June 19 some 60
years ago, he was christened Charles
Just where the youngsters got the nick-
,me for him, Sam doesn't know. It is
he has ever been called since he went
work at the Pedro Miguel swimming
lol October 16, 1928. Even most of the
own-uns he works with don't know,
sent the injured man back to the hospital
for a medical review and even went to the
doctor himself. When doctors then found
Sam unfit for heavy work, Goethals made
him a watchman on the old Empire
bridge. He remained a watchman until
the bridge was removed when the Canal
was ready to open.
Then he went to work in Balboa with
one of the Municipal Engineering Divi-
sion's water gangs and is now classed as a
filter operator. His duties include the
filling, draining, and cleaning of the pool
and keeping the bath-house clean and in
Two Life-Saving Rescues
Life guards are now on duty, but twice
in Sam's pool career he has had to rescue
Dickey Ebdon, 4, is one of Sam's many admirers
among the small fry
unless they check the rolls, that his name
is not really Sam.
Sam-it's easier to call him that-came
The average enrollment in the school
system of the Canal Zone is about
9,700 students. Personnel engaged in the
school health programs include the class-
room teachers, two school nurses, and the
Height and weight measurements of
each student are taken twice during the
school year. Visual testing of each child
is done once a year. Hearing tests and
physical examinations are done on selected
groups each year.
Height and weight measurements are
recorded by the classroom teachers on the
student's health card, a permanent record
which remains with the child during his
stay in our school system. Deviations
from usual growth patterns are noted and
reported if significant.
Visual testing is done by the nurses by
means of Snellen Test Charts. This is
done annually and a report is sent to
parents in each case showing the visual
findings. Important visual defects are re-
ferred to the eye clinic for correction.
Hearing tests are carried out individu-
ally by means of pure tone variable
frequency audiometers. These tests are
leading to the anxiety.
This year for the first time an effort
will be made to examine children entering
kindergarten in the presence of one or
both parents. In this way a better history
of past illnesses, immunizations and other
problems can be obtained. Audiometer
testing is not done on kindergarten child-
ren as a rule because of difficulty in
evaluating results in children of this age
The following suggestion are made for
the guidance of parents of children
entering kindergarten for the first time:
1. Teeth should be checked by a
dentist. The six year molars, the first
permanent teeth, frequently erupt
during the fifth year and particular
attention should be given the care of
2. The child should be given a small-
pox vaccination in the year prior to
school entrance and should be given a
"booster" of toxoid to maintain im-
munity against diphtheria, tetanus and
whooping cough. The first three doses
of this series are usually given in the
third fnmrth, and fifth month of life
drowning boys. "I grabbed them with my
hook and pulled them out; then I had to
work the water out of them," he says.
When Sam is not working at the pool,
he divides his time between gardening-
he has always had a little garden behind
the clubhouse-and reading his Bible.' He
is a devout member bf the Church of
England in which he is a Deacon.
Sam is married and lives with his wife
at 558-A, Red Tank. He and Mrs.
Brathwaite have three children: Theo-
philus is a chiva driver; Miriam is still at
home with her parents; and Milton is
working as a waiter in New York City.
Sam's "pool children" are about as
close to him as his real children. "I try
my best to take care of them," he says.
And they show their affection for him.
The other day, when Sam was telling
his story to THE REVIEW, not one child
left the bathhouse without saying, "Good
night, Sam," or "'Bye, Sambo, see you
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
FOR YOUR INTER
The Canal Zone Government-Panama CANAL ZONE GOVERNMENT-PANAMA CANAL COMPANY
I r . - - ~' a -~ -
anal Company, with
man hours and 45 disabling injuries,
experienced a frequency rate of 15 for the
month of June.
While this rate
is some improvement
over the organization's best year, it is
felt that a more concerted effort in the
field of accident prevention on the part of
those bureaus not using every practicable
means to eliminate or minimize unsafe
more substantial reduction in our
frequency of disabling injuries.
The Community Services Bureau
Civil Affairs Bureau have been awarded
Honor Roll certificates on the basis of
results obtained in June in the fields of
bureaus worked the entire month without
a disabling injury, hence a frequency rate
of Zero for each
. . . a
Zero rate cannot
be beaten but it can be equaled.
Six of our divisions worked the entire
month without a disabling injury and we
are pleased to forward Honor Roll certi-
ficates to these units, namely: The Locks,
Railroad, Clubhouse, Electrical, Munici-
pal, and Grounds Maintenance Divisions.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
AWARDS THIS CALENDAR YEAR
Back Row: Left to Right
J. A. Dorsey representing Railroad and Terminals Director
D. M. Eggleston representing Engineering and Construction Director
F. H. Baldwin representing Finance Dire:tar
Commander I. J. Frankel representing Industrial Director
J. P. Smith representing Health Director
E. L. Farlow representing Civil Affairs Director
Front Row: Left to Right
D. S. Johnston representing Community Services Director
G. 0. Kellar, Chairman
Miss Ria Rita Simmons, Secretary
C. T. Jackson (Acting) representing Marine Director
H. I. Perantie representing Executive Secretary
H. H. Shacklett representing Supply and Service Director
AFFAIRS- - ...... ..........
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION .-
HEALTH ,..... ... ... .... ..... ... .
COMMUNITY SERVICES............ ..
MARINE....... ...... ....
E. L. Farlow
Representative for the Civil Affairs Bureau,
on the Canal Zone
1 Canal Company Safety Board,
O Sanders, Jr.
vice B. G.
RAILROAD AND TERMINALS--.-.
DIVISION AWARD FOR
H. Rudge has been appointed
Acting Safety Inspector for the Navigation
(Drivers take a hint-be thankful for kids
who do ride bikes sensibly and watch for
those who don't).
d cause poor
iency, and ex-
Any of these
No Disabling Injuries
Division and Aids to
Tires unequally inflated
steering, poor braking effic
cessive side-sway on curves.
is a threat to your safety.
CL UBHO USES
Our Regular Services:
*I Y - f
August 3, 1951
Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly at
BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE
Printed by the Panama Canal Press
Mount Hope, Canal Zone
F. K. NEWCOMER
SE. C. LOMBARD
J. RUFUS HARDY
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Letters containing inquiries, sugges-
tions, criticisms or opinions of a general
nature will be accepted. In all cases
possible, letters to THE REVIEW will be
answered individually. Those of suffi-
cient general interest will be published
in this paper. Letters must be authen-
tic and be signed although signatures
will not be published unless requested
and names of authors will be kept con-
fidential. Return address should be
given but THE REVIEW will not under-
take to return correspondence of any
address in the Postal Union:
made payable to the Treasurer, Pan-
to the Editor, THE PANAMA
REVIEW, Balboa Heights, C.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW is on
sale at all Panama Canal Company
Hotels for ten days after publication
5 Cents a Copy
sales and individual copies
WEST INDIAN COMMEMORATIVE STAMP, ,,
Tribute to the part taken by West Indians
in the construction of the Panama Canal
will be officially paid August 15, anniversary
of the opening of the waterway, by the issue
of a special commemorative stamp.
The new ten-cent stamp, shown at right,
shows a group of laborers at work in Culebra
(Gaillard) Cut. It was designed by Meade
Bolton, former Panama Canal Architect.
The idea for the commemorative stamp
was conceived by George W. Westerman, of
Panama City, well known writer and civic
leader among West Indian groups on the
Isthmus and their Panamanian offspring.
A public testimonial ceremony honoring
Governor Newcomer and paying tribute to
Mr. Westerman has been planned by the
West Indian Stamp Appreciation Commit-
tee. It will be held August 15 in Mount
Hope Stadium. Invited to participate are
representatives of the Armed forces, Panama
Government, churches, schools, patriotic
and civic groups, labor representatives, and
Governments of the West Indies.
Other plans include a "West Indian
Week" observance in the Canal Zone public
schools; an essay contest among students
from the fifth grades to the high school
level; a special supplement of The Panama
Tribune, and an exhibit by the Panama
Upwards of 50,000 West Indians took
part in digging the Canal. Over 30,000
contract laborers were brought to the Isth-
CLOSE ANCON THEATER
The Ancon Theater Building is being
rapidly depopulated and it is expected
to be completely vacated within another
month. Present plans call for the use of
the building for the Commissary Di-
vision's annual toy display and sale
after which it will be demolished.
The offices of the General Manager
of the Clubhouse Division are being
moved to the second floor of the Diablo
Heights Clubhouse. The barber shop
operated by Jack Willison was trans-
ferred to Balboa Clubhouse at the first
of July. Other concessionaires to be
moved include the shoe shop to Balboa
Bowling Center; the dressmaker shop
to Building 5040, back of the former
Diablo Mess Hall; and the tailor shop
to the Hotel Tivoli.
The dressmaker and tailor shops will
move early this month and the shoe
shop in about a month. Final arrange-
ments have not been completed for the
Ancon Beauty Shop.
BILL AIDS EMPLOYEES
A bill to broaden the present provisions
fcnr fth navment of money owed to an
mus by the Isthmian Canal Commission, of
whom approximately two-thirds were re-
cruited in Barbados. Several thousands
emigrated to the Canal Zone from Jamaica,
although only 37 were recruited there under
contract. Other West Indian Islands repre-
sented among the contract workers were
Fortune Island, Guadeloupe, Martinique,
Trinidad, Curacao, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St.
Vincent, Grenada; and British Guiana.
CASH IN COMMISSARIES
No additional U. S.-Rate Commissary
retail stores are likely to adopt the cash
system until about the end of this year,
although it is planned to have cash
sales for the toy sale which will be held
next November in the Ancon Theater
Gatun Commissary will be the first
of the stores to convert to the cash
system following the recent announce-
ment that all U. S.-Rate stores will
abandon the coupon system. The
change at Gatun will be followed by
conversion at Cocoli, Margarita, and
It is planned to make the change at
the Balboa, Diablo Heights, and Cris-
tobal stores simultaneously, probably
early next year.
All of the changes are dependent on
the arrival of equipment. The Com-
missary Division has placed requisitions
for $35,000 worth of new cash registers,
and for cash drawers which can be used
with the present registers Most of the
stores will also require minor modifica-
tions before all housewives take spot
cash to the stores for their groceries.
The cash system has worked well in
-.* -- . S -.
OF CURRENT INTEREST
August 3, 1951
Spi derweb s
To Early French Canal
Construction In 1880's
Along with cash registers, surveying
instruments, wooden legs, chrome plate,
and clocks, the Panama Canal Com-
pany's Instrument Repair Shop in Balboa
or least of s
thing, are t
The "extremes" are,
force of 18
." The great
he two track
on, the greatest
has to work is
est, as a regular
scales on which
he spiderwebss" are brought to the
)on Diablo Road near the Roosevelt
nue traffic light. Workmen from the
have to go to the two track scales,
at Mount Hope and the other in the
mistrial Bureau yards at Balboa.
Actually, according to Harry E. Town-
send, shop foreman, the spiderwebss" are
the infinitesimally fine thread of cocoons.
The cocoons are found around the Canal
Zone on light posts and traffic lights and
are picked off during the dry season.
Carefully taken to pieces, the cocoons or
spiderwebss" provide the crosshairs for
such instruments as transits, levels, and
Only One of Its Kind Here
A unit of the Industrial Bureau, the In-
strument Repair Shop is the only one of
its kind on the Isthmus. During the war
years the Panama Air Depot had a some-
what similar shop which was concerned
principally with aircraft instruments.
Its local uniqueness, consequently,
brings to the Instrument Repair Shop a
wide variety of work from the armed
forces and from ships. In a room off the
plating shop still hang frames which were
used for work on a
One section of the i
is taken up with a"
foot long tube with
ntiaircraft gun part,
shop's big main roor
columnator," a three
which binoculars ar
Maybe the cigar helps. It is always in his mouth when Harold Sutherland works on typewriters
at the Instrument Repair Shop. The outside typewriter repair work is done by Gerald J. Kelley.
paired typewriters, clocks, transits, an-
eroid barometers, theodolites, seismo-
graphs, and rain- and tide-gauges.
Occasionally the work took a different
trend. The repairmen doubled in brass--
or in electrician's tape. In July, 1904, the
shop" installed an annunciator and four
bells in the Chief Engineer's residence.
A few months later the force repai-ed a
couple of cameras, silver-plated two
lanterns for the Chief Engineer's carriage,
plated some coachman's buttons, and--
probably a private job-put a new
coating of silver plate on 24 forks.
Like all of the old files, the Instrument
Repair Shop's official dossier casts a fre-
quent interesting sidelight on general
local conditions. In September 1905,
Regis complained that he was unable to
furnish a report on the previous month's
work, "because my notebook could not be
found after the building was fumigated."
Shops Moved To Gorgona
- up, s
the Canal construction work speeded
o did work in the Instrument Repair
. It became increasingly incon-
chines, cash registers, scales and meters,
adding machines and calculators.
On its force of 13 U. S.-rate and five
local-rate workmen are the only two
authorized safecrackers on the Isthmus.
The two "Jimmy Valentines" are Walter
T. Schapow and G. E. Audy. Several
years ago Mr. Schapow made the head-
lines when he was locked into a vault at
the Army's Engineers office.
"Safecracker" Locked In
Mr. Schapow had been working in the
safe and asked an officer outside to close
the door. The officer did-hard, wedging
the door in its frame. The safe expert
was locked inside for an hour until a hole
could be cut in the side of the vault and
timbers and a jack passed through so that
he could jack the vault door open.
The Instrument Repair Shop is au-
thorized to accept private work from
Government employees on a standby
basis-that is, government work comes
first. Most Canal Zone housewives have
had silver or brass plated or keys made
there and once in a while the shop does a
--**- J ii:iiiiiin.." . **" i'I ;;*; - - - - - - ^ "- 11* "- *- - - - 1111 :-
_* ; ........I ****aa- *- r- -**1..-1111111.- fi i- " """ -* "
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from page 8) heavy that the
private orders for silver-plating are
lagging eight months or so behind.
Several men on the Instrument Repair
Shop force have had outside training.
J. E. Drawbaugh, who does the work on
Burroughs adding and billing machines
and calculators, had special
the Burroughs plant.
George Neal was trained at
plant and handles work on
ment's Monroe calculating
machines and the Marchand
Two other members of the
force, T. W. A. Krzys and W. R. Waites,
trained at the National Cash Register
plant and do the work here on thos8
Gerald J. Kelley, who does the outside
typewriter repair work, had 11 years of
training at the Underwood-Elliott fac-
tories in New York before joining the
Canal force in 1936.
Convert Commissary Registers
One of the shop's biggest jobs recently
has been conversion of some cash regis-
ters-of which there are about 700 on the
Canal Zone-to be used for cash in the
Oil and gasoline meters, such as those
at the various gasoline stations, are
checked monthly. Meters at the Oil
Complicated to the bystander, the internal
3d-AMERICAN LEGION, Chagres
River Post No. 6, Gamboa Legion
Hall, 7 p. m.
V. F. W., Post No. 3857, New Cris-
tobal, 7:30 p. m.
5th-MASTERS, MATES & PILOTS,
No. 27, Gamboa Clubhouse, 9 a. m.
6th-COLORED SCHOOLS REOPEN
PEDRO MIGUEL CIVIC COUN-
CIL, Union Church, 7 p. m.
CIVIC COUNCIL, Margarita Club-
house, 7:30 p. m.
POSTAL EMPLOYEES, No. 23160,
Balboa Lodge Hall, 8
J. Owen Post No. 3,
Hall, 7 p. m.
V. F. W., Post No. 727,
7:30 p. m.
V. F. W., Post No. 3
Road, 7:30 p. m.
Community Center, 7:30 p. m.
GATUN CIVIC COUNCIL, Gatun
Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m.
8th-PACIFIC CIVIC COUNCIL, Jew-
ish Welfare Board, 7:30 p. m.
AMERICAN LEGION, Elbert S.
Waid Post No. 2, Cristobal Legion
Home, 7 p. m.
12th-PLUMBERS, Local 606, Balboa
Lodge Hall, 9:30 a. m.
rita Clubhouse, 9:30 a. m.
13th-AMERICAN LEGION, Panama
Canal Post No. 1, Legion Hall, Bal-
boa, 7 p. m.
BLACKSMITHS, No. 400, Balboa
Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. m.
MACHINISTS, No. 699, K. of C.
Hall, Margarita, 7:30 p. m.
14th-AMERICAN LEGION, B. T. Clay-
ton Post No. 7, Fort Clayton, 7 p. m.
AMERICAN LEGION AUXIL-
IARY, Panama Canal Unit No. 1,
Balboa Legion Home, 7:30 p. m.
V. F. W., Post No. 100, Old Boy
Scout Building, Cristobal, 7:30 p. m.
ELECTRICAL WORKERS, No.
397, Balboa Lodge Hall, 7:30 p. m.
PAINTERS, No. 1232, American
Legion Hall, Cristobal, 7 p. m.
15th-ANNIVERSARY OF OPENING
OF THE PANAMA CANAL-First
of West Indian commemorative
ue on sale
e No. 14, Balboa
runner of the Army's potato-peeling
machine, with water, sand, and friction
in preparation for plating. Finer metal
pieces are taken down to base metal and
polished by machine and by hand to re-
mmco amnr irramilari+mlac
........ .. August 3
. . . . . . .. August 10
........ . August 17
.. . ...... .August 24
. . . .... .August 31
From New York
........ August 1
. . .........August 8
............ August 15
. . .. . . .August 22
. . . ... .... .. August 29
Clubhouse, 7:30 p. m.
AMERICAN LEGION AUXIL-
IARY, Nathaniel J. Owen Post No.
3, Legion Home, Gatun, 7:30 p. m.
V. F. W., Post No. 40, K. of C. Hall,
Balboa, 7:30 p. m.
16th--AMERICAN LEGION AUXIL-
IARY, Chagres River Unit No. 6,
Legion Hall, Gamboa, 7:30 p. m.
17th-V. F. W., Post 3857, New Cristobal,
7:30 p. m.
19th-CENTRAL LABOR UNION-
METAL TRADES COUNCIL, Bal-
boa Lodge Hall, 8:30 a. m.
20th-ELECTRICAL WORKERS, No.
677, Gatun Masonic Temple, 7:30
21st-OPERATING ENGINEERS, No.
595, Margarita K. of C. Hall, 7 p. m.
22d-AMERICAN LEGION AUXIL-
IARY, Elbert S. Waid Unit No. 2,
Home, Cristobal, 7:30 p. m.
K. E., Lodge No. 88, Margarita
use, 7:30 p. m.
W. AUXILIARY, Post 3822
SPost Home, Curundu Rd., 7:30 p. m.
28th-AMERICAN LEGION, B. T. Clay-
ton Pcst No. 7, Fort Clayton, 7 p. m.
V. F. W., Post No. 100, Old Boy
Scout Building, Cristobal, 7:30 p. m.
OPERATING ENGINEERS, No.
595, Balboa Lodge Hall, 7 p. m.
FERENCE, Board Room, Adminis-
tration Building, 2 p. in.
2d-MASTERS, MATES &
No. 27, Margarita Clubhou
5th-WHITE SCHOOLS RE'
V. F. W. Post No. 40, K.
Balboa, 7:30 p. m.
se, 9 .a m.
of C. Hall,
THIS MONTH'S CALENDAR
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The new Panama Canal Company and
the Canal Zone Government started life
on July i without a ripple in the normal
operations of the waterway and its varied
Order establishing the new arrangement
was signed two days earlier by President
Although normal operations were un-
ruffled, the swirling eddies of dollar signs
and percentage figures in the capitaliza-
tion, interest, depreciation, and allocation
pools continue to boil in the new com-
pany's financial waters.
The relatively simple fiscal problems of
the Canal Zone Government have, in the
main, been settled.
Many adjustments are still to be made
in the fiscal pattern for the Panama Canal
Company. Prior to July 1 the Board of
Directors had decided upon the policy of
delaying for some time any major altera-
tions in rate structures for the various
company activities. The decision to delay
until after the transition period any major
changes will permit a clearer picture of
the new organization under actual oper-
Charts Show Main Features
On this and following pages THE PAN-
AMA CANAL REVIEW presents a series of
charts, in simplified form, to show the
main features of the financial structure
of the Panama Canal Company and the
Canal Zone Government. They cover the
capital assets, income and expenses both
for Company and Government, and the
anticipated income and direct operating
expenses of the company units for this
The figures used in the compilation of
these charts are subject to wide varia-
tions, although in the main the divisions
as well as
capital assets show relative values for
purposes of comparison.
The figures on capitalization are rep-
resentative of values as estimated at the
end of last fiscal year.
The statistics on
income and direct operating expenses for
the three main company activities for the
coming year are budget estimates pre-
pared to indicate the profit-or-loss figures
on the various operations.
subject to change later in the year by
action of the Board of Directors in ad-
Job Is One of Magnitude
Only those intimately concerned with
the transfer of Canal operations and com-
mercial activities to a corporate form can
picture the intricate details of the change.
Some idea of the magnitude of the prob-
lem was indicated in a statement of the
accounting consultants in a formal report
that it might require several years to
make an accurate determination of the
capital assets of the new company. They
based their views on the requirement of
making a field check of all (See page 11)
INTEREST DURING I )
- 128, 991 000
TITLE & TREATY (2)
- - -- RIGHTS
--5 9, 5 9 3,000 -
f . � . . . j I I � I j � � �
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from page 10) company prop-
erties, including buildings, machinery, and
Not all of the other company matters
are settled. In the bylaws adopted by the
Board of Directors at the meeting in June,
provisions are made for the appointment
of a Chairman of the Board and the
The former will be appointed
Stockholder (Secretary of the Army) and
will be elected
Board, with the exception of the Chair-
man of the Board and President of the
Company who will automatically become
members of the Executive Committee.
The Committee will act for the Board on
company matters of
decision between m
meetings ,.of 'the full
Although the subject had been con-
sidered academically for many years,
operations last July had its origin Feb-
ruary 24, 1948, when 'the House 'Ap-
propriations Committee recommended
that Canal tolls be raised to the statu-
Governor Mehaffey subsequently rec-
ommended to the President that tolls
charges be increased to meet mounting
operating costs, primarily due to infla-
tionary trends. President Truman
issued a Presidential Proclamation in
October 1 of that year.
The raise was vigorously protested by
the shipping industry, and Congress
decided to review the whole question of
tolls policy, requesting the President to
defer the tolls increases.
The study was made by a Sub-Com-
mittee of the House Merchant Marine
and Fisheries Committee with Repre-
sentative Clark W. Thompson, of Texas,
issued an interim report in August 1949
requesting the President to defer again
the raise in tolls and to have a broader
study made of the entire organizational
aspects of The Panama Canal and the
Panama Railroad Company.
This study was made by the Bureau
of the Budget and Secretary of the
Army Frank Pace, Jr., then Director of
the Budget, recommended in his report
to the President, among other things,
that the Canal-Railroad business ac-
into a single
The report was submitted to Congress
by the President in January 1950 and
was referred to the House Merchant
Marine and Fisheries Committee. Leg-
islation effecting the proposed change
was introduced in the House May 31,
1950. It was subsequently passed by
both the House and Senate and became
Public Law 841 of the 81st Congress,
when signed by President Truman on
the President issued
July 1, 1951
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The final official action was taken
June 29, 1951 when President Truman
issued the Executive Order transferring
the various Canal properties to the
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 3, 1951
alFaiir s of thlU
Canal Zone Govern-
are far ies complicated than those
investment of the United States in the
Canal Zone Government consists chiefly
of money spent for roads, streets, and
other public buildings; and Health Bu-
reau buildings and equipment.
SOURCES OF INC
permanent townsites; schools and
The Canal Zone Government will oper-
ate on appropriated funds but the Panama
Canal Company is required to reimburse
the Treasury for the net cost of civil
government each year. Thus, for this
fiscal year approximately 60 percent of
civil government will be paid to the
Treasury by the Company.
The direct income of civil government
IME- $ 67,969,000
this year is expected to be $3,675,000, or
about one-third of the amount spent.
rived chiefly from
charges for health services, fines and fees,
and rentals on lands or buildings.
In addition to these sources of income,
a direct appropriation of $741,000, nearly
seven percent of the total, has been re-
for the operation
erosion tests, and civil defense.
More than half of the civil govern-
ment's budget will be spent on public
health. The next largest sum will be
spent on police and fire protection. A
part of the money spentby the Canal
Zone Government (shown in the segment,
_^^^--* ---------** h *** -W R
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.ETA.I...................... S.NLES.8.S BY.IC. ........
............................................................................................ i iN"
...... ........................I...E..... ........... ......................... ......
.................................... S A.**..*.E*.** * * *Ef V
.................................... $ 2 4 569, ...........................
� =:i: ::: iiiii ii~~iil36.07w i i!! i!!!ii
+ . .................................... .. ........ ....... .......................==.....==.......====.= ==== =
^^^*********' * 5* �**** S S* Sf 5 * S*.* **** **S ***S S �S! *� f l 5-*�* * * f c
..... .... ..... .... ..... ............S............................
+ + . ....i. *. r. ** .*<.. ......iii .....*..........*.ik...i.i....... ...
.......... ...................*..... .... ....
� + + + .... .......... ..................-
^^*��*~~~~~~~~~~~~~iii iiiiH i~ 111 ****************�* > � i~iii iiiik*** * **� * ** �*
+ . .. . ..._. S .. . .. .SC.,
+ - . THEIRR AGENCIES.
+ + + + + +
+ + + + � +
\+ 4- TOLLS +
\ ++ 23,680,000 +
+ 36.0> +
f + + ++ +
+ + + + +
- -4- + + 4
- + + +
- + +
4~~ .4 .4
ous") will be paid to the Panama Canal
Company for various services, such as
personnel work, accounting, and adminis-
Business Operations Complex
The business operations of the Panama
Canal Company are so complex and inter-
laced that only the closest student of
accounting procedures could follow and
understand all the financial trails.
To a degree this complexity is caused
by the diversity of operations. The finan-
cial transactions range from the transit of
a ship at a cost of several thousands of
dollars to the sale of a package of needles
for a few pennies. They involve the
production and sale of electric power;
dredging a 50-mile ship channel and dig-
ging a shallow ditch, to mention a few.
The charts relating to the company's
operations as shown on these pages give
only the broad picture of how the new
organization will conduct its financial
affairs and what is expected to result for
one year of operation. The figures are far
from final. The statistics on income and
direct operating expenses, as shown on the
opposite page, are subject to wide varia-
tion depending on economic conditions.
Income and Expense Charts
The two charts on this page show the
principal sources of income and the main
classifications of expenses of the company.
The financial obligations for this fiscal
year are estimated at over $69,000,000,
while the business done by the company,
outside of its intra-agency transactions,
_ - -
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from page 12) accompanying chart,
Canal, Commercial, and Quarters
Required To Meet Expenses
While the Panama Canal Company is
required by law to meet the expenses, as
shown in the expense chart, it does not
require that each operation in the Com-
mercial Activity block pay the full costs
normally assigned to it.
It will be noted in the chart, for ex-
ample, that the Industrial Bureau income
will not quite meet its direct operating
expenses for this year under existing con-
ditions. This condition, however, is sub-
ject to change during the year, dependent
upon economic conditions.
The same condition holds true for the
other individual operations in the Com-
mercial Activity block. If shipping
through the Canal and to its ports were
to show big increases or decreases during
the year, as compared with the budget
estimates, the change would be reflected
in the gross income column.
While some fluctuations may occur in
the direct operating expenses of the
various commercial operations the)
not expected to be sufficient to
o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
$ 2,2 16,0C
I t* a r
SI II 11 I Ir i-
materially the net results as shown on
Details Not Shown
The charts do not show any division
between Canal Acitivity and Commercial
Activity for the company's expenses for
depreciation, interest, and net cost of
civil government. However, proportion-
ate charges are made to each of the
various activities for these obligations.
The bulk of the interest charges will be
borne by the Canal Activity since most
of the United States' investment is in the
waterway itself. Of the interest-bearing
investment (see page 10) over $300,000,000
is represented by the waterway, locks and
dams, and the title and treaty rights. In
addition, a large proportion of the
$64,000,000 investment in buildings and
equipment is a part of the Canal Activity.
A major proportion of the net cost of
civil government will also be borne by the
Canal Activity, since this is computed on
a formula specified in Public Law 841.
The formula excludes the cost of goods
for resale in setting these proportions. If
this were not done, most of the cost of
civil government would be borne by Com-
mercial Activity since about half of its
expenses go to buying goods and com-
modities for resale.
James Marshall, Director of-Posts, has
called attention to the delay in delivery
of mail for various Pacific Side offices, be-
cause of incorrect addresses.
frequent errors occur with mail for the
following organizations, whose correct ad-
Schools Division, Motor Transportation
Division, Health Bureau, Chief of Police,
High School, Civil Aeronautics Adminis-
Treasurer's Office, Finance Bu-
reau, Library, Panama Railroad Trans-
portation, Electrical Division, and the
Ancon: Municipal Division Field Office,
Health Office (Panama);
Field Office (Diablo).
8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 26 2Z 2
p * * ' ' I I I I 1 1 . 1Y
cosT OF conns
. , , , , . .
brands in the
that we think
the Blazer pu
Cross. Both o
For the coll
some places tt
oxford still ral
without a pan
oxford with n
weather and t
hats are in the
for landing in
OUR LAST WORD BEFORE THE SCHOOL BOAT SAILS
There is still ample time for assembling the complete ward-
robe (except maybe for the woolen outer garments) that you
gals and guys will be needing while you're away at school and,
in spite of latest style trends that may hit your particular
campus, there are a goodly number of items that are strictly
standard almost everywhere. Take winter coats, for example.
The smart coed (and we mean both brainy smart and fashion
smart) will seriously consider the acquisition of a "four-year"
coat, especially an imported one of luxury-soft, genuine camel
hair, of which a few very desirable styles are still available.
One of these, if you can squeeze it out of your Dad's off-to-
school clothing budget, will be a sound and practical investment
for the future, since it will be good long after you have left
yon ivied halls of learning and are faced with the prospect of
earning a living while at the same time trying to rebuild a
rather stupid world. For men: a good imported tweed top-
coat will help to mark you as one of the more importantly
well-dressed men on the campus. On almost every campus,
too, you will find that jeans, casual shirts, and sweaters
almost required for classroom and knock-about wear.
plenty. It's easier to stock up here on under-garments,
etc., than it is to get additional clothing money sent up
(and it is a heap easier on the Old Man's wallet, too) so
to have enough to last you through next June-you
ave une or darnme and replacement of buttons. so better
August 3, 1951
wedgies in sandal
out the year. Am
e larger retail st(
Honey Debs, as w
you would like t
mp by Penaljo a
s and pumps will continue in
long the nationally advertised
res are Penaljo, Red Cross,
ell as the Saco-Moc line. Two
;o know about, especially, are
nd the "Saddle Up" by Red
f these, which are being prominently featured in
ines, will be in the commissaries.
lege men (how did they get in here, anyway?)
shoe, anywhere, is the plain toe blucher. In
ie wing tip meets with favor, and the moccasin
tes mighty high. No college man can get along
r of loafers and very few are without the white
ed rubber soles. This is worn in all kinds of
he dirtier the shoe gets, the better. There is a
of all of these styles in the retail stores.
ted at the bottom, let's work up to the top and
feminine headgear. Some very lovely summer
stores right now and at least one will be needed
New iYork and! arriving at school. It will also
a while during the early Fall period. As the
however, you'll need a felt for dressup occasions
and we have some very smart numbers on order from Gage
in the new Fall and Winter styles and colors. We've requested
expeditious shipment and hope that they reach the stores
before you sail.
Getting back to drygoods, tartan plaids continue to be high
style and we have some very nice authentic woolens, loomed in
Scotland, that will make glamourous skirts, weskits and ac-
cessories. If there isn't time to have the dressmaking completed
before sailing, you can have Mother ship the things later. To
help keep out wintry blasts (and don't let the hot weather here
cause you to forget that it will be colder than the freezing
coils in your family's Westinghouse) warm wool or silky
smooth scarves will sure feel nice wrapped around one's neck.
At football games, one way to keep warm is to be on the
team-another is to swipe a blanket from the dorm-but the
best, if you're just a spectator, is to take along your own wool
steamer rug. It could also come in handy when the cold spell
hits your area and you feel like putting a rug on top of the
two blankets your house regularly furnishes. We may still
have a few left in stock.
The emphasis on clothing will drop as soon as you get up
and how to
kid us that al
helpful is a k
y. As soon as you hit school and get registered
the emphasis turns to the excitement of studies,
accomplish with a minimum of drudgery, all of
I assignments that are handed you. (Don't try to
ll of the new learning you'll be running into won't
ly exciting, even if it is often tough work). Very
knowledge of shorthand and a serviceable portable
[f you haven't already got the first, we cannot be
However, we do have plenty of portables. The
dels are cheapest, but if you think you would
a little more in order to not keep your roommate
. .i .i .1 i i wA 11 I 1 l 1
NEWS OF YOUR COMMISSARY STORES
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Railroad Headquarters Move
To Cristobal Terminal Building
The main offices of the Panama Rail-
road are moving back where they started
from -the Atlantic side. Now known as
the Railroad and Terminals Bureau, the
U. S. Representative DANIEL A. REED,
York, ranking Republican member of
and Means Committee. His home
the House Ways
is in Dunkirk,
N. Y., and he has served in the House since 1918.
His vigorous support of legislation to eliminate the
retroactive Income Tax speeded the measure which
bore his name through the House and Senate.
WALTERjF. GEORGE, Senior Senator from
Georgia, and Chairman of the Senate Finance Com-
mittee. Senator George, of Vienna, Ga., has served
in the upper house since 1922. As Chairman of the
Finance Committee, his aid in moving the Reed Bill
through his committee and to the Senate floor for
consideration was a vital factor.
- - - - w
THE PANAMA CANAL
OFFICE OF THE GOVEINOVn
Balboa Heights, C.
March 14, 1951.
NCABULE pOAt A
Thm Honorable Daniel A. Reed
House of Representatives
Washington 25, D. C.
Dear Mr. Reed:
As a result of o'r rather long and close association I feel
that I knw you well enough to be sure that you are interested in all
things which are in the Nation's interest) at the sa time I am
confident that you know me well enough to be equally sure that I would
not write you unless the Federal welfare were not involved.
* * * *
The hard blow cam in the application of the retroactiTe
feature which made the tax effective as of January 1, 1950. Since the
bill waste passed in October of 1950, everyone was taken unawares and most
people had already obligated their small eavings by recuperation leave
in the U. S., education of children, etc. We find that a very large
percentage are actually in debt by several hundrd dollars,
A bill to eliminate the retroactive feature of the ne. tax
has been introduced by Mr. George Miller of California which has been
supported by the Department of Defense and the Bureau of the Budget.
This bill i now for consideration by the Ways and eane Cmttee and 4
anything which you may do to obtain action upon it will be great
appreciated by e personally.
head offices of the railroad will have more
commodious quarters in the Cristobal
Terminal Building than the first railroad
office on a small boat anchored in Limon
The first railroad main office shown in
available records appears on a map dated
1855, on Front Street in "Aspinwall-
Colon." But, engineers have figured that
the latitude of nine degrees, 21 minutes
and 23 seconds and the longitude of 79
degrees, 53 minutes and 55 seconds given
on the map would have placed the main
office about on the present location of
Another old map, dated 1863, shows
the railroad's "new office" at No. 12
Front Street, diagonally opposite a
"Depot" at the head of Pier 2. This depot
is probably the freight house which was
built about that date and rebuilt after the
disastrous Colon fire of 1885.
In 1906 the railroad's main office moved
into a two-story wooden building on the
shore of Limon Bay, opposite the end of
Third Street and close to the end of old
Pier 1. Headquarters for Fort deLesseps
were later built on this approximate site.
In the early 1920's, the main offices
moved to the Administration Building at
Balboa Heights where they remained
until November 11, 1939, when they were
moved into the building near the Balboa
Heights Railroad Station.
Fair Employment Procedures
Contained In Canal Circular
Procedures and the appointment of
principal officers for the administration
of the Fair Employment program of the
Panama Canal Company and the Canal
Zone Government are contained in a
circular issued at Balboa Heights by
Governor Newcomer. The circular re-
vises and modifies, to a certain extent, a
few provisions of former circulars on the
The Fair Employment program, first
instituted throughout the United States
Government in 1948 under the provisions
it .n i. * i , . .
16 __THE PANAMA
August 3, 1951
yees who observed important an-
es in United States Government
during the month of July are listed
ically below. The number of
clude all Government service,
Canal or other agencies. Those
tinuous Canal or Railroad service
ated by (*) asterisks.
C. Hannigan, Lockmaster,
*Enrique de la Ossa,
Theresa A. Comber,
Bureau; Michael I.
Light Equipment, M
Division; Robert L.
Division; Clarence D.
Fire Division; Charl
terer, Tilesetter, and
Ferryboat President Roosevelt approaching slip
Ferryboat President Roosevelt approaching slip
Bureau; Eric E.
es E. Leaver, Plas-
H. Morales, Clerk,
Some lucky motorist has a grand prize
of at least one free round-trip across the
Canal by Thatcher Ferry awaiting him
The prize is
second to be
being offered by Dredging
icials to identify the
ar transported across the
hatcher Ferry was opened
1932. The car was the
riven aboard the ferryboat
evelt on the east-west run at
n the morning of June 29th.
The monumental milestone in ferry
operations caught the Dredging Division's
people somewhat by surprise. It was not
until some days after the 10,000,000th
car used the ferry that the figures were
tabulated and it could be identified.
Another big marker in ferry operations
is near-the 50,000,000th passenger-and
Thatcher Ferry checkers will be warned
in advance to identify the distinguished
Service Started In 1923
Ferry service across the Canal has been
provided on the Pacific side since 1923
when the Army started a tug-and-barge
service to supply its posts in the vicinity
of Culebra and Empire on the west side
of the Canal. It operated only between
the east and west wing walls of Pedro
the service was transferred from Pedro
Miguel to Balboa when Thatcher High-
way was opened in September 1932.
Interior Traffic Increases
The transfer resulted in a marked in-
crease of traffic to the interior and it soon
became necessary to increase the 24-trip
service with only one ferryboat in opera-
tion on week days, to continuous service
with both ferryboats in operation.
With the beginning of the Third Locks
project in 1939 and the huge development
of military installations on the west side
of the Canal during the same period, it
became necessary to augment Thatcher
Ferry service. This was done by insti-
tuting a ferry service across Mirafiores
Lake. This was started in August 1940
and continued through June 1942 when
Miraflores Bridge was opened.
Until the pre-war construction program
was begun, Thatcher Ferry service was
ample for the vehicular traffic across the
Canal. However, during its heyday in the
early 40's there were usually long lines
of cars waiting at each end of the ferry
line, especially on holidays and weekends.
Two Big Ferryboats Bought
In order to provide increased service,
two larger Diesel-electric ferryboats which
had been in operation between New York
tf.. >, .,1 "M ...,. T ...j-.^.. ......- 1_ - ... . - .J. - _. - Al_ _
Bob J. Fletcher, (
*Lee R. Beil, Chief, Power Stations,
Electrical Division; Clifford E. Currier,
Operator, Dredging Division; *Lillian F.
Farr, Commissary Assistant, Commissary
Division; Earl F. Unruh, Acting Postal
Inspector; *Victor M. Briceiio, Boiler-
maker, Industrial Bureau; *Marie V.
Brauer, Nurse, Health Bureau; Curtis H.
George, Wireman, Electrical Division;
Jesse F. Gregg, Jr., Operator, Locks Di-
vision; Marie B. McNeff, Nurse, Health
Bureau; Joe H. Richardson, Policeman,
Police Division; *Raymond R. Will,
Harbormaster, Marine Bureau.
Eugene Breakfield, Postal Clerk, Post-
offices; Roger L. Chisholm, Policeman,
Police Division; Estle H. Davison, Oper-
ator, construction equipment and tractor-
bulldozer, Municipal Division; *Edward
A. Durham, Supervisor, Payroll Division;
Robert A. Duvall, Supply Requirements
Assistant, Storehouses; Gordon M. Frick,
Position Classifier, Personnel Bureau;
Ruth T. Getz, Clerk, Finance Bureau;
Carl E. Hall, General Foreman Assistant,
Mllniinal fiiviqinn Plar1 P T-Tnfmnn _Tr
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
FROM JUNE 15 THROUGH JULY 15 OWEN -W. SMITH, from Pumpman to Filtration JAMES C. THOMAS, from Construction Inspector,
FROM JUNE 15 THROUGH JULY 15 Plant Operator, Municipal Division. Engineering Division, to Boilermaker, Dredging
Mrs. ELLEN P. CASTLES, from Clerk Typist, Division.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Railroad Division, to Clerk Typist, Electrical JAMES H. BURNS, from Engineer, pipeline suction
GEORGE 0. FLORES, from Guard, Atlantic Locks' Division. dredge, to Chief (Towboat) Engineer, Navigation
to Probationary Fireman. LESTER S. BEETLE, from Machinist, Industrial Division.
NEIL V. BRANSTETTER, from High School Bureau, to Engineer-Machinist, Diesel, Power JAMES H. HAGAN, from Nautical Science Aid to
Teacher to Supervisor of Music, Schools Division. Branch, Electrical Division. Dock Foreman, Navigation Division.
VICTOR A. HERR, from Junior High School to MAX L. WEICH, from Foreman Checker, Terminals KENNETIH L. MIDDLETON and DONALD P.
High School Teacher. Division, to Clerk Typist, Municipal Division. HUTCHISON, from Tunnel Operator wiremann)
ROBERT E. McBRIDE, from Guard, Locks Divi- to Junior Control House Operator, Locks Division.
sion to Fireman. FINANCE BUREAU WILLIAM DIEZ, from Tunnel Operator wiremann)
Mrs. PAULINE L. PACHECO, from Clerk Typist to Lockmaster, Locks Division.
COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU to Card Punch Operator, Accounting Division. FRANCIS J. KRAUSE, from Junior Control House
RUSSELL E. HILEMAN, from Assistant to Housing Operator to Lockmaster, Locks Division.
Manager, to Assistant Housing Manager, Cris- HEALTH BUREAU GEORGE W. PARKER, CLARENCE JACOBSON
tobal, Housing Division. Mrs. HELEN F. HOVERSON, from Staff Dietitian and PAUL D. BARNARD, from Lock Operator
JACK C. RANDALL, from Assistant Housing to Chief Dietitian, Colon Hospital. wiremann) to Tunnel Operator wiremann), Locks
Manager, Cristobal, to Manager, Cristobal Office, BETTY J. BLAUERT, from Staff Dietitian to Head Division.
Housing Division. Dietitian, Colon Hospital. PERSONNEL BUREAU
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION Mrs. IRENE B. McLAUGHLIN, from Clerk Typist EDWARD F. CULVERHOUSE, from Graduate
BUREAU to Accounting Clerk, Hospitalization and Clinics Trainee to Training Officer.
EDWARD M. BROADER, Jr., from Assistant to FRANK P. SMITH and WILLIAM A. MERI- RAILROAD AND TERMINALS BUREAU
Engineering and Construction Director to Assistant WETHER, from Hospital Resident to Medical HUGH W. CASSIBRY, from Clerk, to Time, Leave,
Engineering and Construction Director. Officer. and Payroll Supervisor, Terminals Division.
CARL R. NEWHARD, from Wire Chief, to General RODOLFO V. YOUNG and MARTIN C. FLORINE SELECTIVE SERVICE
HOWARD S. ENGELKE, from Wire Chiefbal. from Intern to Resident. FRANCES E. HUNNICUTT, from Library Assist-
GeneraD l Foreman, Telephones, Balboa TOMAS de la GUARDIA A., from Intern to Medi- ant, Civil Affairs, to Clerk Stenographer, Selective
ERNEST W. ZELNICK, from Assistant Chief to ca er. Service.
Chief, Water Laboratories Branch, Municipal MANAGEMENT DIVISION SUPPLY AND SERVICE BUREAU
Division. THATCHER A. CLISBEE and RICHARD E. VICTOR H. MAY, Jr., from Cash Accounting Clerk,
PAUL U. STRAUSS, from graduate Trainee to ERBE, from Budget Examiner to Organization Finance Bureau, to Gauger, Storehouse Division.
Electrical Engineer, Electrical Division. and Methods Examiner. JOHN W. PRIM, Jr., from Commissary Assistant to
FRANKLIN F. PIERCE, from Pump Operator, Commissary Manager.
Dredging Division, to Pumpman, Municipal Divi- MARINE BUREAU GILBERT A. SOLLAS, from Commissary Assistant
sion. FRANK T. WILLOE, from Second Assistant Marine to Cash Accounting Clerk, Commissary Division.
JAMES A. VAN DYKE, from Junior Helper, to Engineer to Chief (Towboat) Engineer, Navigation PAUL H. FRIEDMAN, from Supply Cataloger, Store-
Leader Crater and Packer, Building Division. Division. houses, to Assistant to Supply and Services Director.
Athletic, tournaments and handicraft
exhibits will wind up summer recreation
activities this month for hundreds of
Canal Zone youngsters.
Local-rate tournaments in tennis,
shuffleboard, basketball, basketball free
throws, archery, table tennis, volleyball,
swimming, and junior cricket started July
23 and will end tomorrow. Checker and
domino teams are also competing in the
athletic tournaments-a suitable classifi-
cation if one has watched the way these
two games are played by the boy and girl
For the U. S.-Rate communities, tour-
naments will begin August 13 and con-
clude August 26. They will include
inter-playground competition in tennis,
shuffleboard, volleyball, archery, basket-
hall hnwlnine aind wimmnin Wirnnrs in
Hundreds In Athletic Program
In the athletic program, the enrollment
is still difficult to total. Some indication
of the number is the fact that 680 U. S.-
Rate boys registered for basketball alone.
They have been formed into 61 teams, in
A, B, C, D, and E leagues, according to
their age, height, and weight. The D- and
E-ers are the local equivalent of U. S.
"Biddy" leagues. Swimming, from begin-
ners classes to Red Cross life saving in-
struction, has attracted 473 children.
Archery is by far the most popular of
the 17 sports in the Local-Rate communi-
ties and about 500 signed up for it.
Swimming is another favorite sport. A
number of day outings were arranged this
summer to enable Pacific Side children to
use the new pool at Silver City.
- - -
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 3, 1951
h Canal Units
School doors will open next Monday,
August 6, for nearly 4,000 girls and boys
in the ('anal Zone local-rate communities.
If present indications are reliable, stu-
dents will turn out in such numbers that
classroom facilities are going to be
strained in at least two of the schools.
Last May there were 3,858 students in
the 12 grades from first through high
school, 46 students in the Junior College
at La Boca, 227 attending night classes
and 85 others enrolled in the extension
division which is part of in-service
training for teachers in the colored
School officials believe that these fi-
gures will not vary to any great degree.
Other than the addition of the second
year to the Junior College course, there
will be little change this coming school
year in the colored schools.
Along the scholastic line, the schools
plan to expand the program of visual
aids to education, with films which cover
subjects from punctuation and grammar
to geography and social science.
Expand Physical Education
In the physical education department,
the schools will continue and expand the
program begun last year at Santa Cruz
where gymnasium facilities are available.
Swimming classes, which were started
during the summer at the new Silver City
pool, will be continued into the school
year. Instruction will be given to pupils
in the elementary grades as well as in
The Canal Zone has 12 colored schools.
ranging from the
had 299 pupils
big occupational high
y La Boca High School
and Silver City High
the 30-pupil one-room
at Chiva Chiva where
principal Ernest M. Morris is in charge.
The schools are: the La Boca elemen-
tary, junior and senior high schools, the
junior college, the Silver City elementary,
junior and senior high schools, Red Tank,
where grade and junior high school
classes are held in the same building, as
they are also at Santa Cruz, and the
Chagres, Paraiso, and Chiva Chiva ele-
mentary schools. Including the principals,
the dozen schools are staffed by 149
Summer Session for Teachers
11 to July
session was held from June
10 for the teachers in the
ls, one group meeting on the
the other on the Atlantic
George C. Wright, who heads the La
Boca Occupational High School and the
Junior College, was in charge of the
Pacific side classes. The teachers were
given courses in physical science, under
DeWitt Myers of the Junior College staff,
English literature under Miss Margaret
Whitman of the Balboa High School
faculty, and health education under Miss
Jessie Wier, also of the BHS staff.
Alfred E. Osborne, Supervisor of Instruc-
tion in the Colored Elementary Schools,
conducted a social studies workshop for
elementary teachers on both sides of the
On the Atlantic ide, Roscoe Haining,
who is acting principal of the Silver City
High School, was in charge and taught
English literature. Miss Hazel Matthews
of the Balboa Junior High faculty gave a
course in health education and James
Gartside of the Balboa High School staff
Class training for 24 young men who
were awarded apprenticeships in 12 crafts
started late last month, according to
Apprentice-Learner Coordinator Philip T.
Green. The shop training portion of their
four year courses began early in July.
The new apprentices are:
Electrical Division: William Carlin,
David Long, and Thomas Jordan, cable-
splicers; James Nellis, armature winder;
Charles Sherry, Gerald Dare, William
Henderson, John Corlis, Ralph Malcolm,
Jr., Burnice Herring, and Dan Nellis,
Motor Transportation Division: William
Municipal Division: Edmund Wozniak,
Edmund Coe, ma-
James Fraser, elec-
John Pescod, boat-
builder; Charles Swisher, pipefitter; Leo
Turner, shipfitter; Leo Melntire, machin-
ist; Robert Hanson, boilermaker; James
Ramsey, rigger; and Robert G. Brown
and Edward Bringas, shipwrights.
the Board of Local Inspectors that he had
"the knowledge, skill, and judgment
necessary for the safe and skillful driving
and handling of automobiles." The mini-
mum age requirement was set 4t 18 years.
Extensive caverns, later to become pop-
ularly known as the Bat Caves, were
discovered on the Chilibre River by
A requisition was placed for a 50-pas-
senger observation motor car for opera-
tion over the main line of the Panama
Railroad. It was ordered to supplement
the famous "rubber-neck" trains which
operated along the new Canal channel
and was a forerunner of the "scooters" of
present day operations.
The seventh year of the Canal construc-
tion by the United States ended May 4,
1911. with annroximatelv 13.100_000
formed on the Canal anniversary, May 4,
1911, at a dinner held at the Hotel Tivoli.
The famons nsocietyv was cnmnnd ofnf
A ten-cent litre tax was imposed on all
distilled spirits produced in the Canal Zone.
Snr - _. -- e.--i *7 f ...:*-- .' --. -J
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Three officers of the Italian Line's
luxury ship, Conte Biancamano, five
employees of the Line in Cristobal, and
the Italian Consul in Colon, were placed
under arrest April 3, 1941, in Cristobal in
connection with sabotage aboard the
vessel. The ship had been held in Canal
waters for nine months because of admi-
ralty proceedings in the United States
District Court, and was seized by military
authorities four days before the arrests.
The Panama Line Panama was requisi-
tioned for duty as an Army transport. It
was the first of the three new Panama
liners to enter war duty. All three came
through the war unscathed and with
Personnel news of the period: United
States Ambassador William Dawson was
reassigned to Uruguay and was succeeded
by Edwin C. Wilson as Ambassador to
Panama-Dr. D. P. Curry, Assistant
Chief Health Officer, J. H. K. Humphrey,
First Assistant Chief Quartermaster, and
Zone Police Captain L. C. Callaway re-
tired-Lt. Comdr. William H. Vanderbilt
reported for duty with the 15th Naval
District- United States Marshal John E.
Hushing announced the appointment of
Peter Brennan as Deputy Marshal.
Colonel R. A. Wheeler, Acting Gover-
nor, announced in June that certain areas
of the harbor waters at both entrances to
the Canal were restricted. Both incoming
and outgoing vessels at both ports were
required to proceed only upon instruc-
tions of Naval vessels stationed at the
seaward and inward harbor limits.
The first landing at the new Howard
Field took place April 7. The plane left
Albrook Field for the flight across the Canal
with Major General Frank M. Andrews as
pilot and carrying Lt. Gen. Daniel Van
Voorhis and Governor Glen E. Edgerton as
Panama Constructors, Inc. entered the
low bid for the dry excavation of the Pacific
side Third Locks and was awarded the
contract at a price of nearly $22,500,000.
It was the largest single contract ever
awarded on the Isthmus up to that time.
The company was composed of several of
the largest contracting firms in the United
States, including S. A. Healey, Henry J.
Kaiser, the Kaiser Company, Walsh Con-
struction Company, Morrison Knudsen,
J. F. Shea, and the Hawaiian Dredging
The Canal Zone was abuzz with activity
ten years ago. War news and construction
news was mixed in the day-to-day news
reports. The new Third Locks towns were
nearing completion-a Japanese fisherman
was arrested for writing on a matchbox
the name of a British ship transiting the
Canal-President Roosevelt signed the
Executive Order establishing the boundaries
of Fort Gulick-entry to the pier areas was
banned to all except those on official
business-new workers were being imported
by the hundreds-an emergency mass
meeting was called in Pedro Miguel to
consider air raid plans.
A two-bedroom cottage at Diablo, above, is typical of the masonry houses now nearing completion.
Landscaping of the area is also underway.
(Continued from page 1) 1,891 square
feet and the cost of the bare house is
Comparable to the three-bedroom
houses of the composite, or "San Juan"
type built locally, is one described from
South Dartmouth, Mass. This house is
built on stilts for a better view. This
house has only 1,370 square feet of floor
space with four bedrooms, two of which
are only 1012 x 10'4 feet. Smaller, over-
all, than the San Juan houses, this house
hocro Q ho II i1nlrtn'r gnrl onr :nrt
constructed at Diablo Heights.
The local breezeway house was designed
by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, a leading
firm of United States architects, who
were employed as consultants in the new
Just like a private builder, the Panama
Canal Company is limited in the money
which can be spent on a house. An
$80,000,000 housing program sounds like
a lot of money. It is a simple matter of
arithmetic to determine that if new
nhtr+or 9ar0rp nrnvidpd frr thp 4. 9f TT H -
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 3, 1951
Division Is Organized
For New Contract Work
* - . - - . *-.
The spirit of cooperation which exists between the police forces on both sides of the Canal Zone-Republic
of Panama boundary lines is exemplified by the "Rancho Ramos" which was dedicated late in June.
The Rancho was built by the Colon Police members at the Canal Zone Police target range at Brazos Brook
for their fellow police officers of the Canal Zone on the Atlantic side. The structure, 84 by 27 feet, is named in
honor of Major Pastor Ramos, Jr., popular Commanding Officer of the Panama National Police in Colon. A
plaque at the entrance bears a suitable inscription of the gift.
A new division has been added to the
Engineering and Construction Bureau. It
is the Contracts and Inspection Division
which has been established because of the
great increase in contract construction
scheduled by the Canal Company during
the next few years.
The new division will have its offices in
Room 336 of the Administration Building
at Balboa Heights. It will be divided into
three branches: Area inspection, Atlantic
side; Area inspection, Pacific side; and
Plans have been made for the expendi-
ture of $80,000,000 within the next few
years in the replacement and construction
of quarters. The major building program
got into full swing this year with contract
work in Diablo Heights, Margarita, and
The new division will be made up from
the nucleus of the Contracts and Inspec-
tion Branch which has been a part of the
Approval of the formation of the new
division came after the organization
charts were prepared for the organization
supplement of this issue of THE CANAL
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second of a
series of articles on retirement. The first,
with charts for retirement pay computation,
appeared in the February 1951 issue of the
PANAMA CANAL REVIEW).
To many people, retirement means only
the mandatory separation of an employee
from the Canal service when he is 62 years
old, or when he becomes too ill or disabled
to work. There is considerably more to
retirement than these two instances.
Some of the other facets of the com-
plicated retirement problem were out-
lined for THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW by
E. L. Payne, Chief of the Personnel
Records Division of the Personnel Bu-
.-..... .. -..1 -I __ 1- - T� -I- ..... -A / fl- 1- r .l -T -^J.
For (b) the annuity is reduced by one-
fourth of one percent for each full month
the applicant is under 60. That is, three
percent per year. This annuity is payable
at once and does not wait until the
retiring employee reaches the compulsory
retirement age of 62.
For (c) the annuity is also reduced by
one-fourth of one percent for each month
he is under the age of 60.
An employee with over five
civilian service who leaves the service, for
any cause, before he becomes eligible for
an annuity, will be entitled to an annuity
to begin when he reaches the age of 62,
.. 1i - - .. t .1 ,1-i - _.- .
deposits but would have received an
annuity on them when he reached 62).
Last January, John Doe returned to
the Canal Zone to work. If he wishes to
get retirement credit for his previous 15
years of service, he repays the retirement
deposits which he had withdrawn. The
longer he delays, the more it will cost him.
Repayment of Retirement Deposits
He will pay no interest for the years he
was out of government service, but for
every year he is back in service and the
previous retirement deposits are unpaid
he is charged three percent interest.
Except for service on which retired pay
is based, military service is creditable
under the retirement act. This mili-
tary service, however, must have been
active and terminated under honorable
Disability annuities are also not clear
to many employees. These are paid to
those persons who have over five years of
August 3, 1951
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The number of ocean-going commercial
vessels using the Panama Canal during
the fiscal year 1951, ended June 30, was
slightly higher than the previous year's
totals, but slight decreases were shown in
both net tonnage of vessels and tolls
The variance-more ships but less ton-
nage and tolls- was accounted for by the
drop in tanker trade on the United States
intercoastal run. During the fiscal year
1950 the number of large tankers moving
oil from the west to the east coast of the
United States was one of the significant
traffic trends of the year.
The intercoastal tanker traffic through
the Canal for the past fiscal year totaled
approximately 2,025,000 tons under the
net tonnage of the previous fiscal year, a
62.5 percent loss.
The tanker traffic was more than over-
come in the number of other vessels tran-
siting the Canal, while the total Panama
Canal net tonnage of all ocean-going ves-
sels last year was 27,180,000 tons, only
three percent under the previous year's
figures which set a new record.
Tonnage High In 1951
The net tonnage of vessels last year has
been exceeded only four times since the
Canal was opened, the fiscal year's 1928,
1929, 1930, and 1950.
Tolls collected on ocean-going vessels
of more than 300 net tons for
fiscal year amounted to $23,906
proximately $525,000 less than
vious year's figures.
There was a marked increase
over several trade routes during
While the tanker trade on the inter-
S- . - nnr-\ P -. i...... *1i
Studies are presently in progress to determine if schedule changes for the Panama Line could be
advantageously made. Above is one of the three 10,000-ton sisterships, the S. S. Ancon, which might
alter its run if the studies result in a change of home port or ports of call. The Panama Line has
been in the shipping business continuously for almost 100 years.
(Continued from page 1)
of the steamers
on longer or shorter runs.
5. Economy in operation of the Line's
home office in the United States; and,
6. The efficiency in transportation ser-
vices for employees and their families to
and from the Canal Zone.
Question Has Arisen Before
of making scheduled
stops at some southern port and regular
runs to the West Coast have arisen on
Railroad Company's sea transportation
service, which began in 1855, its ships
have served Chilean, Ecuadorian, Colom-
bian, Central American, Haitian, and
West Coast ports of the United States.
The service was first opened with five
barques and four brigs operated between
New York and Aspinwall (Colon). The
following year the Company opened a
steamship line service between Panama
and the West Coast ports of Nicaragua,
STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC
For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for
the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peace-time than those for 1939.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 3, 1951
Canal commercial traffic for
n1 last quarter of the fiscal year 1951
showed a slight increase over the com-
parative period in 1950, with major in-
creases shown in the trade routes between
the Europe and the east coast of the
United States to the Far East and west
coast ports of the United States and
Total ship traffic for the three-month
period increased from 1,928 in the last
quarter of 1950 to 2,085 last year. Slight
increases were shown in all classifications,
including large, tolls-paying vessels, small
commercial ships, and vessels which tran-
sited free of charge.
There was a decrease in the number
of American commercial ships moving
through the Canal last quarter from the
last quarter of 1950. Ships flying the
British, Ecuadorean, Panamanian, and
Norwegian flags all showed increases. A
notable change in the charts of nationality
of vessels was shown by the 21 Japanese
and 27 German ships which used the
Canal during the last quarter in 1951.
There was none listed for 1950.
The two leading commodities shipped
through the Canal from the Atlantic to
the Pacific in the last quarter of 1950 held
their respective places in this year's list.
although both showed notable increases.
(Continued from page 21) States intercoastal
included the following: East coast United
States-Central America, 8.6 percent; east
coast United States-Canada and Austra-
lasia, 5 percent; Europe-Australasia, 5.3
percent; and between the United States
and the west coast of South America,
Commercial traffic figures for the past
fiscal year on number of ships, tonnage of
vessels, and tolls were higher than those
for the fiscal year 1938, generally regarded
as normal year for peacetime operations
between the two World Wars. Last year's
figures, however, were under those for the
fiscal year 1929 when Canal traffic reached
an all time peak in number of ships and
amount of tolls.
Comparative figures on commercial
shipping for the three years in round
1 r.r- dftnq nfl,,r nnn~
Total, tolls-paying_ __
Total, tolls-paying and free
Coal and coke shipments, as well as
sugar tonnage, both increased in April,
May, and June of this year over the same
three-month period in 1950.
Commodity shipments from the Pacific
to the Atlantic for the last quarter of 1951
were approximately 350,000 under those
of the last quarter of 1950. Increases
were shown in lumber, ores, wheat, ni-
trate, and sugar shipments, but decreased
tonnage was noted in shipments of canned
food products, metals, mineral oils, and
refrigerated food products.
TRANSITS-TOLLS PAYING AND FREE
Fourth Quarter-Fiscal Year
April, May, June in 1951
* Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement
** Exclusive of Panama Canal equipment.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Fourth Quarter-Fiscal Year
United States Intercoastal ..
East Coast of U. S. and South America ......
East Coast of U. S. and Central America .....
East Coast of U. S. and Far East _ .
U. S./Canada east coast and Australasia ......
Europe and west coast of U. S./Canada .......
Europe and South America ..... . .......-__
Europe and Australasia ... - ....._
8 H ma
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
c - *-;. . *p k
^ i ,'
^ ' ' .^^~~,^:' * ''v
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A familiar segment of the Cristobal Harbor skyline--
the Cristobal Coaling Plant-is beginning to disappear.
The Panama Canal Company will retire from the
coaling business at the end of this year after which
the entire plant is to be scrapped. The plant was
installed soon after the Canal was opened to traffic
in 1914 and the first coal was unloaded there in
The reclaiming bridge and two of the unloading
towers have already been sold for scrap and are
presently being dismantled. The picture above was
taken before the dismantling work was begun.
Balboa Coaling Plant has been closed for about
four years. A part of the equipment there was altered
shortly before the beginning of World War II to
handle sand and gravel. The plant was placed on a
standby basis in 1946 and was permanently dis-
continued as a coaling station in December 1947.
The plant was permanently closed early this year and
the salvageable parts have since been sold for scrap.
An announcement that the Cristobal station would
be closed at the end of this year was made by Canal
authorities late in 1950.
Comparatively few coal-burning ships now ever
touch Canal waters and during the past fiscal year
only 3,500 tons of coal were sold. Approximately
12,500 tons remain in storage at the Cristobal plant.
The sale of coal was once a prosperous business for
the Canal, and for several years the operation of the
Names For New Towns
Are Summit, Cardenas
Summit has been selected as the name
for the new U. S.-Rate town and the new
- q . . .
Coaling Plant on the Atlantic side was one of the
most important harbor operations. During and soon
after the first World War the United States Navy
converted most of its ships to oil burners and the
two expensive plants became less and less important
in Canal operations.
The two plants had a normal storage capacity of
approximately 500,000 tons of coal. At one time
coal sales ran as high as 45,000 tons a month. Sales
had dropped in the four-year period from 1920 to
1924 to 14,000 tons a month. The business revived
slightly during the past war when a few old coal-
burners were pressed into service but since the war
the sale of coal declined steadily to last year's all-
When the Canal was first opened the sight of a
ship pouring large streamers of black smoke from its
funnels was common in traffic. During recent years
the sight has been a rare one and few of the newer
employees have ever seen a coil of black smoke
between Gold and Contractors Hills as a coal burner
steamed through Gaillard Cut.
Principal commodities shipped through the Canal
(All figures in long tons)
Figures in parentheses in 1938 and 1950 columns indicate
relative positions in those years
M mineral oils -�--..--.r .. . .
Manufactures of iron and steel_
Coal and coke .. .
Sugarug -. . ..
Paper and paper pr
Automobiles and pa
Sulphur ... ..
Raw cotton .
Canned food produ
Wood pulp ....
Amm nirnrnm i minn, nc
IUL.. TL J
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
August 3, 1951
said, substantially on notice that if they
opportunity for as good or better
elsewhere they should accept
ejection by the people of Gatun,
d by R. S. Ralph, on the bill
proposed in Congress to change
the name of Gatun to Sibert.
A question from Mr. Lovelady on the
discrepancy between the new rental rates
just announced and those charged for
Diablo houses built in the past couple of
years. The Governor said that some ad-
justment will have to be made for the
rates s3t up for the Diablo experimental
TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 390 tons net or over
S. PARSONS, U.
arrived early last month to begin his new duties as
Port Captain in Cristobal. He succeeded Captain
Robert S. Fahle, who has been assigned to duty as
District Intelligence Officer of the 13th Naval
District with headquarters in Seattle, Wash. Captain
Parsons has had 23 years of Navy service since his
graduation from the Naval Academy in 1928. Prior
to his Canal assignment he served two years as
Director of Naval Reserves and Director of Training
for the Eighth Naval District in New Orleans.
Income Taxes Paid In Zone
Would Pay Government Cost
(Continued from page 3) explained that
when the law reorganizing the Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad into the
Panama Canal Company and Canal Zone
Government was drawn up government
employees on the Canal Zone were not
taxed. Those who drafted the reorganiza-
tion legislation considered it fair that
these employees pay some portion of the
cost of such items as schools and roads,
in lieu of taxes. Passage of the bill ex-
tending income tax to the Canal Zone
was almost simultaneous with the passage
of the Canal-Railroad reorganization
measure. The latter bill placed part of
the support of the Canal Zone Govern-
ment on the employees.
"We are hoping to have this situation
corrected," the Governor said.
Other matters discussed in the con-
ference, which is conducted on an in-
F.. ,1 krni n lMnr A *
A pril ............_... ..
June . ......
Totals for each fiscal year
By fiscal years
(In thousands of dollars)
Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels
British ... ..
Governor and Lieutenant Governior, Mr.
Doolan, Mr. Dunsmoor, and H. J. Chase,
of the Community Service Bureau;
Robert C. Daniel, representing the Rail-
road conductors; Vicent Biava, Gamboa
Civic Council; G. T. Fitzgerald, Marine
Engineers; W. R. Howe, Mr. Greene,
Walter Wagner, and W. R. Price, Central
Labor-Metal Trades Council; Mr. Luhr,
Locks Association; Mr. Jones, Pedro
Miguel Civic Council; Mr. Lovelady,
A.F.G.E. No. 14; M. R. Creich, Cristobal-
Margarita Civic Council; Mr. Ralph,
Gatun Civic Council; W. S. McKee, Ma-
chinists; Albert Saarinen, Electrical Work-
ers, and Charles Garcia, Pacific Civic
I f J
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