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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00084
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: Summer 1978
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00084
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Back Matter
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Back Cover
        Page 49
        Page 50
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HAROLD R. PARFITT
Gor ernor-Prcsident

JAMES H. TORMEY
Lieutenant Governor

FRANK A. BALD\IN
Panama Canal Information Officer


PANAMA j. ,CANAL



SUMMER 1978

Official Panama Canal Publicatian


WILLIE K. FRIAR
Editor

Writers
\IC CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ,
DOLORES E. SUISNIAN, VicKI BOATWRICHT


Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $2, airmail $4.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


Canal watchers-those who visit the
locks regularly to take a look at
the passing parade of ships-know
that traffic has taken on a different look.
Even a casual observer must have
noticed the large number of heavily
laden oil tankers passing through
the waterway.

Oil from the North Slope of
Alaska has reached the Canal and in
this issue we are featuring a story on
how the merging of the Alaska pipeline
with the Panama Canal has become
a temporary solution to the problem


Credits: The following individuals and companies
hove contributed to this edition of the REVIEW:
C. Fernie & Co., agents for SOHIO at
the Canal; the Overseas Shipholding Group;
lack Ott, of "The Sohian," the Alyeska
Pipeline Service Co.; Duncon Beardsley,
Vice President, Royal Cruise Line; and
captains and crews of the "Overseas Chicago,"
the "AMaryland," and the "Renown." Special credit
for panoramic views of the Canal Zone and
for layout assistance goes to Mel Kennedy, and to
Kevin Jenkins, who photographed the entire
voyage of the "Overseas Chicago."
Other photographers, whose work is included are
Arthur L. Pollack, Don Coode, and
Alberto Acevedo. Map and graph are by
Carlo MUndez.


In This Issue

of moving the oil to the Gulf and
East Coast ports of the United States.

Along with the tankers, Canal
observers probably have noticed
the increase in the number of cruise
liners. Much new air/sea cruise
business has been generated by
the Panama Canal being in the news
spotlight throughout the past year
as a result of the Treaty negotiations
and this issue contains a collection
of recipes from these luxurious ships.




On The Cover

The Trans Alaska Pipeline, the Over-
scas Chicago entering Miraflores Locks
and the Chicago moving up the Mis-
sissippi River, appear on the front
cover. On the back, the Overscas
Chicago leaves Valdez in Alaska laden
with North Slope oil. Front cover
photos are by Kevin Jenkins. The back
cover was provided by the Overseas
Shipholding Group.


Also in this issue is the story of the
Canal's watercraft, which plays such
a vital role in the movement of
ships through the waterway.
At right: The "Overseas New York,"
which broke the cargo record for
the Panama Canal when she transited in
April with 64,603 long tons of oil,
passes the "Overseas Chicago."



The new treaties governing the
future operation and defense of
the Panama Canal were signed by
the United States and Panama in
a ceremony at OAS headquarters
in Washington on September 7,
1977. They were approved by
Panama in a plebiscite on Oc-
tober 23 of that year and the U.S.
Senate gave its advice and con-
sent to their ratification in March
and April 1978. The new treaties
are scheduled to go into effect
6 months after the exchange of
ratification instruments between
the two governments becomes
effective. Panama would then as-
sume plenary jurisdiction over
what is now the Canal Zone,
although U.S. police and courts
would retain limited authority for
a 30-month transition period.


SUNI iER 1978






The Panama Canal


Oil from the Arctic travels through

the tropics as the Panama Canal and the

Alaska Pipeline merge to move North Slope

oil to U.S. East and Gulf ports
Bv Willie K. Friar


The Alaska Pipeline stretches 800 miles
from Prudlloe Bay on the Aictic
Occan to Valdez, an ice-free port.


Map of North Slope oil route with
ships positioned in Parita Bay.


THERE ARE 1,191,299 BARRELS
of North Slope crude oil in the
Panama Canal at this moment." This
statement from Canal officials on
April 28 announced the movement of
the biggest shipment of Alaskan oil to
transit the Canal at one time.
The oil, equal to the total amount of
fuel consumed in the Canal Zone each


year for the generation of electricity, ,
was aboard the Overseas Alaska, the
Overseas Arctic, and the Overseas New -
York all northbound en route to U.S
Gulf ports. Laden with 64,603 long
tons of oil, the Overseas New York set
an all time high cargo record for the
Canal.
It was on June 20, 1977 that the


SvUMNI1E 1978








9nnection





Alaska oil first entered the pipeline at
Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean. This
marked the completion of the largest
engineering project ever undertaken by
private enterprise.
Crude oil began gushing into the big
pipeline at 300,000 barrels per day. It
required 9.4 million barrels of oil just
to fill it and it was a month before the
first oil emerged from the pipeline at
Valdez Marine Terminal. In the fol-
lowing weeks, the movement of oil
reached 600,000 barrels per day and
gradually was raised to 1.2 million
barrels. It now takes about a week for
a barrel of oil to make the 800-mile
trip from the North Slope through the
pipeline to Valdez.
Construction of the Pipeline
Those acquainted with the problems
involved in the construction of the Pan-
Sama Canal have a special appreciation
for the successful completion of the
I trans-Alaska Pipeline. Few engineers
have ever been faced with such for-
midable complications of climate, ter-
rain and government regulations as
those encountered in the building of
' this pipeline.
Designers, choosing the route for the
pipeline, had to figure the best way to
cross three mountain ranges, how to
cope with problems of potential earth-
quakes, protection of wildlife, perma-
frost, and the heat generated by the
flow of warm oil at temperatures of
130 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit through
pipes erected over frozen ground.
There were streams that crossed the
route on an average of one each mile
and the migration paths of caribou had
to be considered as well as the salmon
spawning streams and the nesting sites
of birds along the routes.
Although oil was discovered at Prud-
hoe in 1968, it was not until April 1974
that construction began on the 358-mile
road between Prudhoe Bav and the
Yukon River. As soon as the road was
completed, the pipeline work began in
earnest with more than 22,000 persons
engaged in the construction work.
A monument to 20th-century tech-
nology, the pipeline construction re-
quired less than half the number of


The "Overseas Joyce," which is almost 103 feet in the beam and 736 feet long.
moves through Gaillard Cut en route from Parita Bay to
the East Coast of the United States with a cargo of Alaska crude oil.


workers required to build the Panama
Canal.
The Alveska Pipeline Service Co.,
which is the firm responsible for the
design, construction and operation of
the pipeline, is owned by eight firms-
Amerada Hess Pipeline Corp., ARCO
Pipe Line Co., SOHIO Pipe Line Co.,
Exxon Pipeline Co., Mobil Alaska Co.,
Phillips Petroleum Co., Union Alaska
Pipeline Co. and BP Pipelines, Inc.
Total cost of the project has been es-
timated at almost $12 billion, of which
S9 billion has been spent on the pipe-


line, and $3 billion developing Prudhoe
Bav and associated facilities.
The pipeline which begins at Prud-
hoe Bav on the Arctic Ocean, stretches
across the largest state in the nation to
the ice-free port of Valdez. Between
Prudhoe Bay and the Brooks Mountain
Range, it crosses miles of treeless
tundra underlain by permafrost where,
for almost 2 months in the winter, th.
sun never appears. Rainfall here is
about the same as in the deserts of
Nevada and Utah.
The line reaches its highest point, the


The "Overseas Chicago" approach hes the Exxon Rcfinery at Baton Rouge, La.
The vessel makes regular shuttle Ilips through the Canal
transporting oil to East and Gulf ports.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW































The lo arrives at Parita Bay aboard
supertiankers and then is discharged ito
smaIllcr resselC ahle to traunsiI the CanalU
Abm.e the "Oterseas Chicago," left,
takes on oil from the "Brntish Renown,"
iwh hi i.s receiving oil from the "Alarylauil."
The "lcnoumn" aui the "Alarylanul"
are s'iuprtaliinkrs aboluti 178 (etr in hearni
andu 1.100 feet Iug. Below left:
Capt. Karl Jassiernll, master of the
"OLrrsI'as Ciiiago" uat/ics us his shiip
is docked alongsil the e "Relnown.'"
Center: Lors Blades, Steni'or Port Officer
of tii National Port Autharity of
PaUlra. checks ldoir Inents tiith
Capt. Fred II. Aldais. Master of /the
"Marylanil." At for right.
Capt. Roger Wothrcock. Staff Captaium
of the "Henown," logs in the amount of
iod taken oun hi thi "Ottrseav Chitago."


4,800-foot Atigun Pass, as it climbs the
Brooks Range. As it moves smith ap-
proaching the Yukon River, it passes
through areas where temperatures range
fioln winter's record minus 80 degrees
lFahrenheit to 90 degrees in summer.
After crossing the Yukon River, the
route passes Fairbanks and then climbs
over the Alaska and Chugach mountain
ranges before arriving at the swet coastal
area at Valdez.
The pipeline is built of 48-inch di-
amiter steel pipe, which is welded to-
gether with over 100,000 welds. Theb
final weld, which was made Mav 30,
1977 about 100 miles south of Prudhue
Bay, tied together two sections of
above-ground pipe. Slightly less than
half the pipe is buried below ground.
The rest is elevated in sections of
varying length, most shorter than 30
miles.
Environmental Safeguards
One of the most sophisticated, fullY
automated pipeline systems in the


world, it is equipped with a computer
which scans the line every 20 seconds
and reports flow, pressure, temperature,
rate of discharge and thousands of other
types of data. The whole operation is
controlled from Valdez and is tied
together by microwave communication
and backed up by earth satellite.
The multiple environmental sate-
guards covering the operations are un-
precedented and inelude 175-cut-oft
valves along the line to minimize anll
possible oil spills.
At Valdez, the uil is stored in 28
enormous steel tanks which hold
510,000 barrels each. Built on bedrock
500 feet above the tidewater, the ter-
minal is safe from most natural disasters
including tidal waves of the type which
engulfed the port at the time of the
1964 earthquake.
It was at 11:02 p.m. Alaska Daylight
Time, Julv 29, 1977 that the first North
Slope oil gushed from the pipeline at
Valdez.


The Role of the Canal
It took another month for the first oil
to reach the Panama Canal. On Au-
gust 31, the Washington Trader tran-
sited the waterway with 39,776 tons of
oil. This milestone, coming 63 years
after the opening of the waterway,
marked the beginning of the vital role
of the Panama Canal in the movement
of North Slope Oil to the East and Gulf
coasts. The immediate solution to the
problem of transporting the oil proved
to be the joining together of two of the
United States' greatest engineering
achievements, the trans-Alaska Pipeline
and the Panama Canal.
The transportation of oil through the
Panama Canal involves two fleets of
U.S. flag ships and two British flag
vessels. The latter are the British
Renown and the British Resolution two
Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs)
of approximately 265,000 deadweight
tons. These ships, which are 1,100 feet
long and 178 feet in beam, are an-


chored 14 miles off Chitre in Parita
Bay, about 65 miles from the Canal.
A number of ships (at last count 28
or 30-it changes olten) one of which is
a tug-barge combination, are engaged
in transit cycles of laden and ballast
voyages between Parita Bay and East
Coast and Gulf ports in the United
States and to Puerto Rico. Supertankers,
too large to transit the Canal, are used
to bring the oil down from Valdez to
Parita Bay. There it is pumped into the
tanks of the British vessels which act
as floating terminals. From them, it is
transferred to smaller tankers able to fit
in the 1,000 by 110 feet dimensions of
the Panama Canal locks.
This type of operation is not unique
to the Alaska oil shipments. The
transfer of oil to smaller vessels is a
frequent operation in places where
harbor facilities cannot accommodate
the supertankers. In fact, most oil im-
ported by the United States is handled
in this manner.
Operating around the clock, the


crews of the British terminal vessels can
receive about 10,500 long tons per hour
and discharge into the Canal shuttle
ships at about 4,500 long tons per
hour. The ships are equipped to take
oil into their storage tanks, to transfer
oil directly from one vessel to the othet
or to perform both operations at the
same time.
Much care is taken to avoid oil pollu-
tion and at Parita Bay nothing is dis-
charged into the sea. The oilv hallast
water removed from the tankers at
Parita Bay is pumped into the empt\
supertankers for transport back to
Valdez where the ballast water is
cleaned in a special treatment facility,
the largest of its kind.
From Alaska to the U.S. Gulf ports.
via the Panama Canal, is a long joumc\
and the oil customer might be im-
pressed to know that from Valdez to
the northemmust port on the U.S. \est
Coast is over 1,000 miles. It is another:
2,000 miles to the Port of Long Beach
in Southern California and over 6,000























I1. .1 11 1,. .* / I \. 1J.I : .1. v *i .l i. ..* I .d I.., J 1 rre-, I i-i "I V '1 i
such as the "Alaska," center, which is pumping oil into the "British Resolution" at
Parita Bay. At right: The "British Renown," sister ship of the "Resolution," (top)
receives oil from the "Maryland." At right: Pononmax tankers transport oil through
the Canal. At far right: Pumping oil at Parita Bay. Below: Prudhoe oil fields.


miles tu Gulf Coast ports.
Close to 600,000 barrels a day of
North Slope crude are being delivered
to West Coast refineries and shipments
through the Panama Canal have aver-
aged 234,298 barrels a day through the
first 7 months of FY 1978.
Because of the draft restrictions of
the Canal, tankers larger than 50,000
deadweight tons normally cannot transit
the waterway when fully loaded and
most vessels over 90,000 deadweight
tons cannot transit even with partial
loads. But tankers able to fit in the
Canal averaged 2.5 transit a day during
April on the oil shuttle.
Under Federal law, domestic oil can
be moved between two U.S. ports only
by ships that are owned and manned
by Americans. The movement of the
oil through the Canal has proved very
advantageous to owners of U.S. flag
ships.
It has also been a great, though
probably temporary, benefit financially
to the Panama Canal. Several measures
have been suggested to effect a long
term solution to the disposition of the
West Coast oil surplus. Sohiu has pro-
posed a 1,000 mile pipeline system
running from Long Beach, Calif. to
Midland, Tex. This would involve
reversing the flow in an existing
800-mile natural gas pipeline and con-
verting it to an oil carrier, a relatively
simple and inexpensive operation. This
would then be connected to about 200
miles of new pipeline. At Midland, the


i\.rr- ,l ,.,,;] i:i,, .lr,r-l I i r.'l, .hi,' *.,il


most of the surplus oil at current levels.
It could be completed in 14 to 24
months if the necessary permits could
be obtained. However, the project has
run into serious opposition from the
California Air Resources Board, which
is concerned about further air pollution
in the area. The Board contends that
the emissions resulting from the un-
loading of oil tankers in the harbor and
escaping from the storage tanks would
violate both state and Federal air
quality standards.
Other pipeline possibilities are being
considered including a trans Guatemala
and a trans Panama line. Another pos-
sible alternative is to ship the oil in
VLCCs around Cape Horn. However,
at this time, there are enough U.S. flag


. rdi, r .i 3 i l. J. [ h 'l h .:. ..
d *.dar 1... f.J l r.7d 1,til[ ...r. j ih..cr ,lr.r ih

From October 1977 through April 30,
S315 Alaska oil tankers transited the
Canal carrying 6,849,077 long tons of
oil and paying $8,419,291 in tolls.
During the same period, tankers car-
rying Alaskan crude oil paid an average
toll of $29,880 laden and $23,515 in
ballast. During the month of April
alone, 74 North Slope oil carriers tran-
- sited and the daily average could re-
main close to 2.5 until some alternative
-to use of the Canal is found.
In the meantime, Northville Indus-
tries, a New Jersey company, is going
, ahead with construction of a permanent
storage tank facility at Puerto Armue-
-, lies in Panama. Sohio has a contract
with Northville to use the on-shore
facility through July 1, 1980.


406.2


















APR


SUMMER 1978


AVERAGE DAILY S IENTS
OF NORTH SLOP i1DE OIL
THROUGH THE PA! 'A CANAL
FY-193'8
thousands of ,b'iJls 313.4

S 248.7


181.4 177.6

126.2






OCT NOV DEC FEB MAR








Typical of the tankers carrying oil through the Panama Canal to Gulf and East Coast ports
is the "Overseas Chicago," a U.S. flag ship. With a beam of 105.9 feet and a
length of 861.8 feet, the "Chicago" can take full advantage of the 110 feet by
1,000 feet dimnnsions of the Canal locks. The "Chicago" makes regular trips through
the Canal and recently transited with 62,141 long tons of oil en route to
the Exxon Refinery in Baton Rouge.


The "Ocerseas Chicago" takes on oil from the "British Renown" in Parita Bay.


The pumping of oil and ballast is carefully monitored aboard the "British Renown."


The heavily laden tanker moves through Gaillard Cut. Below: A Canal pilot gives instructions
oi Ilt ra-u i, h ai I'l. JIll ul''ro."l,' Cao n Lr cl.s


10 SUMMER 1978



















As the ship moves across the Caribbean, complex electronic equipment
provides constant communication with the outside world.


Activity in all ca


Breakfast is vrevared in the modern stainless steel kitchen. Meals are served cafeteria sttul


Tlh lauIk~r f)il*L i p hu. A116alISIPPI .n roul,: IL Ili, Exxon Refinery at Bviwm riou'vg,, Ahomn btJlo.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Watercraft Fleet




Keeps Canal Afloat




By Vicki Boatwright


T HE ORIGINAL NAME OF A
little workboat with bright red
aM\\ings that residents of Camboa are
accustomed to seeing chugging up and
do\\n the Chagres River is lost in his-
tors, but its usefulness goes on. No\w
the hyacinth 11. this craft was built in
1882 and w\as the property of the Com-
pagnie Universelle du Canal Interocia-
nii(ue. \\'hen Lt. Mark Brooke signed
the receipt for the assets of the French
in earl\ 1904, the little craft became
the property of the Isthmian Canal
Commission. Its amazing continuance
in service is due to its special talent: it
is the onl\ Company powerboat that
e.in pass nuider the Camboa Bridge at
high water, and as such it is invaluable
in hyacinth control work.


While the Hyacinth 11 is the oldest
member of the Panama Canal fleet, it is
but one of many different types of spe-
cialized watercraft in the service of the
Canal organization today. The powerful
tugs that assist ships in transit; the
floating dredges that clear the channels
of rocks and mud; the might cranes
that offload cargo and salvage sunken
vessels; and the myriad of launches
that transport members of the Canal
workforce to their dut'y stations all play
an essential role in keeping the Canal
operating at peak efficiency the Year
round.
Though none can compete with the
Hyacinth II in age, two members of the
present fleet date back to the opening
das\s of the Canal. The crane Hercules.
the onl\ piece of equipment capable of


lilting the huge locks miter gates, was
built in Germany and put into service
in 1914. The dipper dredge Cascadas,
now the backup for the new Rialto M.
Christensen, was built by the Bucvrus
Co. and commissioned in 1915. Over
its 63-year career it has participated in
some of the most dramatic of Canal
projects, such as the widening of the
8.3-mile Gaillard Cut from 300 to 500
feet.
Not all the watercraft presently in
use were acquired off the Isthmus. The
craneboat Atlas and the diesel-electrie
tug Arraijan, built in 1934 and 1936
respectively, were the handicraft of the
Balboa Mechanical Division. This vear
the Industrial Division, successor to the
Mechanical Division, assisted in the in-
stallation of a new crane that gives the


An aJeriaL vitew of the Dredging Diviision in CGaihoa, home of the Canal organization's largest tL'atel-lruft.





Atlas a lifting capacity of 75 tons. The
new crane, which replaces a main crane
and a smaller one that was located on
the bow, is invaluable to the seagoing
Atlas in its job of maintaining naviga-
tional aids, which includes the changing
of buovs.
Some of the largest and most impor-
tant floating craft used in Canal main-
tenance have no means of self-propul-
sion. The Hercules, the derrick barge
Goliath, the suction dredge Mindi, the
dipper dredge Rialto AM. Christensen,
the drill barge Thor, plus a multitude
of dump scows and barges, all must
rely on tug-power to get them to and
from a worksite. Of the Canal organiza-
tion's 17 large tugboats, one is used
almost exclusively for moving dead
tows.
The versatile Goliath has a clamshell
bucket for dredging, can operate a pile
driver, and has a crane with a lifting
capacity of 80 tons which can be used
to load and unload ships. In April of
this year, the Goliath was essential in
the removal of the softnose at Pedro
Miguel after it collapsed and sank as a
result of being struck by a transiting
ship. The Goliath's next project will be
the replacing of 700 dolosse, the
giant concrete jacks that interlock to
form the armour of the breakwater at
Cristobal.
The Mindi, the Canal's only suction
dredge, is capable of removing from
the Canal bottom large quantities of
fine silt material that cannot be handled
efficiently by the dipper dredges. Since
its acquisition by the Canal organiza-
tion in 1942, the Mindi has been in-
volved in dredging approaches, harbors
and piers on both the Atlantic and Pa-
cific sides, as well as working in Gail-
lard Cut. One of the unique jobs per-
formed by the Mindi was when the suc-
tion dredge was modified and used to
pump the cargo of rice and cotton out
of the vessel Sian Yung after it sank in
the Cut off Paraiso.
The Mindi's last large project, before
being sent to the Industrial Division for
repowering and overhaul, was the com-
pletion of the suction dredging phase
of the widening of Gamboa Reach. The
repowering of the Mindi will convert it
from steam to diesel electric. In addi-
tion, a ladder pump will be installed.
Because it will be mounted close to the
cutterhead, or suction point, it will in-
crease dredging efficiency at greater
depths.
The dipper dredges rely on the drill
barge Thor, equipped with four drill


The "Hyacinth II," a remnant of French construction days, will soon be replaced by
two modern workboats from Holland after nearly 100 years of Canal service.


towers for underwater drilling and
blasting operations, to break apart solid
material in the Canal that would other-
wise be too hard or too large for their
bucket capacity. The Thor has been en-
gaged since 1970 in channel deepening
in Gaillard Cut, as well as being in-
volved in two major construction proj-
ects, the widening of Gamboa Reach
and of Mamei Curve north of Gamboa.
The real workhorses of the Canal
fleet are the tugs, whose major function
it is to assist ships in transiting and in
docking and undocking. Operating out
of Cristobal and Balboa harbors and
out of the Dredging Division in Gam-
boa, the tugs at Balboa alone put in,
in 1 month's time, 2,789 hours assisting
ships. The tugs vary in strength from
1,000 to 3,000 horsepower. Depending
on the size of the vessel they are as-
sisting, at times two tugs may be
needed to see one ship safely through
the locks, as was the case with the
Queen Elizabeth 2, earlier this year.
Besides having in its fleet some of
the oldest watercraft afloat, the Panama
Canal can also boast some of the most
modern. The dipper dredge Rialto M.
Christensen, built in 1977 in Hakodate,
Japan at a cost of $6 million, is one of
the largest dredges of its kind in the
world. Its bucket has a capacity of
15 cubic yards and can dredge 60 feet
below the water surface.
The same year the Canal organiza-
tion also acquired the omnidirectional
tugs M. L. Walker and H. Burgess,
named after the fourth and fifth gov-


ernors of the Canal Zone. These sisters
feature a pair of propulsion units which
can be rotated 360 degrees, enabling
the tugs to thrust all 2,400 horsepower
of their diesel engines in any horizontal
direction. The tugs are the first of their
kind in the Western Hemisphere and
were built especially for work in the
Panama Canal.
Presently on order from Holland
are two specially designed workboats
known as Multi-Cat and Mini-Cat,
which feature a heavy duty steel hull
construction and are equipped with a
special push bow. The boats are
capable of handling a whole range of
tough demands put upon them by the
Dredging Division, such as breaking
apart suction dredge pipeline and
pushing small barges and floats. Their
engines have an internal fresh water
cooling system, a distinct improvement
over the external water intake systems
that were subject to damage by the
aquatic vegetation that infests Canal
waters.
The Panama Canal fleet is indeed
varied, ranging from rowboats to
floating cranes. But each has a spe-
cialized task to perform, whether it be
to respond to a slide or accident in the
Canal channel or to keep the Canal
Zone free from malaria by spraying
insecticide on backwater mosquito
breeding grounds. The stories and pic-
tures that follow are representative of
the many floating craft that keep the
Panama Canal continuously open to
world shipping.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










































Three tugs are needed to assist the "Queen Elizabeth 2" into port at Cristobal. Assisting transiting vessels
is the major activity of the 16 tugs at Cristobal and Balboa harbors.


Two of the Canals "workhorses" are locked through with a transiting vessel to be available for work at the other end
of the locks. The 8-year-old "Mehaffey" is one of the largest, a 3,000 horsepower diesel tug.


SUMMER 1978


_ __




































The "H. Burgess" and its sister the "AM. V. Walker" are the Canars first omnidirectional tugs, capable of thrusting their power in
any horizontal direction. The tugs are named after the fourth and fifth governors of the Canal Zone.


All of the Canal's tugs are equipped for firefighting, having the ability to generate foam from large capacity tanks
as well as carrying dry chemicals and being able to pump water directly from the Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









































Put to work as a survey boat, the "Papagallo" uses a sonar
depth finder to locate obstructions in Canal waters.


Personnel launches are used to transport boarding parties,
deckhands and pilots out to transiting ships, but
getting there is only half the fun. Next is the long
climb up the Jacob's ladder.


The long, narrow hull of the pilot's launch is built to withstand the rough waters of the outer anchorages.


SUMMER 197S


_ ~

























Oil containment boom is deployed from a motorized fiberglass
catamaran after a major oil spill in Balboa piers.

F-IWqWWwq- dmn 7


With the additional current provided by an outboard motor,
water hyacinths are herded through culverts under Gaillard
Highway to a pond for harvesting.


A motorboat is essential in the spraying and fogging of Canat
backwaters to keep the mosquito population under control.


A panga is used for the cleanup job, as boatmen pick up
oil-soaked polyurethane foam and deposit it in a drum.


The airboat "Santa Sierra" glides into weed-infested waters to
spray herbicide on the floating vegetation that if left
untreated would overrun the Canal.


t


A fast, lightweight craft is what's needed to change light
bulbs on buoys close to shore.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIE\V


__ I





















T IS GETTING DARK AND A
drizzling raun falls as a ship caunti-
ously appriacluds the entrance to the
locks. The ideckliands lean over the l owl
railing, their ey's scanning the water.
They split two in'n in a rowboat com-
img towards the ship.
Thei rowboat trails a messenger line
that is being led out by line handlers
oil thl locks wall.
As tlii rowoilat ntars thle ship. shouts
of islictricion are exchanged. At tlie pre-
cisi' ninerit thli deckhands tirow a
weiglhtedl heaving line; it ;ics iot from
tli lihw olf lli ship across tlI r' niboat
and splasl'hes into tlhie wati'r, [lie boat-
nin the stit'in grasps the line. knots
it tI the messenger line with practiced


speed, and casts the joined lines off.
Tihe rowIoat scurries out of the way
lif the oncoming ship and quickly makes
its way back to the locks wall. The
deckhands on the ship haul in the line
which linehandlers have connected to
a stecl locomotive cable. Only seconds
have elapsed, but the ship is now safely
joined to the first of the tnwing loco-
inlti\es that will guide it through the
locks,
The activity just described could
have occurred in 1914 as easily as to-
lay ltcause the procedure for getting
the Mliessenger line out to a ship is as
old as the Canal itself. Today the row-
boats are made of fiberglass instead of
w'ood aind l th manila rope lines have


been replaced by high-strength syn-
thetic line.
The rowboats, still referred to by
many as "pangas" despite their official
title of "fiberglass workboats," are
among the smallest vessels that aid in
putting ships through the Canal, The
job of the boatmen that man them is
one of the most dangerous and is per-
formed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
in all kinds of weather. Over the years,
many Marine Directors and at least one
Governor of the Canal Zone have sought
to find a safer and speedier way to get
the job done.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor of
the Canal Zone from 1962 to 1967.
was convinced that there had to be at


1/w Ihb begins ia/hell a ship cines into vict, ..


Little


least a more modern way. In one of his
memos written on personal stationery,
and wryly referred to as "snowflakes"
by their recipients, the Governor in-
sisted:
"Every time I visit the locks and see
the archaic method we have of getting
the lines from the mule to the ships,
I cringe. . Other people around here
have made the same remark to me that
this certainly seems to be an anachro-
nism .... It seem to me it should be
possible to find a simpler and more
effective method without going into an
elaborate Rube Goldberg device."
The Governor's memo closed with a
suggestion that a crossbow he used to
shoot the line from the ship to the wall.














Boats


The order went out to "find a better
way." E. C. Abbott, the first civilian
Port Captain at Balboa, jokingly com-
mented to the Chief of the Navigation
Division: "The Governor remarks about
this system being archaic but seems to
think the crossbow that went nut with
Robin flood would he more modern."
Notices were posted on bulletin
boards throughout the various units of
the Marine Bureau and an article ap-
peared on the front page of the SPILL-
WAY asking for ideas and suggestions
of ways to improve on the "row and
throw" method.
A total of 22 suggestions were re-
ceived, ranging from variations on the


crossbow idea to the lowering of a mes-
senger line onto the ship by means of
a gantry crane. One person suggested
replacing the rowboats with a saucer-
type boat with 360 degree drive, lle
was told to submit plans for such a craft
and it wnild le tried out. Nothing more
was heard from hiim,
All of the ideas were, in fact, either
impractical or ton dangerous, with a net
result that the campaign to find a re-
placement for the rnwboats was even-
tually abandoned. The records do ant
show Cnovrnor Fleming's reaction to
the matter; but one e ri Director,
recognizing the value of the rowlhiots,
remarked, "A machete is also archaic,
but it works,"


and ends when the last messenger line is aboard.


Per forr Biig Job




In Panotta Canal

MMER 197THEPANAA CANAL REVIE 19
s18 SUMMER N 197S .E THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19






























Workmen are dwarfed by the huge hook of the "Hercules"
as they loop one of four cables that will enable the crane to raise
the 160-ton structural steel ladder from the dredge "Mindi" The 250-ton capacity crane "Hercules" is
at the Industrial Division in Mount Hope. The "Hercules" and the Canal's only piece of floating equipment
its sister the "Ajax" were built in Duisburg, Germany at capable of lifting the 700-ton locks miter gate
the start of World War I. Tradition has it that at the request off its pintles for overhaul. The buoyant gate
of the U.S. Department of War, hostilities were delayed is raised into a horizontal position in
for 3 days to allow the floating cranes to pass through the full locks chamber and floated to a
the British blockade and proceed to the Panama Canal. drydock for maintenance.


Two Canal giants in a tandem tow, the floating cranes "Hercules," left, and "Goliath" are pushed to a worksite in
Caillard Cut by the tug "San Pablo."


-20 SUMMER 1978


~__ __























The suction dredge "Mindi" sucks up the continuous accumulation of silt in Balboa harbor capable of restricting
the draft of vessels and pumps it outside of the channel.


It's the "graveyard shift" for the drill barge "Thor," as it performs drilling and blasting operations during channel
deepening tests this year at Gold Hill.


In addition to her duties in construction dredging, the venerable "Cascadas" responds to emergencies. Here the dipper dredge
works to free a fully laden oil tanker that ran aground in the Canal.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









































An anchor barge positions one of the huge steel pontoons used in an attempt to raise the Colombian cargo ship "Tairona"
after it sank in 44 feet of water at the entrance to Cristobal harbor.


One of the largest dipper dredges in the world, the "Rialto M. Christensen" dredges alongside Santa Cruz Island at Camboa as
part of a Canal widening project. The dredge's 15-cubic yard bucket empties
into a scowe which will he pushed by tug to a dump site.


SUMMER 1978


Y --lrr~ni~L~~II







































A familiar sight to Canal employees, the SS "Cristobal" unloads cargo on the Atlantic side piers. Originally one of three passenger
ships of the Panama Line that transported employees on home leace, the "Cristobal" is now used mainly to carry
supplies from New Orleans to the Canal Zone.


The ever-popular tourist launch "Las Cruces" serves Panama Canal "oldtimers" and newcomers alike on its regular
Saturday afternoon outing. Following page: The view of the Chagres River from the Gamboa Golf Club is a panorama
of unsurpassed beauty and a favorite scene for Isthmian residents.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


_ _ ~~_~ll~____j~













L'~sl~c


aJ


0.%












Cruising Cuisine



By Fannie P. Hernandez


W ORLD INTEREST IN THE
Panlama Canal generated lby the
treaty negotiations between the United
States a1nd Pan una has created a sen-
timiental curiosity in the public reminlis-
cent of tile davs following the opening
of the Canal when passenger ships
brought to the Isthnus the first starry-
eyed visitors to see the engineering
wonder.
Publicity on the Canal has prompted
niany of those inspired by the emo-
tionally-packed issue to come and have
a look for themselves. People who until
nowv have not given a second thought
to the Canal suddenly realize it's there
and must be seen. Others need only a
slight nudge to fulfill the dream of a
lifetime.


San Francisco
(.


Whatever the reason, more and more
visitors are coming to the Canal these
days. Thev come bv land, by air and
the nmore fortunate, by sea, aboard the
luxury passenger ships. Smaller cruise
vessels and shorter cruises, new fares
and a mvriad of attractions have opened
the cruise experience, formerly the ex-
clusive pleasure of the very rich, to the
less-affluent younger passenger. Cruise
planners too have taken advantage of
the world-wide focus on the Panama
Canal and are offering more cruises that
include the Canal transit. As a result,
Canal devotees arc filling the cruise
ships to capacity.
Another important factor figuring in
the growth of cruising is the advent of
the air sea package cruise in which the
steamship company subsidizes the cost
(f fl''ir' the ii'l -Inder to *11d from the

A'.iel t l .e. .III I .i. rh o 1 i l. t l, IIFr, i ihp
A. l. H.il', l iu : |i I', Ii-. I l lp tl,, tra -l
lte..d the C .Ii.I II thI: p r t l:. li.( llth -
are thie P ,- O L[_Ine,' C il., rrt ill.1

,_, 1 ,1';il ['rP i,( ...o ,iid Sllli ['rf ,,,
5.nl L lra. i' Sl..ll .. ,i Pnt i L..l ntl.,l .
5i, i'to A.,1 i ll,, i, r ,. SouiII .Al. r, l, li I ~. i

lair i .'l. R.,, I \ i.ii Lk le ,_,., il
\'il,m i, sl,, R ,'1l 'll 'ili g S. ind R,_,ial


Viking Star; Royal Cruise Line's Golden
Odyssey; Norwegian America Line's
Vistafijord and Sagafijord; Holland
America's Rotterdam, Statendam and
Veendam; Flag Ship Cruises's Kungs-
holm; Costa Line's Eugenio C; Hapagl-
loyd's Europa; Black Sea Shipping's
Maxim Gorky; Baltic Shipping's Mik-
hail Lermontov; Carras Cruises' Danae
and Cunard's QE2.
Sitmar's spring cruises, offering free
air fare to and from the ship, featured
four 14-night cruises through the Canal.
On the April 22 and May 6 sailings
between Fort Lauderdale and Acapul-
co, the Fairwind presented "Broadway
at Sea" with Peter Duchin and his
orchestra and a repertory group per-
forming special renditions of favorite
Broadway shows. On the May 6 and
4May 2n ':iilni,' from San Juan to Los
\IL:I,- the Forsc. t I li.-ii.l Blob Cros-
hI. .ii h ,i Il:...ar .inid special guests
L.I, l 11 Isiui .' i 1i1 H >:l:ll Forrest. Sit-
I.I1I C ,iII e i .n .u.ii-c. .ili ) departed
Ii. M i\ 27 aind lunre 10 and sailings
dr,: .'.ll iidulid lior Siph rinLi' r 2 and 16.
r'P.-:'l >:i' 'l n III\ ol ih l -ce jialings visit
(he li-, t poi t. In, IIh C.,ribl:ean and
h-,: I the ill .-.I tranr itirii the Panama

R. ,,v l \ il.kui o Liiir'' three .i- rer ships,
IIi ihi L 'i.Iur.e i.t rhl-ir Trad s-Canal/


1-anzanillo
,Napulco
Acaluda San Sal'ador

I4 i ll' il III r. a' .l 1 ri ii 5 l r, 1 l,'u 1N





Mexico/Caribbean cruises scheduled
throughout most of the year, offer more
Canal transits than any other line. Ports
of call for the Roval Viking's Trans-
Canal cruises include Caribbean islands
and resorts of Mexico. Other cruises
have slightly varied routes and include
such ports as Cartagena. Montego Bay,
Port-au-Prince, Nassau, Curacao, San
Juan, St. Thomas, Acapulco, Puerto
Vallarta and Mazatlan. Fly/cruise com-
binations are available and passengers
may also cruise round-trip from either
coast of the United States.
The Golden Odyssey, the Greek flag
ship of the Royal Cruise Line, has had
a major role in fulfilling clients' interest
in the Canal hy increasing its promo-
tional material and adjusting its itinera-
ries to accommodate the demand for
Canal transits. The beautiful vessel that
has the look of a giant private vacht
has made 8 trans-Canal cruises this year
and 10 cruises are scheduled for next
year. The 10-day Panama Canal air/
sea cruise includes round-trip air trans-
portation from Los Angeles to Aruba
where passengers board the ship, visits
to Cartagena, Colombia, Acajutla, El
Salvador and Acapulco, Mexico and
docking at Balboa on all trips whether
eastbound or westbound.
Frequent visitors to the Canal are
the three Princess Cruise vessels Prin-
cess Sun, Island Princess and Pacific
Princess, which make 14-day trans-
Canal cruises back-to-back every other


week throughout winter, spring and
fall. Passengers embark at Los Ange-
les, the ship sails to Acapulco and docks
at Balboa. Following the Canal tran-
sit, the main highlight of the cruise, the
Princess liner cruises the Caribbean and
ends the cruise at San Juan, from where
passengers are flown back to Los An-
geles free. At San Juan, another group
of passengers flown down from Los An-
geles, boards the ship for the Carib-
bean cruise. After a stop at Cristobal,
the vessel transits the Canal and then
sails to Acapulco, Cabo San Lucas and
on to Los Angeles. These beautiful
ships feature a glassed-in area around
the swimming pool which is ideal for
viewing a transit from all sides.
This summer and fall, four Prudential
cruises around South America will make
special northbound stops at Balboa so
passengers can meet one of the line's
cargoliners here for a 40-day cruise
that includes both the Panama Canal
transit and the Strait of Magellan.
Twelve Latin American ports will be
visited before returning to Balboa. Tran-
siting every 2 weeks, the U.S. Flag
Prudential Santas are among the most
frequent users of the Canal.
Visiting the Canal for the first time,
the Mardi Gras, formerly sailing out of
New Orleans to the Bahamas, recently
offered a 14-day and a 17-dav trans-
Canal cruise; the southbound Silver
Screen Cruise with June Allyson and
Margaret O'Brien, and the northbound
Silver Chalice Cruise featuring wine


seminars by the well-known wine col-
umnist Robert Lawrence Balzer of the
Los Angeles Times Home Magazine and
Holiday Magazine. The Mardi Gras
also called at St. Thomas, St. Maarten,
Caracas, Curacao and Acapulco. The
cruise included free jet flights between
Acapulco and Miami and Los Angeles
and Miami.
Also on her first transit of the Canal,
the U.S. built SS Universe sailed from
Port Everglades June 24 for a 23-day
cruise calling at three ports in Mexico,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Venezuela,
Curacao, two ports in Colombia, the
San Blas Islands, the Canal Zone, Costa
Rica and El Salvador.
In this age of disappearing luxury,
the tradition of fine cuisine is still up-
held on passenger liners where cruising
is more than being caressed by the sea,
shipboard entertainment and sight-
seeing. Food and dining in leisurely
elegance is indeed an important part of
a cruise.
The Management of several cruise
lines has provided recipes for a sam-
pling of dishes typical of cruise ship
cuisine for REVIEW readers to enjoy
while dreaming of dining at sea.
The largest passenger cruise ship in
service and the largest passenger ship
to transit the Canal, the QE2 docked
at Balboa for the first time on her third
transit of the Canal last January.
Dining aboard the QE2, possibly the
most exquisite occasion on any pas-
senger liner afloat, can in itself be an


Kolokithi is Greek for zucchini. It is usually boiled,
deep fried or stuffed with ground meat. Here it is the basic
ingredient for a delicious nut bread,
a perfect accompaniment for coffee or tea.


Lahanodolmados-stu fed cabbage leaves flavored with
cinnamon and lemon for the authentic Greek touch.
(Chandris Line)


SUMMEn 1978


_ _II C





unforgettable adventure. On her last
winter cruise, the "Great Pacific Cruise,"
her larder included two tons of caviar
and 33,750 pounds of lobster; her wine
cellar stocked 35,000 bottles of cham-
pagne and other wines. Considered the
epitome of life's gastronomic experience,
the choices of food offered on the Queen
are seemingly infinite. After early tea,
coffee and scones on deck, breakfast
possibilities include a choice of seven
juices and fresh fruits; 11 kinds of hot
and cold cereal; eggs prepared every
imaginable way; 2 kinds each of ba-
con, ham and sausage; broiled toma-
toes; French onion soup; kippered her-
ring; poached finnan haddie; cold ham,
chicken, beef and turkey; grilled lamb
chops and saut6ed potatoes; and an
endless variety of breads and jellies and
jams. Needless to say, a listing of the
lunch and dinner offerings would bog-
gle the mind.
Be it on the Mediterranean, the
Mexican Riviera or the 10-day Panama
Canal air/sea cruise, dining aboard the
Golden Odyssey, the newest cruise ship
to transit the Canal, is a memorable,
mouth-watering event. From the superb
cuisine of this magnificent ship and the
chef's collection of favorite Greek re-
cipes enjoy Tyropites, golden, crisp
cheese pastries, and Kolokithi Nut
Bread, a delicious nut bread made with
zucchini (kolokithi in Greek).
Tyropites
(Savory Cheese Triangles)
1 8-oz. package cream cheese
3 lb. feta cheese, crumbled
2 eggs, slightly beaten
1 tbs. all purpose flour
pinch of salt, if desired
1 tsp. ground nutmeg
3 lb. plus 3 tbs. butter or margarine,
melted
1 lb. commercial filo pastry sheets, cut in
thirds (3 x 11 inches)
In a bowl, combine cheese, eggs,
flour, salt (omit salt if feta is very salty),
nutmeg and 3 tablespoons butter. Cover
bowl. Chill several hours or overnight.
Take out of refrigerator 1 hour before
using.
Pile up filo, cover with waxed paper
and damp towel. Take 1 sheet. Keep
rest covered. Butter filo, using pastry
brush and ' lb. butter or margarine,
melted and warm. Put 1 tsp. filling
1 inch from end nearest you. Fold filo
back over filling so bottom edge meets
left edge, making a right angle. Keep
folding back at right angles to make
triangular shape with each sheet of
filo. Repeat this procedure. Place on
baking sheets and keep covered until
all are ready to bake. Bake at 3500 for


Passengers aboard the "Royal Viking Sky" watch operations as their ship transits.
Royal Viking Line's three sister ships offer more Canal transits than any other line.


20-25 minutes or until golden and crisp,
turning once. Serve hot. Makes about
60 triangles (21 inches).
Kolokithi Nut Bread
2 cups sugar
3 eggs well beaten
1 ctp oil
1 tsp. soda
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon


tsp. baking powder
3 cups allpurpose flour
1 cup finely chopped nuts
2 cups grated kolokithia (do not peel)

Mix sugar and eggs. Add all re-
maining ingredients. Bake in two large
or three small loaf pans. Bake at 350
for 40-50 minutes. Allow to cool on
rack before slicing. This bread freezes
beautifully.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Hors d'oeuvres at cocktail time on the "Golden Odyssey" may include
these golden, crisp cheese-filled pastries called tyropites.


~ _~~ ~



































On her third visit to the waterway, the "QE2" transited the Canal and docked
for the first time at the port of Balboa.


The SS "Rotterdam" approaches
Pedro Miguel.


All recipes were prepared and table
settings arranged by Noreen Singer.


Deliciously aromatic, French Onion Soup Gratinee is served The finest aged Dutch Gouda is used to prepare
for breakfast everyday on the "QE2." this Cheese Fondue.


30 SUM.MER 1978





The French chef on the QE2 offers
his recipe for French onion soup:
French Onion Soup Gratinee
4 large onions
1 tbs. flour
22I oz butter
2 pints beef stock or bouillon
salt and pepper
grated Gruyere cheese
breaded croutons
Place the onions, finely sliced, in pan
together with butter, stir and cook over
a gentle heat until the onions are gol-
den brown. Add flour, continue to stir
until flour is well blended with butter
and onions. Continue to cook for about
3 minutes, then gradually stir in the
beef stock, blending with the rest. Add
salt and pepper, cover the pan and cook
gently for 20 minutes. When ready to
serve, pour bowls and top with slices of
bread rolls or rounds of French bread
previously fried in butter. Sprinkle lib-
erally with grated Gruynre cheese and
place in a hot oven or under the grill
to brown the cheese. Serve at once.
The Rotterdam, the Dutch flag ship
of the Holland America Line, stopped
at the Canal in February on the first
leg of her around-the-world cruise. The
Line's Statendam and Veendam also
transit the Canal once a year on world
cruises. Food aboard these ships may
be described as deliciously exotic and
international. One of the many special
features which can be found on a Hol-
land America cruise is a demonstration


on the art of making Dutch Cheese
Fondue. Following is the recipe which
serves four to six:
1 lb. Dutch Gouda Cheese
coarselyy grated)
1 tbs. cornstarch
2 cups dry white wine
1 medium sized garlic clove peeled and
bruised with the flat of a knife
2 tbs. Kirsch liqueur
"i tsp. grated nutmeg
1, tsp. salt
freshly ground black pepper
1 large loaf of French or Italian bread cut
into 1-inch cubes including the crust.
Toss the cheese and cornstarch to-
gether in a large bowl. Pour the wine
into a two-quart fondue dish, drop in
the garlic and bring to a boil over high
heat. Let the wine boil for 1 or 2 min-
utes, then remove the garlic. Lower the
heat so that the wine barely simmers.
Stir constantly with a table fork while
adding the cheese mixture a handful
at a time, letting each handful melt
before adding another. When the fon-
due is creamy and smooth, stir in the
Kirsch and season to taste.
Place the fondue dish over an alcohol
or gas table burner, regulating the heat
so that the fondue barely simmers. Tra-
ditionally, each diner spears a cube of
bread on a fork, swirls the bread about
in the fondue until thoroughly coated,
then eats it immediately.
A preference of passengers on the
Holland America cruises (especially re-
peat passengers) is Dutch Pea Soup.


Here it is:
Ertwensoep (Pea Soup)
2 cups split peas
1 cup whole green peas
10 cups (21' quarts) water
3 onions, finely chopped
2 lecks, finely chopped
3 ribs of celery with leaves, finely chopped
32 lb. smoked bacon, unsliced
1 large ham hock
1 whole smoked sausage ring
freshly ground pepper
1. Soak both types of peas overnight
in just enough water to cover them.
2. Next day, drain the peas, then
place them in 2 quarts of water in
a large pot with all of the other ingre-
dients except the sausage. Bring to a
boil.
3. Turn heat down and let entire
mixture simmer for 11/ hours, stirring
often. If soup becomes thick, thin by
gradually adding small amounts of
water.
4. Add sausage and continue sim-
mering for 15 more minutes. Pepper to
taste.
5. Remove bacon, ham and sausage.
Slice and serve on pumpernickel bread.
6-8 large servings. In Holland, this dish
is usually served as a main dish.
One of the favorite desserts served
on board the Holland America cruise
ships is Bananas Martinique made this
way:
Ingredients required:
6 ripe bananas
1 orange
3 tbs. butter


g ;l


A favorite dessert, Bananas Martinique, is served with
great flair on the SS "Statendami."


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Ertwensoep, a hearty Dutch pea soup is a favorite
of passengers on the Holland America Line.








PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL

(in long tons)

Atlantic to Pacific


Commodity
Petroleum and products ---- ______
Corn__ -.. __..---------_ .._____
Coal and coke-
Soybeans
Phosphate
Sorghum --
Wheat .------ --- ---------..______
Manufactures of iron and steel--- _______
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals --___---------
Ores, various -__--__----_____________
Metal, scrap ----------___ -_________----
Fertilizers, unclassified________ _____
Sugar----------_----____
Ammonium compounds-____ ________
Caustic soda --______________ --
All other__________________
Total..--------___----


6 Months
FY 1978
5,098.725
4,479,041
4,129,163
2,883,453
2,219,164
1,490,771
1,332,006
997,099
899,075
759,013
751,867
716,011
554,090
319.537
272,937
4,602,976
31,504,928


6 Months
FY1977
4,685,008
5,106,107
6,313,559
2,533,962
1,851,283
1,678,256
1,012,240
371,966
796,940
725,739
622,921
531,567
315,996
197,181
287,317
7,236,762
34,266,804


Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity
Petroleum and products---------------------
Manufactures of iron and steel_ ------
Ores, various_______ ---- ------
Lumber and products -- --------
Sugar--------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) .----
Bananas----------____
Woodpulp ---------------
Metals, various __-------- ----___--
Coal and coke ---------- ----
Autos, trucks, and accessories ----- ______
Wheat ----_---- ------- ---
Sulfur __________________________________
Paper and products ------_-----------__---
Molasses_____________ __--
All other ----
Total


6 Months
FY 1978
10,102,124
4,108,986
2,478,799
2,432.983
1,469,290
873,976
843,718
768,143
704,462
630.473
579,526
554,930
464,671
425,595
422,384
5,615,525
32,475,585


6 Months
FY 1977
7,059,814
3,663,019
2,550,014
2,214,203
1,377,129
903,975
787,302
870,209
667,134
176,096
399,042
453,706
511,113
284,710
334,546
5,015,308
27,267,320


CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT


Commercial:
Oceangoing-
Small I ----
Total_ .
U.S. Government:
Oceangoing.. -_____
Small 1 ----.-___.
Total-...--. _


6 Months FY 1978
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total
----- 3,070 2,984 6,054
----- 218 109 327
-- --_-- 3.288 3,093 6,381


----_--__ 24 21
------_ __61 43
_----__ 85 64


45
104
149


6
Months
FY
1977
5,843
378
6,221

43
122
165


Grand Total ----------------__ __ __ 3,373 3,157 6,530 6,386

1 Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons.
Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.


3, cup sugar
% cup apricot sauce
1 cup rum
3, cup toasted almonds
In a large chafing dish, melt the but-
ter and add sugar. Cook until sugar
caramelizes or becomes light brown.
Squeeze the juice from the orange into
the pan and continue heating. Add the
apricot sauce, and when hot add the
rum. Peel and slice the bananas length-
wise. Add the bananas to the hot sauce,
and cook them for a few minutes on
each side.
Sprinkle a few more drops of rum
over sauce and flame rum with a match.
When the flames die down, place ba-
nanas on dessert plates and sprinkle
toasted almonds over them. Serves 6.
oApricot sauce may be made by using 1/3 cup
apricot jam and thinning it down with % cup
apricot juice or orange juice. Heat until jam
becomes a smooth sauce.
From the Italian chef on the Island
Princess where dining is a favorite pas-
time, here is a duck recipe for a gala
dinner:

Duck A La Rouennaise
1 4-5 pound duck
2 shallots-finely minced
2/3 cup red wine
K cup melted butter
pinch-nutmeg, basil, marjoram
Clean duck and salt and pepper in-
side and out. Combine other above in-
gredients and pour over duck. Roast
for approximately 1 hour at 4250 in a
preheated oven. (Duck should be nicely
browned but rare inside.) Baste occa-
sionally during roasting time.
While duck is roasting-prepare the
following sauce:
1 1/3 cups red wine
i' tsp. shallots-finely minced
1,i cups meat gravy
Duck liver-passed through a sieve
(uncooked)
5 cup butter
li' ounce cognac
1 leaf thyme (or equivalent in crumbled
thyme)
1 leaf bay laurel
Combine wine, shallots and spices in
a sauce pan. Bring to boil and cook to
reduce in quantity to 2/3 original vol-
ume Add meat gravy and let boil a
couple of minutes longer. Reduce heat
and simmer. Add duck liver, gravy and
remaining ingredients. Heat thoroughly.
While sauce is heating-take duck
from oven and let sit for 10 minutes.
Remove from fat and drippings and
carve into serving pieces, being sure
to retain juices and blood rendered dur-
ing carving. Carving juices should then
be added to the simmering sauce.


SUMMEn 1978







OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS BY NATIONALITY


Nationality
British -
Chilean --___- _---------
Chinese. Nat'l.------- -------
Colombian. -----.---------------
Cuban __________----------
Cypriot---__----- --------
Danish _________------__
Ecuadorian _--.--_ ___- --
French_ -----------__ --------
German, West ----------------
Greek ___________---- ----__-
Italian--__________------
Japanese-_____--- __-~__--_---
Liberian_____ __--_-___--
Mexican_______-__-_-
Netherlands--------------
Norwegian ------ __- --
Panamanian ------ _
Peruvian_____ ~___________
Polish ---_--_._ ----
Singaporean ----------
South Korean -_---
Soviet ___-__-----
Spanish _____-- ___--
Swedish-___ ___------
United States_ ------
Yugoslavian ----__----
All other ----- ___--
Total___--------------_


6 Months FY 1978
Long
No. of Tons
Transits Cargo
514 4,536,526
88 953,677
49 574,120
89 610,207
47 282,098
43 196,581
125 1,083,985
94 837,387
60 523,910
273 1,956,465
650 8,576,443
126 745,095
459 3,996,490
925 14,529,111
40 318,065
90 639,332
249 3,345,559
491 3,692,341
101 887,753
42 250,360
79 858,632
43 410,208
111 685,339
53 124,064
131 1,199,120
643 8,430,847
67 508,552
372 3,228,246
6,054 63,980,513


6 Months FY 1977
~- -^^---^^ ---
Long
No. of Tons
Transits Cargo
532 4,725,067
60 860,788
98 778,636
87 163,211
38 165,808
40 144,838
148 1,147,284
84 797,579
73 564,481
296 2,039,153
553 8,540,138
106 599,082
465 4,830,019
889 14,922,188
17 126,172
109 624,832
303 4,629,096
546 4,007,402
81 836,632
38 325,413
48 483,674
31 199,698
97 699,104
40 168,416
134 1,390,894
539 4,275,067
49 391,290
342 3,098,162
5,843 61,534,124


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS
OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES


Trode route
East Coast United States-Asia-----------------------
East Coast United States-West Coast South America .._--
Europe-West Coast South America--- --- ___
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America _____
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada-------------
South American Intercoastal____------------- ----
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) --------
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania---- ---------
Europe-Oceania--____ ------------------
East Coast Canada-Asia ----------- __
All other__ ------------------
Total ------------


6
Months
FY
1978
1,400
615
543
485
473
207
185
172
145
143
1,686
6,054


6
Months
FY
1977
1,333
498
539
269
434
222
221
155
203
139
1,830
5,843


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY MONTHS
Tolls (In thousands
Transits of dollars)l
Month FY 1978 FY 1977 FY 1978 FY 1977
October ----------------------------1,028 976 $14,995 $11,488
November ----_____________________ 947 968 14,280 12,777
December ------- -------------1,002 943 14,848 13,887
January----- --- ------------__ 1,000 983 14,433 13,818
February -------- -------------- 942 916 14,199 12,978
March -------------------- 1,135 1,057 17,022 14,064
Total--_---- ----------- 6,054 5,843 $89,777 $79,012
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.
Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff.


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
6 Months
1978 1977
TRANSITS (Oceangoing)
Commercial---------- 6,054 5,843
U.S. Government-__ 45 43
Free _------------ 3 8
Total-- ----. 6,102 5,894
TOLLS1
Commercial_ $89,799,541 $79,040,771
U.S. Govern-
ment ..__ 421,734 382,418
Total _. $90,221,275 $79,423,189
CARGO2 (Oceangoing)
Commercial_ 63,980,513 61,534,124
U.S. Govern-
ment ... 131,771 96,937
Free ..- _
Total__ 64,112,284 61,631,061
llncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
2Cargo figures are in long tons.
Statistics compiled by Executive Plan-
ning Staff.


Place carved duck in casserole (or
individual serving dishes) pour sauce
over the duck. Dot top of duck with
additional butter and return to oven-
3500 for 20 minutes. Serve immediately.
From the Chandris Line's cruise ves-
sels Australis and Britanis which also
feature Greek dishes on their visits to
the Canal, here is a recipe for stuffed
cabbage leaves:
Lahanodolmados-Stuffed Cabbage
Leaves
2 medium cabbages (outer leaves only)
1 lb. ground meat
2 onions, chopped
3 tbs. butter
salt and pepper
2 tbs. tomato paste
cinnamon
1 cup boiling water
quarter cup raw rice
boiling water
lemon slices
Parboil cabbage leaves about 5 min-
utes being careful not to tear them.
Drain in a colander. Brown ground beef
and chopped onions in 2 tablespoons of
the butter. Add salt and pepper, half
the tomato paste and cinnamon. Add
water and rice. Simmer until rice is par-
tially done. Stuff cabbage leaves by re-
moving heavy center of cabbage leaf
and cut each leaf in two. Place one
rounded tablespoon of meat mixture
near cut end of leaf. Fold over. Fold
edges in towards center and roll up
lightly. Cover bottom of greased cas-
serole with cabbage leaves. Place rolls
in layers, and add remaining tomato
paste, diluted in enough boiling water
to cover. Dot with remaining butter.
Cover and simmer for 2 hours or
until done. Serve with lemon slices.
(6 servings).


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33



















Panoramic Views
of the
CANAL ZONE

A view of the Pacific side as seen from
the west bank of the Panama Canal.
An Atlantic side scene photographed from
atop the Mount Hope water tower.






































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