Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
23584335 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text
'A.-


Gift of the Paumwa Canal Museum
PANAMA


CANAL


r F__


* ~


Vol. 1, No. 1 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE May 5, 1950


BUDGET


BUREAU


APPROVES


$70,000,000


HOUSING


Program

Man]

By


REPLACEMENT


'I Culminates

y Years Effort
Canal Govern


)rs


PLANS


PROPOSED


-- ------------------ --- ---..---- -


Housing--the most continually
bedevilling problem of the Canal ad-
ministration for the past 40 years-
bids fair now to be finally settled
with the stamp of approval by the
Bureau of the Budget on Governor
Newcomer's,: proposed $70,000,000
permanent quarters construction
program. ,
! A modest beginning is being made
this year with the demolition and
replacements scheduled in 'the San
Juan area in Ancon.
The program will get into full
swing during the fiscal year 1951 if
the supplemental appropriation of
approximately $4,000,000 to be re-
quested of Congress is made avail-
able. It' will then continue on an
accelerated scale over a period of
eight to ten years and when finally
completed will provide permanent-
type housing for all employees of
the Canal-Railroad.
The tentative schedule for the


coming fiscal year provides
scale replacements and con
in Ancon, Balboa, Diablo
and Cocoli on the Pacific
Gatun, Margarita, and Sil
on the Atlantic side, in
the appropriation would


for large-
struction
Heights,
side, and
River City
addition,
provide


r_-__ r_ _- -i-1


FLOOR PLANS for a masonry house to be constructed at grade level suggested
by the housing consultants provide for adaptation to cottages of two, three, and
four bedrooms without altering the basic plans. This plan would.provide for an open.
covered porch between the two sections.


City on the Atlantic side, and at
Cocoli or a new building site on the
Pacific side. The quarters at Cocoli
are to be located north of Borinquen
Highway and west of the existing
bachelor quarters built during the
Third Locks work.
The new housing program is the
result of several years of effort on
the part of the Canal administration.


terms the claims of several previous
governors of the urgent need of a
major quarters construction pro-
gram of permanent type houses.
Quarters Said Sub-Standard
Calling the housing in the Zone
sub-standard, Mr. Teare said: "With
so great a handicap to overcome


today, the Canal wi


have to bu
- . . . _


lild


GOY.


NEWCOMER


'L L -





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


May 5, 1950


Zone

Tots


Kindergartens


For


Crucial


Prepare


First


Year


Concerning
i .


Those


A bombshell exploding among
Commissary patrons at Ancon or
Silver City would hardly have cre-
ated more consternation than the
bold headlines appearing recently
that the Commissary Division, "Ex-
pects to Double Profit" this fiscal
year.


As is often the case,
statement without explain


in the sat
which say
without ex
the finger,
In this
barely scr
average C


A typical kindergarten scene of the Canal Zone schools is the above picture in which
Miriam Notyce, teacher at the Paraiso kindergarten, is giving Harvey Jones, Thelma
Joshua, Dorna Thomas, and Linda Griffith (left to right) a lesson in the rudiments of
cooperative effort. Such training prepares the children just out of babyhood both men-
tally and emotionally for the first grade at school, one of the most important of their entire
school career.


Educators have long recognized
that the shock of .cooperative and
competitive effort of children in the
first grade at school for those emo-
tionally or mentally unprepared
often spoils an otherwise promising
school career.
Kindergartens, designed to relieve
this shock and prq e hfldren just
ut of bayor th first grade,
have been an integral part of the
Canal Zone school system for the
past 10 years. Prior to 1940 kinder
gardens were operated by the Bureau
of Clubs and Playground, in a few
of the larger communities. They
were transferred th t year to the
Schools Division and have since
been greatly expanded to a point
where today kindergarten traiuiswis


learn in the first grade as hun-
dreds of others in various Zone corn-
munities. The training and equip-
ment are standard in all kindergar-
tens although the teachers in the
U S, atE kindergartens are usually
better trained.
The teacher at Paraiso, Miriam
Notyce, might herself be taken as an
average for other towns, although,
slightly younger than most. A second
generation Canal employee, she was
born in Colon Hospital ahd grew up
in Gatur where her father. N. E.
Notyce, has been employed for years
as storekeeper at Gatun Clubhouse.
She is a product of La Boca Normal
School graduating there last June,
and exemplifies the type of training
b:eina provided for the sons and


me
s a
plai
the
part
apes
:omt


escape witn
the worst.
For the pa
Commissary
net sales of
earned less
profit a year
sistent with
business adm
the past threi
only three ti
years when
below three p
as two-and-a
The reason
the past three
and effort on


category a
man has
ning wheth
head, or th
:icular case
the skin,
missary pa


CI


a lev


v powde


this bald
,ation falls
,s a story
been shot
er through
ie heart.
, the shot.
and the
itron will
r burns at


st three fiscal years, the
Division, with annual
over $32,000,000 has
than one percent net
, a figure wholly incon-
the precepts of good
inistration. Except for
Years. there have beej 5
mes within the past 25
the profits have fallen
percent and ne ver so o
-half percent.
n for the low profits of
ee years was the desire
the part of the Canal-


Railroad administration to cushion
the shock of mounting prices for the
average Canal Zone household.
Net Profit only 0.31I
The net operating prfot for ast,
year was listed in the annual report
of the Panama Railroad Comrnan
as being 0.3 1 percesg
margin required an almost day-to- :'
day adjustment in commodity prices. :
The decision to increase this mar-
gin was reached at the last annual
meeting of the Board of Directors of
the Company. The consensus at
that meeting was that a continuance. ',
of such a narrow margin was not in ,
accord with good business practices. ...


Commissary


Profits!





May 5, 1950


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ECONOMIC


DICTATED


DECISION


CLOSE


BALBOA


SHOPS


Causes Involved

Mostly External

Hard economic facts and factors,
mostly of an external nature, dic-
tated the decision of Canal officials
to close the Balboa Shops of the
Mechanical Division and concen-
trate the shop work in Cristobal.
"The move," according to Captain
Joseph L. Bird, Superintendent, "is
based on sound business principles
by which we must be guided so long
as the Mechanical Division is a
business unit of the Canal organiza-
tion and is required by law to pay
its own way."
While the least interested observer
of, Isthmian affairs of the past few
years easily recognized the require-
ment of force reductions and other
curtailments following the close of
the war, many have failed to realize
that-the precipitate drop in marine
repair work has continued far be-
yond noriial expectations.
The decision to transfer the prin-
cipal shop activities to Cristobal
was not reached in haste nor with-
out full consideration by those
making the decision of the hardships
to many which the action entails.


Because of the wide misunderstand-
ing or lack of knowledge of the
principal factors behind the decision,
Captain Bird was requested to sum-
marize for this employee publication
the underlying causes of the move.
His summary and statement fol-
lows:
"Since the Mechanical Division
receives no supporting appropriated
funds and must earn enough to pay
its own way, the size of the force
and the extent of its activities are
governed solely by the income from
its work. Taken on a year-to-year
basis, most of the income is derived
from sources outside the Canal-Rail-
road organization.
"The division's present low state
of business is the result, in a greater
or lesser degree, of the following
factors.
1. The world wide dollar shortage
which has forced foreign ships to avoid
spending United States currency except
in extreme emergencies. Marine repair
work, of most major maritime nations,
is now being done elsewhere and this
formerly lucrative income is lost, at
least temporarily.
2. The discontinuance of at least two
feeder lines in the coastwise trade
which formerly were based in Cristobal.
3. The loss of Navy repair work due to
the redeployment of these vessels.
4. The replacement of prewar ships
on a major scale which precludes the
necessity of extensive repairs up to the


present. In addition, improved ship
design now permits many more repairs
to be made at sea than were formerly
possible.
5. Wages of skilled workers, based on
U. S. average rates, together with in-
creased cost of materials, bar competi-
tive bidding against foreign shipyards
regardless of the dollar shortage.
6. A general slackening of Panama
Canal activities as well as those of
other major Government agencies on
the Isthmus, which has caused a cor-
responding decrease in the require-
ments for new construction or repair
work.
7. An unfavorable competitive posi-
tion with United States shipyards.
Many factors, not peculiar to the pres-
ent situation, are involved in this. It
is unnecessary to enumerate all of
these, but the major one is the fact
that shipowners cannot afford to inter-
rupt a voyage for any cause except
extreme emergencies because of the
added operational costs.
"Only by the strictest economy
and the fortunate circumstance of
obtaining the Navy work on the fouf
large floating drydocks have more
extensive layoffs or long, enforced
furloughs been avoided up to now.
With the completion of work already
on order and none in sight as replace-
ment, it was not difficult to realize
that a further curtailment of a
drastic nature was inevitable, unless,
as appears unlikely, Congress would
be willing to appropriate (See page 18)


~





THE


PANAMA


CANAL REVIEW


May 5, 1950


Capt.


Swinson, 20Years


Ship


Master,


Heads Staff


imers


on


S. Ancon


captainn David H. Swinson4Mastr, i, fwth

tineg xiting 4ppegs abe rd
the Asco acdrding to the&r&w of
hi ip naA iine shpy Since the
close of her war career as a coqmnand
"'oisi i frtn Moror & to
ship it thi fr.Idtm1 o
Tokyo1 she sibied ifrwa between
New .York and Cistob eyr five
ays in an operation that is as qUiet
axid 6oforxtal as a iniday family
dinner.
The majority of her passengers are
Panama Canal and Railroademnploy-
ees to whom the ship means a pleas-
ant five days of relaxation and good
food at the beginning and end of
visits to their homes in the United
States. If they do not know the
Ancon itself, they may know her by
her similarity to her sister ships, the
Panama and 9istobal.-
ThP t differ only in small
details. Oie distinguishing stamp of


the Aw ncois two groups of 18 Isth-
mian flowers executed in plastic
which decorate the wall of the main
lounge, the mark of Raymond Loew3.
prominent indMstrial edliger, wro
is responsible for the decoration of
all the Panama Line ships and many
well-known modern industrial designs
-I-~~~ ~ _ _ rf I-


Chief Officer William J. Steffens on the bridge.

crew of 128, says that rect scieit
tific developments now in use on the
ship have taken many of the worries
out of skippering the A ncon. Foggy
weather worries have been largely
dispensed with the use of radar. The
use of an electronic development
called loran to find the ship's posi-
tion in rainy or stormy weather has
made the operation still simpler.
Although the Ancon sometimes has
to sit out a storm in the Caribbean,
he says that is seasonal, not pleasant,
but almost routine.


Chief C
adds that
tions that
operation
type that
sea organ
that Pan


officerr William J. Steffens
most of the small tribula-


are a
are
is exp
izatio
ama


part of the Ancon's
administrative-the
)ected in any land or
n. It is his opinion
Line passengers are


less fun-loving in recent years ha
they used to be, but attributes that
to the state of the wortl rather than
anything about the ships.
Seasickness Cure
William ham Schammth Steward,
points out that the dramamine pills
for seasickness have made sailing
still more pleasant, a fact that is


R. T. Dowhs, Purser


tobal,
master
War
work
liers a
Board
shipm
He
in 19
Advan
the Cr
Panan
betwe


and also served as quarter-
r on the old Colon before World
I. From 1917 to 1921, he
d on oil tankers and coal col-..........
nd served on U. S. Shinyiqg
vessels carrying food refel
ents to the Black Sea area.
returned to the Panama Line
21 as third officer on the
Ce, served as chief officer on
istobal, General Gorgas, and the
na Line "lake ships," in service
en New York and Ecuador. In .


1927, he became chief officer on the .4
old Ancon. He has served as master 1
on the old and new Ancon since 1929.

World War II, Captain Swinson
made tWo p fthis oi thes ry
ing troops to Australia. When the
A neon was taken over by the Navy


beu
ser
shi
Af


came a-Navy""1
ved as execute\
ip through the ir
rica. Sicily. and


Lomman er ana
#e officer on the
evasions of North
Salerno. He also


A


-- IllI-




f '


CANAL REVIEW 5


STo The Employees


. .


The appearance of
this paper is an put-
ward manifestation of
the Canal administra-


over


which the Canal administration had no


control.


It is impossible to state unequivocally that these


force reductions will


cease


on a


certain


day of a


problems


ranks


b,


affecting
Canal


ring
Small
and


Railroad employees to


there


ment level below which the Canal and


efficiently.


month nor


even


is an employ-


Railroad
this level


open attention.


By so


doing, it is hoped 'that
a better mutual under-


will be reached by July of this year


nomtc


other


factors


out of


. While


our control


require further reductions of a minor nature after


standing of our mission and a firmer foundation
for our communal living may be gained.
Since no to persons will ever have ideas en
tirety in consonance, free expressions of opinions


the beginning


-expect


of the


new


fiscal


that any personnel


year, I confidently


tirements, resignations, or other separations from


will be welcomed.


An example of this


in the


sers ce.


This


not mean that there will be


problem of housing discussed in this issue.
people like uses built ground level.


like t~ aed.


Some u'ant


(
[,


rambling


structures while their next door neighbors


Some
Others
atry
may


no force reductions in certain


units


where work


must necessarily be curtailed or suspended. On
the other hand, no broad retrenchments are planned


where


"across the board" reductions are in order.


prefer compact and more easily maintained quar-
ters. Alsbto some, low rental is the first con-
sideratim while others would be willing to pay
higher Ftsoa greater conveniences and comfort.
Such ear as of thought exist properly among
intelligent # Ple. On the other hand, all will be
in agrem the general premise that maxi-
mum ea~ iy of opera ml is necessary not only
for the carrying i four basik mission-which


to tranit ships


expeditiously from ocean


ocean-but toinsure the best of ling conditions
for all members of the team.
Sie our organ tion is a self-sustaining one,
and Gertaly we wan a take pride in that fact,
itfollows that ifftiencies must in every case be


paid for is csh by individual employees.
is no altertive. ,
The l-F road organization ha


There

been


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW will


medium of


which


expression


indi


, taken together formulate


vidual
public


serve


as a


opinions,
opinion.


You are invited to participate itt discussions and
to submit comments you believe will be helpful


Mere criticisms,


course, can


serve


no useful


purpose but suggestions for improvement will be
carefully considered. "Whenever practicable your
letters will be published or answered individually.
Questions or problems not relating to a relatively
large group nor of general interest have no place
in suck a public forum and it will be impossible


enter


into


abstruse issues.


nm.


lengthy


debates


T is publication is designed to give youm a
better understanding of our common problems. A
failure in this objective will not be the result of a
desire to mislead or misinform you.


under great fllss *Ia the dse ofkthe uar by
continued red cti in i4ce Tbhe reduction has
ha OrAtly ~ ..r i rtk h.. af. -


/i


r% a.


;I ;"i" ; 'C


lion


desire


possible to say, however


a certain month of the year.


could not operate


I believe


eco-
may


accommodated


losses


normal


after that time


attrition-re-


involved


THE PANAMA


_ > *


{' A.'''--A--




THE PANAMA CANAl. REVIEW


Mby 5, 195(
-i 1 I rn I IB


REDUCTIONS


0


TO


Bottom Force Level
Expected By


July


The leveling off of the Canal-Railroad force wi
bring to an end a 12-year cycle of abnormal 'empoy
ment conditions on the Isthmus, the most disturbing


Governor Foresees Leveling-Off Point For Canal-
Railroad Organization
The downward trend of the Canal-Railroad forces
which has continued almost steadily for more than five
years is expected to level off during the first part of the
fiscal year 1951 and there presently seems little like-
lihood that employees in permanent positions at the
end of June will receive force reduction notices.
This word is contained in a special message to em-
ployees from the Governor carried on another page of
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW.
There will be a further shrinking of the total force
but there seems little doubt now that this can be accom-
plished by normal attrition. The bed-rock level below
which the Governor believes the Canal and Railroad
could not operate with efficiency may not be reached for
several months after the beginning of the new fiscal
year in July. The normal force turnover and rate of
separations will permit a gradual lowering of employ-
ment levels by the consolidation of work and failure to
make replacements of personnel.
Actually, according to an announcement at the
Personnel Division offices, practically all U. S.-rate
.employees to be affected by force reductions have
already been notified or will be by May 31. Further
reductions may be expected in the local-rate personnel
since these generally lag behind force reductions among
supervisory personnel.,
Although giving assurance that no further major
reductions are expected after the beginning of the
fiscal year 1951, the Governor makes clear in his state-
ment that isolated reductions of a minor nature may be
necessary after that date caused by normal reduced
work loads or cessation of work of a seasonal nature..
The latest force report, dated March 31, showedta
total of 4,584 full-time U. S.-rate employees and 15,018
full-time employees on the local-rate rolls. These figures
represent declines of 317 and 1,837, respectively, from
the March 31, 1949, report. The full-time, permanent
forcetoday roughly parallels that of December 1939
shortly after the force increase was begun for defense
projects and the Third Locks work.


42000-


and disruptive of which have nat ura
the past five years when the major sh
In many respects the past eight-year
to that from 1912 to 1920 when the
construction period of the Canal ti
and maintenance was accomplished.


Ily occurred during
rinkage took place.
period was similar
transition from the
o one of operation


The Canal-Railroad force was built up from a normal
1938 level of 13,800 for operation and maintenance to a


wartime peak of 38,000 full-time employees in
After the suspension of the Third Locks program
the completion of several defense projects there


gradual decrease in personnel. This red'
barely noticeable because the manpower der
time provided ample jobs for all on the Isti
with the Canal or other-Government agency'
the Canal curtailment of force at that time,
large and when the war ended in August
32,000 full-time employees were still on the
The first serious paring of force occurred
the close of the war whei many of those
construction activities or in the Mlechanic
shops were released. Since then the reductic
on a more gradual scale and some slight for
have even occurred as a result of such extra


uctio
nand
Imus


1942.
m and
was a
n was
at the
either


es. Despite
it remained
1945 nearly
rolls.
I soon after
engaged in
al Division
an has been
ce increases
work as the


overhaul of the locks and the lsthmian Canal Studies
of 1947.
The final wave of cutbacks of the past few months


which has. affected almost all units h
pronounced than others pccuring since
been more noticeable because the lack, of employment opportun
Government agencies on the Isth m us.


ias b
:e the
small
ities
While


een no more
war but has
er force and
with other
le reductions


of the past eight months have'affected all large
those hardest hit have been-tlie Mechanical I
the Panama Railroad, Conimissary Division.
SDepartnment, and Division of Storehouses.
The reductions this fiscal year -are largely tU
of decreased business activities of Canal and I
units induced by force reductions and curtailed


re units,
division ,
Health

ie result
Railroad
d activi-


ties in other Government agencies. A major con-
tributing cause also was the precipitate decline in
marine repair work for the NMechanical Division.
The heavy reductions required (Continued on next page)


_ ---I --1-1' -I '- L -L1~L~-


II ~~ ~ ~ Ill Illl I IlI I 17


-


*X


* **





May 5, 0


THE PANMA CANAL REVIEW


A: Official P4aaa malt ublkcath
SPublished Quarterly at
BJLBOA IEIGWF, Ca Ai ZONEK


EDITOR'S iNO TE I7

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW is
published wih the primary objective
of giving all employees a better under-


standing


problems


ONLY 1905 VETERAN


affecting


On sale at cmr
and hotels. t the na
cents a copy.


The printing of this pu blcation hea
been approved by the Director of the
Budget on March 9, 195.
FOLD AND MAIL
This copy of r PAAMA CANAL
Evixw folded twice crosswise fits
easily Into a business sie envelope,
and may be, waited anywhere in
the Postal Untion for six cents.

THE BZI FLAG
The fla (front page heading shown
In inat- ii tR ) of -FEE PANAMA
CANAL RREV EW as defined by John


C. uechele,
Division.


eting


considerable number. Published, quar-
terly, it will not bera newspaper in the
strict sense of that term, although much
it contains may be new and therefore


e ws to a


percentage


readers. To an extent it will supple-
ment the news and supply you with
more details of news you already know.
No general coverage of local news is
planned, but future issues may contain
more items of current interest than the
first issue.


obvious reasons, the


REVIEW


must remain in an experimental stage


some timne to come.


LEflRRS TO THZ EDITOR
Letter. coinig inquiries, sufw-
tbona, criticism or opinions ofa general
ature wil be ed. In a ase
possible, lettes9 to thep RtIaW will be
answered individually. Thou of suf-
dent general Interest will be published
in this paper. Letters must be authen-
.tic and be signed although signatures
will not be published unless requested
fdential. Return address should be
given but the Riviuw will not under-
- .^ jj ,L J k i -^ *^.^a.~j ij^ -^ j.:::::***:.^- -. -d-^ :^ j, ^^ S^XSSSJ^ :: l ^l *:J-il -Ll~


n-awtu


format will likely


change


While the
little, the


first issue is no strait jacket for sue-


ceeding


numbers.


For this


reason,


your suggestions and opinions, critical
or otherwise, will be welcomed. If you
like the REVIE or do not Uke it, write


a letter o the editor.


easily changed than a majority opin-


William Jump, who has been em-
ployed as a timekeeper in the
Mechanical Division for the past 34
years, has one of the most distinctive


records of


Canal


or Railroad


employee.
He is the oldest native son of the.
Canal Zone territory, being born at


Gorgona while the
Colombian territory.


town


was still


Another distinction he holds-is the


longest service record
ployee on the U. S.-r;


recently


celebrated


secutive service year.


of ate rolls. He
is 45th cosb-
He was first


employed February 20, 1905. HI
has an unbroken service record since


January 22,


1907.


He is one of the very few ever to


achieve a


45-year record


Canal enterprise.


Reductions


*-M ."R| .s


(Conit from ~is pay) in


themajor o


and bu. nass u uits of the Cana dlt a downhill snowball
effect :d: other sby a reduction of their wlk Ida
and the "bumping" of employees. It was not ps-
common for the force reduction of one eriployee to
result in personnel displacement in tour o five other


units.


At one


time


during the


war rthe !ersonel


Di vin i r as aveage of one "semie
worker was required for every five employed in business
* :. -. -: h


'SW a wy:.


and operations


units.


The inverse


ratio, naturally


holds true in force reductions.
The uncertainty of job security for several thousands
of Canal and Railroad workers during the past five
years has been recognized by Canao officials as biig
the emot disruptive factor to the organization and
employee morale -of th e post war years. On the con-
tray, th reassuring statement by the Governor thit
the evellig off point is at hand will aliay the fears of
hundreds over whom aive hung the specter of a re-
diuticn notice for many months,


It can be more


~..... --


'": d


.. f-, I '::


I


. I .: .*./ '": *


S**lfjr-j Mil





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


May 5, 1950


NEWS OF YOUR COMMISSARIES


ELECTRIC REFRIGERATOR DEVELOPMENTS
Last December (just in tie hk tmnas use by a number of
lucky customers) saw the sle 0 the Commissary Divi-
sion's stocks of Westinghcuse c* kigerators. Considerably
before thein however, efforts were he made to obtain further
supplies, preferably of a new type box with a larger frozen food
space than had theretofore been available for operation on25-cycle
current. Negotiations have continued through the months with
the result that the Westinghouse Eltric Company has finally
agreed to develop .especially or sale in the Canal Zone; a modern
refrigerator of 8.44 cubic feet storage paity, having a freeze
chest entirely acras the top with s~ace for 59 pounds of frozen
storage, two Iumidrawers fo vegetab storage, and a special
space, fkepineg half-pound lfbutter tady for easy spreading.
irsts li tf the new boxs ted to hach the Isthmus
Stidelsx months. "' *
Main trouble in locating a satishetry sipplyit i tth adifulty
of getting new units fort S yte rationo, in connectic 9 ith
which the Westii:ouse ae stated "since 25-cycle has
ceased to exist in the United States we must consider any rquestsv
for new 25-cyle eqtiipent as eria"l Elal for the Panama Rail-
road Company. You w t tie My cstomefin the world, at
the present time, desiring this typ of equipment.
4 *


I FINE LINEN DAMASK


Linen coth; the use of which ih
to royalty, has been used by man
Cloth of remarkable fineness has
tombs excavated in Egypt, where,
of weaving was practiced only bf
Ireland by the Romans, or evei
Phoenicians as is claimed by some
manufactured in the Emerald Isle
Fine damask table linens, gliste
represent argenuine valuein today


s known to have been restricted
as far back as we have records.
been found in the most ancient
in the pre-Christian era, the art
y the men. Whether carried to
n earlier by the far-wandering
historians, fine linens have been
. for many centuries.
ning white, nearly imperishable,
ky's market in the Commissary.


Whether for festive occasions in your own home here inrhe Zone,;--
or for the "hope" chest to be used in the little retirement home
you're planning for the States or as a lasting gift zt:the id
to-be, the purchase of table linens at this time may be considered
as a true investment. Present Commissary stocks range from
luncheon isizeicloths, 54 inches square with six napkins. to banquet
size dlpths, 72 inches by 144 inches, with a dozen napkins, in prices
ranging from $12.45 to $43.90.
S* * *
June brings graduation and brides. Graduation time to many
is when they get that first fine watch. New 1950 styles of Benrus
watches, for ladies and gentleman, will be on sale in time for use
as June gifts.


MOTHER'S l MYay
14, will call for a special
treat for Zbone mota
Specially boxed lsats
by Whitman, Page an
Shaw, and Loet and Co
vel will beavail4Ele at
the appropriat tix If
mioter is not on the Ist
mus, we suggest flowers or
a potted plant, through
our Florists' Telegraph
Delivery Service. Olers
placed prior to May S can
be handled by airmail;
lti up to the noon
closing of May 10, would
have to be handled by
cablegram. See the man-
ager of your favorite Com-
-
'"' :


* 4*


omeof o have asked when the Caiutpi l apin have
the Doton Hunting and Coarhing pattertineware which
were once so popular locally. Not enacor-apgs thse who have
incomplete sets, the supplier answers that tts have been
discontinued and will not be available in fiutu .
S ."
Milk is an essential part of every ch's diet. The average
child should receive a pint and a half daily. mSoe children grow
best if they receive a auart a day, some if they receive only a


I


Zonians who were here
before the late war will
undoubtedly recall the
delicious Jacobs Cream
Crackers which were im-
ported from England in
thosetlays. They're again
available for export and,
a small supply having just
been ordered to permit of
a sampling of customer
reactions, should again be
in the retail stores within
a month or so. Packed in
soldered tins the crackers
will open up fresh and
crisp.


1* *


Si n e current alterations -
------- at Balbb& Cb totlaf,"
although scheduled so as to cause the least possible annoyance to
the trade, have resulted in considerable inconvenience to Com-
inissy shoppers while the work was in progress. The friendly
attitude and iteres of then r stores Shopern i ti E
cited. A new bakery section with bleached birch fixtures and
fluorescent lighting has been added; existing counters and shelves
elsewhere in the store are being refinished in the popular bleached
mahogany shade and rearranged formaimum h l
lence. Walls of the lower floor are being refinished in a restful le .
green c1lor. When thepresent alterations are


WILT THE LABEL MRANS
EG S-"CONSUMER GRADE A" ia
I Coisar eggsare purchased from large egg producers in he area
'earbrto New York City under the following rid specihcations; all
rec ie bgcvered iby U S Department of ricultire infections
,mad not more than 12 hours prior to time of shipment: Eaciudivid-
Safe gsha a :U. ConsumerGrade Aand mustConsist
of edible es a of which at least 80% are "A" Quality or better; 15%
may be of B Quality and not more than 5% maybe of qualities
below vB." On April 3, the Department of Agiculture Official Grader
at Pife Beah, N Jersey, graded a lot of 100 cases. These eggs.
delivered to SS. Uroba on April.S were received at the Canal Zone
*Aprila10 and all were sold by the following Monday. The official grad-
ng cetificate furnished to the Commissary Division by the Depart-
ment hof A culture showed that 16.67% were "AA," 7933% A,"
3.67% B anmd 0.33% were checks (cracks visible only before the
handling light). The grading certificate further stated that the eggs
wer f rihura~U. S. Grade A Large, shell treated after inspec-
t. wa not an unusual lot of eggs, but is representative of the
standard, quality, and freshness of all eggs supplied Commissary cus-
tomers under the "Consumer Grade A" label as every lot is similarly
inspectd.


:




Al: :;.K~:" B "


iay 5, 1950


THE rNAMAM CANAL -REVIEW


HOUSING PLMI A PIIOY


*(Conanued from page: 1) any loyal,
S* :eaneprit e loyee qlav o live
;"ider sub-standardN odteics. "
Despite this strong support of the
Caal admninistratins stand onr per-
manent housiiig n;ffunds were sub-
sequently made available in suliffi-
0dent amount to maintain more than
a minor replacement schedule.
On his first visit to Washington to
defend the Canal budget after taking
office, Governor Newcomer was re-
quested to eliminate a $1,000,000
item for quarters replacement fromrn
his proposed budget because of the
Government retrenchment program.
Ona his appearance before the
Bureau of the Budget in 1948, he
was requested to prepare a long-
range, overall housing program which
could be considered.


On the basis of this request,
detailed plans for a 10-year schedule
of replacement and construction
were prepared under the direction of
L. W. Lewis, Chief Quartermaster.
This was subsequently reviewed by
Donald M. Alstrup, housing expert
. of the Federal Housing Administra-
tion, who, ina memory tto the
Governor in May of last year agreed
with the main premises of the Teare
report and approved the program


Proposed by thie Chief ut-
masteE.r. *,


y o of your present
housmin accomodations," Mi. Al-
st~p wrote diates a ery urgent
need : for a program to provide for
the construction of new units, dem-
olition of some umits, and remodeling
of others. Ibelieve the scope of the
program expressed in numbers of
tnits t be so provided to b very -
reasonable.'
Srepo was forwarded to the
Breau of the Budget last July and
on Governor Newc mer's visit to
4' -


W intfona la.aisUcttober Budget
Bar qhic quest tht. he
i ther oram to review by
SImpitent and 2iEdepnendet con-
sultants. The consulting services of
Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill were
obtained immediately thereafter.
Their report, submitted last Feb-
II. i L._. L


n1 bulinag hfpr^ inimarily .in
demdrition, sjit preparation, and re-
modeling work, with no major
cxpansqo M: the force. Building
materials for work done by" the
Canal and under contract will be
furnished by the Canal;
The report of Skidmore, Owings,
and Merrill expressed confidence in
the ability of any one of several
Isthmian contractors to perform the
work. "We interviewed several of
them" (local contractors), the report
stated, "and examined their plants
and equipment. We also observed
work whieh they had done or were in


---1


'I.
7 1-4
i^------a


TYPE 323 COTTAGE, among the first built in the experimental masonry quarters
erected at Diablo Heights and Margarita, was described as well planned. The floor
plan of the house and a picture of one of the new cottages at Diablo Heights are shown
above.


the process of doing. As a result, we
feel that these local contractors are
well qualified to perform the work
contemplated."
The consulting firm expressed the
belief that masonry construction
would be more desirable than com-
posite type in all permanent com-
munities. The consultants also urged
the use of tile instead of metal roofs,
if at all practicable and within per-
fdssible costs. They advised a tele-
scopng of the program somewhat
anCd proposed the development and
standardization of a few types of
uses.
Local-i~te Houses Praised
Of the local-rate houses already in
use, the consultants praised the
Type IS7 at Camp Coiner and Type
13X at Paraiso as "compact, liable
houses-not overdesigned architec-
turally, structurally, or mechan-
ically."
They recommended, however, the
ahandnnmentn nf Tvne 1727 12R and


now almost universally used in the
Canal quarters, was a subject of dis-
cussion in the report.
"With few notable exceptions," it
was stated, "we feel that architec-
turally, the general house designs are
based on a tradition of construction
camp architecture which has little to
offer design-wise in a permanent
community. We feel that little has
been gained in the adaptation of this
wooden type of architecture to ma-
sonry construction and feel that this
design should be abandoned."
In the place of the "stilt" type of
construction, the consultants pro-
posed the adaptation of house plans
similar to those used in the new Type
323 at Diablo Heights and Marga-
rita, a one-family house built at


ground level. They also
consideration of a wholly
of masonry house and su
floor plan. The proposed,
vides for a separation of
cfnnrp fr-nm dri h,-rlnrrm


suggested
new type
bmitted a
plan pro-
the living
r-n I .r.nao


~ I ilf Y__ i i i I


__ I __1 ~~___X_


j:


---





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


May 5,


1950


Operations

by


The
since 15
Panama
road C
exception


first
)14


fundamental


generally


Canal and
company uni
n of those i


change


affecting all
Panama Rail-
ts, wfth the
n the United


States, will take place July 1.
The change will bring a re-
alignment of functions, particularly


among
improve


operations. units,


operating


EXECUTIVE


efficiency


be required ain some units, while in
others the realignment will be on ia
major seale.
Generally, these regroupings will
be made in the.aresent division


levels and the most changes
occur in the Operations Unit. (


will
Comn-


posing this group will be seven main
bureaus: Health, Public Affairs,
Marine, Engineering and Construc-


ASSISTANT


for


July


, and Military Assistant.


The reorganization will bring prac-


tically


functions


which


no change


in the work or


of the five Staff


are: Management


Units,


Division


(presently the Plans Section)


Division, Civil


Safet:
ants


1, Branch
and Boa


importance


PUBLIC AFFAIRS


I intelligence Branch,
, and Special Assist-
rds. No changes of


will be made

DIRECTOR


in the


Ernst A. Erbe, who becomes Executive Assistant to the Governor-
President, with the reorganization, has a detailed knowledge
of the Canal and Railroad. One of the oldest employees mn
point of service, he has served as Special Assistant to the


Governor for the past 11 years. His new job is to define and
carry out policies of internal administration and coordination.


COMMUNITY


SERVICES


DIlRECTOR


Colonel 'Richardson Selee. tired. will assume his thid tp piB
with the Canal-Railroad when he becomes Public Affairs


Director.


He served three years


as Assistant Engineer of


Maintenance before his appointment in August 1948 as
Assistant to the neraManager ot u
Most of the important units to be under his supervision are
presently in the Executive Department, headed by E. C. .
Lombard, Eecutive Secretary (left) with oh
conferring in the above picture. I


PERSONNEL


DIRECTOR


-1 -


Redorganization


Affected


Slated


President


S.n
ii
IL


__*.I _i~_ ~__~~1_ 1_11_


L


A-


j






AShy $WO


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ORGANIZATION


EFFECTIVE JULY


PANAMA CANAL


CHART


1950


THE PANAMA RAILROAD Co.


GOVERNOR'S OFFICE

F. K. NEWCOMER
Governor- President


E. C. LOMBARD
Executive Secretary
The Panama Canal


HERBERT D.


VOGEL


Lieutenant Governor and
Second Vice President
**


E, A. ERBE


Executive Assistant
to Governor-President


STAFF


ADMINISTRATION


OPERATIONS


I I


LAW
DIVISION
PAUL A. DENTZ
General Canal


MANAGEMENT
DIVISION
w. H. DUNLOP
GA'


SAFETY
BRANCH
G. O. KELLAR
Chief


CIVIL
INTELLIGENCE
BRANCH
STANTON BROWN
Chief


SPECIAL
ASSISTANTS
and
BOARDS


MAGISTRATES
COURTS

Balboa
RALPH A. CHITTICK
Cristobal
E. I. P. TATELMAN


ADMINISTRATIVE
BRANCH!


P. F. SHRAPNEL
Chief


FINANCE
BUREAU


ARNOLD BRUCKNER
Director


PERSONNEL
BUREAU


E. A. DOOLAN
Director


HEALTH
BUREAU

Major General
GEORGE W. RICE
riirortt-rr


PUBLIC AFFAIRS
BUREAU

Colonel
RICHARDSON SELEE
(Rer.I


I I


MARINE
BUREAU

Captain
ROBERT M. PEACHER
U.S.N.


ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU

Colonel
HOWARD KER,
[Dirwt


I *


| - l1 iI Il i., I_ II I


.": . /
e ^ :
,^i *-ti:''




THE\PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


May 5, 1950


Hundreds


Benefit


By


In-Service


raining


Apprenticeships

Offered In 1906

To Aid C. Z. Boys
Tor


Liberally sprinkled thr
iCanal-Railroad organize
many employees holding h
yisory or other responsible
woho owe much in their adv
fto in-service or on-the-job
Among these are one
Department chief, heads of
jor divisions, and the sec
third-in-command of sevr
large units.
While no exact figures
able, it is conservatively
several hundred employ
received such training an


ough the
actionn are
igh super-
positions
ancement
training.
assistant
two ma-
:ond- and
?ral other
are avail-
estimated
ees have
d a large


percentage of these have completed
Formal courses of instruction. In
jsone unite, notably the Police and
iFire Division, all employees are re-
:quired by the nature of their work to
take certain traiig on the job. In
most instances, however, in-service
training is offered on a voluntary
basis for those desiring to learn their
own jobs better as a preparatory step
for promotion.
The overall in-service training pro-
gram of the Canal-Railroad is none
Itoo well known among the rank and
file of employees because of sporadic
publicity given various phases which
Share of interest in each limited field.
However, interest is always highly
manifest among employees eligible
for any given program and generally
there is an abundance of applicants
when selections for such training are
masdc a competitive basis.
The Canal has generally kept
abreast of other Government agen-
cies in providing opportunities for
advancement by this method and
plans are being formulated for an
extension of in-service training.
Doolan Favors Training
Because of his several years as
Training Officer in the Personnel
Division, Edward A. Doolan, who
Becomes Persnnel Director on July


Harry A. Metzler, Constructing Quartermaster (let), and Car l7BiMwne
constructing Quartermaster, both are graduates of the student engineer trainngf
1930's. F R. Johnson, Second Assistant Chief Quartermaster, who supervises the
Building Division, and Edmund R. MacVittie Building Division Superintendent on the
Atlantic Side. also are former Student Engineers.


OLD SCHOOL APPRENTICE


Vincent G. Raymond, Leadingman Ma-


NEW SCHOOL APPRENTICE


B. I. Everson. Superntendent of tor






.May 5,
*s ''" "". *' ^'*'*

.. *< I :


V
- t


MA


CANAL


REVIEW


19i THE PANA

Hundreds Benefit By IService


' v .


",!


W. A. Van Siclen, Superintendent of the
Atlantic Locks, has the distinction of being a
graduate of both the apprentice and student
engineer training. He was born and reared
in the Canal Zone.


(Continued jromt age 12) nonetheless
important form of training was pro-
vided by the employmen&ofthesons
of American employees with the
rating of "boy" n various types of
work.
SMaily of the oldtimiers some of
who~ .rose to top pospiond" the
Canal and Railoa, e fit
emupvlP y : apprentices or 'bo) s"
and recent. w 4ith .t-ainiig the
thn Vpricel s, gotu
an hour. i r
Sotrthady of thbews i serv-
ice, but Vincent G. Raymond,
Leadingman Machinist in the Me-
chaafral Thaosi6 and, Atphi&
Gibson, Refrigeration Engineer in
atho the et aree oth
graduaites l the appientice training
of te construction era. Mr. Ray-
m nh~s app rentiieship


program


Gibson beg,
twice course
The app
Mechanical
during the
the lack of
force. Scho
in 1925 bu
tices were


was authorized, am


an his four-year appren-
December 15, 1910.
rentice program in the
Division almost lapsed
early 1920's because of
work and reductions in
ol work was discontinued
t by 1933 more appren-
being employed. The


grams were
abandoned


V
. '
:4 -1


war.
one o
work
prese
was
gram
after


Andkw A. Whitlock, Production Superin-
tendent of the Mechanical Division, is a
former student and instructor in apprentice
training. He began his apprentice training
in August '1924 and was later made
apprentice-coordinator when the program
was reorganized in 1935.

ees, which have been highly
productive of top supervisory and
administrative personnel
Among these were the Siudent
Engineer Tiaining program; an in-
tensive in-service training program
for supervisory and sales personnel
6f the Commissary Division; and
learnerships in such vocations as
timekeeping, accounting, storekeep-
ing, typing, clerical work, and for
such employees as motion picture
operator, telephone operator, mes-
senif, and pdstal clerk.
:the student engineer program was
inaugurated with the objective of
emnployrig yong grad date"ngineers
for two years of training and possible
selection for administrative work:
The ogram was continued until the
outb~e cif: World War 0 at which
time 57 student engineers had been
employed or were in training with
various divisions. :
Both F. R. Johnson, Second As-
sistant Chief Quartermaster, and
Harry, A. Metzler, Constructing
Quarternaster, were student engi-
neer trainees.
Many Student Engineers
Others itnciude W. A. Van Siclen.


It is
f great
was or
nted d
the su
organi
his aj


Officer in 1
the specific


ployees urgently needed
visors in the rapidly.
organization. The trainii
ence method was adopted
20 groups were formed
than 325 employees from
trical, Mechanical, Police


as super-
expanding
ng confer-
and about
with more
the Elec-
and Fire,


and Building Divisions, the Panama
Canal Clubhouses, and the Division
of Storehouses.
A similar supervisory training has
been established since the war in the
Mechanical Division with Leonard
Brockman as Training Officer. It
has proved so successful that Cap-
tain Joseph L. Bird, Superintendent,.
calls it "the best thing that ever
happened". in the Mechanical Divi7
sion. ::
Indicative of the response to in-
service training was the voluntaryA
attendance of, more than 60 nomn
supervisory employees of the Me-i
chanical Division at a series of
lectures on Job Relationship pre-
sented by Mr. Brockman recently.
*' ^ - 's *^-*: ^ ^ I^1 1 T


Reve ConSary program
The CommissaryDivison is pres-
ently reviving its employee training
program which was badly upset by
the expanding force and personnel
changes during the immediate pre-
war and war years. The new pro-
gram will be based to a great extent
on that of 15 years ago when R. A.
Sullivan, Assistant General Mana-


ger, was transferred from the Schools
Division as Training Officer. Vincent
T. Clarke, General Manager, has


N(""i A l


Training


organization to have completed both
courses.
B. I. Everson, Superintendent of
the Motor Ti-ansportation Division,
completed an apprenticeship with
the Canal. He is one of several
Canal Zone boys to have begun his
climb to a top job with apprentice
training.
Most of the in-service training pro-


disrupted and all but
at the begnning of the
notable, however, that
importance to the Canal
ganized and successfully
during this period. This
pervisory training pro-
zed by M r. Doolan soon
)pointment as Training
)43. It was initiated for
purpose of training em-


'*" I
.. '' .




PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


*May 5, 1950


FI


Clubhouses Offer Customers

Many New Features


Several in
made in the
houses within


ovations
Panama
recent


have
Canal
weeks


been
Club-
which


have proved highly popular Ths
introduction l of new features as well


as new entertainment


the genera


policy


is in line with


to present


finest available.
Sheet Music and Records


Phonograph records of


the most


popular brands are sold at Ancon,
Balboa, Cristobal, Cocoli, and Mar-
garita Clubhouses. Sheet music and
music olioss are sold at Balboa, Cris-
tobal, and Mairgarita. A careful
check is kept on the entertainment


world'


s bible-Billboard Magazine--


and records and popular sheet music
are carefully evaluated for sale based
on the 15 top-selling tunes or records


in the United


States.


Clubhouse


patrons are thereby kept informed
as to what is currently successful in
the Urited States and are able to
keep up with both the new and old
favorites. Should you have a favor-
ite tune or desire a particular piano
or other solo, arrangements can be
made through your Clubhouse for
purchase and delivery of such mate-

Rental Library


At Margarita and


Balboa Club-


Clifton Webb. appearing
twelve children in the film


as the father of
version of the


human interest best-seller "Cheaper By the
Dozen," coming soon to the Clubhouse
Theatres, states he is glad to have a rest
from Belvedere roles.
"People were beginning to take Belvedere
too seriously," he claims. "Mothers were
using his name to threaten naughty children.
I've received hundreds of letters from people
tw IW tha.twhen their children became
difficult, all they have to do is say, 'I'm
going to send for Mr. Belvedere.'
"The part of Dad in my first Technicolor
movie, 'Cheaper By The Dozen' is a wel-


come change. Belvedere w
very acidulous and precise.


as human, but
Now I am a


warm, likeable person throughout the story,
though still definitely a character."
Webb's studio, Twentieth Century-Fox,
however, feels quite differently about Mr.
Belvedere, and at the moment has writers
at work on three new Belvedere scripts.
And even Webb isntvery pleased with his
next assignment, "Mr. Belvedere Takes The
Rap." "It's a fine story," he says. "I play
the only holdout on a jury who is eleven to
one for conviction. After the jurors are dis-
charged, I set out to prove I was right.
"But," he adds, "after this film, I want
to play a really despicable character, some-
one everybody will hate."
That statement seems ironic in view of
the fact that Webb's next role might actu-
ally be a portrayal of himself in a movie
based on his life.


For Webb's


life has been as colorful


almost any film script. At the age of seven,
he was playing with the Children's Theater
in New York, and at seventeen he was sing-
ing in grand opera. A few years later, he
was one of the nation's foremost dancers,
achieving such success that he was com-
pared only with Vernon Castle. Migrating
to musical comedy, for more than a decade
he was a Broadway star in such shows as
'Treasure Girl" with Gertrude Lawrence,


* sCLILTDL
"She's My Baby" with Beatrice Lillie, and
"As Thousands Cheer," With Fred Allen
and Libby Holman, he formed the team that


made. Broadway history in the famous
"Little Shows" and "Three's A Crowd."
Varying dramatic with dancing roles, he
scored in such stage successes as Meet The
Wife," "The Man Who Came To Dinner,"
and "Blithe Spirit."
Coming to Hollywood, Webb starred in
pictures like "Laura" and "The Razor's


Edge," before he helped to add a new phrase
to the English language, "Mr. Belvedere."
Many people in Hollywood and on Broad-
way are convinced that the story of Clifton
Webb would make as exciting a movie as
"The Jolson Story." And Webb, with typi-
cal Belvedere assurance, counts himself en-
thusiastically in their number. He has
already finished his autobiography, and
Darryl F. Zanuck has been quick to take
an oOtion on it for movie purposes.


houses will be found in the magazine
section a large library of best-selling
fiction and other -bioks. New books


are carefully


chosen


a natron-


JOHN


GARFIELD


PLAYS


SAFE,


wide rental library distributor in the
United States who acts as our agent
and ships books to the Canal Zone.
Should there appear to be a dull
evening ahead of you, it is suggested
that you drop into Balboa or Mar-
garita Clubhouse, get a library card
from the manager, and avail yourself
of these interesting best sellers.


MAKES FRIEI

The habit of cultivating a friend-even
though he happens to be a horse-paid lib-
eral dividends for John Garfield, star of
"Under My Skin," scheduled for release in
May at the Balboa Theatre.
During the filming of the picture, Garfield
who plays the part of a shady jockey, was


hND


OF


HORSE


had started several weeks before going to
the stable to feed the animal carrots.
"I figured it would be a lot safer," said
Gartield, "if I made up to him. After all,
like any prospective bridegroom, it seem
the way m a hams's heart is through his
stomach."


X. XC


^V' ^^'^TI


EST


((]
i 'i i ni


r


i





May 5, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


Captain Swinson, 20 Years A Ship Master,
Heads Staff of Old-Timers on S. S. Ancon


Clubhouses


Provide


Variety


IContinued jrom page 4j
Nautical School in
spent about a year o
ports between New Y
He served as junior
American Line on
New York, France,
and from 1924 to 1.
the Munson Line on
New York-South Am
1926, he acquired a
after, a job with tha
which provided mor


York
1918 and
)n Army
ork and F
officer f(
ships be
and Ger
926 work
i vessels
erica track
wife and
e Panama
:e regular


back and forth to his hom
York. During World WV
served as a Navy comm
ships in both the Atlantic
atic War theaters. He re
the Panama Line in March
came out with the Ancon
became a civilian ship.
William Schwamm, Chiel
is the man who is largely re
for the general comfort of
and the food which me
almost universal approval
sengers on the Ancon.


exacting


man


that good food is
products that go


e ir
ar


State
then
trans-
rance.
or the
tween
many,
ed for
in the
le. In
I soon
SLine
r runs
i New
II, he


ander on
and Asi-
turned to
1946 and
when she


i Steward,
?sponsible
travelers
'ets with
I of pas-
He is an


In


Services,


The Division of Clubhouses main-
tains that "it's fun to serve the com-
munity." This attitude has built up
in recent years and will be even more
evident in the future, A partial box
score ofithis team, as revealed by the
Director of Clubhouses in a recent
interview, follows:
The Clubhouse Division, employ-
ing some 1,100 persons, is an entirely


joined the Panama Line the follow-
ing year. He was employed on
United Fruit ships from 1931 to 1938
when he returned to the Ancon. He
served on the Cristobal from 1941 to
1946, through its service as an Army
transport, and returned to the Ancon
when she reverted to civilian status
after World War II.


lo makes it plain
no accident. The
into meals on the


A neon are first quality and
be no question about it, he
If his order calls for 300
roasting chicken, 12 to a
44 pounds each, fresh, fro
Grade A (a typical order),
tion from those standard
cepted. Everything is
before it is taken aboard <
r ~~. - _ _


quality
Returned
From
must be

celebrate


he has c


there can
explains.
pounds of


box
zen
no
s a
ins]
and


;, 4 to

varia f
re ac-
pected
if the


is not tmat spetiedat itI is
to the sdl.er' .
there n out, the cooking
right, and that operation is
lands of Carl Beinert who
rd in April, 49 years as a
0tels and aboard ships. He
mlcig the persons for whom
ooked in those years, many


Chief Engineer Malcolm I. Gatheral

Chief Engineer Malcolm I. Gath-
eral is .a native of Scotland and
served an apprenticeship as a ma-
chinist in Edinburgh before coming


to th
wen t
Pana
wen t
servi
ships
Been
since
nI.


.



..A


ie United States
to sea about a yi
ma-Pacific Line
to the Americar
ng as assistant eni
in the lMediterr,
employed by tht
1937.
r^ --3 -. L


in 1923. He
ear later on the
and in 1928,
i E\port Line,
gineer on cruise
anean. He has
e Panama Linie


Entertainment
self-supporting agency operating on
revenues received from the sale of
goods and services to government
employees and their families. Dur-
ing the period 1940 to mid-1945, the
population of the Zone was at its
peak, and all agencies, including the
Clubhouses, operated at full capac-
ity. As a result income soared to
unprecedented heights and profits
accumulated proportionately. A com-
prehensive program of rebuilding
and improvement to existing Club-
house facilities and the construction
of new projects was subsequently
undertaken with surplus funds accu-
mulated during the period of pros-
perity.
Visible evidence of Clubhouse im-
provements is to be found first of all
in the Balboa Theater, where Zone
residents may now" enjoy the finest
in motion picture entertainment
under the most satisfying conditions.
The Pacific Bakery at La Boca was
constructed to permit centralization
of all Clubhouse baking on the Paci-
fic side. Froni it flows a steady
stream of delicious pastries and light
fluffy bread. The interiors of Balboa
Ancon, Pacific, Camp Bierd, and
Cristobal Clubhouses were remod-
eled and beautified, and the kitchens
were modernized, combining more
attractive surroundings with the
demand for an efficient operation.
The Clubhouse Division is also
very proud of the fact that the sur-
plus realized during the busy war
years has enabled it to assist all Zone
Communities. Some of the improve-
ments already accomplished are the
night-lighting facilities at the Balboa
and the Moufit Hope Stadiums;
installation of barbecue (See page 18i
r -_-


h


IL*lllll 1





PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


May 5,1950


Within another few months, less
than 100 Canal and Railroad employ-
ees who came to the Isthmus from
the United States during the Canal
construction period will remain in
service.
The past year saw the number
almost halved and 11 names were
dropped from the rolls during the
first quarter of this year. There are
now only 106 in service and of these
only 27 have unbroken service rec-
ords and .only 47 hold the famous
Roosevelt Medals, given for two or


more


years


continuous


service


LONGEST SERVICE


EM PLOWED


IN 1907


before April 14, 1914. The list con-
tained 182 names just one year ago.
This honor roll of old-timers now


contains


no riamres


came to the Isthmus in


1905.


There


are only


those


1904 and
two who


entered the service in 1906 and only
13 were here when Secretary of War
William Howard Taft landed in


Cfistobal on January 29, 1909, with


a commission
Canal work.
In addition


to investigate


to those Americans


who came to help build the Canal
there are many of other nationalities
who served through most of the con-
struction era. In practically every
Canal and Railroad unit are to be
found several veterans in service who


came


to the Isthmus


their


homes in the West Indies when "the
big ditch" was being dug.
Two well known non-citizen
employees on the U. S.-rate rolls who
entered the service during the con-
struction period are Alfred E. "Fritz"


Marti,


native of


Switzerland, em-


plowed in the Section of Meteorology


Thomas J. Ebdon, Lock Operator at
Garun, completed his 43rd year of contin-


uous service on


May 4.


He is the only


American with an unbroken service record
dating back earlier than 1909.
He came to the Isthmus in May 1907 and


worked the remainder of t
period as a machinist in
Division and as a locomot
the Panama Railroad.
He transferred, to the
when it was first organized
only with that division since
was dated July 16, 1914, j
before the Canal was ope
Several look operators wer
before the Canal opening to
selves with the wholly new
work.


he construction
the Mechanical
ive engineer on


Locks


Division


and has served
e. His transfer
just one month
ened to traffic.
e so transferred
acquaint them-
machinery and


and Hydrography, and Enrique de la
Ossa, Panamanian citizen employed
inm the Receiving and Forwarding


Agency.
March 9


Mr. Marti entered service
, 1907 and Mr. de la Ossa on


Miss Florence E. Williams has the earliest
service date of any woman in the Canal-
Railroad organization and the third earliest
of any American employee. She came to
the isthmus in July 1906 aboard the old
S. S. AlManca and entered service the fol-
lowing March as a telephone operator at
Culebra. She lacked only a few months of
having enough construction-day service to
wear the Roosevelt Medal.
She ,is perhaps the only remaining
employee in service to have been one of the
invited guests to see the first shovelful of
dirt removed for the Gatun Locks. Her
father. Henry J. Williams, was employed
for many years in the Panama Railroad
office in Panama City.
She reentered the Canal service in 1922
and has been continuously employed since
in the Department of Finance.


July 12, 1911.


Both have continuous


service records.


The complete list of veterans of the Canal construction who came to the Isthmus from the United States and
the dates they entered service are as follows. Names of employees in capitalletters iditate are


1906
Harold A. Shafer-August 10
Vincent G. Raymond-December 16
1907
Florence E. Williams-March 1
Raymond L. Burmester-April 17
HOMAS J. EBDON-May4


Peter G. Flynn-November 16
ALBERT C. GARLINGTON-Nov. 26
Myron R. Herringron--December 23
1911
ERNEST C. COTTON-February 20
Barton C. Woodruff--May 6
William P. Quinn-May 24
T X C flnn,- 1, 'ins A


FRANK CARR--January 15
Otto A. Sundquist-January 15
Luther L. Long-January 29
Jerome F. Prager--February 3
Bernard J. McDaid-February 19
SAMUEL ROE-February 28
Leonidas H. Morales H.-March 1


THE CANAL-RAILROAD HONOR ROLL


L1


___~__


*m m ,^ w m w -"~





May 5, 1950


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


STATISTICS


CANAL


TRAFFIC


For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for
the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peacetime than those for 1939.


Ship Sizes Increase 600 T


ons


Within 20


ears


Commercial ships using the Panama Canal
today have a carrying capacity of 600 tons
a vessel more than 20 years ago. All classes
of vessels have increased in size but tankers.
largely the result of the war, now measure
almost 1,000 tons more than in 1929.
Comparative figures just compiled on
Canal raffi c for the calendar years 1929

TANKERS


1929--5,366 Tons


CARGO HANDLED OVER PIERS
(In short tons)


Local cargo received. -. .
Local cargo forwarded___-
Transfer cargo received ---.
Total incoming cargo handled
Rehandled cargo. -----------
Transfer cargo forwarded- -.....
Total cargo handled and
transferred _


First quarter. 1950


56,738


83,051


147,534


Balboa


21,946


15,713


38,215


84,752 578


235,744


39,061


Total


78,684
23,458


83,607
185,749


Average
quarter,
1949


All piers

1044205


28,608
72,240
205,053


3,726 3,435
85,330 73,245


274,805


281,733


Average
quarter,
1938


All piers


87,968


138,386
235,742


136,127


373,453


194I6,324 Tons

20-Year Increase, 958 Tons

1938 and 1949 tell the atory of a steady
crese in the sip of ships. Gains were
hbe each decade in tankers, cargo ships,
and cagopassenger vessels, the three main
classes which malup the ocean-going comn-
t ial traffic ti h the Canal.
Cargo and cargpiwenger ships showed a
Jaw gain betwppn 1929 and 1938 and a

CARQOMPASSENGER


Apptbximately one-third less local cargo
was received on the Balboa and Cristobal
piers during the first quarter of this year
than the average quarter of last year. This
marked decline, as applied to the work load
on the piers, was practically offset by gains
in the tons of local cargo forwarded and the
amount of transfer cargo received and for-
warded. The overall loss was less than three
percent.
Comparative figures on the amount of


cargo being handled over the piers now and
in 1938 show a substantial gain in the
amount of local cargo being shipped out of
the two ports, but heavy losses in other cat-
egories of cargo handled. The total cargo
handled and transferred during the first
three months of this year was listed at
274,805 short tons, as compared with 373,
453 short tons for the average quarter of
1938, a drop of approximately 25 percent.


TOTAL NUMBER AND TONNAGE OF VESSELS


Cargo and cargo-passenger- .-------


Tankers..--..--- --------------------........--


1929-4,477 Tons


K = K =
" <;| *'

* ****^i i 1^


Small commercial (over 300 tons)----------


Non-commercal ---------------------------.....................


I at S A r t / I p- n nJ


122


" ^ **:






THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


May 5, 1950


CANAL


CLUBHOUSES PROVIDE VARIETY
IN SERVICES, ENTERTAINMENT


(Coninued from pa
picnic facilities
dens picnic area
in the summer
the purchase of
operation of ril


munities: and th
Hideaway Beach.
way include the
modern swimming
ment stand at Si
modernizing of
ming Pool.
Although it is
Division to keep
possible and still
vide necessary c
and meet all oblig
necessary in Jul'
some restaurant
prices to meet tl
ing costs of raw
rolls. The unsat
was also attacked
gram to curtail


TRANSITS--TOLLS


pits and other
Summit Gar-


active participation
ecrcation program;
oiler skates and the
ks in various com-
e improvements at
Plans now under-
construction of a
g pool and refresh-
ilver City, and the
the Balboa Swim-

the policy of the


i prlc'
aearn e
ommu
nations
y, 194(
and s
he raj
mater


es as low as
enough to pro-
inity services
, it was found
), to increase
ioda fountain
idlv increas-


ials


isfactory
iby an al
expenses


and pay-
condition
I-out pro-
wherever


such curtailment did not alfect
hic service. Clubhouse activities


pub-
were


also expanded to include new serv-
ices heretofore unavailable to local
residents: the opening of a drive-in
restaurant at Ancon; the sale of
phonograph records, sheet music,
home remedies, and convenience
items in merchandise sections; and
the installation of rental libraries at
Balboa and Margarita. As a result
of the above, the Division has been
able to "remain in the black" for the


current fiscal year.
The Clubhouse Division i,
on the lookout for worthwl
entertainment, professional
teur. In connection with
local groups, the Clubhous
presented on their stages or


s always
while live
or ama-
various
es have
assisted


in the-sponsoring at popular prices
of such outstanding attractions as


the Alicia
ana Mlir
Spanish
Magician
of Panam
and other
tons at t
Gamma 4


Alonso Ballet, the
istrels, the world-i
dance troupe, Cha
, the National Ballet
a, the Jack Blunder
-s. Recent or coming
:he Balboa Theater
Chi Revue and the


Dorese Waites' Dance Revue


Louisi-
touring
ng the
School
Circus,
attrac-
are the
annual
e. The


Tolls-paying vessels:
Ocean-going..........
*Small...............
Total tolls-paying...
'Free transit ..-.- .... .-


Total tolls-paying and free.....


made
to a
ilroad
ve in-
spon-
ervice
D. C.


Atlantic
to
Pacific

737
163
900
138
1,038


PAYING


Pacific
to
Atlantic

725
144
869
149
1,018


AND


Total


307
1,769


2,056


1949

Total


1,227
320
1,547
330
1,877


1938

Total


1,386
219
1,605
139
1,744


* Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
"* Exclusive of Panama Canal equipment.


Hundreds Benefit From In-Training Service
(Continued from page 131 postal trainee


group; and several oth
nature.
One of the mos
in-service training pi
available in recent
limited number of C
employees is the adm
ternships conducted u
sorship of the U. S.


Commission, in


mers ot a similar


t


programs
years
.anal-Ra
linistrati'
nder the
Civil SI


Washington,


Eight employees have been selected
and have completed the training.
Schools Lend Aid
An important part in the overall
in-service training in the Canal Zone
has been the special courses offered
by the Canal Zone Junior College in
its extension classes. Such courses
important to the ambitious employee
as business English, Spanish, higher
mathematics, business law and ad-
ministration, and others are
presently available.
Plans are being made to add
additional courses if the demand
warrants. Dr. Lawrence Johnson
and other school officials are .cog-
nizant of the importance of providing
formal instruction in fields directly
related to the Canal enterprise and
are working closely with Personnel
Division on plans for future ex-
tension courses.
Housing Plan Approved
(Continued from page 9)


However,


the selection of the


advantages of


masonry "on the ground"
presented in the report of
suiting firm.
Relatively 'few changes
planning were suggested
landscaping program being
was termed excellent. The


type are
the con-

in site
and the
followed
principal


change suggested in proposed sites
was the abandonment of any plans
for permanent housing at Camp
Bierd.


Economic Fact Dictaed Decision
(Continued from page 3) funds "to keep
men and machines idle.
"Under these circumstances, it
developed into a choice between
which of the two shop areas to close.
The decision in this was based on a
few incontrovertible facts which may
be briefly summarized as follows:
The bulk of shipping to Canal waters
is in the Atlantic with Cristobal as
the port of call; with few exceptions,
the Cristobal Shops can handle any
normal job that can be done at
Balboa; work originating on the
Isthmus can be done at either of the
two shops without appreciable dif-
ference in costs; the expected work-
load for the immediate future would
not support the extensive facilities
located in the Balboa Shops which
were greatly expanded for wartime
work; and, the Cristobal Shops,
being more compact, can be operated
with greater economy.
"While the move will require an


FREE


January-February-March


particular


noteworthy


-


-
"(


w





5 I WQ


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


FREQUENT


PANAMA


CANAL


CUSTOMER


One of the most frequent customers of the
Pana ma Canal is the United Fruit Company
ship Esparta, shown above passing through
the famous Gaillard Cut.
The Esparta made 15 trips through the
Canal in 1949 between New York and
Seattle. +Together with five sister ships, the
vessels maintain a fast express service be-


ian


tween these two ports.
On its trips from New York the Esparta
brings general cargo to Cristobal. After
transiting the Canal it picks up bananas at
Golfito, Costa Rica, and discharges them at
San Francisco and Seattle. On the return
voyage a stop is made at Puerto Armuelles,
Panama, for more bananas which are rushed


commercial Traffic


Increased United States intercostal trade
as well as increases in shipping from the east
coast of the United States to Central and
South America brought Panama Canal
commercial traffic for the first quarter of
this year to a level comparable with the
peak years of the 1920's.
A total of 300 ocean-going, tolls-paying
vessels transited the Canal on the inter-
coastal run during the first three months of
the year which was more than double the
number for the first quarter of 1949 and
cosiderably higher than than the same period in
1938. Shipping between the United States
at coast ports and those of Central and
Ith, America has more than doubled since
1938 and 65 more ships were listed in this
trade through the Canal in the first quarter
flis year than the same period in 1949.
e princal incial irease in the intercoastal
tthe Canal during recent
mdiiths has been the result of the large-scale
tanker traffic on this route which began in
epither 1949. This traffic reached a peak
; 5Mrbary of this year but.a sharp down-
rnd was noted in Marchl'


Despite the drop in |tanker traffic during
March, Canal statistics on commercial traf-
fic showed the highest number of ships over
300 net tons of any month since March
1939 while tolls exceeded any month since
March 1937. Increased shipping over all of
Sthe main trade routes in March more than
offset the drop in tanker traffic.
SAtthough commercial traffic during the


Near


to New York for the east coast trade.
Built since the war, the Esparta has lines
like a private yacht'and belies its size and
carrying capacity in appearance. It has a
registered gross tonnage of 7,075 tons. It is
a fast ship with a cruising speed of 18 knots
and carries 12 passengers.


Pre-War


Peak


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
By fiscal years


Month


July ....--..
August_.. -


September-.
Octobert.__
November. -
December. -
January..- -
February..-
March ......
April---__--
May-------.
June-.-----


Totals for first nine !months


Transits


4





t
hw
W.
















*!


- -.----------_ I--------.


1949
399
399
415
372
353
357
407
373
447
433
421
417


1938
457.
505
444


435
439
444
436
506
487
465
445


Tolls
(In thousands of dollars)
1950 1949 1938


$1,891
1,733
1,795
1,985
1,964


2,207
2,121
2,327


..-.. --


$1,673
1,737
1,741
1,495
1,455
1,506
1,772
1,573
1,959
1,887
1,880
1,863


$2,030
2,195
1,936
1,981
1,893
1,845
-..
1,838
1,787
2,016
1,961
1,887
1,801


I E I 1


1950
430
388
401
440
439
488
483
457
522


I


y


E f




I I


PANAMA


CANAL


REVIEW


:Mc


95Q)


PERSONNEL


MARINE


CHANGES


Principal commodities shipped through the Cial
(All figures in long tons)


Figure in parentheses in 1938 and 1949 columns Indicate
relative positona in those yearS.


DIVISION


I / /-
. t 1


*/\
'* .A K
*^*i.::. '.


ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC


Commodity


Mineral oils.-.._..--
Manufactures of iron and steel... -
Ammonium compounds ......----
Raw cotton.................
Phosphates---- --.-----------.
Paper and paper products__-----.
Sulphur r...................
Tinplae ....................
Cement . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sugar............
Machinery ......-- .. ...... .
Automobiles...................
Ores, various .....
Canned food products..........
Coal and coke .. . .. ...
A ll others .....................


Captain P. G. Nichols,


U. S. N.


Total


First Quarter, Calendar


CAl)


--


a-~
(-1
aI -
O'


--4o--


19501949 1938'


351,679
348,658
247,736
121,198
97,176
93,908
69,385
62.179
52.706
51,949
51,027
47,824
34,313
33,312
32,785
711,867

2.407,702


584,497
378,389
159;623
77,497
12,628
97,507
88,371
60,346
30.813
I1,248
62,713
52,853
26,121
26,685
310,152
757,758

2,737.201


236,644
362,008
10,409
56,323
67,518
90,274
44,830
56,451
26,719
32,587
40,735
76,102
7,809
32,162
27,867
881,216

2,049,654


PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC


Commodity


Captain Robert N.


Peacher, U.S.N.


Captain Nichols will complete a three-
year assignment with The Panama Canal
this month as Ma-it rintendent. He
is being succtdt&i" Captain Peacher who
recently arrived on the Isthmus from Los
Angeles where-he was on duty as Chief of
Staff and Aide to the Commander of the
U. S. Naval Base. He will become the first
Director of the Marine Bureau whet the
Canal reorganization goes into effect July 1.


QUARANTINE


DIVISION


January-February- March


1,434,3L75
859,079
640,773
445,643
375,329
264,667
191,248

161,706
134,747
12, 192
75,890
69,416
57,260
53,906
36,405
500,887

5;427;523


68,597
1,049,050
518 820
377,696,
340,356
251,120
13J863


4,139,018


498.292
542,936
632,901
531,161
267,904
219,444
299 ,404

106,8211
165,473
20,076
53,179
37,915
37,801
110.471
61,750
727,586


4.313


Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels


Nationality


Brazilian .....
British ..-.. .
Chilean---.---


January-February- March


Num-
ber of
transits


..


Tons
of cargo


1,365,366
55,684


1949


Num-
ber of
transit


Tons
of cargo


1,553,180
79,994
27.552


Num-
ber of
transits


1348
3


Tons
of cargo


1,626,625
10,012


Mineral oils. ------------------
Ores, various ....... ..-.----
Lumber ........... ...
Nitrate ...............
Wheat ------..-..-------
Canned food products ...--
Sugar ......................
Refrigerated food products (except
fresh fruit) --------------
Metals, various.--------- --
Bananas ..
Coffee .....- -----
Wool ..----.-----
Raw cotton___
Fresh fruit (except bananas)-
Dried fruit_
All others----------------


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f*'-£5^ (7i/* 0/ //re Panama Canal Museum PANAMA Vol. 1,No. 1 BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE May 5, 1950 BUDGET BUREAU APPROVES $70,000,000 HOUSING REPLACEMENT PLANS PROPOSED BY GOV. NEWCOMER Program Culminates Many Years Effort By Canal Governors Housing — the most continually bedevilling problem of the Canal administration for the past 40 years — bids fair now to be finally settled with the stamp of approval by the Bureau of the Budget on Governor Newcomer's proposed $70,000,000 permanent quarters construction program. A modest beginning is being made this year with the demolition and replacements scheduled in the San Juan area in Ancon. The program will get into full swing during the fiscal year 1951 if the supplemental appropriation of approximately $4,000,000 to be requested of Congress is made available. It will then continue on an accelerated scale over a period of eight to ten years and when finally completed will provide permanenttype housing for all employees of the Canal-Railroad. The tentative schedule for the coming fiscal year provides for largescale replacements and construction in Ancon, Balboa, Diablo Heights, and Cocoli on the Pacific side, and Gatun, Margarita, and Silver City on the Atlantic side. In addition, the appropriation would provide funds for the erection of two pressure treatment plants for lumber and the expenditure of $141,000 in the preparation of sites for local-rate quarters the following year. Of the total requested for next year, $2,000,000 would be earmarked for the localrate quarters. U. S.-Rate Houses Briefly, the U. S.-rate quarters program includes the following: Demolition of 66 buildings containing 129 family apartments in the Ancon-Balboa district; and the construction of 18 buildings with 32 family units in Ancon-Balboa, 34 buildings with 59 units in Diablo Heights, eight one-family houses in Gatun, and 26 buildings with 36 apartments in Margarita. Plans for local-rate quarters provide for the construction of 262 family apartments of various sizes and one 18-room bachelor quarters. All of these buildings will be at Silver ^"""" l^nnH^r FLOOR PLANS for a masonry house to be constructed at grade level suggested by the housing consultants provide for adaptation to cottages of two, three, and four bedrooms without altering the basic plans. This plan would,provide for an open, covered porch between the two sections. City on the Atlantic side, and at Cocoli or a new building site on the Pacific side. The quarters at Cocoli are to be located north of Borinquen Highway and west of the existing bachelor quarters built during the Third Locks work. The new housing program is the result of several years of effort on the part of the Canal administration. It was initiated by former Governor J. C. Mehaffey before the end of the war. During the early part of 1945 he requested and obtained the services of Wallace G. Teare, of the National Housing Agency and the Federal Public Housing Authority, on a consultive basis. Mr. Teare's report substantiated in no uncertain terms the claims of several previous governors of the urgent need of a major quarters construction program of permanent type houses. Quarters Said Sub-Standard Calling the housing in the Zone sub-standard, Mr. Teare said: "With so great a handicap to overcome today, the Canal will have to build at considerably greater than a mere replacement rate if it is ever to catch up in its housing. Apparently, it will take a period of 10 years to achieve a satisfactory situation, at the most rapid rate that now seems possible. If that is so, it would seem to be an obligation to proceed at that most rapid possible rate, for 10 years is a very long time for (See page 9) This general type of construction was recommended for local-rate quarters. The consultants' report described them as "compact, livable houses."

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5, 1950 Zone Kindergartens Prepare Tots For Crucial First Year A typical kindergarten scene of the Canal Zone schools is the above picture in which Miriam Notyce, teacher at the Paraiso kindergarten, is giving Harvey Jones, Thelma Joshua, Dorna Thomas, and Linda Griffith (left to right) a lesson in the rudiments of cooperative effort. Such training prepares the children just out of babyhood both mentally and emotionally for the first grade at school, one of the most important of their entire school career. Educators have long recognized that the shock of cooperative and competitive effort of children in the first grade at school for those emotionally or mentally unprepared often spoils an otherwise promising school career. Kindergartens, designed to relieve this shock and prepare children just out of babyhood for the first grade, have been an integral part of the Canal Zone school system for the past 10 years. Prior to 1940 kindergartens were operated by the Bureau of Clubs and Playgrounds, in a few of the larger communities. They were transferred that year to the Schools Division and have since been greatly expanded to a point where today kindergarten training is provided in all large communities. In addition, several first-rate kindergartens are operated privately in the Canal Zone. In the local-rate communities, kindergartens are operated in La Boca, Red Tank, Paraiso, Santa Cruz, Chagres, and Silver City. Enrollment in these has constantly increased and this year 294 were enrolled in February. Of these, the largest number is in Silver City where two part-time teachers are employed to train the more than 100 children. Full-time teachers are engaged for the kindergartens in La Boca, Red Tank, Paraiso, and Santa Cruz where from 50 to 100 young boys and girls are learning their first lessons in school discipline and training. The school at Paraiso is typical of those in other towns. About 40 toddlers around the age of six years are receiving the same training to prepare them for the more formal book learning in the first grade as hundreds of others in various Zone communities. The training and equipment are standard in all kindergartens although the teachers in the U. S.-rate kindergartens are usually better trained. The teacher at Paraiso, Miriam Notyce, might herself be taken as an average for other towns, although slightly younger than most. A second generation Canal employee, she was born in Colon Hospital and grew up in Gatun where her father, N. E. Notyce, has been employed for years as storekeeper at Gatun Clubhouse. She is a product of La Boca Normal School, graduating there last June, and exemplifies the type of training being provided for the sons and daughters of local-rate employees. Discipline Among Tots Neat as a pin, she keeps discipline like a veteran among the small fry who make up her morning and afternoon classes. She keeps their minds well occupied by games, play, and light tasks designed to promote their social, physical, and mental development as well as to prepare them emotionally for entry into more formalized schooling. Since success in the first grade is greatly enhanced by purposeful mental activities, kindergarten children listen to stories read by their teacher. As they learn to repeat these stories to their classmates they develop an ability to express ideas. Simple science experiments teach them the rudiments of critical and independent thinking. By social study projects the children are taught to develop the ability to understand and carry out directions. By contact and co(See page 5) Concerning Those Commissary Profits! A bombshell exploding among Commissary patrons at Ancon or Silver City would hardly have created more consternation than the bold headlines appearing recently that the Commissary Division "Expects to Double Profit" this fiscal year. A*s is often the case, this bald statement without explanation falls in the same category as a story which says a man has been shot without explaining whether through the finger, the head, or the heart. In this particular case, the shot barely scrapes the skin, and the average Commissary patron will escape with a few powder burns at the worst. For the past three fiscal years, the Commissary Division, with annual net sales of over $32,000,000 has earned less than one percent net profit a year, a figure wholly inconsistent with the precepts of good business administration. Except for the past three years, there have been only three times within the past 25 years when the profits have fallen below three percent and never so lowas two-and-a-half percent. The reason for the low profits of the past three years was the desire and effort on the part of the CanalRailroad administration to cushion the shock of mounting prices for the average Canal Zone household. Net Profit only 0.731% The net operating profit for last year was listed in the annual report of the Panama Railroad Company as being 0.731 percent. This slight margin required an almost day-today adjustment in commodity prices. The decision to increase this margin was reached at the last annual meeting of the Board of Directors of the Company. The consensus at that meeting was that a continuance of such a narrow margin was not in accord with good business practices. Most private establishments in the department store field usually anticipate profits of not less than seven percent, a figure not generally considered exorbitant. It must be remembered that the Commissary Division is a self-sustaining unit and all capital expenditures must come from income. New buildings, such as the new and modern refrigeration plant at Mount Hope; improvements and equipment in the retail stores; and replacement of buildings and equipment must be financed by the division itself since there are no appropriated funds for such purposes. With such a narrow margin on which the Commissary Division had operated during the past three years, a heavy loss from fire or other causes occurring late in the year might easily have put commissary operations in the red. Of interest to those who were unduly alarmed by the (See page 5) 4

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May 5, 1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW ECONOMIC FACTS DICTATED DECISION TO CLOSE BALBOA SHOPS Causes Involved Mostly External Hard economic facts and factors, mostly of an external nature, dictated the decision of Canal officials to close the Balboa Shops of the Mechanical Division and concentrate the shop work in Cristobal. "The move," according to Captain Joseph L. Bird, Superintendent, "is based on sound business principles by which we must be guided so long as the Mechanical Division is a business unit of the Canal organization and is required by law to pay its own way." While the least interested observer of Isthmian affairs of the past few years easily recognized the requirement of force reductions and other curtailments following the close of the war, many have failed to realize that the precipitate drop in marine repair work has continued far beyond normal expectations. The decision to transfer the principal shop activities to Cristobal was not reached in haste nor without full consideration by those making the decision of the hardships to many which the action entails. Because of the wide misunderstanding or lack of knowledge of the principal factors behind the decision, Captain Bird was requested to summarize for this employee publication the underlying causes of the move. His summary and statement follows: "Since the Mechanical Division receives no supporting appropriated funds and must earn enough to pay its own way, the size of the force and the extent of its activities are governed solely by the income from its work. Taken on a year-to-year basis, most of the income is derived from sources outside the Canal-Railroad organization. "The division's present low state of business is the result, in a greater or lesser degree, of the following factors. 1. The world wide dollar shortage which has forced foreign ships to avoid spending United States currency except in extreme emergencies. Marine repair work, of most major maritime nations, is now being done elsewhere and this formerly lucrative Income is lost, at least temporarily. 2. The discontinuance of at least two feeder lines in the coastwise trade which formerly were based in Cristobal. 3. The loss of Navy repair work due to the redeployment of these vessels. 4. The replacement of prewar ships on a major scale which precludes the necessity of extensive repairs up to the present. In addition, improved ship design now permits many more repairs to be made at sea than were formerly possible. 5. Wages of skilled workers, based on U. S. average rates, together with increased cost of materials, bar competitive bidding against foreign shipyards regardless of the dollar shortage. 6. A general slackening of Panama Canal activities as well as those of other major Government agencies on the Isthmus, which has caused a corresponding decrease in the requirements for new construction or repair work. 7. An unfavorable competitive position with United States shipyards. Many factors, not peculiar to the present situation, are involved in this. It is unnecessary to enumerate all of these, but the major one is the fact that shipowners cannot afford to interrupt a voyage for any cause except extreme emergencies because of the added operational costs. "Only by the strictest economy and the fortunate circumstance of obtaining the Navy work on the four large floating drydocks have more extensive layoffs or long, enforced furloughs been avoided up to now. With the completion of work already on order and none in sight as replacement, it was not difficult to realize that a further curtailment of a drastic nature was inevitable, unless, as appears unlikely, Congress would be willing to appropriate (See page 18) MECHANICAL DIVISION SHOPS IN BALBOA— DRYDOCK IN FOREGROUND Plans for the transfer of the Mechanical Division work to Cristobal, as originally outlined, called for a shutdown of all shops in Balboa except the Foundry, Gas Manufacturing Plant, and Instrument Repair Shop by the first of July. No move of this magnitude, with the exception of the transfer of the Dredging Division shops and headquarters from Paraiso to Gamboa in 1938, has been made in the Canal-Railroad since soon after the close of the Canal construction period. The plans made provision for keeping the facilities for heavy forging, the large drydock seen in the center foreground above, and certain of the heaviest machinery not duplicated in the Cristobal shops in a state of readiness for use in case of any real emergency. Other equipment, not to be moved, would be laid up in accordance with recognized practices. The Balboa shops could be reopened to full capacity on short notice and certainly before any force to man the machinery could be recruited, according to Captain Joseph L. Bird, Superintendent of the Division.

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5, 1950 Capt. Swinson, 20 Years A Ship Master, Heads Staff of Old-Timers on S. S. Ancon r* rCaptain David H. Swinson, Master, left, with Chief Officer William J. Steffens on the bridge. Nothing exciting happens aboard the Ancon, according to the crew of this Panama Line ship. Since the close of her war career as a command ship in invasions from Morocco to Tokyo, she has plied her way between New York and Cristobal every five days in an operation that is as quiet and comfortable as a Sunday family dinner. The majority of her passengers are Panama Canal and Railroad employees to whom the ship means a pleasant five days of relaxation and good food at the beginning and end of visits to their homes in the United States. If they do not know the Ancon itself, they may know her by her similarity to her sister ships, the Panama and Cristobal. The three differ only in small details. One distinguishing stamp of the Ancon is two groups of 18 Isthmian flowers executed in plastic which decorate the wall of the main lounge, the mark of Raymond Loewy, prominent industrial designer, who is responsible for the decoration of all the Panama Line ships and many well-known modern industrial designs that have served as face lifters for a multitude of products from cigarette packages to automobile bodies. Regular Tourists In addition to the employees who travel regularly on the Ancon and other Panama Line ships, there are a few regulars among the tourist travelers who seem to like the Ancon as one likes an old shoe and return to the same vessel for their periodic escapes from northern winter weather. Most of the crew of the Ancon are also old-timers. About 90 percent of them have been on the ship since she came out from the Fore River Yard of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation'sShipbuilding Division in 1947. Crew members explain that from the standpoint of the men who man the ship, there are few runs that are better than those of Panama Line ships. Captain David H. Swinson, in charge of the 492-foot vessel and her crew of 128, says that recent scientific developments now in use on the ship have taken many of the worries out of skippering the Ancon. Foggy weather worries have been largely dispensed with the use of radar. The use of an electronic development called loran to find the ship's position in rainy or stormy weather has made the operation still simpler. Although the Ancon sometimes has to sit out a storm in the Caribbean, he says that is seasonal, not pleasant, but almost routine. Chief Officer William J. Steffens adds that most of the small tribulations that are a part of the Ancon' s operation are administrative — the type that is expected in any land or sea organization. It is his opinion that Panama Line passengers are less fun-loving in recent years than they used to be, but attributes that to the state of the world rather than anything about the ships. Seasickness Cure William Schwamm, Chief Steward, points out that the dramamine pills for seasickness have made sailing still more pleasant, a fact that is substantiated by considerably increased food consumption on the Ancon. R. T. Downs, Purser, recalls many Congressmen and a few celebrities outside government circles whose names have caused a slight stir when they appear on passenger lists. And for minor excitement, there have been a few. stowaways, but generally, the Ancon operation is smooth and without even slight incident. Captain Swinson, whose brother, Captain E. O. Swinson, is Assistant Port Captain in Balboa, has been wearing a skipper's crossed anchors and four stripes since he took over the old Ancon in 1929. He has the longest service with the Line of any captain on the Panama Line ships, having been connected with the company most of the years since he left the Massachusetts Nautical School in 1914. He first tried out his sea learning on the old Panama Line ship, CrisR. T. Downs, Purser tobal, and also served as quartermaster on the old Colon before World War I. From 1917 to 1921, he worked on oil tankers and coal colliers and served on \J. S. Shipping Board vessels carrying food relief shipments to the Black Sea area. He returned to the Panama Line in 1921 as third officer on the Advance, served as chief officer on the Cristobal, General Gor gas, and the Panama Line "lake ships," in service between New York and Ecuador. In 1927, he became chief officer on the old Ancon. He has served as master on the old and new Ancon since 1929. When his ship went to war in World War II, Captain Swinson made two trips on the vessel carrying troops to Australia. When the Ancon was taken over by the Navy in August 1942, Captain Swinson became a Navy Commander and served as executive officer on the ship through the invasions of North Africa, Sicily, and Salerno. He also served on the U. S. S. Hermitage, the former Italian ship Conte Biancamano which was interned in the Canal Zone, and the U. S. S. Drew, attack transport, in service in India, Europe, Okinawa, and Japan. Ship Is Rehabilitated When the Ancon was returned to the Panama Line in 1946, Captain Swinson was on hand at Quincy, Massachusetts, for the ship's rehabilitation for civilian service and went back to sea as a civilian captain when the Ancon returned to its peacetime run in June 1947. Although there were seafarers on his mother's side of the family, Captain Swinson offers as the best explanation for his 35-year sea career the fact that he was born in Gloucester, Massachusetts. Chief Officer Steffens first went to sea during World War I and never made it back to land. He was graduated from the New (See page 15)

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May 5,1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW To The Employees . The appearance of this paper is an outward manifestation of the Canal administration's desire to bring problems affecting all ranks of Canal and Railroad employees to open attention. By so \ doing, it is hoped that ~* a better mutual understanding of our mission and a firmer foundation for our communal living may be gained. Since no two persons will ever have ideas entirely in consottance, free expressions of opinions will be welcomed. An example of this is in the problem of housing discussed in this issue. Some people like houses built at ground level. Others like them elevated. Some want rambling, airy structures while their next door neighbors may prefer compact and more easily maintained quarters. Also, to some, low rental is the first consideration while others would be willing to pay higher rents for greater conveniences and comfort. Such variances of thought exist properly among intelligent people. On the other hand, all will be in agreement on the general premise that maximum efficiency of operation is necessary not only for the carrying out of our basic mission — which is to transit ships expeditiously from ocean to ocean — but to insure the best of living conditions for all members of the team. Since our organization is a self-sustaining one, and certainly we can all take pride in that fact, it follows that inefficiencies must in every case be paid for in cash by individual employees. There is no alternative. The CanalRailroad organization has been under great stress since the close of the war by continued reductions in force. The reduction has been greatly accelerated in recent months by factors over which the Canal administration had no control. It is impossible to state unequivocally that these force reductions will cease on a certain day of a month nor even a certain month of the year. It is possible to say, however, that there is an employment level below which the Canal and Railroad could not operate efficiently. I believe this level will be reached by July of this year. While economic or other factors out of our control may require further reductions of a minor nature after the beginning of the new fiscal year, I confidently expect that any personnel losses after that time can be accommodated by normal attrition — retirements, resignations, or other separations from the service. This does not mean that there will be no force reductions in certain units where work must necessarily be curtailed or suspended. On the other hand, no broad retrenchments are planned where "across the board" reductions are in order. The Panama Canal Review will serve as a medium of expression for individual opinions, which, taken together formulate public opinion. You are invited to participate in discussions and to submit comments you believe will be helpful. Mere criticisms, of course, can serve no useful purpose but suggestions for improvement will be carefully considered. Whenever practicable your letters will be published or answered individually. Questions or problems not relating to a relatively large group nor of general interest have no place in such a public forum and it will be impossible to enter into lengthy and involved debates on abstruse issues. This publication is designed to give you a better understanding of our common problems. A failure in this objective will not be the result of a desire to mislead or misinform you. 7-7 f. /^v Governor Kindergartens Teach Discipline {Continued from page 2) operative effort with other children in their agegroup, the young kindergarten students are guided in the proper paths of social consciousness and emotional restraints. They are taught to distinguish between their personal and property rights and those of others. Courtesy and consideration of others are parts of their day-by-day training, while the teacher endeavors to have each child develop a feeling of belonging to a group. Happy and wholesome personalities, free from fear and anxieties, are induced by means of interesting and pleasant activities, such as group singing, drawing, or story reading. Games Teach Coordination Meanwhile, the physical development of the young boys and girls is not left to chance. Through games and rhythmic exercises, healthy bodies and alert minds are developed while muscular coordination and control are learned through singing, speaking, playing, and dancing. Thus, under the effective guidance of a kind teacher the children become gradually used to the mental and emotional controls so necessary in later school years. This year in June, some 925 students will graduate from the 14 kindergartens of the Division of Schools and their proud and happy parents can look forward with confidence to their entry next fall into the formal school training where book learning and social consciousness must be developed for the major problems of living. Concerning Those Commissary Profits {Continued from page 2) headline that Commissary profits would be doubled is the announcement that Governor Newcomer, as President of the Panama CanalRailroad, has authorized the deduction of the loss of nearly $100,000 sustained in the La Boca Commissary fire in February from the net operating profits for the year. It is doubtful if the increased net operating revenues for this fiscal year will be reflected by increases in any retail prices, especially in view of the Governor's action on the La Boca fire losses. Economies in operations already effected will account for most of the difference in the profit margin this fiscal year over that of last year. Even if the entire difference were made up in price increases, few Commissary patrons would ever note the change. It would mean that a whole ten-pound ham would cost 10 to 15 cents more, and the Canal Zone housewife might pay a penny more for a 10-pound sack of sugar.

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5,1950 REDUCTIONS TO CEASE SOON Bottom Force Level Expected By July 1 Governor Foresees Leveling-OfF Point For CanalRailroad Organization The downward trend of the Canal-Railroad forces which has continued almost steadily for more than five years is expected to level off during the first part of the fiscal year 1951 and there presently seems little likelihood that employees in permanent positions at the end of June will receive force reduction notices. This word is contained in a special message to employees from the Governor carried on another page of The Panama Canal Review. There will be a further shrinking of the total force but there seems little doubt now that this can be accomplished by normal attrition. The bed-rock level below which the Governor believes the Canal and Railroad could not operate with efficiency may not be reached for several months after the beginning of the new fiscal year in July. The normal force turnover and rate of separations will permit a gradual lowering of employment levels by the consolidation of work and failure to make replacements of personnel. Actually, according to an announcement at the Personnel Division offices, practically all U. S.-rate employees to be affected by force reductions have already been notified or will be by May 31. Further reductions may be expected in the local-rate personnel since these generally lag behind force reductions among supervisory personnel. Although giving assurance that no further major reductions are expected after the beginning of the fiscal year 1951, the Governor makes clear in his statement that isolated reductions of a minor nature may be necessary after that date caused by normal reduced work loads or cessation of work of a seasonal nature. a The latest force report, dated March 31, showed ^a total of 4,584 full-time U. S.-rate employees and 15,018 full-time employees on the local-rate rolls. These figures represent declines of 317 and 1,837, respectively, from the March 31, 1949, report. The full-time, permanent force^today roughly parallels that of December 1939 shortly after the force increase was begun for defense projects and the Third Locks work. 42000 35000 28000 21000 US-RATE LOCAL-RATE 37300 34700 The leveling off of the CanalRailroad force will bring to an end a 12-year cycle of abnormal employment conditions on the Isthmus, the most disturbing and disruptive of which have naturally occurred during the past five years when the major shrinkage took place. In many respects the past eight-year period was similar to that from 1912 to 1920 when the transition from the construction period of the Canal to one of operation and maintenance was accomplished. The Canal-Railroad force was built up from a normal 1938 level of 13,800 for operation and maintenance to a wartime peak of 38,000 full-time employees in 1942. After the suspension of the Third Locks program and the completion of several defense projects there was a gradual decrease in personnel. This reduction was barely noticeable because the manpower demand at the time provided ample jobs for all on the Isthmus either with the Canal or other Government agencies. Despite the Canal curtailment of force at that time, it remained large and when the war ended in August 1945 nearly 32,000 full-time employees were still on the rolls. The first serious paring of force occurred soon after the close of the war when many of those engaged in construction activities or in the Mechanical Division shops were released. Since then the reduction has been on a more gradual scale and some slight force increases have even occurred as a result of such extra work as the overhaul of the locks and the Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947. The final wave of cutbacks of the past few months which has affected almost all units has been no more pronounced than others occurring since the war but has been more noticeable because of the smaller force and the lack of employment opportunities with other Government agencies on the Isthmus. While reductions of the past eight months have affected all large units, those hardest hit have been the Mechanical Division, the Panama Railroad, Commissary Division, Health Department, and Division of Storehouses. The reductions this fiscal year are largely the result of decreased business activities of Canal and Railroad units induced by force reductions and curtailed activities in other Government agencies. A major contributing cause also was the precipitate decline in marine repair work for the Mechanical Division. The heavy reductions required (Continued on next page) 27800 2 2700 V7Z%\ 2I4QQ 14 000 7000 Ml narmm 19600 !%1 V7. 16300 E300< I 3SEBaEEEliB332B!iiEa|lE333|D I I I I 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950

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May 5,1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW X~L An Official Panama Canal Publication Published Quarterly at BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE On sale at commissaries, clubhouses and hotels in the Canal Zone at five cents a copy. The printing of this publication has been approved by the Director of the Budget on March 9, 1950. FOLD AND MAIL This copy of The Panama Canal Review folded twice crosswise fits easily into a business size envelope and may be mailed anywhere in the Postal Union for six cents. THE REVIEW FLAG The flag (front page heading shown in minature above) of The PANAMA Canal Review was designed by John C. Buechele, of the Office Engineering Division. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters containing inquiries, suggestions, criticisms or opinions of a general nature will be accepted. In all cases possible, letters to the Review will be answered individually. Those of sufficient general interest will be published in this paper. Letters must be authentic and be signed although signatures will not be published unless requested and names of authors will be kept confidential. Return address should be given but the Review will not undertake to return correspondence of any nature. EDITOR'S NOTE The Panama Canal Review is published with the primary objective of giving all employees a better understanding of problems affecting any considerable number. Published, quarterly, it will not be a newspaper in the strict sense of that term, although much it contains may be new and therefore news to a large percentage of the readers. To an extent it will supplement the news and supply you with more details of news you already know. No general coverage of local news is planned, but future issues may contain more items of current interest than the first issue. For obvious reasons, the Review must remain in an experimental stage for some time to come. While the format will likely change little, the first issue is no strait jacket for succeeding numbers. For this reason, your suggestions and opinions, critical or otherwise, will be welcomed. If you like the Review or do not like it, write a letter to the editor. It can be more easily changed than a majority opinion. ONLY 1905 VETERAN William Jump, who has been employed as a timekeeper in the Mechanical Division for the past 34 years, has one of the most distinctive records of any Canal or Railroad employee. He is the oldest native son of the Canal Zone territory, being born at Gorgona while the town was still Colombian territory. Another distinction he holds is the longest service record of any employee on the U. S.-rate rolls. He recently celebrated his 45th consecutive service year. He was first employed February 20, 1905. He has an unbroken service record since January 22, 1907. He is one of the very few ever to achieve a 45-year record with the Canal enterprise. Reductions To Cease Soon {Continued from previous page) in the major operating and business units of the Canal had a downhill snowball effect on other units by a reduction of their work load and the "bumping" of employees. It was not uncommon for the force reduction of one employee to result in personnel displacements in four or five other units. At one time during the war the Personnel Division estimated that an average of one "service" worker was required for every five employed in business and operations units. The inverse ratio, naturally holds true in force reductions. The uncertainty of job security for several thousands of Canal and Railroad workers during the past five years has been recognized by Cans' officials as being the most disruptive factor to the organization and employee morale of the post war years. On the contrary, the reassuring statement by the Governor that the levelling off point is at hand will allay the fears of hundreds over whom have hung the specter of a reduction notice for many months. 4200035000 26000 21000 M000 US.-RATE LOCALRATE 2C700 IDE I TGI rrrrri : .„. |ESEEE|3^slsS&&S:lE!iS&lsEE!lsSE& 3-E33235 1333 EH3 EHsIeEdIi 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1916 1919 1920 1921 1922

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THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5, 1950 NEWS OF YOUR COMMISSARIES ELECTRIC REFRIGERATOR DEVELOPMENTS Last December (just in time for Christmas use by a number of lucky customers) saw the sale of the last of the Commissary Division's stocks of Westinghouse electric refrigerators. Considerably before then, however, efforts were being made to obtain further supplies, preferably of a new type box with a larger frozen food space than had theretofore been available for operation on 25-cycle current. Negotiations have continued through the months with the result that the Westinghouse Electric Company has finally agreed to develop especially for sale in the Canal Zone, a modern refrigerator of 8.44 cubic feet storage capacity, having a freeze chest entirely across the top with space for 59 pounds of frozen storage, two Humidrawers for vegetable storage, and a special space for keeping half-pound of butter ready for easy spreading. First shipment of the new boxes is expected to reach the Isthmus in four to six months. Main trouble in locating a satisfactory supply is in the difficulty of getting new units for 25-cycle operation, in connection with which the Westinghouse officials have stated "since 25-cycle has ceased to exist in the United States we must consider any requests for new 25-cycle equipment as being special for the Panama Railroad Company. You are the only customer in the world, at the present time, desiring this type of equipment." FINE LINEN DAMASK Linen cloth, the use of which is known to have been restricted to royalty, has been used by man as far back as we have records. Cloth of remarkable fineness has been found in the most ancient tombs excavated in Egypt, where, in the pre-Christian era, the art of weaving was practiced only by the men. Whether carried to Ireland by the Romans, or even earlier by the far-wandering Phoenicians as is claimed by some historians, fine linens have been manufactured in the Emerald Isle for many centuries. Fine damask table linens, glistening white, nearly imperishable, represent a genuine value in today's market in the Commissary. Whether for festive occasions in your own home here in the Zone, or for the "hope" chest to be used in the little retirement home you're planning for the States, or as a lasting gift to the brideto-be, the purchase of table linens at this time may be considered as a true investment. Present Commissary stocks range from luncheon size cloths, 54 inches square with six napkins, to banquet size cloths, 72 inches by 144 inches, with a dozen napkins, in prices ranging from $12.45 to $43.90. ***** June brings graduation and brides. Graduation time to many is when they get that first fine watch. New 1950 styles of Benrus watches, for ladies and gentleman, will be on sale in time for use as June gifts. MOTHER'S DAY, May 14, will call for a special treat for Zone mothers. Specially boxed chocolates by Whitman, Page and Shaw, and Lovell and Covel will be available at the appropriate time. If mother is not on the Isthmus, we suggest flowers or a potted plant, through our Florists' Telegraph Delivery Service. Orders placed prior to May 5 can be handled by airmail; others, up to the noon closing of May 10, would have to be handled by cablegram. See the manager of your favorite Comsary for details WHAT THE LABEL MEANS EGGS— "CONSUMER GRADE A" Commissary eggs .are purchased from large egg producers in the area nearby to New York City under the following rigid specifications; all received being covered by U. S. Department of Agriculture inspections made not more than 12 hours prior to time of shipment: Each individual case of eggs shall grade U. S. Consumer Grade A and must consist of edible eggs of which at least 80% are "A" Quality or better; 15% may be of "B" Quality and not more than 5% may be of qualities below "B." On April 3, the Department of Agriculture Official Grader at Pine Beach, New Jersey, graded a lot of 100 cases. These eggs, delivered to S. S. Cristobal on April 5, were received at the Canal Zone April 10 and all were sold by the following Monday. The official grading certificate furnished to the Commissary Division by the Department of Agriculture showed that 16.67% were "AA," 79.33% "A," 3.67% "B" and 0.33% were checks (cracks visible only before the candling light). The grading certificate further stated that the eggs were "fresh natural U. S. Grade A Large, shell treated after inspection." This was not an unusual lot of eggs, but is representative of the standard, quality, and freshness of all eggs supplied Commissary customers under the "Consumer Grade A" label as every lot is similarly inspected. L Zonians who were here before the late war will undoubtedly recall the delicious Jacobs Cream Crackers which were imported from England in those days. They're again available for export and, a small supply having just been ordered to permit of a sampling of customer reactions, should again be in the retail stores within a month or so. Packed in soldered tins, the crackers will open up fresh and crisp. The current alterations at Balboa Commissary, Some of you have asked when the Commissaries will again have the Doulton Hunting and Coaching patterns of dinnerware which were once so popular locally. Not encouraging to those who have incomplete sets, the supplier answers that both patterns have been discontinued and will not be available in future. ^ * * Milk is an essential part of every child's diet. The average child should receive a pint and a half daily. Some children grow best if they receive a quart a day, some if they receive only a pint. As a rule, not less than a pint and not more than a quart should be given daily. — "The Child from One to Six," U. S. Dept. of Labor ***** SHEETS AND PILLOWCASES are used by everybody who is anybody, but almost nobody knows anything about them. According to U. S. Federal specifications, there are five main types, numbered according to the total thread count, which are in turn separated into two kinds of sheetings: Muslins, of 112, 128 and 140 threads to the inch, and percales of 180 and 200 threads to the inch. The lowest thread count material is cheapest, but being loosely and irregularly woven, wears out quickly. The 128-thread material is cheap in price, better woven and of medium durability. The 140-thread muslirf is middle-priced, longest wearing and firmly woven. Of the percales, the 180-thread count material is of medium durability, expensive and of fine, light construction. It wears well, but not as well as the type 140 muslin. The type 200 percale is the finest and smoothest of all but naturally most expensive. It will last longer than the cheaper 180 percale. The types 128 and 140 muslin sheets are sold in almost all commissaries and the type 180 percales, in colors, can be found in the larger stores. Lack of demand does not warrant the shoddy type 112 muslin, or the very expensive type 200 percale being carried. although scheduled so as to cause the least possible annoyance to the trade, have resulted in considerable inconvenience to Commissary shoppers while the work was in progress. The friendly attitude and interest of the store's shoppers in this work is appreciated. A new bakery section with bleached birch fixtures and fluorescent lighting has been added; existing counters and shelves elsewhere in the store are being refinished in the popular bleached mahogany shade and rearranged for maximum shopping convenience. Walls of the lower floor are being refinished in a restful pale green color. When the present alterations are completed, Balboa Commissary will compare favorably with the finest States stores in design, lighting, and appearance. BROWN 'N SERVE ROLLS When the new baked goods section was opened at Balboa Commissary, May 2, the public in the Canal Zon-3 was offered a really new bakery product, the "Brown 'n Serve", type of yeast rolls which are reported as having met with "phenomenal" public acceptance in the States during the past few months since they were first introduced. At first, the new rolls will be sold only at Balboa and Cristobal Commissaries; later be added to other stores where the demand exists. Any baker who has ever pulled pans of rolls or other baked goods from an oven has probably wished that his customers could be there to smell the tempting fragrance of his products, and taste their goodness whife they were hot from the oven. "Brown 'n Serve" rolls are the answer to that wish! The "Brown 'n Serve" products eliminate the chore of mixing, kneading and waiting for the dough to rise, yet, after baking in a moderate oven (425) for 7 to 10 minutes, the housewife can offer her familv real oven-fresh baked rolls. This page is devoted exclusively to news of the Commissaries prepared by the Commissary Division.

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May 5,1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW HOUSING PLAN APPROVED (Continued from page 1) any loyal, permanent employee to have to live under sub-standard conditions." Despite this strong support of the Canal administration's stand on permanent housing, no funds were subsequently made available in sufficient amount to maintain more than a minor replacement schedule. On his first visit to Washington to defend the Canal budget after taking office, Governor Newcomer was requested to eliminate a $1,000,000 item for quarters replacement from his proposed budget because of the Government retrenchment program. On his appearance before the Bureau of the Budget in 1948, he was requested to prepare a longrange, overall housing program which could be considered. On the basis of this request, detailed plans for a 10-year schedule of replacement and construction were prepared under the direction of L. W. Lewis, Chief Quartermaster. This was subsequently reviewed by Donald M. Alstrup, housing expert of the Federal Housing Administration, who, in a memorandum to the Governor in May of last year agreed with the main premises of the Teare report and approved the program proposed by the Chief Quartermaster. Urgent Need Indicated "My observation of your present housing accommodations," Mr. Alstrup wrote, "indicates a very urgent need for a program to provide for the construction of new units, demolition of some units, and remodeling of others. I' believe the scope of the program expressed in numbers of units to be so provided to be very reasonable." This report was forwarded to the Bureau of the Budget last July and on Governor Newcomer's visit to Washington last October, Budget Bureau officials requested that he submit the program to review by competent and independent consultants. The consulting services of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill were obtained immediately thereafter. Their report, submitted last February, generally approved the housing program as outlined. Backed by these authoritative opinions, the 10year housing program has been approved by the Bureau of the Budget and a request for the initial request for funds is to be forwarded to Congress as a supplementary appropriation to the Canal's 1951 budget. Most of the U. S.-rate housing scheduled for the first year will be of the composite type. Practically all of the local-rate housing will be masonry buildings erected at ground level of a type similar to those already built at Paraiso and at Silver City and Camp Coiner. Details Still to be Settled Many details of the first year's program, and those of following years, will not be settled until funds have been made available. However, it is presently planned to execute the major part of the entire program by contract. It is planned to use the Canal building force primarily in demolition, site preparation, and remodeling work, with no major expansion in the force. Building materials for work done by the Canal and under contract will be furnished by the Canal. The report of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill expressed confidence in the ability of any one of several Isthmian contractors to perform the work. "We interviewed several of them" (local contractors), the report stated, "and examined their plants and equipment. We also observed work which they had done or were in :;i ^J TYPE 323 COTTAGE, among the first built in the experimental masonry quarters erected at Diablo Heights and Margarita, was described as well planned. The floor plan of the house and a picture of one of the new cottages at Diablo Heights are shown above. the process of doing. As a result, we feel that these local contractors are well qualified to perform the work contemplated." The consulting firm expressed the belief that masonry construction would be more desirable than composite type in all permanent communities. The consultants also urged the use of tile instead of metal roofs, if at all practicable and within permissible costs. They advised a telescoping of the program somewhat and proposed the development and standardization of a few types of houses. Local-Rate Houses Praised Of the local-rate houses already in use, the consultants praised the Type 137 at Camp Coiner and Type 135 at Paraiso as "compact, livable houses — not overdesigned architecturally, structurally, or mechanically." They recommended, however, the abandonment of Types 127, 128, and 129 for 'permanent communities. The "stilt" or elevated type of construction on U. S.-rate nouses, now almost universally used in the Canal quarters, was a subject of discussion in the report. "With few notable exceptions," it was stated, "we feel that architecturally, the general house designs are based on a tradition of construction camp architecture which has little to offer design-wise in a permanent community. We feel that little has been gained in the adaptation of this wooden type of architecture to masonry construction and feel that this design should be abandoned." In the piace of the "stilt" type of construction, the consultants proposed the adaptation of house plans similar to those used in the new Type 323 at Diablo Heights and Margarita, a one-family house built at ground level. They also suggested consideration of a wholly new type of masonry house and submitted a floor plan. The proposed plan provides for a separation of the living space from the bedrooms by a wide covered porch. This would be adaptable to houses of two, three, and four bedrooms. (See page 18) SAN JUAN PLACE in Ancon shortly before the demolition of these houses was begun is shown in the above view. This is a beginning of the extensive replacement program designed to provide all Canal and Railroad employees with permanent type houses.

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10 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5, 1950 Operations Units Chiefly Affected by Reorganization Slated for July 1 The first fundamental change since 1914 generally affecting all Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company units, with the exception of those in the United States, will take place July 1. The change will bring a realignment of functions, particularly among the operations units, to improve their operating efficiency be required in some units, while in others the realignment will be on a major scale. Generally, these regroupings will be made in the present division levels and the most changes will occur in the Operations Unit. Composing this group will be seven main bureaus: Health, Public Affairs, Marine, Engineering and ConstrucPresident, and Military Assistant. The reorganization will bring practically no change in the work or functions of the five Staff Units, which are: Management Division (presently the Plans Section), Law Division, Civil Intelligence Branch, Safety Branch, and Special Assistants and Boards. No changes of importance will be made in the EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PUBLIC AFFAIRS DIRECTOR Ernst A. Erbe, who becomes Executive Assistant to the GovernorPresident, with the reorganization, has a detailed knowledge of the Canal and Railroad. One of the oldest employees in point of service, he has served as Special Assistant to the Governor for the past 1 1 years. His new job is to define and carry out policies of internal administration and coordination. COMMUNITY SERVICES DIRECTOR Colonel Richardson Selee, retired, will assume his third top job with the Canal-Railroad when he becomes Public Affairs Director. He served three years as Assistant Engineer of Maintenance before his appointment in August 1948 as Assistant to the General Manager of the Panama Railroad. Most of the important units to be under his supervision are presently in the Executive Department, headed by E. C. Lombard, Executive Secretary (left) with whom he is shown conferring in the above picture. PERSONNEL DIRECTOR Lieutenant Governor Herbert D. Vogel in conference with Henry L. Donovan (left) on matters relating to the new Community Affairs Bureau. Mr. Donovan is no newcomer to the Canal organization, having entered the service in the Office Engineering Division 20 years ago. Since July 1945 he has served as a coordinator at the Caribbean Command headquarters. E. A. Doolan (above), with his Secretary, Miss Isabel Zemer, becomes Personnel Director July 1. He entered personnel work with the Canal as an assistant clerk in the division in August 1941. He has served as Senior Clerk, Personnel Assistant, Training Officer, and Administrative Assistant before his selection as Assistant Director in September 1948. through a more effective control and coordination of their activities. Succinctly, the various units will be assembled into five main groups, each with like or related functions. These are: Office of the GovernorPresident; Staff Units; Administrative Units; Operations Units; and Offices in the United States. These groups, in turn, will be divided into units having the same general type of functions and work. Regroupings will be made only where required to follow this typical pattern. Practically no changes will tion, Supply and Service, Industrial, Railroad and Terminals, and Community Service. In most cases the name of the bureau generally indi-' cates the functions it will embody. The Office of the GovernorPresident will be reorganized to provide a compact staff with broad administrative authority to relieve the Governor of much detailed supervisory and administrative work. This staff will be composed of the Lieutenant Governor, Executive Secretary, The Panama Canal, Executive Assistant to the GovernorWashington Office of The Panama Canal nor the New York Office of the Panama Railroad Company. Most of the personnel changes to be made as a result of the reorganization will be at top levels and the principal ones of these have already been made public. The reorganization is expected to have but little effect on the rank and file of employees who will continue in their same duties under the same administrative heads they now have.

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May 5,1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11 THE PANAMA CANAL ORGANIZATION CHART EFFECTIVE JULY 1, 1950 THE PANAMA RAILROAD Co. E. C. LOMBARD Executive Secretary The Panama Canal GOVERNOR'S OFFICE F. K. NEWCOMER GovernorPresiden t HERBERT D. VOGEL Lieutenant Governor and Second Vice President E. A. ERBE Executive Assistant to Governor-President STAFF 1 LAW DIVISION PAUL A. BENTZ General Counsel MANAGEMENT DIVISION W. H. DUNLOP Chief SAFETY BRANCH G. 0. KELLAR Chief CIVIL INTELLIGENCE BRANCH STANTON BROWN Chief SPECIAL ASSISTANTS and BOARDS ADMINISTRATION MAGISTRATES COURTS Balboa RALPH A. CHITTICK Cristobal E. I. P. TATELMAN ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCHI P. F. SHRAPNEL Chief FINANCE BUREAU ARNOLD BRUCKNER Director PERSONNEL BUREAU E. A. DOOLAN Director OPERATIONS 1 HEALTH BUREAU Major General GEORGE W. RICE Director PUBLIC AFFAIRS BUREAU Colonel RICHARDSON SELEE (Ret.) Director MARINE BUREAU Captain ROBERT M. PEACHER U.S.N. Director ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Colonel HOWARD KER Director SUPPLY AND SERVICE BUREAU L. W. LEWIS Director RAILROAD AND TERMINALS BUREAU A. L. PRATHER Director INDUSTRIAL BUREAU Captain JOHN J. SCHIEBELER U.S.N. Director COMMUNITY SERVICES BUREAU HENRY L. DONOVAN Director Ol ?FICES IN U MI TED STATE ,S PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY New York Office W. R. PFIZER, First Vice President WASHINGTON OFFICE THE PANAMA CANAL B. F. BURDICK Chief of Office

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12 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5,1950 Harry A. Metzler, Constructing Quartermaster (left), and Carl J. Browne, Assistant Constructing Quartermaster, both are graduates of the student engineer training of the 1930's. F. R. Johnson, Second Assistant Chief Quartermaster, who supervises the Building Division, and Edmund R. MacVittie Building Division Superintendent on the Atlantic Side, also are former Student Engineers. OLD SCHOOL APPRENTICE NEW SCHOOL APPRENTICE Hundreds Benefit By In-Service Training Apprenticeships Offered In 1906 To AidC Z. Boys Liberally sprinkled through the CanalRailroad organization are ,many employees holding high superivisory or other responsible positions iwho owe much in their advancement ;to in-service or on-the-job training. Among these are one assistant department chief, heads of two major divisions, and the secondand third-in-command of several other large units. While no exact figures are available, it is conservatively estimated several hundred employees have received such training and a large percentage of these have completed formal courses of instruction. In some units, notably the Police and Fire Division, all employees are required by the nature of their work to take certain training on the job. In most instances, however, in-service training is offered on a voluntary basis for those desiring to learn their own jobs better as a preparatory step for promotion. The overall in-service training program of the Canal-Railroad is none too well known among the rank and file of employees because of sporadic publicity given various phases which are of interest in each limited field. However, interest is always highly manifest among employees eligible for any given program and generally there is an abundance of applicants when selections for such training are made >*. a competitive basis. The Canal has generally kept abreast of other Government agencies in providing opportunities for advancement by this method and plans are being formulated for an extension of in-service training. Doolan Favors Training Because of his several years as Training Officer in the Personnel Division, Edward A. Doolan, who becomes Personnel Director on July 1, is keenly aware of the importance of in-service training. In expanding the program he plans to cover gaps now apparent in the overall program. : Such a gap, he says, is evident in the higher supervisory or "middle management" group, which includes, among others, assistant division chiefs, administrative assistants, and the heads of smaller units. The primary need among this group, he believes, is a better understanding of the relation of their work and that of their unit to all others in the organization. While most of these have had in-service training, in most instances it was concentrated on their particular duties or the work of their units with too little emphasis placed on the relation to work in other departments or divisions or the overall Government operations. The program for this group will be somewhat similar but on a broader scale than the successful In-Service Vincent G. Raymond, Leadingman Machinist in the Mechanical Division, is a graduate of the old school of in-service training. He entered apprentice training in December 1906 soon after the program was instituted. He also has one of the longest service records of anyone in the Canal-Railroad organization. B. I. Everson, Superintendent of the Motor Transportation Division, graduate of a later school of apprenticeship, is one of several Canal Zone boys who have profited by in-service training and risen to the top. Training instituted last year by Francis Campbell, present Training Officer. Approximately 50 employees representing all major Canal and Railroad units completed this course designed to assist in the development of those in Grades CAF 3 through CAF 7 for supervisory and administrative positions. A similar program for employees in ratings of GS-4 through GS-8 is presently being organized and the course extending over a period of about'eight months will be given to groups on both the Atlantic and Pacific sides. Perhaps a surprise to many is the fact that in-service training is no new-fangled development in the personnel field. For the Canal, it had its beginning almost when construction of the waterway was begun in 1904. It was soon realized that job opportunities should be provided for the sons of the men and women working for the Isthmian Canal Commission and the first apprentice training was approved April 12, 1906. Rules Adopted in 1914 Formal apprenticeship rules were not adopted until June 1914 and schooling or class instruction was not begun until February 1915 when shop foremen in the Mechanical and Building Divisions were appointed as instructors. A more informal but (See page 13)

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May 5, 1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13 Hundreds Benefit By In-Service Training W. A. Van Siclen, Superintendent of the Atlantic Locks, has the distinction of being a graduate of both the apprentice and student engineer training. He was born and reared in the Canal Zone. (Continued from page 12) nonetheless important form of training was provided by the employment of the sons of American employees with the rating of "boy" in various types of work. Many of the old-timers, some of whom rose to top positions in the Canal and Railroad, were first employed as apprentices or "boys" and received with their training the then princely sum of ten cents, gold, an hour. Not many of these remain in service, but Vincent G. Raymond, Leadingman Machinist in the Mechanical Division, and Archie M. Gibson, Refrigeration Engineer in the Commissary Division, are both graduates of the apprentice training of the construction era. Mr. Raymond began his apprenticeship December 16, 1906, shortly after the program was authorized, and Mr. Gibson began his four-year apprentice course December 15, 1910. The apprentice program in the Mechanical Division almost lapsed during the early 1920's because of the lack of work and reductions in force. School work was discontinued in 1925 but by 1933 more apprentices were being employed. The whole program was revived and reorganized in 1935 with formal school training being inaugurated the following year. Whitlock Former Apprentice A well-known graduate apprentice of this era was Andrew A. Whitlock, Superintendent of Production in the Mechanical Division. He began his four-year apprenticeship as a draftsman on August 1, 1924, after a few months employment in other capacities. When the program was reorganized in 1935 he was made apprentice-coordinator in the division and served in that capacity for several years. Philip T. Green has been the apprentice-coordinator of aH school training since shortly after its reorganization in 1935. At about the same time the apprentice program was reorganized during the middle 30's several other important in-service training courses were opened to the younger employAndrew A. Whitlock, Production Superintendent of the Mechanical Division, is a former student and instructor in apprentice training. He began his apprentice training in August 1924 and was later made apprentice-coordinator when the program was reorganized in 1935. ees, which have been highly productive of top supervisory and administrative personnel Among these were the Student Engineer Training program; an intensive in-service training program for supervisory and sales personnel of the Commissary Division ; and learnerships in such vocations as timekeeping, accounting, storekeeping, typing, clerical work, and for such employees as motion picture operator, telephone operator, messenger, and postal clerk. The student engineer program was inaugurated with the objective of employing young graduate engineers for two years of training and possible selection for administrative work. The program was continued until the outbreak of World War II at which time 57 student engineers had been employed or were in training with various divisions. Both F. R. Johnson, Second Assistant Chief Quartermaster, and Harry A. Metzler, Constructing Quartermaster, were student engineer trainees. Many Student Engineers Others include W. A. Van Siclen, Superintendent of the Atlantic Locks; Carl J. Browne, Assistant Constructing Quartermaster; Edmund R. MacVittie, Building Division Superintendent^in the Northern District; Truman H. Hoenke, Locks Division Engineer; Allen K. Miller, C. W. Chase, Jr., Roger M. Howe, Richard R. Potter, and George D. Dunlap, Engineers in the Electrical Division; Richard R. Brown, Refrigeration Engineer in the Commissary Division; Charles S. Howe, of the Meteorology and Hydrography Section; James E. Cole, Hydraulic Engineer in the Dredging Division; Howard E. Walling, Engineer in the Mechanical Division; Earl C. Orr, Chemist, and Howard W. Osborn, Construction Engineer in the Municipal Engineering Division. Mr. Van Siclen, a native of the Canal Zone, is also a graduate apprentice, being the only one in the organization to have completed both courses. B. I. Everson, Superintendent of the Motor Transportation Division, completed an apprenticeship with the Canal. He is one of several Canal Zone boys to have begun his climb to a top job with apprentice training. Most of the in-service training programs were disrupted and all but abandoned at the beginning of the war. It is notable, however, that one of great importance to the Canal work was organized and successfully presented during this period. This was the supervisory training program organized by Mr. Doolan soon after his appointment as Training Officer in 1943. It was initiated for the specific purpose of training employees urgently needed as supervisors in the rapidly expanding organization. The training conference method was adopted and about 20 groups were formed with more than 325 employees from the Electrical, Mechanical, Police and Fire, and Building Divisions, the Panama Canal Clubhouses, and the Division of Storehouses. A similar supervisory training has been established since the war in the Mechanical Division with Leonard Brockman as Training Officer. It has proved so successful that Captain Joseph L. Bird, Superintendent, calls it "the best thing that ever happened" in the Mechanical Division. Indicative of the response to inservice training was the voluntary attendance of more than 60 nonsupervisory employees of the Mechanical Division at a series of lectures on Job Relationship presented by Mr. Brockman recently. Revive Commissary Program The Commissary Division is presently reviving its employee training program which was badly upset by the expanding force and personnel changes during the immediate prewar and war years. The new program will be based to a great extent on that of 15 years ago when R. A. Sullivan, Assistant General Manager, was transferred from the Schools Division as Training Officer. Vincent J. Clarke, General Manager, has announced the reassignment of Bart Elich to duties as Training Officer. Another in-service training program based on experiences of the pre-war years is the Graduate Trainee courses. In effect, it is an expansion of the old Student Engineer courses with the addition of training in administrative fields. The program was begun in 1948 and 20 graduates in business administration and engineering were employed. Seven others were employed last year but none has been added to the force this year largely because of force reductions and the plans for reorganization. Other on-the-job training being provided in more specialized fields include the intern and residency training of the Health Department; the training center for medical technologists at Gorgas Hospital; the conference training work in the Division of Schools ; the (See page 18)

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5,1950 WEBB TAKES REST FROM "BELVEDERE" Clubhouses Offer Customers Many New Features Several innovations have been made in the Panama Canal Clubhouses within recent weeks which have proved highly popular. This introduction of new features as well as new entertainment is in line with the general policy to present the finest availbble. Sheet Music and Records Phonograph records of the most popular brands are sold at Ancon, Balboa, Cristobal, Cocoli, and Margarita Clubhouses. Sheet music and music folios are sold at Balboa, Cristobal, and Margarita. A careful check is kept on the entertainment world's bible — Billboard Magazine — and records and popular sheet music are carefully evaluated for sale based on the 15 top-selling tunes or records in the United States. Clubhouse patrons are thereby kept informed as to what is currently successful in the United States and are able to keep up with both the new and old favorites. Should you have a favorite tune or desire a particular piano or other solo, arrangements can be made through your Clubhouse for purchase and delivery of such material. Rental Library At Margarita and Balboa Clubhouses will be found in the magazine section a large library of best-selling fiction and other books. New books are carefully chosen by a nationwide rental library distributor in the United States who acts as our agent and ships books to the Canal Zone. Should there appear to be a dull evening ahead of you, it is suggested that you drop into Balboa or Margarita Clubhouse, get a library card from the manager, and avail yourself of these interesting best sellers. Drive-Inn One of the favorite forms of relaxing and dining in the United States is to climb into the family vehicle, drive to the nearest restaurant where curb-service is available, and eat good food in the comfort of house slippers and second-best clothes. Persons coming from theaters or dances are also found frequenting the so-called drive-in restaurant and lunchroom. The Clubhouses have now made this popular method of dining available to residents of the Pacific side by the opening of the Drive Inn in the library building on Gaillard Highway. The Inn is famous for its chicken and shrimp in a basket as well as its smothered steak sandwiches. Clifton Webb, appearing as the father of twelve children in the film version of the human interest best-seller "Cheaper By the Dozen," coming soon to the Clubhouse Theatres, states he is glad to have a rest from Belvedere roles. "People were beginning to take Belvedere too seriously," he claims. "Mothers were using his name to threaten naughty children. I've received hundreds of letters from people who write that when their children become difficult, all they have to do is say, 'I'm going to send for Mr. Belvedere.' "The part of Dad in my first Technicolor movie, 'Cheaper By The Dozen' is a welcome change. Belvedere was human, but very acidulous and precise. Now I am a warm, likeable person throughout the story, though still definitely a character." Webb's studio, Twentieth Century-Fox, however, feels quite differently about Mr. Belvedere, and at the moment has writers at work on three new Belvedere scripts. And even Webb is very pleased with his next assignment, "Mr. Belvedere Takes The Rap." "It's a fine story," he says. "I play the only holdout on a jury who is eleven to one for conviction. After the jurors are discharged, I set out to prove I was right. "But," he adds, "after this film, I want to play a really despicable character, someone everybody will hate." That statement seems ironic in view of the fact that Webb's next role might actually be a portrayal of himself in a movie based on his life. For Webb's life has been as colorful as almost any film script. At the age of seven, he was playing with the Children's Theater in New York, and at seventeen he was singing in grand opera. A few years later, he was one of the nation's foremost dancers, achieving such success that he was compared only with Vernon Castle. Migrating to musical comedy, for more than a decade he was a Broadway star in such shows as 'Treasure Girl" with Gertrude Lawrence, CLIFTON WEBB "She's My Baby" with Beatrice Lillie, and "As Thousands Cheer," With Fred Allen and Libby Holman, he formed the team that made Broadway history in the famous "Little Shows" and "Three's A Crowd." Varying dramatic with dancing roles, he scored in such stage successes as "Meet The Wife," "The Man Who Came To Dinner," and "Blithe Spirit." Coming to Hollywood, Webb starred in pictures like "Laura" and "The Razor's Edge," before he helped to add a new phrase to the English language, "Mr. Belvedere." Many people in Hollywood and on Broadway are convinced that the story of Clifton Webb would make as exciting a movie as "The Jolson Story." And Webb, with typical Belvedere assurance, counts himself enthusiastically in their number. He has already finished his autobiography, and Darryl F. Zanuck has been quick to take an option on it for movie purposes. JOHN GARFIELD PLAYS SAFE, MAKES FRIEND OF HORSE The habit of cultivating a friend — even though he happens to be a horse — paid liberal dividends for John Garfield, star of "Under My Skin," scheduled for release in May at the Balboa Theatre. During the filming of the picture, Garfield who plays the part of a shady jockey, was called upon to do a scene where he walks up to a racehorse, pats him several times, and appraises him with the eye of a man well acquainted with thoroughbreds. The scene should have been routine, except for the fact that the animal acquired by the studio was an exceedingly finicky, spirited animal. Jean Negulesco, director of "Under My Skin," did not particularly relish having Garfield come within kicking distance of the animal. The scene got under way with misgivings on the part of Negulesco who called out to John to be very careful. Then, to the amazement of the director and the entire crew, the nervous animal not only quieted down but nuzzled up to the actor. "I don't get it," exclaimed Negulesco, as the camera recorded a perfect take. "Why, that horse acted like he knew you." Garfield confessed that he had been informed the horse was highly spirited and had started several weeks before going to the stable to feed the animal carrots. "I figured it would be a lot safer," said Garfield, "if I made up to him. After all, like any prospective bridegroom, it seems the way to a horse's heart is through his stomach." HIGHLIGHTS "Black Hand," coming attraction at the Balboa Theatre, is M-G-M's shattering, suspenseful drama of a courageous man, a terror-ridden people, a gang of desperate criminals and a girl who thought she had the answer. Set in New York City and Naples, Italy, shortly after the turn of the century, it unfolds the adventures of a roung man who comes to America from taly with one purpose — to avenge the murder of his father. Gene Kelly, iti a portrayal far removed from his usual song and dance roles, plays a tough, ruthless man who mission in life is to destroy an idea as well as an extortion mob preying on the immigrants located in New York's "Little Italy." It is Kelly's first straight dramatic role in seven years This page is devoted exclusively to news of the Clubhouses and Theaters prepared by The Panama Canal Clubhouses.

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May 5, 1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15 Captain Swinson, 20 Years A Ship Master, Heads Staff of Old-Timers on S. S. Ancon (Continued from page 4) York State Nautical School in 1918 and then spent about a year on Army transports between New York and France. He served as junior officer for the American Line on ships between New York, France, and Germany, and from 1924 to 1926 worked for the Munson Line on vessels in the New York-South America trade. In 1926, he acquired a wife and soon after, a job with the Panama Line which provided more regular runs back and forth to his home in New York. During World War II, he served as a Navy commander on ships in both the Atlantic and Asiatic War theaters. He returned to the Panama Line in March 1946 and came out with the Ancon when she became a civilian ship. William Schwamm, Chief Steward, is the man who is largely responsible for the general comfort of travelers and the food which meets with almost universal approval of passengers on the Ancon. He is an exacting man who makes it plain that good food is no accident. The products that go into meals on the Ancon are first quality and there can be no question about it, he explains. If his order calls for 300 pounds of roasting chicken, 12 to a box, 4 to 4| pounds each, fresh, frozen, U. S. Grade A (a typical order), no variation from those standards are accepted. Everything is inspected before it is taken aboard and if the quality is not that specified, it is returned to the seller. From there on out, the cooking must be right, and that operation is in the hands of Carl Beinert who celebrated in April, 49 years as a cook in hotels and aboard ships. He counts among the persons for whom he has cooked in those years, many Clubhouses Provide Variety In Services, Entertainment The Division of Clubhouses maintains that "it's fun to serve the community." This attitude has built up in recent years and will be even more evident in the future. A partial box score of this team, as revealed by the Director of Clubhouses in a recent interview, follows: The Clubhouse Division, employing some 1,100 persons, is an entirely joined the Panama Line the following year. He was employed on United Fruit ships from 1931 to 1938 when he returned to the Ancon. He served on the Cristobal from 1941 to 1946, through its service as an Army transport, and returned to the Ancon when she reverted to civilian status after World War II. Chief Steward William Schwamm, left, and Carl Beinert, Chef well-known persons, among them, the former German Kaiser who ate his food on the former yacht Hohenzollern, now the cruise ship Stella Polaris. Mr. Schwamm, a native of Germany, served a four-year apprenticeship as a cook and was employed in various German hotels until 1925 when he first went to sea on the Hamburg-American Line. He came to the United States in 1927 and Chief Engineer Malcolm I. Gatheral Chief Engineer Malcolm I. Gatheral is a native of Scotland and served an apprenticeship as a machinist in Edinburgh before coming to the United States in 1923. He went to sea about a year later on the Panama-Pacific Line and in 1928, went to the American Export Line, serving as assistant engineer on cruise ships in the Mediterranean. He has .been employed by the Panama Line since 1937. Mr. Downs was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and served as solicitor and terminal manager for Seaboard Freight Lines at Bridgeport and Stamford for two years before his employment as assistant purser on the Ancon in 1939. He served in the Army in England, France, and Germany during World War II, then returned to the Panama Line as chief purser on the Panama when it went back into civilian service. He went to the Cristobal later the same year and assumed his present post on the A neon in June 1947. Together these men are responsible for the operation of the Ancon, with which many Canal and Railroad employees will make or renew acquaintance during the coming summer vacation months. This is the first of a series of three articles on the Panama Line ships. The others will deal with personalities of the S. S. Cristobal and S. S. Panama. self-supporting agency operating on revenues received from the sale of goods and services to government employees and their families. During the period 1940 to mid-1945, the population of the Zone was at its peak, and all agencies, including the Clubhouses, operated at full capacity. As a result income soared to unprecedented heights and profits accumulated proportionately. A comprehensive program of rebuilding and improvement to existing Clubhouse facilities and the construction of new projects was subsequently undertaken with surplus funds accumulated during the period of prosperity. Visible evidence of Clubhouse improvements is to be found first of all in the Balboa Theater, where Zone residents may now enjoy the finest in motion picture entertainment under the most satisfying conditions. The Pacific Bakery at La Boca was constructed to permit centralization of all Clubhouse baking on the Pacific side. From it flows a steady stream of delicious pastries and light fluffy bread. The interiors of Balboa Ancon, Pacific, Camp Bierd, and Cristobal Clubhouses were remodeled and beautified, and the kitchens were modernized, combining more attractive surroundings with the demand for an efficient operation. The Clubhouse Division is also very proud of the fact that the surplus realized during the busy war years has enabled it to assist all Zone communities. Some of the improvements already accomplished are the night-lighting facilities at the Balboa and the Mount Hope Stadiums; installation of barbecue (See page 18* A SIGN OF GOOD ENTERTAINMENT is that of the new Balboa Theater which is already familiar to thousands of theater-goers on the Isthmus. The modern and air conditioned theater, featuring first-run pictures and the top in entertainment generally, has proved its popularity by a record of more than 100,000 admissions since it was opened late last year.

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16 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5,1950 The Canal-Railroad Honor Roll Within another few months, less than 100 Canal and Railroad employees who came to the Isthmus from the United States during the Canal construction period will remain in service. The past year saw the number almost halved and 11 names were dropped from the rolls during the first quarter of this year. There are now only 106 in service and of these only 27 have unbroken service records and only 47 hold the famous Roosevelt Medals, given for two or more years of continuous service before April 14, 1914. The list contained 182 names just one year ago. This honor roll of old-timers now contains no names of those who came to the Isthmus in 1904 and 1905. There are only two who entered the service in 1906 and only 13 were here when Secretary of War William Howard Taft landed in Cristobal on January 29, 1909, with a commission to investigate the Canal work. In addition to those Americans who came to help build the Canal there are many of other nationalities who served through most of the construction era. In practically every Canal and Railroad unit are to be found several veterans in service who came to the Isthmus from their homes in the West Indies when "the big ditch" was being dug. Two well known non-citizen employees on the U. S.-rate rolls who entered the service during the construction period are Alfred E. "Fritz" Marti, native of Switzerland, employed in the Section of Meteorology LONGEST SERVICE EMPLOYED IN 1907 Thomas J. Ebdon, Lock Operator at Gatun, completed his 43rd year of continuous service on May 4. He is the only American with an unbroken service record dating back earlier than 1909. He came to the Isthmus in May 1907 and worked the remainder of the construction period as a machinist in the Mechanical Division and as a locomotive engineer on the Panama Railroad. He transferred^ to the Locks Division when it was first organized and has served only with that division since. His transfer was dated July 16, 1914, just one month before the Canal was opened to traffic. Several look operators were so transferred before the Canal opening to acquaint themselves with the wholly new machinery and work. and Hydrography, and Enrique de la Ossa, Panamanian citizen employed in the Receiving and Forwarding Agency. Mr. Marti entered service March 9, 1907 and Mr. de la Ossa on Miss Florence E. Williams has the earliest service date of any woman in the CanalRailroad organization and the third earliest of any American employee. She came to the Isthmus in July 1906 aboard the old S. S. Allianca and entered service the following March as a telephone operator at Culebra. She lacked only a few months of having enough construction-day service to wear the Roosevelt Medal. She is perhaps the only remaining employee in service to have been one of the invited guests to see the first shovelful of dirt removed for the Gatun Locks. Her father, Henry J. Williams, was employed for many years in the Panama Railroad office in Panama City. She reentered the Canal service in 1922 and has been continuously employed since in the Department of Finance. July 12, 1911. Both have continuous service records. The complete list of veterans of the Canal construction who came to the Isthmus from the United States and the dates they entered service are as follows. Names of employees in capital letters indicate unbroken service: 1906 Harold A. Shafer— August 10 Vincent G. Raymond — December 16 1907 Florence E. Williams— March 1 Raymond L. Burmester — April 17 THOMAS J. EBDON— May 4 Jonas E. White — October 5 Frank H. Wolf— December 19 1908 Nell M. Wardlaw— June 9 Esbon S. MacSparran — June 22 Margaret C. McCormack — August 21 Charles P. Harrison — September 23 Charles P. Morgan — October 26 1909 JOSEPH H. STILSON, Jr.— January 1 Aloysius P. Ridge — February 1 Archie M. Gibson — April IS J. Wendell Greene — May 5 JAMES R. WILLIAMS— May 14 Adrien Marie Bouche — July 2 A. LYLE PRATHER— July 24 ALBIN B. FORSSTROM— September 9 John E. Ridge— October 20 1910 MAX R. BOGGS— January 13 George H. Cassell — January 29 Julius H. Bornefeld — February 4 HARRY C. ADAMS— February 11 LEON A. KOPERSKI— February 14 Frank J. Gerchow — March 4 Raymond B. Ward — June 13 Raymond A. Koperski — June 27 William R. Howe— July 1 Vern D. Calloway — Juiy 7 Kieth E. Kelley— July 27 George L. Wright — August 17 Peter G. Flynn — November 16 ALBERT C. GARLINGTON— Nov. 26 Myron R. Herrington — December 23 1911 ERNEST C. COTTON— February 20 Barton C. Woodruff— May 6 William P. Quinn— May 24 Lea K. Dugan — June 6 JOHN D. GALLIVAN— June 30 Herbert T. Souder— July IS Charles Lester — August 18 GEORGE N. ENGELKE— September 5 Bernard W. Mclntyre — September 28 Melville L. Booz — October 2 ROY L. DWELLE— October 5 ARTHUR L. MINER— October 5 Gregor Gramlich — October 14 Berney J. Robinson— October 30 Louis A. Stilson — November 28 Robert A. Patterson — December 7 Frederic E. Williams — December 9 1912 Samuel J. Deavours — March 1 Gustaf R. Holmelin— March 13 Gilbert B. Owen— March 22 Josephine R. Dennis — -April 6 Harland V. Howard— April 22 Robert W. Hutchings — April 26 Ernst A. Erbe — June 1 Fred Frank — June 1 Gertrude A. Murray — June 1 George F. Miller— June 28 Alba D. Hutchings— August 19 Edward C. Bigelow — September 23 Thomas J. Breheney — November 1 Edward W. Schnake — November 26 FRED W. BRADLEY— December 3 George C. Orr — December S ARTHUR MORGAN— December 16 1913 FRANK CARR— January IS Otto A. Sundquist — January IS Luther L. Long — January 29 Jerome F. Prager — -February 3 Bernard J. McDaid — February 19 SAMUEL ROE— February 28 Leonidas H. Morales H. — March 1 EARLE A. KENT— March 27 ADAM S. MILLER— April 14 David W. Ellis— June 11 L. W. Lewis — June 19 Arthur J. Farrell— June 28 Edward P. Walsh— July 1 George E. Matthew — July 2 Otto C. Frick— July 2 Robert I. Barnes — July 3 JOHN W. MANUSH— July 5 EMMETT ZEMER— July 10 M. R. ALEXANDER— July 12 HARRY A. COMLEY— July 14 Harold P. Bevington — August 16 Newell N. Shaw — October 4 WALTER W. WHITE— October 18 Eric E. Forsman — November 4 James E. Tennien — November 10 Wayne H. Nellis — November 17 Bert G. Tydeman — November 22 Mai LeRoy Dodson — December 10 William V. Brugge — December 17 1914 JAMES G. MAGUIRE— January 20 Theodore A. Long — February 1 1 LEON F. HALLETT— February 14 PHILIP L. SEARS— February 25 Clarendon Sealy — March 6 Marv G. Hammond — March 24 Samuel L. Souder— March 24

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May 5,1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17 STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC For the purpose of comparison between pre-war and post-war traffic through the Panama Canal, statistics for the fiscal year 1938 are used in this section, as being more nearly normal for peacetime than those for 1939. Ship Sizes Increase 600 Tons Within 20 Years Commercial ships using the Panama Canal today have a carrying capacity of 600 tons a vessel more than 20 years ago. All classes of vessels have increased in size but tankers, largely the result of the war, now measure almost 1,000 tons more than in 1929. Comparative figures just compiled on Canal traffi c for the calendar years 1929 TANKERS 1929—5,366 Tons CARGO HANDLED OVER PIERS (In short tons) Local cargo received Local cargo forwarded Transfer cargo received Total incoming cargo handled Rehandled cargo Transfer cargo forwarded Total cargo handled and transferred First quarter, 1950 Cristobal 56,738 7,745 83,051 147,534 3,458 84,752 235,744 Balboa 21,946 15,713 556 38,215 268 578 39,061 Total 78,684 23,458 83,607 185,749 3,726 85,330 274,805 Average quarter, 1949 All piers 104,205 28,608 72,240 205,053 3,435 73,245 281,733 Average quarter, 1938 All piers 87,968 9,388 138,386 235,742 1,584 136,127 373,453 1949—6,324 Tons 20Year Increase, 958 Tons 1938 and 1949 tell the story of a steady increase in the size of ships. Gains were shown each decade in tankers, cargo ships, and cargo-passenger vessels, the three main classes which make up the ocean-going commercial traffic through the Canal. Cargo and cargo-passenger ships showed a large gain between 1929 and 1938 and a CARGO-PASSENGER 1929—4,477 Tons 1949—5,019 Tons 20Year Increase, 542 Tons lesser gain in the next ten-year period. Tankers, on the contrary, increased only 227 tons in size between 1929 and 1938, but averaged 958 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, more in 1949 than 20 years before. Cargo and cargo-passenger vessels averaged 4,477 tons in 1929; 4,913 tons in 1938; and 5,019 tons in 1949, a 20-year increase of 542 tons, or 12 percent. Because of the variation in traffic of small commercial vessels of over 300 tons, comparative figures on these are inconclusive. Although a decrease in the size of these ships was shown in comparative figures for 1929 and 1938, the average size of this class of vessels transiting the Canal last year was 722 tons above that in 1929. Before the war there was considerable traffic through the Canal operating on feeder lines from Cristobal to Central and South American ports on the Pacific. This trade has now practically disappeared and vessels in this category are now slightly larger than before the war and are operating Approximately one-third less local cargo was received on the Balboa and Cristobal piers during the first quarter of this year than the average quarter of last year. This marked decline, as applied to the work load on the piers, was practically offset by gains in the tons of local cargo forwarded and the amount of transfer cargo received and forwarded. The overall loss was less than three percent. Comparative figures on the amount of cargo being handled over the piers now and in 1938 show a substantial gain in the amount of local cargo being shipped out of the two ports, but heavy losses in other categories of cargo handled. The total cargo handled and transferred during the first three months of this year was listed at 274,805 short tons, as compared with 373, 453 short tons for the average quarter of 1938, a drop of approximately 25 percent. TOTAL NUMBER AND TONNAGE OF VESSELS 1929 1938 1949 Ships 4,778 4.565 4,522 "Tons 21,394 22^27 22,694 Ships 1,199 545 443 "Tons 6,430 3,129 2,801 Ships 288 489 79 "Tons 236 296 122 Ships 16 27 40 *Tons ** 10 28 Ships 6,281 5,626 5,084 *Tons 28,060 25,862 25,645 Tonnage shown in thousands. ** Displacement Tonnage AVERAGE SIZES AND INCREASES 1929 Size 1938 1949 Size 10-year Increase Size 20-year Increase 4,477 4,913 436 5,019 542 5,366 5,743 227 6,324 958 Small commercial (over 300 tons) 821 605 *216 1,543 722 4,479 4,617 138 5,079 600 Indicates decrease. over some of the main trade routes. In the accompanying statistical charts, it will be noted that the cargo and cargo-passenger ships transiting the Canal in 1949 had a load capacity of 1,300,000 tons more than 1929 (a peak year of the Canal operations) despite being 256 less in number. The figures shown in these charts are in Panama Canal net tonnage measurement but cargo statistics for these years show these vessels actually carried more cargo, roughly equivalent to the tonnage statistics.

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18 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW May 5, 1950 CLUBHOUSES PROVIDE VARIETY IN SERVICES, ENTERTAINMENT (Continued from page IS) pits and other picnic facilities at Summit Gardens picnic area ; active participation in the summer recreation program; the purchase of roller skates and the operation of rinks in various communities; and the improvements at Hideaway Beach. Plans now underway include the construction of a modern swimming pool and refreshment stand at Silver City, and the modernizing of the Balboa Swimming Bool. Although it is the policy of the Division to keep prices as low as possible and still earn enough to provide necessary community services and meet all obligations, it was found necessary in July 1949, to increase some restaurant and soda fountain prices to meet the rapidly increasing costs of raw materials and payrolls. The unsatisfactory condition was also attacked by an all-out program to curtail expenses wherever such curtailment did not affect public service. Clubhouse activities were also expanded to include new services heretofore unavailable to local residents: the opening of a drive-in restaurant at Ancon; the sale of phonograph records, sheet music, home remedies, and convenience items in merchandise sections; and the installation of rental libraries at Balboa and Margarita. As a result of the above, the Division has been able to "remain in the black" for the current fiscal year. The Clubhouse Division is always on the lookout for worthwhile live entertainment, professional or amateur. In connection with various local groups, the Clubhouses have presented on their stages or assisted in the sponsoring at'popular prices of such outstanding attractions as the Alicia Alonso Ballet, the Louisiana Minstrels, the world-touring Spanish dance troupe, Chang the Magician, the National Ballet School of Panama, the Jack Blunder Circus, and others. Recent or coming attractions at the Balboa Theater are the Gamma Chi Revue and the annual Dorese Waites' Dance Revue. The Division will be prominent in the handling of details for the forthcoming presentation of Cab Calloway at the Balboa Stadium. The Director of Clubhouses, in his Mississippi drawl, gives all credit for Clubhouse improvements and the essential part played by the Division in community affairs to the Canal administration and his hard-driving employees. It can be seen, however, that he strives to coordinate the "know how" and efforts of all Clubhouse employees, giving due consideration to the human factor, in striving towards his goal of more and better service to the communities. With the continued support of Clubhouse facilities by the residents of the various Canal towns, for whom these facilities are provided, the Clubhouse Division will remain in a position to return to the employees all profits realized, through additional improvements and extensions to public service. CANAL TRANSITS-TOLLS PAYING AND FREE January-February-March 1950 1949 1938 Atlantic to Pacific Pacific to Atlantic Total Total Total Tolls-paying vessels: 737 725 1,462 1,227 1,386 Small 163 144 307 320 219 900 869 1,769 1,547 1,605 138 149 287 330 139 Total tolls-paying and free 1,038 1,018 2,056 1,877 1,744 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. ** Exclusive of Panama Canal equipment. Hundreds Benefit From In-Training Service (Continued from page 13) postal trainee group ; and several others of a similar nature. One of the most noteworthy in-service training programs made available in recent years to a limited number of Canal-Railroad employees is the administrative internships conducted under the sponsorship of the U. S. Civil Service Commission, in Washington, D. C. Eight employees have been selected and have completed the training. Schools Lend Aid An important part in the overall in-service training in the Canal Zone has been the special courses offered by the Canal Zone Junior College in its extension classes. Such courses important to the ambitious employee as business English, Spanish, higher mathematics, business law and administration, and others are presently available. Plans are being made to add additional courses if the demand warrants. Dr. Lawrence Johnson and other school officials are .cognizant of the importance of providing formal instruction in fields directly related to the Canal enterprise and are working closely with Personnel Division on plans for future extension courses^ Housing Plan Approved {Continued from page 9) However, the selection of the types of construction is a matter for decision from year to year with relation to costs of materials and much is to be said for both the elevated and the "on the ground" designs. The elevated type contributes to privacy, has advantages as to ventilation, provides play space for children during inclement weather, furnishes laundry drying space, and allows for the construction of garage and servants' quarters with economy in the use of ground. The local-rate employees have stated a decided preference for the elevated type house while the opinions of the U. S. rate employees are' divided on the subject. Practical experience in the construction of housing in the Canal Zone has resulted in the development of types suited to the peculiar local conditions although they have contributed to a trend of monotonous repetition. This experience has demonstrated the general advantages of livability of the elevated type house. The particular advantages of the masonry "on the ground" type are presented in the report of the consulting firm. Relatively few changes in site planning were suggested and the landscaping program being followed was termed excellent. The principal change suggested in proposed sites was the abandonment of any plans for permanent housing at Camp Bierd. Economic Facts Dictated Decision (Continued from page 3) funds to keep men and machines idle. "Under these circumstances, it developed into a choice between which of the two shop areas to close. The decision in this was based on a few incontrovertible facts which may be briefly summarized as follows: The bulk of shipping to Canal waters is in the Atlantic with Cristobal as the port of call; with few exceptions, the Cristobal Shops can handle any normal job that can be done at Balboa; work originating on the Isthmus can be done at either of the two shops without appreciable difference in costs; the expected workload for the immediate future would not support the extensive facilities located in the Balboa Shops which were greatly expanded for wartime work; and, the Cristobal Shops, being more compact, can be operated with greater economy. "While the move will require an immediate outlay of approximately $150,000, a failure to make the transfer at this time could easily result in future losses amounting to as much as $500,000 a year. There are no sources from which we can cover losses of this magnitude. "Further reductions or furloughs can no longer alleviate our condition for two reasons. First, it requires a certain number of employed people to earn sufficient income to support an industrial plant and, second, with the variety of crafts we must employ, further reductions would seriously hamper our ability to do a job of any consequence. The only answer is to retain a force which we can keep busy and man the plant which is the most economical to operate." [Editor's Note. Transfer of the Mechanical Division activities from Balboa to Cristobal, begun March 27, was suspended April 11 on instructions from the office of the Secretary of the Army to permit additional study of the problem.]

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May 5,1950 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19 FREQUENT PANAMA CANAL CUSTOMER One of the most frequent customers of the Panama Canal is the United Fruit Company ship Esparta, shown above passing through the famous Gaillard Cut. The Esparta made 15 trips through the Canal in 1949 between New York and Seattle. Together with five sister ships, the vessels maintain a fast express service between these two ports. On its trips from New York the Esparta brings general cargo to Cristobal. After transiting the Canal it picks up bananas at Gollito, Costa Rica, and discharges them at San Francisco and Seattle. On the return voyage a stop is made at Puerto Armuelles, Panama, for more bananas which are rushed to New York for the east coast trade. Built since the war, the Esparta has lines like a private yacht and belies its size and carrying capacity in appearance. It has a registered gross tonnage of 7,075 tons. It is a fast ship with a cruising speed of 18 knots and carries 12 passengers. Canal Commercial Traffic Near PreWar Peak Increased United States intercoastal trade as well as increases in shipping from the east coast of the United States to Central and South America brought Panama Canal commercial traffic for the first quarter of this year to a level comparable with the peak years of the 1920's. A total of 300 ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels transited the Canal on the intercoastal run during the first three months of the year which was more than double the number for the first quarter of 1949 and considerably higher than the same period in 1938. Shipping between the United States east coast ports and those of Central and South America has more than doubled since 1938 and 65 more ships were listed in this trade through the Cana 1 in the first quarter of this year than the same period in 1949. The principal increase in the intercoastal trade through the Canal during recent months has been the result of the large-scale tanker traffic on this route which began in September 1949. This traffic reached a peak in February of this year but a sharp downward trend was noted in March. Despite the drop in tanker traffic during March, Canal statistics on commercial traffic showed the highest number of ships over 300 net tons of any month since March 1939 while tolls exceeded any month since March 1937. Increased shipping over all of the main trade routes in March more than offset the drop in tanker traffic. Although commercial traffic during the first quarter of the calendar year has been higher than the same period in 1938 and 1949, the number of large commercial vessels using the canal during the first nine months of this fiscal year, ending June 30, is under that for the comparative period in the fiscal year 1938. Tolls, however, are somewhat higher because of the heavy movement of tankers which have greatly increased in size during the past 12 years. Both tolls and traffic have shown a consistent increase since the end of the war and figures for the first nine months of this fiscal year are well above those for the fiscal year 1949. This increase is attributed to the heavy tanker traffic and to the fact that most dry-cargo ships in United States ports were inoperative for about three months during last fiscal year because of maritime strikes. Shipping from Europe over the principal trade routes through the Canal is far from the prewar levels. This is particularly true in the trade to the west coast of the Americas although the number of ships plying between Europe and Australia was slightly higher in the first quarter of this year than the first quarter of 1938. Comparative figures for the first quarter of this year and last show a slight increase in the past year over the main trade routes between Europe and the Americas. MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS Vessels of 300 tons net or over By fiscal years Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars) Month 1950 1949 1938 1950 1949 1938 July 430 399 457 $1,891 $1,673 $2,030 August 388 399 505 1,733 1,737 2,195 September 401 415 444 1,795 1,741 1,936 October 440 372 461 1,985 1,495 1,981 November. 439 353 435 1,964 1,455 1 893 December 488 357 439 *^ 1,506 1,845 January 483 407 444 2,207 1,772 1,838 February 457 373 436 2,121 1,573 1,787 March __ 522 447 506 2,327 1,959 2,016 April 433 487 1,887 1 961 May 421 465 1,880 1,887 June 417 445 1,863 1,801 Totals for first nine months of each fiscal year 4,048 3,522 4,127 $18,208 $14,911 $17,521 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES The following table shows the number of transits of large, tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes: commercial vessels (300 net January-February-March 1950 1949 1938 United States Intercoastal.. 300 123 264 East coast of U. S. and South America297 247 145 East coast of U. S. and Central America. 119 104 30 East coast of U. S. and Far East_ 164 182 142 U. S./Canada east coast and Australasia 33 52 39 Europe and west coast of U. S./Canada 125 136 271 Europe and South America._, 94 70 134 Europe and Australasia i_ __ 68 60 65 All other routes !_ 262 253 296 Total Traffic 1,462 1,227 1,386

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20 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW \ May 5, 1950 = PERSONNEL CHANGES MARINE DIVISION *, .r-Jll Captain P. G. Nichols, U. S. N. Captain Robert N. Peacher, U.S.N. Captain Nichols will complete a threeyear assignment with The Panama Canal this month as Ma-r >erintendent. He is being dulccclLu uy Captain Peacher who recently arrived on the Isthmus from Los Angeles where he was on duty as Chief of Staff and Aide to the Commander of the U. S. Naval Base. He will become the first Director of the Marine Bureau when the Canal reorganization goes into effect July 1. QUARANTINE DIVISION Dr. William F. Ossenfort Dr. Ossenfort, who holds the rank of Medical Director with the U. S. Public Health Service, has been appointed Chief Quarantine and Immigration Officer of The Panama Canal. He has had many years of service and came to the Isthmus from Kings Point, Long Island, where he was on duty with the U. S. Merchant Marine Academy. Principal commodities shipped through the Canal (All figures in long tons) Figures In parentheses in 1938 and 1949 columns Indicate relative positions in those years. ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC Commodity Mineral oils Manufactures of iron and steel Ammonium compounds Raw cotton Phosphates Paper and paper products Sulphur Tinplate Cement Sugar Machinery Automobiles Ores, various Canned food products Coal and coke All others Total First Quarter, Calendar Year o> = M| = Ms -J" 1950 351,679 348,658 247,736 121,198 97,176 93,908 69,385 62,179 52,706 51,949 51,027 47,824 34,313 33,312 32,785 711,867 2,407,702 1949 584,497 (1) 378,389 (2) 159,623 (4) 77,497 (7) 12,628 (32) 97,507 (5) 88,371 (6) 60,346 (9) 30,813 (13) 11,248 (23) 62,713 (8) 52,853 (10) 26,121 (21) 26,685 (15) 310,152 (3) 757,758 2,737,201 1938 236,644 (2) 362,008 (1) 10,409 (22) (8) (6) (4) (9) (7) 56,323 67,518 90,274 44,830 56,451 26,719 (14) 32,587 (11) 40,735 (10) 76,102 (5) 7,809 (28) 32,162 (12) 27,867 (13) 881,216 2,049,654 PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC Commodity January-February-March 1950 1949 1938 1,434,375 859,079 640,773 445,643 375,329 264,667 191,248 161,706 134,74 7 126,192 75,890 69,416 57,260 53,906 36,405 500,887 68,597 (12) 1,049,050 (1) 518,820 (2) 377,696 (3) 340,356 (4) 251,120 (5) 132,863 (8) 148,330 (7) 160,412 (6) 121,738 (9) 79,667 (11) 64,875 (13) 52,084 (16) 8,784 (22) 44,462 (17) 720,164 498,292 (4) 542,936 (2) 632,901 (1) Nitrate 531,161 (3) Wheat. . 267,904 (6) 219,444 (7) 299,404 (5) Refrigerated food products (except 10o,820 (10) 165,473 (8) 20,076(17) 53,179 (13) Wool 37,915 (15) 37,801 (16) Fresh fruit (except bananas). 110,471 (9) 61,750 (12) All others, 727,586 Total 5,427,523 4,139,018 4,313,123 Canal commercial traffic by nationality of vessels January-February-March 1950 1949 1938 Nationality Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo Number of transits Tons of cargo 1 238 14 9 18 British .. .. 224 11 1,365,366 55,684 1,553,180 79,994 27,552 18,384 348 3 1,626,625 10,012 29 29,679 2 56 38 23 1 146,718 14,348 913 27 10 121,458 15,337 161,735 Ecuadorean.. 1 26 86 19 10 4,021 French 27 137,125 22 132,133 138,303 312,330 30 103 1 18 215,560 181,623 26 80 218,163 158,421 96,467 3,839 Italian 79,237 8 29,466 12 77 1 31,762 495,136 2 27 116 56 6 8 12,155 80,945 413,871 293,533 28,795 28,584 7 27 106 51 3 5 2 1 5 45 1 38,655 77,761 455,467 264,951 8,144 28,434 7,266 3,400 33,302 249,334 7,061 Netherlands Norwegian Panamanian 77 174 44 3 2 179,917 848,325 56,087 4,008 2 4,375 14 41 54,047 134,567 28 187,191 1 679 7 2,700 4,552,002 7,773 United States Venezuelan 515 6 3,337,218 11,138 413 2,195,344 2 7,300 Total 1,462 7,835,225 1,227 6,876,219 1,386 6,362,777


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