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Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00087
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Creation Date: August 1950
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
System ID: UF00097366:00087
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Full Text
cfty~si^^/'


Gift of the Panama Canal Mus,


CANAL


=,


Vol.1, No.2 BALBOA, HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, AUGUST 4, 1950 5 cents


CANAL-RAILROAD


ESTABLISHES


ENVIABLE


RECORD


1950


COMPARED


WITH


PRE-WAR


OPERATIONS


Work


Load


Compared


and


with


Force


San


Juan


Houses


(See story


1938


Nearing
on page 20)


Completion


In a world of unstable political
and economic conditions, The Pan-
ama Canal on June 30th completed
its 35th full fiscal year of operations
with an enviable record in achieve-
ment and economical operation.
The average citizen long since
accustomed himself to a critical and


somewhat
increasing


cynical attitude
expenditures wi


toward
i little


apparent increase in work load and
accomplishments, especially in Gov-
ernment operations.
In the past 12 years the Canal
expenditure of appropriated funds
has more than doubled.
Since the Canal's primary purpose
is to transit ocean commerce between
the Atlantic and the ,Pacific and


about


the same


number


of ships


One of the busiest places in tht
San Juan area in Ancon where the
was in progress. This scene, looki
group of one-family houses which
opposite side of Ancon Boulevard.
for assignment during August while
of one about every 10 days begin


I' . . *


, 1 . 1 1 tI - -


e ai ana lone (luring tne past six monls nas [)eedn lne
major house building program of the past fiscal year
ng up Ancon Hill from Ancon Boulevard, shows the
are nearing completion. Thrc� duplexes are on the
The two-family houses are to be completed and ready
the one-family buildings will be completed at the rate
ing the first of September.


transited the Canal in both years, it
is little wonder that the average


citizen


himself


the cost


of operating the waterway is more
than doubled.


answer


rhetorical


question is simple-conditions have
changed. The explanation of the
answer is much more complicated.
In comparing Canal operations and
costs for the two years without con-
sideration of basic changes would be


as illogical


as a


fruit grower who


complains that the color, taste and
,,n, rof h;rie rnnrrnc had lprn;dr th-


factors as the amount of sunlight,
parasitic infection, or fertility of the
soil for the trees.
Watermarks Are Needed
For a clear explanation of the
Canal's predicament of rising costs
and steady income it is necessary,
first of all, to establish certain deft-


nite watermarks


comparison-


watermarks of money values, water-
marks of force levels, and water-


marks of work actually done.
For the benefit of thousand
C- irnn:ll rr-n rl omnnlr�,ln-*c nrn


s of
fnr


ing costs, THE PANAMA CANAL RE-
VIEW has undertaken in this issue
to give a comparative review of the
Canal's operations and expenditures
in the fiscal years 1938 and 1950.
The fiscal year 1938 was selected for
comparative purposes since commer-
cial traffic in the two years were
more or less equal; force levels were
such as to permit reasonable com-


prisons; and both


were peacetime


years. In the latter category, the
past year suffers in the comparison
since the dying effects of World War


During Past 12 Months


If)





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


Mmindi


If cleanliness is next to godliness,
as the old proverb says, all the cows
at Mindi Dairy are slated for heav-
enlv pastures when they die.
XWIithout taking the comparison
further, it can be fairly stated that
no debutante is more carefully
scrubbed and groomed for her round
of the night spots than Mrs. Moo
at Mindi Dairy when she is ready
on her twice-a-day schedule to fur-
nish you with tht bottle of milk you
sleepily take in from the back porch
the next morning.
Not only has bossy been thor-
oughly scrubbed from head to foot
and horns to switching tail, but her
milk manufacturing parts have been
sterilized with chlorine solution and
her attendants, milker and feeder,


have bathed and ch;
clothes to attend her.


Dairy


ender


Care


Personnel


II when the supply lines to the Isth-


mIus


were


a almost severed


marine warfare. During that pre-
carious four-year period when ships
were needed for something other


Cows

By


tank


near


the intersection of


Ancon Boulevard and Cascadas
Road.
This herd was kept solely to sup-
ply hospital needs and was moved
to Corozal after a few years. The
Corozal dairy farm was abandoned
not long after Mindi Dairy was es-
tablished in 1917 near the old Mindi
Dock with a herd of about 100
Colombian cattle. The farm was
moved to its present site the follow-
ing year and the herd was increased
to about 2,000 Colombian cattle and
200 registered cattle imported from
Michigan.
Years of Experience
By many years of experience in
handling pure bred cattle in the
tropics the herd has been gradually
evolved to its present size without
the necessity of cross breeding with
native cattle which produce less


hanged their
Even before


she enters the milking barn Mrs.
Moo has been given a thorough and
expert inspection to see that she
feels completely up to snuff.
Such tender care must be deserved
and Dr. C. C. Clay, Manager of
Mindi Dairy Farm, says it is.
To his way of thinking, the manu-
facture of a bottle of milk is no less
a delicate and painstaking job than


the making of a fine watch. The
process is different and the manufac-
turing machine appears clumsier but
only a fine craftsman, he says, can
make you a precision timepiece or
deliver a bottle of fresh milk to your
door every morning which is free of
impurities and rich in butter fat and
food value.
A Commissary Unit
Mindi Dairy, one of the many and
diversified units of the Commissary
Division, with its present cattle pop-
ulation of 1,600 Holsteins, Guern-


seys, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss, has
a proud 33-year record. Presently,
it supplies more than a half million
gallons of milk, enough for every
Canal Zone man, woman, and child
to have ten gallons a year.
The importance of this ready sup-
ply of fresh, pure milk was made
hih1rr i nnn ,nrTnt tItr ncr \,7nrIA " r X7- "


Dr. C. C. Clay, l anager o0 mwinai Dalryv
Farm, looks on the production of a bottle
of milk as a delicate and painstaking job.
Despite their placid appearance, cows can
be as temperamental as a prima donna.
The cows are scrubbed and groomed for
each milking and Dr Clay requires the men
at the dairy to handle them gently


than transporting cows and milk to
the Isthmus, infants, hospital pa-
tients and others needing fresh milk
for health purposes were assured of
a steady supply at uniform prices
even though the supply was not then
enough to meet the demand of the
greatly increased Zone population.
The dairying industry in the Canal
7 snR ,x 1- -, rn i1 Inn rrIin r1frv :nnr\ .


milk but have more stamina in with-
standing the tropical heat and rains.
Dr. Clay says there is little differ-
ence in the health of the various
breeds in the tropics and none of the
pure breds withstand the extreme
heat and excessive rain too well.
Mindi Dairy stocks more Holsteins
because of the high volume of milk
produced. The present census shows
864 Holsteins, 141 Guernseys, 30
Jerseys, and 28 Brown Swiss among


the milk producers.


The Brown Swiss


have only recently been stocked at


the farm but they are already fa-
vorites with Dr. Clay who says they
are high producers of fine quality
milk. They are comparable in size
to the Holsteins and Guernseys.
Jerseys, long a favorite among dairy-
men in the United States. produce


less volume but milk of high butter
fat content.
The extra care Dr. Clay and his


assistants give to cleanliness of the
cows the hanrn_ ner.snnnel ansined-


Accorded


that at Mindi. From the beginning
of the Canal construction period in
1904, a herd of cattle was maintained
by Ancon (now Gorgas) Hospital on
the slopes of Ancon Hill. The pas-
ture extended from where the Gov-
ernor's house now stands to San
Juan Place and between what is now
Gorgas Road and Ancon Boulevard.
The only remaining evidence of this
dairy farm is a huge concrete water-


\


i





August 4, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


DISTINCTIVE RECORD


To


'he first fu
change
acting all u


The


ndamen-
generally
nits, and


Employees . . .

most constant readjust-


* 1k
, ,


meant of


requt


personnel


to a lesser degree all
personnel, of the Canal-
Railroad to be made in
the 36 years of the
Canal's operating his-


torv
July 1
The


took

fact


/1


major realign
accomplished


Clarence Elie, the only native of
the Virgin Islands in the Canal-
Railroad service, is the sole citizen
of the United States now on the pay-
rolls who entered service in 1905.
He was born in St. Thomas and
came to the Isthmus in 1904, the
year the Canal construction was
undertaken by the United States.
He is a familiar figure to patrons of
The Panama Canal Library where
he has been employed since 1940.
Prior to that time he had been
employed for more than 25 years as
messenger and office helper at the
Administration Building.
He had only a few years of gov-
ernment service during the Canal
construction period, being privately
employed as a tailor for about five
years during this period.


Cows Given Good Care

(Continued from page 2) and end in
the milking barn. It starts when a
cow or calf is first listed in the cattle
census and does not end until they
are dropped from the rolls. An indi-
vidual history and record of every
cow, bull, and calf is kept which


would do justice to the
records of a Government


personnel
agency.


When a calf is born at the farm,
which occurs about ten times ever
week. it is diven a metal check, a


. �
.*-- .-.


V.


la1ce

that
ment
with


perceptible interrup-
tion or confusion in
the complex activities is
a high tribute to the individuals who
were concerned. To me, it is a source
of great satisfaction and pride in our
organization and personnel to observe
the facility with which this change was


made and the
employees.


*f the


Plans for the reorganization had
been under active consideration for a
period of about three years prior to
July 1. The underlying reasons which


prompted
tion hay
several o


d the change in the organiza-
e been publicly set forth on
occasions . However, it is not


amiss to call attention once more to the
basic reason. The primary and long-
range objective in the change is a more
economical operation of the waterway
and railroad, and it was recognized
that this could be accomplished only
through an orderly regrouping of the
principal functions which would per-
mit a more logical and definite control
over those activities that naturally be-


long together. It was known in ad-
vance that an appreciable savings in
money could not be effected immedi-
ately. However, I am confident that
a step in the right direction has been
taken and with the continued cooper-


action of our employees, not only in
this matter but in other ways that
affect living in the Canal Zone, there
will be a heightened feeling of respon-
sibility in the job, no matter how small,
and of satisfaction in doing it well.
In many respects, the fiscal year
1950 was one of the most critical of
the Canal operating history. An al-


rates, soybean meal, what bran,


ibF f
a f

S--
'n j.


fiscal year,


7-7'


: date the organization
to changing conditions
of a local and world-
' wide nature. Obviously,
this state of affairs was
not conducive to a feel-
ing of individual se-
curitv and this fact bore


heavily
I of those
Officers
required
tions or


on the minds
administrative
whose duties


force
other


reduc-
similar


prospects for a


htening


a lessening of
t encouraging.
be called on to
world affairs.


Governor


mitte 1 to strike or frighten the


cows


.was


accommo-


responsive attitude o


readjustments.
Even in the face of such obstacles,
much was accomplished in the past
year in which Canal-Railroad employ-
ees can take justifiable pride. To
those inclined to belittle present day
accomplishments or long for the "good
old days," a study of the comparative
statistics on Canal-Railroad opera-
tions in the fiscal years 1938 and 1950,
carried in this issue of THE C('ANAL
REVIEW, is recommended.
At this, the beginning of a new


of world conditions or
world tensions are no
The Canal may again
play a vital role in


Under such circumstances I hav
every confidence in the strength of the
Canal organization and the loyal coop-
eration of its employees of all ranks.
Examples of this strength and loyalty
are plentiful in the Canal's history
from the beginning of its construction
and through past crises in world af-
fairs. While I am hopeful that the
coming year will be one of less strain
and stress to our employees individu-
ally and collectively, I urge everyone
to take heart from the past and, in all
circumstances, continue the great tra-
ditions established by the builders and
the operating personnel of The Pan-
ama Cawal for the past 46 years.


,. `-


t


1


I




PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


Record

Fort


ear


Kobi


Expected in Z

be Elementary


one

Sch


Schools;

ool to Open


This bumper crop of youthfuls are now
ready for their high school careers. They
completed Balboa junior high school in
June and are shown here at the commence-
ment exercises, listening to an address by
Preparations have been made for
a record enrollment of more than
5,600 pupils in the Canal Zone
schools for white children during the
1950-51 school term which opens
September 7, according to Dr. Law-
T1t C.~ 'C I r


rence Jonnson, Sup
Schools.


ernntendent ot


Dr. Lawrence Johnson, Superintendent of
Schools. The class totals 180. Seventy-six
completed their junior high school training
in Cristobal in June.
A large number of new students are sched-
pected to list about 560 students.
As a result of the opening of the
new school, enrollment at Cocoli, up
to now the only elementary white
school on the west side of the Canal,
is expected to drop from a high of
473 last January to about 140 next
month.


uled to enter high school work in La Boca
and Silver City this year. There were 130
pupils who completed junior high school
work in these schools during the past school
term.
schools each year entail much de.
tailed planning by the administra
tive staff many months before the
first school bells ring in September.
Such plans are materially compli-
cated in a year like 1950 when sub-
stantial changes are expected in


enrollments.


a


This anticipated enrollment ex-
ceeds by more than 650 the Febru-
ary 1950 enrollment, which also was
a record high. In addition, approxi-
mately 200 full-time students are
expected to register for Canal Zone
Junior College work.
New records in the number of
students are a!so expected in the
Canal Zone schools for colored chil-
dren which open this year next
Monday, August 7.
The major factor in the rising en-
rollments is the increased birth rate
of \VWorld War II period. That this
* t I 4- C


A tI 0I


All pupils up tnroi
grade who reside at I
the Atlantic side are


ugh the sixth
Fort Davis on


to be


trans-


ferred this coming school term from
Gatun to Margarita, because of a
large increase in enrollments expected
in the first two grades at Gatun.
Ancon Kindergarten Opens
On the Pacific side, the major
changes in the assignment of pupils
will include the opening of a kinder-
garten at the Ancon School and the
transferof allgrade 6 pupils residing in
Ancon to Balboa Elementary School.
Transfer of sixth grade students from


This year, as a result of the antici-
pated increase in enrollments, ten
additional elementary teachers will
be employed, including three trained
kindergarten teachers. In addition,
22 teachers new to the Canal Zone
schools have been employed for the
coming school term as replacements
caused by the resignation of six ele-
mentary, four junior high, and four
senior high school teachers; the re-
tirement of two elementaryteachers;
and the granting of one-year leaves
of absence to six other faculty mem-
bers.


, 1





August 4, 1950


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


FORTY


April -

PICTURE


YEARS


May


THE


AGO


850


Electric

Order;


Stoves


Delivery


Expected Next


Month


New electric ranges will be in-
stalled in many Canal homes within
a short time. The first of 850 stoves
lipurchased from Westinghouse to ir-


place an equal number now inf


are expected


to arriv


e du in


uIse


g Sep-


installedI starting


soon afterwards.
Replacements in quarters will be
made solely on the basis of the age
of the stoves now in use. Generally
the new ranges will replace stoves


-**


that have been


or more


V -


in service


are considered


15 years


fully


depreciated.
The new stoves will be four-burner
cabinet lnodels with automatic oven
temperatlurc control similar to the
electric ranges installed in the earl
Dart of 1948 in the last major re-


1


"Rubber-neck" trains were a common sight in Culebra (now Gaillard) Cut 40 years
ago as tourists from all parts of the world flocked to the Isthmus to see the modern engi-
neering wonder. The trains were run along one of the upper Canal berms, or levels, to
keep the tourists from underfoot and give them a good view of the work.


Times were tough on the Isthmus 40 years ago.


The Canal was far from


being completed, work was hard and the hours were long; housing was poor
and the bosses were short tempered. Some employees were for catching the
next ship back home and others were for sticking it out a little longer.


Col. George W. Goethals had been
at the helm of the Canal work for
just three years in 1910. The work
which began with a slow start was
reaching a crescendo and the time
for the first ship to go through the
"Big Ditch" was already in sight.
In 1910, after six years of frustra-
tion, argument and hard work, the
employee engaged in the construc-
tion of the Panama Canal could
begin to see the major outlines of
his work and skill. Some of the
things he could see as landmarks of


progress
were:


in digging


the big


ditch


Clearing was begun during the sec-
ond quarter of 1910 on the Canal chan-
nel through the Gatun Lake section.
The clearing of the new channel
*r -*y� I X i ~ i


mian Canal Commission had other
news of local or international interest
to cogitate:


The long
tional issue
Canal Zone
Taft asked
slightly ove
the Canal.


fight involving interna-
s, on fortification of the
was settled and President
Congress to appropriate
r $14,000,000 to fortify


His recommendation was


based on a report made by a board of
Army and Navy officers which recom-


mended the
inch rifles,
t*nt-ez


t


emplacement
'welve 6-inch


of ten
rifles,


twenty-eight 12-inch mortars for the
sea coast defenses. Their report and
estimate was a revision of one made
in 1905 at which time the estimated
cost of Canal defenses had been placed


at a fi
dollars.


7gure


under


million


placement program when 1,000 new
stoves were put in service.
The new stoves do not have such
refinements as oven timers and oven
lights, omitted because the adli-
tional cost would have reduced con-
siderably the number of stoves which
could be purchased with the author-
ize 1 allotment and because of the
a 1 litional expense and difficulty in-
v. lived in maintenance.
No Deep-Well Cookers
The ranges also have a fourth reg-
ular burner instead of a ldeep-well
cooker since most housewives have
expressed a preference for the fourth
cooking unit to the top-of-the-stove


cooker, a feature of


the ranges in-


stalled in 1948.
The new stoves will replace West-
inghouse and Monarch four-burner
stoves purchased in 1931, 1932, and
1933.
I'he Electrical Division has fol-


lowed a policy of replacing el
ranges after 15 years of service.
rernular replacement schedule


- .........


-r


suspended


duri


ng the war


ectric
The
was
years


when electrical equipment was un-
available. Installation of the 850
new models, plus the supply placed
in service in 1948, will begin to nor-
t ,1 I 1 .. . - --- -


- June

PERIOD


j_ �


timber and will be


�I__ ___��


J




PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


Two popular veteran employees of
the Atlantic side and one of less


*-


years, in age anl service, of1 uie
Pacific side inaugurate a new feature
of THE ('ANAL REVIEw -People You
Know -in this issue. The feature


will bring
and brief


you regularly the pictures
biographical sketches of


the men and women you know well --
men and women who have a big
part in running The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad.


This


issue


People


Know brings you:
ERNIE COTTON, Printer, baseball
fan and writer, civic and fraternal
worker, homebody, and about the
most affable man on the Gold Coast.
In the adjoining picture you see him
in one of his most typical poses,


deeply engrossed in one
knotty printing problems
Panama Railroad Press.


of the
of the


Mr. Cotton was born in Colum-
bus, Ohio, and dipped his fingers in


printer's
years old.
timers of
ization, h\
in Februa
played on
positor at
promoted
1046.


ink before he was many
One of the youngest old
the Canal-Railroad organ-
e began work at the Press
.ry 1911 when he was em-
the "Silver" roll as a conm-
20 cents an hour. He was
to Printer in December


Ernest C. Cotton, Printer, The Panama Railroad Press


Doc (;ILDER who has been treat-
ing the ills and ailments of Canal
and Railroad employees and their
families for nearly 30 years. There
is no better known individual on the
Atlantic side. Although officially
listed on the Canal rolls as a Medical
Officer, he actually is just a plain
family physician--the kind people
want to see when they get sick.
His home is in Butler, Alabama,
and he was graduated in medicine
from Tulane University in New Or-
leans. His internship was served in
Colon Hospital. Although he served
about five years in quarantine work,
most of his time on the Isthmus has
been as the District Physician in
charge of the dispensary or medical
rlI;ni In l tfit in (; ' ln 1 H cnitaltl


Dr. Wavnp T wilder_ Cnlnn Md ciral Clinic


PEOPLE YOU KNOW


�1�















Overwhelming approval of THE


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


was voiced


after its first


issue in May in letters from such a wide


range of personages
The Panama Canal,


as former


Governors


retired employees,


ping and other business interests,
in the newspaper profession.


response
suggest i


Governor


cisms ana
facts that t


Lieutenant Governor


instances


these letters


were


invitations to criticize or
cents in the new employee


Almost


suggestions
he REVIEW


cation and no convenient
was announced in the first
criticism has been well


announcement
made elsewhere


Employees


Executive


Secretary


on the


open invitation
tions, confined


sivelv


the criti-


is a quarterly


issue.


rates are


issue.


active


rolls, despite


for criticism and sugges-


themselves


to oral comment.


was for


a more


magazine.
Only one letter


almost


exclu-


The consensus of


frequent


suggestion for


ment of the REVIEW or any


improve-


Zone


unit or activity


was received in


an invitation issued just prior to the first
publication. In that announcement, two
free tickets to a Clubhouse theater were


cation.


Letters


ments


sugges-


Since this offer elicited
wo free tickets are being
H.. of Cristobal.


asking


only one
sent to


information on arrange-
itions were received from
residentt of the Panama


Gen. Julian
as Governor


ernor,


Secretary of the Panama Canal Society of
Washington, D. C.; Walter G. Guptil, Sec-
retary-Treasurer of the New York Society


Panama


Canal;


anama


Canal


) later served as Chief of Engin-
as maintained his high interest in
and its affairs and plans to visit
s this winter with Mrs. Schlev and


residents.


and several individ-


Those


employees.
Former Governor


now lives in


Schley,


Washington,


sent


a special


message to Canal-Railroad employees in a
letter to Governor Newcomer. It read:


I congratulate you
ilroad Administration


between


communication


creating


"I feel
besides th


THE PANAMA


certain
many


and your employees
taking: First, to serve
trade, and second, tc


"A quick


evidences
reception


page-through


the reasons
in the Canal


Former


observation


for its
Zone."


of the content


popularity


Col. CEARLES


Engineer


vour Canal-


on seeing


you, and on
REVIEW to


services which it


in your great under-
* ocean shins in world


Canal Zone conducive to living


Excerpts from
letters indicating


comments


are carried


genera
below.


The letter of suggestion wh
two free movie tickets follows:


Sir: Tho:
electrical eq


se


us now purchasing


luipment an
--


new 25-cycle


becoming preoccupied with
i-. -- .-.C, 1 /' . *


"Congratulations upor
CANAL REVIEW. It's a
to a ripe old age."


and fine


G. HOLLE


of Maintenance
New Orleans, La.


Sthe birth of
lusty child an


DANIEL E.


United States


THE PANAMA
d should live


MCGRATH


District Attorney
Ancon, C. Z.


interests


"It seem
felt want.


s to me that this publication
The printing is excellent, as is


station, and the ma
does not seem that


material is
there c


very
an be


well


fills a 1I
s the pre
selected.


3ng-
sen-
It


a resident of the


Canal Zone who will not find something
in the REVIEW. Personally, I found it all
and read every word."


General

"The statistical


seems t
should


Agent,

section


cover for the time


appear


ping concerns
Canal."


of interest
of interest


G. S. BENNETT
United Fruit Company
Cristobal


is very well prepared


being,


those items which


to be of principal interest to the ship-
engaged in traffic through the Panama


I I


t n . .--


Printed


THE EDITOR'S MAIL


the Panama


Mount


Railroad


Hope, Canal Zone


Press


en-


NAMA
�ed on


7 *_ -


I IIgIIIIII


L


_ -


I


- I I A �





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


Recent


Library


Move


PERSONNEL


CHANGES


INTEREST


Brings More

And Book


-,ii tlii
ding

y inll
nl1 I
n fort
s in t


.A oire pI:
lleth s)(v
1110Ev I)0(

I)tw calpitat
neairlv 20
this year
in 1949.
ICThe Lii
locate ionf





In its

Ire(1 i5 1Il
'tlilnl lltiel
ill the I.


11nake re
yowrk, an

, vcral
;er\'ice
ill rlters
) ;I rOls.


SIa


Readers

Borrowers


ait s hive chlangl tn111(1
1a11st11 (rl ft) r ileI tSlr(
11l resi Trllts lias 11ate-
sit sinlCe The Iilanam


ITili a
* ( ivil
11 ro(tl
long
>ks.
0urn1
)00ook

over


wrary
siX II

.1i\
light
)Ie1i1


t111'\\
the
ore 1
Is ha
iI )rar


,lding,
1 ibook


since


111)V,(d to its 1orrt
(I T()1 lot()fl OUS qlualr-
.\lTairs Iluil s c Ir, and tihey lorrow
According to Mtrs.
anm, L i )arian, thi(t
circulat ionl iricreascd
lit in tihe first half of
a comparable period


was
ontt
the
e it

litll


1mo1'.d to i
iS ago frol
.\hminist
w'atS cramIjp
parking fa
th roughonti


(tluarters 0
coil venit'i
han amlple
ve l)Cbeen 1 a
v and its
)browsing
SIorrowing
leisurely
ltiolns i 11
tmovinlg tc


ts Hew

ration
ted for
cilities
t office


n ( 1aillatr
it parking

dIe possible
service to
, reference
more coin-
)roce( Lures.


)Trar
110HW


have )roved popular' w'it


Better Spacing Possible


The larger clu


\\ ider

Cfittlif
corresi
ing cor
iug arc
with
chairs.

( ()1 HiV1

Th0
ra ted


local
es f;l
s rea


11(1 ill,
tihe 0o
)ndlin
dition
I is al

"I'wo
Ito th

i[h1 r
gil I-


arters mnadle
comfortable
book shelve
nprovemlent
The adjoini
larger and m
.les and upl
tinig desks hI


( reading area
of student an
csea rch work.


possible
spacing
*s with a
in light-
ng read-
tore airy
lolsteredl
ave been
for the
(t others


reference sect ion is no\w scea-
from tlhe main Librarv andt


t 10t i1
quiet a
letrs a


ti a separatU
nrl solitude t
nd( research


)Olli pro-
the seri-
A part


The Canal Zone gained blight
tor, of the Engineering and Const
In the top picture are 'hown
and Keith, aboard the Ianama li
faculty member of the new A.rmy
Colonel and Mrrt . Geoige 1K.
bottorn picture. The boys ar,. Ief
Colonel \\Withers swapped a
been on duty for the past four yea


ly in population in the exchange of families of the Direc-
ruction Bureau early in Julv.
Colonel Howard Ker and his family, Cynthia, Mrs. Ker,
ner on the day they sailed for his new assignment as a
War College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Withers and their family of four boys are shown in the
t to right: George, Jr., Geoffrey, William, and Peter.
professor's robe for his new Canal assignment, having
rs on the staff and faculty of the Command and General


Staff College att Fort Lea.venworth.


books
of an
its ha
the lah

()f th
int ere:


laps, antd other collection
usual nature. Three exhi
already Ieln displayed
lighte1 exhibit case i t
the ( ivil Affairs Buihlin
, (tilt' \\w S a loaii froll ;
d patron.


nl ....__ <- -- ... .....


staff member in the newly created
position of Children's Librarian now
devotes individual attention to the


small
ducts
library
IT li
n1tx I
m- if


fry boo
personal
* to class
transfer
tr:it inll


k borrowers and con-
tours of the complete
s groups.
r of the library to its
h1:1 nOt hlePn without


1


=


]
(





August 4, 1950


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


TEN


YEARS


AGO


PETER C. HAINS DESCENDANTS


April


May


June


Times were tough on the Isthmus 10 years ago. The commissaries
overcrowded and milk was scarce, as more and more SIPers moved in; war


getting closer day-by-day, and housing? was
the next ship back home and others were for

PICTURE OF THE PERIOD P


thi


scarce.
sticking

'hillippe


e most p
rly Canal
Paris.


Some were for catching
it out a little longer.


Bunau- Varilla,
prominent figures
construction h isto


The Corral area, opened


ju


years previously, was being
formed into a residential area.


ist 30
tranis-


The Panama Railroad, having re-
cently completed the reballasting of
its tracks from end to end, was insti-
tuting other improvements, among
them being the purchase of five new
Diesel-electric and five new steam
locomotives, 50 all-steel freight cars,
and construction of a new railroad
station in Gamboa.


th


An Executive Order es
e military reservation


Kobbe w\
Roosevelt.


The $277,000,000 Third Locks project
was inaugurated just 10 years ago. Gover-
nor Glen E. Edgerton climbed to the lever-
room of the dipper dredge Cascadas and
handled the controls to lift out the first
dipperful of mud from the entrance channel
to the new Miraflores Locks, in the early
morning of July 1, 1940.


Items about Isthm
ago said:
George H. Cassell w
District Quartermaster


10 years


Dr. I. Robert Berger was employed
in the Health Department.
Walter R. Smith and J. F. Prager
were promoted in the Storehouse Divi-
sion to be Chief of the Purchasing Sec-
tion and clerk in charge of U. S.
Requisitions and Bills, respectively.
W. IIH. Dunlop, Chief of the Plans
Section, began a four-month vacation
and J. F. Lewis, Jr., was named
acting Chief of the Section.


as issued


tablishing
of Fort
President


A wartime restriction of 1940 was
the prohibition by Executive Order of
the possession of cameras or the taking
of pictures aboard vessels passing
through the Panama Canal. Prelimi-
nary tests were made of the air raid
sirens lately installed in all Canal
Zone communities.
A force of workers began surveys
on the relocation of the Panama
Railroad between Quebrancha and
Mount Hope, a phase of the Third
Locks project.
The fill, intended for use as a pub-
lic playground, was completed between
the Panama Railroad tracks and


Gaillard Htigh
Railroad Static


iway
mn.


opposite Balboa


The population of the Canal Zone
was thickening rapidly with the big
expansion of the Canal-Railroad
force for S. I. P. and Third Locks
work being one of the main contrib-
uting factors. The U. S.-rate force
reached the 5,000 mark in May 1940
for the first time since the construc-
tion days. However, with the major
construction and improvement pro-
.-. .. I ... .--1 ... . . [ ...�-.. .. . I. . T


T


Colonel Peter
General of the U.
his son, Peter C.


Cadet,


wa tctl


workings of th


C'. Hains
S. Army
Hains I


III, Inspector
Caribbean, and
V, West Point


with fascination the inner
e Panama Canal in which


their ancestor played a prominent role.
This scene was taken in the control tower
of Miraflores Locks.
Major General Peter C. Hains, grand-
father and great-grandfather of the two
visitors at the locks, was a member of the
original Isthmian Canal Commission ap-
pointed in 1899 to investigate the Isthmian
Canal routes. He continued as a member of
the Commission until 1907, three years
after his retirement from the Army. Col.
Hains spent much of his boyhood days at
his grandfather's home in Washington, D. C.
and remembers the other great names of the
early Canal history as household words.


Identification


System

10th

hc so-called


(identification


for 14


years


Simplified;

Change Made


indestructible


card) which
has gone the


lasted


the metal check.
A new identification system, de-
signed to cover all normal contin-
gencies, was made effective July 1st.
It is the tenth to be formally adopted
for Canal employees since the Isth-
mian Canal Commission first insti-


ians


as promoted to
in Pedro Mi-


I





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4,


1950


NEWS OF YOUR COMMISSARIES


BACK TO SCHOOL


before


rs, an


the "small


fry" students, vacationing


faculty


mem-n


d proud parents suddenly awaken to the realization that


another school year is about to open, the C


ommissarv


Ihvision


annually works out careful schedules of procurement and delivery


on the Isthmus of the hundreds of items which will be


in the last shopping


days before classes


urgently


begin.


On the basis of information as to courses and estimates of


enrollment supplied by the


office


of the Superintendent of Schools,


requisitions are placed in February for the
needed for the opening of school the following


orders are placed


classroom supplies
September. These


with the suppliers by the Commissary Purchas-


ing Agent, 24 State Street,


requisitions


from the General


New York City, on the basis of detailed


Manager's


and all specify May and June delivery


Isthmu
merely


()fice


at Mount Hope,


of the merchandise on the


In July and August, when the opening of school is still


a cloud on the distant horizon to the students, these sup-


plies are carefully checked and assorted in the warehouse, Mount
Hope. and hundreds of packages are prepared containing the pre-
scribed assortments of art and other supplies for the various
grades.


Approximately five days before the opening


of school,


parents


are requested to place their orders at the retail commissaries for
the required assortments of supplies for students in grades one


through six.


These orders give the name of the student,


his grade,


and the school attended, and make possible delivery of the sup-
plies for each student directly to the classroom where they are


available to him as required throughout the year.


This arrange-


ment saves the busy parent the necessity for making individual


WHAT THE LIBEL


CANNED


MEANS-


FRUITS AND VEGETABLES


Canned fruits and vegetables are ordinarily available in four
classified grades: the fruits being "fancy," "choice,'' ''standard,"
and "grade D," and the vegetables "fancy," "extra standard,"
"standard," and "sub-standard." For those who feel that the
higher-priced items offer the best eating, we stock the top grades
in many types of both fruits and vegetables. There are many,
however, to whom price is an important consideration and for
them we offer the "standard" grade in both fruits and vegetables.
As far as nutrition is concerned, both grades will likely be found
to be about equal. Purchase of both grades, and we specify both
at all times, is made from a list of 11 possible "fancy" suppliers
and 21 possible "standard" suppliers, with ultimate purchase
being made from the firm meeting the specified grade at the low-
est price. All the brands have been given a local acceptability
test but thereafter, each shipment of any canned goods what-
ever, is tested by the U. S. Department of Agriculture prior to
being shipped. In the event a "fancy" brand fails to meet that
grade, and they occasionally do, the entire lot is rejected and a
replacement shipment required of the supplier. There are some
products which, because of growing conditions, limited number
of packers, or for other reasons, are available in only a single
grade and, when we have assured ourselves of the facts, we may
purchase a lower-than-desired grade rather than do without.
Never, however, do we permit the acceptance of any canned
goods of lower than "standard" grade, which is the grade
sold in greatest volume throughout the United States.


For the


girls there are skirts,


teen-size ranges.
consisting of o;
summer sheers,
are also undies,


blouses, dresses in sub-teen and


This year's dresses will be in various price ranges
ae and two-piece styles and sunback dresses of


gingham plaids, pastel and printed cottons.
slips, anklets in assorted blazer stripes, solid


There
colors


purchases of each of the various types,


work practice books,
rulers, etc.


paints,


crayons,


colors,
pens,


and sizes of
penpoints,


On the day school opens, packaged art supplies for


papers,
pencils,


students


grades seven and higher are placed on sale at the retail stores,
which also have the various general supplies for the upper grades


on hand for sale over the counter on that day.


The required sup-


plies for each grade and course can be readily determined from


charts


which are on hand at each selling section.


In addition to the classroom supplies,


however, there is the


and fancy cuff styles, bathing suits, water repellent poplin jackets


in assorted colors, school


bags, pencil boxes,


raincoats, dungarees


and shirts, pedal pushers, and shorts.
For boys there are the favorite blue denim dungarees, khaki
trousers, dress shirts, dress trousers, sport shirts, knitted pull-


overs,


Argyle socks, swim trunks,


sport coats.
manufacturer


types,


water repellent jackets,


Gvym shoes and back-to-school footwear from leading


-s in


the shoe industry-rugged


and light


dressy


popular in the schools and campuses throughout the United


States, for both boys and girls, are also available for all ages
kindergarten to junior college.


from


annual demand for new togs


to greet teachers and classmates when


So for the Comm


issary Division the first


day of school means


school opens.


Here again your Commissaries plan far in advance


to meet the demands of the school crowd from tots to teen-agers,


not the beginning of a new year of studies, but the culmination of
a long process of preparation and planning which constitute an


for clothes for school days or play


days, rain or shine.


important community service.


LAUNDROMATS
In view of the increasing difficulty in obtaining modern appli-
ances for operation on 25-cycle, we were particularly pleased to


receive a


limited number of Laundromats in a recent shipment.


These machines are completely automatic.


You simply place


the clothes in the machine, add soap, set the dial for light, medium
or full load (9 pounds dry weight), and the machine washes them,


triple rinses, and spins the clothes dampdry.


The triple rinse is so


thorough that it is equivalent to 1,400 rinsings by hand, and the
machine does not normally require cleaning, as it does that also,


automatically.


This model Laundromat does not require bolting


tail UI I*II II`J~a AII - -


s.


I


I


� II


demanded





August 4, 1950


THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


THIS


YEA R


1914 at


Balboa Heights.


The fi


tients were moved into lie new h
building on the first of August.


rsl pa-
ospital


Schools,


vacation plans, and ship


April -

PICTURE


May

OF THE


June


PERIOD


schedules occupied much of the em-
)loyees' attention duringg the early
part of June. (anal Zone schools
concluded I one of their most success-
ful years with appropriate com-
mencemenlt exercises and the Schools
l)ivision announced plans for the


I 1


I ).


summer school program, Parents,
teachers, and pupils all were busy
during the period making plans for
the summer vacation and Panama
Line offices were busy making res-
ervations for northbound travel.


The
Cristob
June


Mechanical
>al was corn
and the C)


I '


Division
ppletc] the
i -


!'J yuartrermaster


This desolate scene was a beehive of activity just five years ago. The steel shuttered
doors and windows as well as the empty lumber racks in the foreground tell the story of
the rapid decline of business in the Mechanical i)ivision shops after the close of World WXar
II. The transfer of the major Mechanical Division activities from Balboa to Cristobal
was completed during the second quarter of 1950.

Times were tough on the Isthmus during the past three months. Force
reductions, war talk, reorganization, and income taxes were uppermost in em-
ployees' minds; commissary prices were still rising and housing though plentiful
was 10 years older. Some were for catching the next ship to the States and others


were for sticking it out a little longer.
News was plentiful even if not all
pleasant for Canal-Railroad employ-
ees during the second quarter of
1950. Top topic of local conversa-
tion during the latter part of the
quarter was Income Tax, pushing
into the background the subject of
reorganization which held top billing
for several weeks.
April was visiting month and the


tors


was started


Congressional group of 40 on an
Easter holiday. Other visitors of note
who attracted attention were Major
General George E. Armstrong, Deputy
Surgeon General, and a party to in-
spect civilian and military medical
installations in the Canal Zone; Ma-
jor General IM. C. Stayer, former Chief
Health Officer, and Mrs. Stayer, who
returned for a brief vacation; and
three San Bias Chiefs who paid the
first official call ever made by the
principal Indian leaders at the office
of the Governor.
U 0- 4n rnub-. nn- , i vn n A I ti


to dry


season


the 37-vezr
some of the


fortable


10 days


average


, and


shorter than
with it came


hottest and most


uncom-


weather of recent years.


The first


issue


of THE


PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW made its appearance
Mlay 4 and a second printing was
hastily ordered when the first print-


mng was
Three
ships to
than 10
early in
F. E.


, t


he first


Germa n


announce]. plans to transfer 60 apart-
ments in the Type 201 buildings on
High Street in Gatun for assignment
to local-rate cm blovees to relieve the


serious housing shor
from the transfer of ti


lagi
he


e resulting
Mechanical


Division activities. A few days later
arrangements were completed for the
use of a number of quarters at France
Field by U. S.-rate employees.
After occupying space in the Ad-
ministration Building for more than


35 years, the hea
Police and Fire Di'
to the Civil Aff.
Gaillard Highway.
The Personnel D
the revival of the a
program and the
some apprentices u
force reductions.


idquarters of the
vision were moved
airs Building on

division announced
apprentice training
re-employment of
'ho had been given


sold out the first day.


trawlers
visit Ca
years,
May.
Williair


measurement
international


�nal water
transited

is. Direct,


conference


s sn more
the Canal

or of Ad-


atten: an
in Stock-


holm on ship measurement problems.
Frank T. Mayo, Customs Inspector
and Deputy Shipping Commissioner
in Balboa, lost his life by drowning
on May 14 when he fell from the
gangway of a vessel in Balboa Harbor.
hIis was the first fatal accident of its
kind to occur among Canal personnel
while on such duties.


IDENTIFICATION
SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED


(Continued from page 9)


supplemented


during the war period by photo-
identification badges.
The identification system used up
to the first of July lasted longer than
any of its nine predecessors.
The diamond-shaped metal check
was first issued in August 1905. It
was succeeded in April 1907, when
the second Isthmian (anal (Commis-
sion took command, by a star-shaped
metal check. A third type of ICC
badge was issued in February 1909.
0- w* - 1 1


parade of visit


I�





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


Canal-Railroad Establishes
(Continued from page 1) the 100 percent
increase in expenditures. Of the
multiplicity of activities which are
part and parcel of Canal-Railroad
operations, only a few of those which
are familiar signposts of work or pro-
ductivity were selected. For the
sake of clarity, figures are presented
in round numbers. Those for 1950
are accurate to a small degree of
error. A few of these are subject to
slight changes and some are based
on 10 or 11 months of operations.
Knowing conditions and factors


of the


two years, it


is possible to


Enviable


Record


1950


4. More liberal leave privileges for
local-rate employees .. ..� .
5. Effects of Public Law 600 .. . -
6. Changes in leave regulations for
U. S.-rate employees ... ._. .
Total percentage of increase re-
quired for the 1938 appropriations.


Percentt
2.40
0.83
0.40


Applying this percentage of in-
crease to the $10,825,000 appropri-
ation in 1938 would have brought
the budget of appropriated funds to
$20,728,000 to accomplish the same
work in 1938. It is to be noted that
of the six major factors requiring
more money to run the Canal, only

FILTERED WATER*


1938.....
1950-..--


6,000,000,000 gallons
11,300,000,000 gallons


may be well to remind many readers
that the Canal-Railroad is a great
"service" organization besides oper-
ating an interoceanic waterway and
a transcontinental railroad.
The civil government of The Pan-
ama Canal functions for the benefit
of all Canal Zone residents-not just
Canal-Railroad employees and their
families. Water filtered by the Mu-
nicipal Engineering Division is con-
sumed by all agencies and individu-
als of the Canal Zone as well as the
cities of Panama and Colon. The
same is true of sanitation services
performed by the Health Depart-
ment. Power generated in Electrical
Division plants is furnished to all of
the four main United States Gov-
ernment agencies, the Canal, Army,
Navy and Air Force, and their em-
olovees. Public roads in the Canal


Zone
policed
furnish


are DuiIt,
by the C
education


maintained, and
'anal; its schools
to all children


*Each pitcher represents 2,000,000,000 gallons


answer with accuracy the ques-
tion of what appropriation would
have been required to operate The
Panama Canal in 1938 under con-
ditions of today.
Factors Affecting Costs
In order of their relative money
value, these factors or conditions
which would have altered the 1938


two, those affecting leave, were
adopted administratively by The
Panama Canal.
Comparing this re-evaluated fig-
ure for 1938 with the $21,250,000
Canal appropriations for 1950 leaves
a difference of only $525,000.
Having established some basis of
comparison in money values between

ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCED*


1938_ . .. ...
1950-.


83,500,000 KWH
237,800,000 KWH


* Each electric light represents 40,000,000 KWH


appropriation figures, and the per-
centage of increase to the appropri-
ation which would have been re-
quired are listed as follows:


1. The devalued dollar, estimated
by economists to be not more
than 60 cents to $1.00 _____
2. Adoption of the 40-hour work-
week t..o....-.._.. ........
3. Cash relief to local-rate employ-


Percent
663<
18.36
c) fl


the two years, it is possible to ask
and perhaps answer the question:
Did the Panama Canal and the Pan-
ama Railroad Company produce
$525,000 more in actual and neces-
sary work, products, and services?
A Service Organization
Before answering the question
1iAth r-tin i 1 n1nrh rrJ mnn-ht ,r 8 v-


whose parents are Government em-
ployees; and a relatively large per-
centage of the users of hospital,
clubhouse, commissary, library, rail-
road, repair, and other facilities pro-
vided by the Canal and Railroad is
made up of other Government agen-
cies and their employees in the
Canal Zone.
Keeping this in mind, it is not
difficult to understand that factors
and conditions completely divorced
of the actual operation of the water,
way effect in a vital way the Canal-
Railroad force and the work it does,
and the carelessly used terminology
of "Canal operations" denotes far
more than the transit of a ship be-
tween the oceans.
Work Load Differences
Some of the other answers to the
$525,000 questions are:
In filtered water, a fair indicator
of population growth, the Municipal
Engineering Division supplied 6,080-
000,000 gallons in 1938 and 11,303,-
000,000 in 1950.
S In a 2 A. 4j .


- -
/
--
-------- -------. -___-------- ---------------- ---------------- --------______________-________________-_______
o^ - (* c^ -P .\|A


SI..^ 1 I I^.*.- 4- 1


I-' . * *I 1
I t.' .*-, F'h -* a* �- r --./ f* I WJA% r-h--1


1 t *I






August 4, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


Canal-Railroad Record


(Continued from


HOSPITAL PATIENT DAYS


e* Each bed
page 12)


* 1938
leprelents


100,000


patient-days.


The number of


charged
rupled,
6,150.


Police


Increasing
Other ci


traffic violations


almost
from 1,


barges


jumped from 1,800 in 1938
in 1950.


quad-
650 to


preferred
to 2,950


1950 ..,....


425,000


Canal Zone population jumped
from approximately 42,000 to over
52,000 in the 12-year period. The
combined population of Panama
City and Colon increased from an
estimated 125,000 to 193,000 in the
same period.


ROAD BUILDING AND REPAIR MATERIALS


* Each


truck represents 10,000 cubic yards of crushed


ruck and/, r tons


of anmiesite


sof ,040 1,4 cou^ s4. se^a ' "P
,-
S\
/ .a4/, ,,ao
d/
- -- - -- -
. ^� _ LIr TV07 T- Pa- iJ-, ViT t


B (


Amiesite-
1938_.___---------- _ __ 1,500 tons
1950 .-__-..... __ __ __ 5,500 tons


Crushed Rock-
1938 ____
1950----. ......__.


School enrollments in


the Canal


Zone in grades 1 through 12 rose
from 6,043 in 1938 to 8,214 in 1950.


* m*er- d
17^B mo,


COMMISSARY NET SALES AT RETAIL VALUE *


* Each


money-bag represents $2,000,000


The number of


Panama


1938 ..-..
1950...-.


t7


Canal


A


family quarters occupied at the end
of last fiscal year was 7,840, as conm-
pared with 5,230 in June 1938.
Bachelor occupants of Canal quar-
ters increased from 1,500 in 1938 to
5,500 in 1950. Most of the family
quarters are occupied by Canal and
Railroad employees, but many of
the bachelor quarters are presently
rented to employees of other Gov-


POUNDS OF SALT SOLD *


* Each saltcellar


represents


100,000 pounds


1938..
1950..


* I1


760,000 lbs.
1,270,000 Ibs.


ernment agencies.
The maintenance of quarters in-
creased in cost from $475,000 in 1938
to $966,000 last year.
Panama Canal Clubhouse reve-
nues went up from $922,000 twelve
years ago to $4,450,000 this year.
Postal revenues increased from
$317,000 to $628,000.
Health Department installations
reported 355,000 patient-days in
hospitals for 1938 and 425,000 in


1950, while hospital
clinic out-patients ii
2111 n(A e- A07 flA


and medical
increased from


Panama Railroad passenger and
freight handled by rail both de-
creased. Passenger miles dropped


from 15,350,000 in 1938 to 14,386,-
000 last year, while a more marked
decrease was shown in freight with
319,000 tons moved by rail in 1938
and 206,000 tons last year.
Commissary Division net sales at
retail values more than tripled in


loaves of bread in 1950 as compared
with 4,450,000 loaves in 1938.
The sale of sugardecreased slightly
and a marked reduction was noted
in rice sales. These decreases were
attributed to price increases of
nearly 250 percent and to the in-
creased production of fine quality


rice and sugar in Panama.


(Only a detailed study could pro-
duce a fair estimate of the money"
value of these increased products
t c11r r i nIf �brt ( innli nnA R01.


350,000


8,500Tcu. yds.
' 33,900 cu. yds.


$8,800,000
25,750,000


A


I I I F I . - -. ---- . .


�~ I*


I


- "-i


at





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


on


Panama

Several

Travel
Tht list
S. S. Ptlinna
t illl i l t il.


I StI'\I(

f)rl- or
if it w\
\Vhili'
ire stil
,'\vi's,
onverc
cklog o


111C


the


)f tr


Liners

Days


Seafarer,

Panama


Provide


Lazy


'or Employees
)st-war sailinle of the


tlhe first of
hips ret u nt


c, I(and looke
Isn't conie ofl
l Areon and
i Fonr River
Panamz was
to holt) light
afic le twfenl


lle Ul
(1 to C
IvAl n

for a\v
it al1.
Crisis
"don1
rushcn
rn a 1I


obal
ning
I to
rgte
)rk


1 ('ristobal.
[assengers and 1car-~O calnei al)oard


for the firs


trip in SeptembIer 1946.


Half an hour before sailing time, a


mnaritimen
Panaima
days the
ship, ('ou


and i
Pier
Pan a
after
1.iber


t >()
I I

r ei
In
(St r

jec
avs
luri

of
:s le
nte
64
I S
us
ty
Off


:\ll of t


Pana
purser
sailing
tain J
the c<(
17 ( ,,


m(,


f


I
1
i
)


I

r
?
I
t


strike w
was heldt
passenger ,
rtesv of t
that ir
1(e onlv
t)asstngei
i th usiasm
this case
acted to th
Lnngsters'
of con011
Was no le
. Ihlen sO
ng their x
eln lhad fo
chocolate
ft on Pie
itled for
had lbien


as call
in I)oi
s lived
the PaI
cicdent
CCAISIOr
rs failed
for Ik
the hu
iC tlin(lh
failure
iterabll
ql)lanat
)nlOonele
Wait in
und a c
and n
r 64, N
use 0]


e
r



I


(d and the
t. For 14
aboard the
ama aine.
arose an-
of record
to (isplay
I *


llama line
longer strike
r-12 crowd.
Sto eat was
. comment
lion for sev-
dliscovered
New York
onsiderable
halted milk
north River,
n lifeboats.


returned to


Line a short tim ea
e as a locking area
ships and war transport
icers Hlave Long Service


he prese
with the


the
rlier
for
s.


nt officers of
excel)tion of


, were on that tirst post-war
for the Panama Line. ('ap-
. W. Kirchner has been with
mpany since 1930; First Officer
Tn ',i ri , , i' ;L l ) i 1 ','lTi- ir tn ,


Capt. J. W. Kirchner, left, and First Officer F. Gorman pictured on the bridge of the
S. S. Panama.


1927. \V. F.
relative newco
the Planama li
a year s service
freight depart


Railroad C
Captain
go back to


Kristen, Purser, is a
lnner, having come to
ine in 1948 after about
:e with the New York
ment of the Panama


onmpany.
Kirchner'
1910 whe


s seafaring days
n he was gradu-


ated from the New York Nautical
Schoolship Newport. Looking back
on his sea service on vessels of sev-
eral lines, he explains the smooth
operation of the Panama and her
sister ships partly on the basis of
their short, pleasant, and regular
runs. Compared to round-the-world


cruises on which!
the past, the five
New York and (
ferry boat run"
tine for so-calleI


h he
davs
Cristo
and
I inci


has se
at sea I
ibal are
provic
dents, 1


rved in
betweenn
"like a
le little
:he says.


4-
just acquired a fine $25 elephant-
for free.
Menagerie Is Reduced


T wo


rema
mer
into
away
him
paint
deck
given
kind
captt
Th
inRg
first
respo
to ea
Then


monkeys


ined on I)oard. 0
disposed of himsi
the funnel when
from the captain \
carrying on in his
ing job deserte:l tt
hands. Another
as a playmate t
owned by a
lin in the Azores.
en there were two.
carrotss assisted the
officer in docking
nldig in.unmentio
ch of the captain'
came the last stot
[e the captain rid hi


two parrots
ne of the for-
elf by falling
he skittered
who surprised
own style a
.mporarily by
monkey was
o one of like
salvage tug


The remain-
captain and
the ship by
nable phrases
s commands.


Li


L1A 3I


eow York,
If of both


veteran


Compose


Headed


by


Officer

Capt. K


Group

irchner


(


'
t
I
i


()u





August 4, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


Canal-Railroad Record


(Continued from page 13) work for the
('anal and Railroad and consider
that work their lifetime career.


Two factors affected force levels
of 1950 when compared with work-
ing conditions in 1938. These were
the 40-hoar work week and the new
leave regulations for local-rate em-
ployees. The former is estimated to
have required an approximate 16
percent increase to the overall force
and the second to have required an
additional five percent increase to
the local-rate force. Together, these
would have required 2,900 more em-
ployees in 1938, three-fifths of the
difference in the two force levels.
Neither Canal-Railroad activities
nor force levels for the fiscal years
1938 and 1950 show an even trend
among the various units. This is
attributable to many factors which
vitally affect special activities. An
example is shown in a comparison of
increases in the use of filtered water
and electric power. While water
consumption doubled in the 12-year
period under consideration, the num-
ber of kilowatt hours tripled. This
apparent disparity was caused pri-
marily by a greatly increased use of
electrical appliances in the homes
and the use of more and heavier in-
dustrial equipment.


The volume of merchandise sold
in the commissaries shows wide fluc-
tuations caused chiefly by price fac-
tors and changes in customer habits.
New Towns in 1950


rel


Nevertheless, it is possible to cor-
ate certain facts and figures in


the comparison between 1938 and
1950. Three large civilian communi-
ties and three sizable military es-
tablishments are new in the Canal


- - - -.. .


been those low or non-income pro-
ducing units. These include civil
government and health units, and
such operating divisions as the Ma-
rine, Locks, and Dredging Division.
Together, these comprise approxi-


matelv


half of


the Canal-Railroaid


organization and in the main these


units t
creases


ive had to depend on
in appropriated funds


their operations to meet the con-
stantlv rising barometer of the dol-
lar values and other factors out of


their control.
To the average Canal and
road employee, the rising t


world


wide(


commodity


priC(


ide of
es has


brought a much fatter pay envelope
every month to overcome or par-
tially offset the higher living costs
of 1950. The average annual pay
for local-rate workers in 1938 was


$465.00.
$1,000,
higher.


The average in


pay for


more
Annual


1950 was
) percent
U. S.-rate


employees increased nearly 75 per-
cent, from an average $2,521 a year
in 1938 to 84,265.00 in 1950.
Wartime Increases
Following an unprecedented rise
and subsequent decline in activities


and business operations during
World War II, the outstanding
record of the Canal-Railroad organi-
zation for the fiscal year 1950. al-
though compared in this article with
the 1938, would compare favorably
in all aspects with any year in the 35
years of the Canal's operating his-
tory. The 1950 record is all the
more remarkable in that it was
scored under uncertain and at times
unfavorable conditions. Not the least


important
tinued rec


di


of these was the
action of force and


constant decline in work load and
services which required frequent and
sometimes drastic adjustments or
curtailments.
Not a single major unit escaped
some force reductions and several,
notably the Health Department and
the Mechanical and Commissary
Division, were materially cut. These
reductions and the consequent shift-
ing or reassignment of personnel and
duties were serious impediments to
orderly and efficient administration


while


these


and other


. . . .


extraneous


First


Half


1950


Malaria


Lowest


Rate

Record


(umlnulative results ofan Isthmian-
widet drive by all health agencies of
the past few years in combatting
malaria, scourge of the Isthmus
tlhr- lhouit its known history, will


bring the rate of incidence this year
to less than half of last year's record-
b)reaking low rate unless all signs fail
during the last six months of 1950.
Health IBureau statistics on ma-
laria for the first half of 1950 show
that only 13 cases were reported for
the six-month period among all
Canal and Railroad employees, bring-
ing the rate of incidence to 1.3 per
thousand.
This will make the third successive
year in which the malaria rate has


been practically halve
first half of each year.
the end of June i947


id during the
The rate at
was reported


at 13.9 per thousand employees. The
rate dropped to 5.5 the following year,
to 3.5 in 1949, and to 1.3 this year.
This year's rate of incidence is
lower than the death rate from ma-
laria among Canal-Railroad employ-
ees of any year up to 1910. The
death rate among employees ranged
from 8.78 among employees in 1906,
the first year of accurate record, to
1.1 in 1910. The rate of incidence
during this period ranged from 821
per thousand in 1906 to 187 per
thousand in 1910. It was not until
1916 that the rate of incidence
dropped below 50 per thousand.
Dramatic Drop in 3 Years
The constant and dramatic drop
in the malaria rate in the Canal Zone


for the past three years has go
far beyond the old rule-of-thumb
health authorities who pointed
statistical charts which showed the
were "good" and "bad" mala'
years. The rate of incidence t11
year is less than one-tenth of t


2re
ria
nis


rate three years ago. The law of
probabilities and the known habits of
the malaria-bearing Anopheles mos-
n,,,;t ri-nl, nt the theory of three


Shows


,


_ _�





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


ROUND-THE-CLOCK RECREATION FOR ALL AGE GROUPS







. +'


* '- -:.W *^'w^ ^TOWC-.


I


wmeecWocsoooWWawm~av)wwa~wa^^ --


-'*^w'^',-1''


I


August 4,


1950





August 4, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


Operations


of


the


Clubhouse


division


JULY


1949


MAY


1950


We believe


the course of


a year.


everyone


who resides


therefore


wish


in the Canal
to acquaint


Zone


makes


our patrons


use of


with


our fa


financial


cities in
side of


Clubhouse operations, a


s set


forth below:


~Cl


52.66 percent,


cost of res-


taurant sales, merchandise
purchases, and film rental.


.3.58 percent
1'. S. and 1
ployees.


t for wages.


ocal-rate


em-i


3.99 percent for
electricity, ice,


* gas, water,
telephonet-,


freight and transportation
advertising and printing.


$2,C09


$1,280,942


$152,373


3.32
clean


percent for cost of


lines


- - uniforms,


laundry, cleaning and pa-
per supplies, garbage dis-
posal, cleaning and chlori-
* * *4


natmg


swimming
$126,578


percent


COMs


percent


bturplus,


buildingrepair, newequip-
ment purchased, repaired,
or replaced.


$187,266


which


if


io our reserve for
replacement or alt


and( new


, added
building
eratlions


projects.


$58,675


~IF3
52





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4,


1,000,000 HOURS OF FUN AND SUPERVISED PLAY























* !s










"a - +- g W ,, . ..


+. - -


ln P^WW :5I rPi SU -: -R rIW~P~FI rt -IIIIIJ AWA~IV - S


Il


1950


I


I_ __




August 4, 1950


1PANAMA


Coachman

Recalls (


For


Col.


)nstruc tion


Goethals


ears


was assigned as coachman for ('ol-
onel Goethals at ('ulebra from 1908
until the (Canal was completed. It
was a time when distinguished visi-
tors from all parts of the world were
flocking to see the great engineering
feat in process of accomplishment.
Williams remembers best of all the
two visits of the portly and jovial
William Howard Taft, as Secretary
of \War, in 1909 and 1910, and later
President. Another visitor he re-
members well was President Pedro
MIontt, of whilee , who spent a few


drecalls on
recalls


the Isthmus in
that visit so w


President Mlontt o
tip when he left and


1910.


offered


because
himi a


by Colonel (;oethals who said, "No
no, none of that -it isn't necessary.
"He gave me a tin anvwa\


Veteran Seafarers
(Continued from pagc 14) went to sea
as third officer for American-Hawai-
ian Steamship ,ine and took com-
mandl of the Nevadan soon after.
Following Workl War I service as
lieutenant commander in the Navy,
he commandell vessels of the inde-
pendent Steamship company y and1
its predIecessor, unitedd Amierican,
until 1927, when he was employed as
stvedtorc supervisor for the Steanm-
shipl Terminal operating g ('onpany
of New York.
Nine years after joining the Pan-
ama Line, he assutllned command of
the ohl Ancon and took that vessel
through the ('anal when it transited
with 600 guests aboard August 15,
1939 to mark the 25th anniversary
of the opening of the waterway. He
served in the Army Transport Serv-


ice dur
anti
and la
has )be


-ing World War 1, in corn-
of the hospital ship Acadia,
ter, the Louis A. Milne. He
en on the Panama since the


enough
recalls.


to buy


a cigar,


On such state occasions or when
one of the Presidents of Panama
came out to Culebra to go with
Colonel Goethals for one of his in-
spection trips "along the line,"


wa r.
Missed Early Canal Trip
First Officer (Gorman just missed
a trip through the ('anal at the age
of five when he was on a cruise with


Williams spent many an hour groom-
ing the two black horses and polish-
ing the two-seated carriage which


the Colonel used.


Frederick E. Williams, former coachman
for Colonel Goethals.
One miserable night stands out in
the memory of Frederick E. Wil-
liams, foreman at the Gatun Garage
before his retirement in June after
44 years of service, above all other
events great or small of the Canal
construction period.
That was a sleepless period of
about 16 hours which he spent con-
templating the prospect of being
fired the next morning.
The incident which occasioned his
distress occurred just after 3 o'clock
one afternoon when he was scheduled
to bring around Col. George XV.
Goethals' span of black horses and
coach to take him to the train.
The engagement slipped Williams'


About such trips, Williams recalls
an invariable custom of Colonel
Goethals in which he seemed to take
secret delight. He would bid fare-
well to his guest at his home, high
on the crest of a hill overlooking the
town and Culebra Cut. Then, tak-
ing a short cut to the railroad station
he would appear and be waiting for
his guests to see them on the train
or motor car as they drove tip in the
coach.
Born in Black River, Jamaica
\Villiams was born in Black River,
in St. Elizabeth's Province of Ja-
maica. He came to the Isthmus in
May 1906 and after working as a
teamster at the Folks River Stables
for two years he was transferred to


('ulebra as Colonel


man. After the construction period
ended and the Canal Zone capital
was moved to Balboa Heights, he


George McKnight, Chief Steward (right),
consults with Manuel Romero, Chef, about
a menu for the S. S. Panama.
his parents on the Prinz Sigismund
which later became the Panama Line
ship General WI. C. Gorgas. On that
occasion, he became ill in Jamaica
and was taken back to New York,
but finally made his first trip through
the C('anal in 1922 as third mate on


-: = - - -,


I )( �


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


i


ell


was overseen


V.-


j


* '


Goethals' coach-




PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


August 4, 1950


GOVERNOR'S


STAFF


TEN


YEARS


AGO


Veteran Seafarers


(Continued from
the ships of


page 19) has served on
several lines since his
S( (rsic


V'
'V
1:;:: :


it
T .1'.:. r


OII )1 Stho t i mplovees- who have been in service foul r or lve \ears will recognize iany
ll Ih u las(t of tlhe men who made up the (Goernor s staft just ten 'ears ago. They are:
Front row, C(. A. Mcllvaine, Executive Secretary; Governor C(larence S. Ridley, an (ol. (len (.' Edgy rton. Engineer of Maintenance.
*liddh.l row. Frank H. \"ang, Executive Secretary Col. M1. '. Stayer, Chief Health
)(lierr; C(apt. [honas \. Sym ington, Marine Superintendent; Rol y R. Wason. Chief
quartermaster ; and C. IT. Lindsay, General Manager of the Panama Railroad.
Back row, John G( Claybourn, Superintendent of the I)r-dging I)ivi on; . . Erlw,,
\dinitrative Assistant to the Governor; \rnold Bruckner, Comptroller; Col. I)ouglas
. Wearl, Assistant Engineer of Maintenance; and Capt. 1. R. Norton, Superintendent
of the M mechanical division .
Onl two of these, M1r. Erbe and Mr. Bruckner, are still in service. Two, Mr. Mcll-
vaine and MIr. \\'at son, have since died. Colonel (now Mlajor General) Edgerton is retired
from the Army blut is now serving as Executive i)irector of the Commission in charge of
the renovation of the White House. Colonel (now NMajor General) Weart is still on active
duly andl i, the commanding officer of Fort Belvoir. Virginia.


A11 the others have retired from ac
General and now lives in Carmel, Califor,
This picture of the Governor and h
Sidl I completed his term as (Governor


work.


Governor Ridlev retired as a


is stall was taken a short time before Gov
anmd was succeeded by General Edgerton.


tI1ajor
ernor


Buildings


hearing


The iirst six living unit
housing development in
Juan area of Ancon will I
for assignment this month.


completion


date for


s of the
the San
)e read\
Actual


the three du-


plexes, first of 16 structures in the
same area to be occupied in the next
few months, will depend on the
delivery of material from the U'nited
States.
The remaining 13 one-family cot-
tages in the tlevelopment are now
s ' lduled for completion about the
first of September and will be turned
over to the C(.ommunity Services


Bureau


for assignment at the rate


of about one a week after that d(late.
construction n of these new quar-
ters, which started about the first of


Completion


\ncon Boulevard was relocated
slightly in the development of sites
for the new houses and San Juan


Place has also been relocated and
provided with a turn-around to pro-
vide easy access to the homes.
One of the innovations adopted in
the construction of these houses was
the use of prefabrication processes
which have been extended steadily
in ('anal building during the last


few \ears.
lMost of the houses have pullman-
type kitchens and sliding closet
doors in the bedrooms. There are
breezeways through the living and


dining rooms or windows on


sides of


these rooms an


rooms also have


Cross Ve


three


d the bed-
ntilation.


':4 C. r.l � nlr i. I i Cfnr nti + im- n,. n*


graduation from the >
Nautical School in 1
two years in command
in the Pacific in \Wor
has served on the old
Crisobal and has bee
amt since Septembler


'ew York State
920. He spent
1 of Navy ships
ld War II. He
A non and the
In on the Pan-


1046


vorite decoration on the sh
picture of his six cihldren,
from Frank, 21, chemist tec
at Farmingdale, New York,
vear-old Peggy at home in
stead, Long Island.


tHis fa-
lip is a
ranging
hnician
to 10-
Hemp-


Panama passengers are playing
new games these days, Stop the
Music and quiz contests, started by
the purser. Mr. Kristen explains
before each contest that one record
stumps them all. He is not publiciz-
ing the name but offers the disc itself
as proof that his answer is the right
answer.
The purser was a salesman before
the war and joined the i. S. Mari-
time Service in 1942.
The Chief steward has been going
to sea for 25 years and joined the
Panama Line in 1938 as steward on
the old Cristobal. He and the chef,
Manuel Romero, say there are no
"specialties of the house" on the


PanamaIT


but do


note


R, mero, a native of


Puerto


Rico,


has a fine way with arroz-con-pollo
and other dishes with a Latin-
American flavor. Other personnel
under the jurisdiction of the chief
steward who play an important part
in helping Panama passengers enjoy
their travels are Irving Memeroff,
deck steward, generally known as
'"Nick," who serves as general mother
of the flock on deck and has a
special way with children, and Harry
Bradshaw, bartender.
('hief Engineer Julius Peterson
served his apprenticeship as a ma-
chinist in the Lackawana Railroad
from 1913 to 1917. In 1917 he
joined the Navy and served through-
out the World War I. In 1919 he
joined the Luckenbach Line and
remained there until 1927 when he
joined the Panama Line. He served
on the Panama during World War I I.


San


Juan


ii*,
^ I?


I


1





August 4, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


STATISTICS


CANAL


TRAFFIC


For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for
the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peacetime than those for 1939.


Highly


Variable


w


world


Trade


Thru


Canal


Makes


Accurate


Traffic


Forecast


Difficult


0n o n n o in o S o 0 o 0 O 0n o 0 0
N M Sn .0 0 tO a , (o > o
- 2 0 Cl 0 a 0 Ol Ot Ol C d O O O ^ O O
(V


World trade
Panama Canal
The story is
observing the
1920 and 1924
graph sheet ar
ical ship traffic
strait, many m
modated the s
oceans.
The more c
dicted a gradu;
predictions hav
world-wide de:
Canal was ope


on!


Panan
new hi
ended
factor
Canal


Ia


e which flow
I is well nigh
told that one
rapid rise in
, simply used
nd predicted s
by 1950 that


tiles wide,
hips plyin


s through the
unpredictable.
prognosticator,
traffic between
a ruler and a
;uch astronom-
only a natural


>uld have
between


:areful observers I
al increase but mos
'e come a cropper I
pressions or wars
ned to traffic in 19


e respect-net
Canal comme


tonnage of


racial traffic


gh-water mark in the
June 30. In number
uppermost in calcula�
facilities will be rean


fiscal
of trar
ting wh
ired--


have
it of t
becau;
since
14.


vessels-- -
reached a
:ear 1950.
nsits- -thl
hen added
the trafir c


percent within this period a
senger vessels are now 12
than in 1929.
Despite this growth in the
the consensus of observers is
ber of transits rather than the
will be the governing factor in
added Canal facilities will hb
commercial traffic.


nd carg
percent


e


o-pas-
larger

ships,
num-
essels
a when


required for


Alterations Needed by 1970


present


outlook, based


peacetime conditions,
tions will be required
modate commercial tra
This date is some 10
predicted three years
analysis was made
Kramer in the course of
Studies of 1947.


on normal


is that some altera-
by 1970 to accom-
iffic alone.
years later than that
ago when a careful
\b Dr. Roland L..
f the Isthmian Canal


Governor Newconmer has cx


nreposd lih


G(over
Huebi
1944.
The
prior t
and it
predict
Traffic


"nor
iner,


M. L. Walker, 1927; Grover G
1936; and Norman J. I adelford


forecast of I)r. Johnson was made
o the outbreak of the first World War
seems reasonable to suppose that his
tion for the first 20 years of Canal


would hl


except for the
early 1930's.
increase of p(
the 11-year pc
as indicated b
French Canal


over trade
Canal.


ave been remarkably accurate
war and the depression of the
His forecast was based on the
)tential Canal traffic during
triod between 1899 and 1910
y records kept by the Second
Company of ship movements


route


Forecast


Governor
mate in 192
the growth
thrmno- tho


;s likely to us

of Governor


M. L..


W\Valker
based
- move


e the Panama

Walker


prepare'
his pred
nent of
crinc hi


his est
tlion o
shiopin


, ilt


1 n1l


* t


* * 1 �


ny7 I nnnl


71a





THE PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 4, 1950


World Trade Thru Canal is Variable


SUPER-TANKER


VISITS CANAL


WATERS


study, made in 1944,
wasbasedon )r. Hu
he attempted to e\
World War II, air t
men ls on the -lu
made five separate
various analyses, th
the moot opiiniiSlt C
the chart. The tol
diction on ( raltc I
\Vorld Var 11 with
factors which might
traffic. Ihe l>orton


(Contin u edfro


ebner's
axluatc
traffic,
etbner
foreca


eC
* C


lt

11


effects of the war plus va
ing factors.
Irtcder normal condit
traffic for the next fiscal
where between his two
and not far short of his


The Is
quired a
Kramer,
portation
and Coin
sultant I:
the field


most C
Cf which


mnpagr 21)


recast, in which
c net effect of
I other adjust-
IICti ton s, tle
biased on the
nservative and
are shown on


; --- V - , ; -

* S~*
-"
�' -,


line indtlicatles his pre-
sed on the effects of
I consider tion of other
affect [Ianama (anal
line wa;is based on the


rious


x'ear
ext
most


other infuenc-

Panama Canal
'will fall some-
reme forecasts
optimistic.


Estimates of Dr. Kramer


thmian Ca
long-range
Professor o
at the \Wh
merce, was
because of
of internal


nal Studies of 1947 re-
traffic forecast and Dr.
if Commerce and Trans-
arton School of Finance
selected as a traffic con-
his high reputation in
ional commerce and his


long association with both Dr. Johnson and
Dr. Huebner.


His prediction was based on
assumptions: (a) That there
widespread wars or serious politi
tions up to the year 2000; (b)
and less restrictive trade rela
develop as the United Nations or
achieves stature; and (c) that 1
States will maintain a substantial
marine for domestic and foreign
He made several statistical
and the one shown here was
computation on the expected
commercial traffic would outgrc
Canal facilities. Actual Panama
tistics on traffic for the fiscal yea
more than 9,000,000 net vessel
of the figure he had expected.
Actual figures on commercial
the past fiscal year also fell far st
number of large, ocean-going vi
matedly in Dr. Kramer's foreca
transits for the year of tolls-pay
of more than 300 net tons were


compared with the predicted
Assuming that the rate of
dieted by Dr. Kramer for th4
in commercial traffic prove to
1,240 ships between 1950 ar
1,287 ships between 1960 and


mercial traffic
based on actu
ber plus the tt
15 percent ol
eluding Canal
total Canal tr
is considered
handled under


The reco


in 1970 will b4
al transit in 19
olls-free traffic,
f the total in
equipment w
affic in 1970 w


three basic
will be no
cal revolu-
That freer
itions will
organization
the United
I merchant
trade.
projections
used for
late when
iw present
Canal sta-
r 1950 fall
tons short

traffic for
short of the
vessels esti-
ist. Total


vessels
,448, as


6,959.
increase pre-
e two decades
be correct-
id 1960, and
1970- com-
7,915 vessels,
0. This num-
.pproximately


peacetime in-
ould bring the
ell tip to what


a maximum which can be)
existing operating conditions.


nmmend


action


C. Mehaffey as contain
the Isthmian Canal S
in fact, two-pronged
request from Congress
best means to meet
n i+ 4en .-l r-nf ...... A f.i


of Governor


ne
tui
in

thE
* 1


Joseph


d in his report on
dies of 1947 was,
response to the
To determine the
e future needs of
rn mn ,nrnnnnn n e nf


An oppor
officials Jul\ 1
oil into the i
Panama Canal
A formal
Colon officials,
Caribbean I)ef


DIominador
The Es
of 230,000


Ba


unity t
2 when
marine st
*


o inspect the "s upr-tanker" Esso Cristobal was provided for local
the vessel paid its first call at the Port of Cristobal to deliver fuel
orage t'mks of the Standard Oil (Canal Zone) Company and The


visit to the super-tanker was imde by a large group of Canal Zone and
including Lt. Gen. William H. H. Morris, Jr., Commander-in-Chief of the
ense Command, Lieutenant Governor Herbert D. Vogel, and Mayor Jose
zan, of Colon.


obal is
almost


one of 12 new super-tankers built since the war with a capacity
70 percent more than the T-2 tanker built during World War II.


CARGO HANDLED OVER PIERS
(In short tons)


Second Quarter
Calendar Year 1950


received ...

forwarded


Transfer cargo received ....

Total incoming cargo handled

Rehandled cargo. .. ...

Transfer cargo forwarded... .

Total cargo handled and
transferred


Cristobal

57,435

15,547

75,632

148,614

1,950
71,351
71,351


221,915


Balboa Total

29,052 86,487


15,792

2,325

47,169

130

1,958


49,257


31,339

77,957

195,783

2,080
73,309
713,309


271,172


Average
quarter,
1949

All piers

104,205

26,608

72,250

205,053

3,435

73,245


281,733


Average
quarter,
1938

All piers

87,968

9,388

138,386

235,742

1,584

136,127


373,453


The following table shows the number of transits of
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:


United


States I


East coast of U.

East coast of U.

East coast of IT.

U. S./Canada ea

Europe and wes
i rirnn nntl n-t111


S. and

S. and


South America__

Central America


S. and Far East ....


st coast and Australasia


t coast


. S./Canada


I-h Anrc-ir'


large, commercial vessels (300 net


April-May-June


96


37

120


252


248

120


86


143


200

40

270


i 83 136


TRAFFIC MOVEMENTS OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES


1


ing
5


ntercoastaL . . ... ....... ..


I





August 4, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


1950


Canal


Traffic


Nears


Peacetime


Aspect


NUMBER
OE
SHIPS
10000

9000

8000

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000


1938 1939 19401941


CANAL


TRANSITS


1942 1943 19441945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950


TOLLS PAYING


AND


FREE


April--May-June


1
Atlantic Pa
to


Pa(


Tolls-paying vessels:
Ocean-going _
*Smnall.
Total, tolls-paying
**Free transits . ........


Total, tolls-paying


and free.


95
cii
to


cific Atlantic

681 719
157 149
838 868
104 118
942 986


i0
Eic


* Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement
** Exclusive of Panama Canal equipment.



MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRA


Total


1,400


1,928


1949

Total


1,271


343

1,981


1938


Total


I i*

1,774


tons.


LFFIC AND TOLLS


Vessels of 300 tons net or over
By fiscal years


Panama Canal traffic assumed a near nor-
mal peacetime aspect during the fiscal year
1950 which closed June 30.
The amount of tolls, $24,230,000, was the
highest collected in any fiscal year since
1931, this amount having been exceeded in
only four )ears of the Canal's operating
history.
Transits by commercial vessels of more
than 300 net tons totaled 5,448 last year,
the highest number since the fiscal year
1940 and the only year in that 10-year
period when these transits exceeded 5,000.
A new record was set by commercial ship-


ping in Panama Canal net tonnage last


with a total of 28,013,236 net tons. The
old record of 27,716,000 tons was-established
in the fiscal year 1930, even though record
figures on the number of transits and tolls
were set in 1929.
Aside from the volume of commercial


TOT L TF AFFIc

** ' .


-i -- -- --- i I ---
-- I F- - A* A i* II -IC
\\* *









l F TRAFFICI =hQ COM ERCI L TR FFIC
I-- I___ --- i i

Ji;~


trathc, the ratio of tolls-free shipping to
commercial traffic also resumed a near-nor-
mal, peacetime aspect. Before the outbreak
of World War II the amount of tolls-free
traffic was generally reckoned at 8 percent
of the total commercial traffic of all categor-
ies. During the war this percentage rose to
an all-time high in 1945 of nearly 75 per-
cent. This wide gap was rapidly closed in
the fiscal year 1947 after the Government
released most of the commercial vessels and
last year tolls-free shipping was only 12
percent of the total traffic.
The accompanying chart gives a clear
picture of the wide variation between tolls-
free and tolls-paying traffic since 1938. The
top line represents the total traffic during
this period, with the exception of Panama
Canal equipment, and the bottom line rep-
resents total commercial traffic of all cat-
egories including vessels under 300 net tons.
Prior to 1938 the percentage of tolls-free
shipping varied only slightly from the 8
percent average of all traffic.
Rate of Increase is High
Commercial traffic during the past fiscal
year rose at one of the highest rates of any
year in the Canal's history, being roughly
parallel with those in the fiscal years 1923,
1924, and 1934.
The most significant factor in the 1950
traffic figures was the heavy shipments of
oil from the west coast through the Canal.
This movement which began in September
1949 and continued throughout the remain-
der of the fiscal year, reached a peak in
February.
Despite a notable decrease in this tanker
trade in March, an increase in shipping in
practically all other trade routes through
the Canal brought March commercial trans-
its to 522, the highest of any month since
March 1937. Ship movements through the
Canal during the last quarter of the fiscal
year 1950 were consistently higher than
those of the same period in 1949.
Comparative statistics on commodity
shipments during the last quarters of 1949
and 1950, generally indicative of trends for
both years, show many significant changes
; .~ 4 4- I


-


I


'


year





PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


August 4, 1950


HISTORY


MAKING


- ,- -. ,

r -


, .J -- -


i this effort, Zone


TRIP


t-i..
1; A A$#i- tV*
__t - ' l
f. atU^ Jii-- .Vl ''..^-:J


health authori-


Principal Commodities Shipped Through the Canal
(All figures in long tons)
Figures in parentheses In 1938 and 1949 columns in 198 and 1949 columns indicate
relative positions in those years

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC

Second Quarter, Calendar Year


Commodity


A history-making transit of the Panama
(anal for the Interocean Steamship Com-
pany was made June 19 by the M. S. Brand-
(an.er en route on the 400th voyage of the
Interocean Line from the Pacific coast to
Europe.
The Brandanger, shown above just after
entering Miraflores Locks, is one of a fleet
of six fast, modIern motorships of post war
vintage which are now on this run or will
soon be in service. A seventh vessel, the
NM. S. Trondanger, recently transited the
Canal bound for the West coast after com-
plete modernization in Europe.
By coincident, the original Brandainger,
which was lost during the war, made voyage
No. 1 in the Interocean Line service.
Master of the new Brandanger on the
400th voyage was Captain Anlin Olsen, who
started with the Interocean Steamship Conm-
pany as male on the original Brandangnr in
1934.

1950 Canal Traffic
(Continued from page 23) using the Canal
in the fiscal years 1929 and 1950 and
(te amounts of cargo transported is due in
part to the tanker traffic from the west
coast. These vessels during the past fiscal
year moved through the Canal last year
fully loaded and returned to the west coast
in ballast.
This also accounted partly for the fact
that even though the net tonnage of vessels
in 1950 was the highest on record, the
amount of tolls collected was appreciably


lower than t
i)rincipal fac
of tolls was
measurement
I'nder the sa
rates of toll
commercial
Canal would
by about 3.5


he all-time 1
tor, however
the change
t and rate
me rules of
s as applied
traffic thro
have increa


percent,


or son


I in 1929. The
a this variation
n the rules of
tolls in 1938.
isurements and
1929, the 1950
the Panama
last year s tolls
le $850,000.


Mlanufactu nre
Mineral oils
I'hosphates.
Amn nioniurn c
Paper and pa
Sulphur .
Sugar .
Raw cottonU
Automobiles
Tiulnpt. -
Machinery -
Cement .
Ores, various
Wood pulp -
Coal and cok
.\ll others


s of iron and


compoundd s_
iper products



and Darts.


Total.


1950

348,.596
263,850
244,715
149,788
100,976
75,317
75,202
71,208
61,952
59,937
57,066
47,499
32,244
30,811
27,377
723,133

2,369,671


PACIFIC TO


1949

383,212 (3)
589,861 (1)
8,564 (30)
101,691 (4)
100,500 (5)
80,112 (8)
38,710 (13)
84,310 (6)
47,487 (11)
82,537 (7)
56,657 (9)
22,882 (15)
9,164 (27)
19,903 (8)
562,651 (2)
743,966

2,932,207


1,

2,


370,925
204,624
77,382
10,320
105,902
67,125
20,176
43,766
57,368
70,203
40,109
39,024
27,099
21,648
25,352
182,474


3


W --
a
Ni
CP-
0 -

O-;
0 --
4b s .
1%)-^""
-4,�
G|; - -


63,497


ATLANTIC


Second Quarter,


Commodity


Mineral oils
Ores, various
Lumber -. -
Wheat
Nitrate
Sugar
Canned foot
Refrigerate(
cept fre
Metals, var
Bananas
Wool-
Copra
Raw cotton
Fresh fruit
Dried fruit
All others_.


bananas)


I'otal


1950

962,860
811,072
776,365
402,852
361,946
295,739
294,872

163,774t
r'^ ,- n


51,855
42,147
516,210

5,163,275


Calendar Year

1938

9 (10) 732,5
1 (1) 517,84
5 (2) 668,5(
6 (3) 179,0(
5 (4) 340,4'
3 (5) 445,3(
7 (6) 161,4!

4 (8) 118,55
0 (7) 179,3:
A (A\ 1 '7n


31,193 (20)
28,270 (22)
1,267,598

4,865,960


4,347,298


Canal Commercial Traffic by Nationality of Vessels


Nationality


British-
Chilean _
Chinese ..


April- -May-June


1950


SNum-
ber of
transits


225
13


I'ons
of cargo


1,400,
57,


1949


Num-
ber of
transits

244
19
5


Tons
of cargo


1,619,536
87,613
45.198


Num-
ber of
transits

344
3


Tons
of cargo


1,674,876
2,552


(Continued from page 15)


__


^