Panama Canal review
Internet Archive ( External Link )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00082
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: Winter 1977
Frequency: semiannual
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00082
Classification: lcc - HE2830.P2 P3
ddc - 386/.445
System ID: UF00097366:00082
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Full Text

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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries

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The Governor

of the

Canal Zone

Governor Harold R. Parfitt

A. lhltt The German container ship, "Tokio
Expr,. ; r~ assisted by a tug as she approaches
Pedto Ii ,tM.u, Locks.

Inide ifron cover: Ships move through
Gadlaid Cut where the Panama Canalpasses
through tih Continental Divide between
banr e lding 300feet in height in some
area The Cut", which is about nine miles
long et vrid, from Pedro Miguel Locks north
Ir Gamboa and the edge of Gatun Lake.
From th c action alone, initial excavations
totaled mrm"- than 230 million cubic yards,
a volune equivalent to a 12-foot-square shaft
cut through the center of the earth.
Page .? Exa ation at Culebra Cut in April.
1910 5horirn the bottom of the Canal.
Culebra ai: later renamed Gaillard Cut to
hon..'r Colr-mnl David D. Gaillard, the engineer
Iho h ,in charge of this phase of the work.

A philosopher of ancient times once
said "there is nothing permanent except
change." And it is certainly true that the
photographs in this issue of the Review
present a startling contrast in the
physical appearance of the Canal Zone
as it was yesterday and as it is today.
But more significant to me are the
less visible aspects of our daily operation
which have persisted throughout the
years. The geological composition of
the banks of Gaillard Cut remain the
same and the problem of slides continues
to plague the Canal. The only answer
to this threat is constant monitoring
and prompt remedial action by
highly skilled technicians.
Sanitation efforts, which began with
the start of construction, are still a
vital part of Canal operations. The threat
of tropical disease is ever present.
Teams of sanitation workers still go out
into the jungle to keep drainage ditches
open and pour oil on swamps and
stagnant waters to control the
mosquito population.
Digging of the Canal has not stopped
since the first steam shovel bit into the
earth. Dredging, widening, deepening

and removal of island promontories
hazardous to modern navigation contin-
ue. More material has been excavated
since the Canal opened.than the amount
removed during the entire construction
But the most important factor that
has remained constant through changing
times is the human element-the men
and women who operate this waterway.
Today, as in construction days, the
workforce is composed of highly skilled,
dedicated people who take great pride
in being part of this efficient world utility.
This Review is a tribute to these
employees and to the thousands of
others who labored in pouring rain and
tropical sun to transform the environ-
ment and create the Panama Canal.

. e. *t


Lieutenant Governor

Panama Canal Information Officer

Official Panama Canal Publicction



Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1.50, airmail $3, single copies 75 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.

In This Issue

Photography has been a valuable aid
to historians, researchers and students
since its inception. "Before and after"
pictures never cease to amaze-
particularly if the viewer has lived
through change without really being
aware that it was taking place.
Since it was and continues to be
one of the engineering marvels of the
century and one of the most ambitious
projects ever undertaken by man, the
Panama Canal, from the beginning,
has been a favorite subject for
In this special pictorial issue of the
Review we have assembled more than
a hundred photographs, spanning nearly
a century of history, from the French
construction era to the present, to bring
our readers a vivid record of an enter-
prise in which many of us have been
intimately involved.

The subjects depicted in their
respective eras contrast almost as
sharply as the photographs themselves.
The old with the new, the glass plate
black and white photographs with
modern color illustrations.
The bulk of the construction day
photographs are the work of that most
prolific photographer, Ernest (Red)
Hallen, who covered the Canal for 30
years, before and after it opened,
and the two men who succeeded him as
official photographers of the Panama
Canal enterprise, Manuel Smith,
and Clyde LeClair.
The complete set of glass negatives
depicting the progress of Canal
construction, assembled and catalogued
by Adrian Bouche. Jr., and the late
Ruth Stuhl of the Isthmian Historical
Society, numbers about 16,000 8 x 10
plates. If stacked one on top of the

Below: Glass plate negative used during construction days and print made from the plate.

other, they would be 84 feet high,
or 25 feet higher than the Goethals
Many of these photographs have
been reproduced in magazine and
newspaper articles, encyclopedias, and
books about the Canal. Some of the
more popular ones are included in
this issue.
Early photographers, using bulky
cameras and magnesium for lighting
their subject managed to capture the
spirit of the great engineering under-
taking, but not the color.
The modern day color photography
on the following pages is the work of
four Panama Canal photographers,
Mel Kennedy, Don Goode, Kevin
Jenkins, and Arthur Pollack.
We hope this issue of the Panama
Canal Review will serve as a lasting
pictorial record of man's accomplish-
ments and a nostalgic trip into the past
for those of our readers who still
remember how things used to be.

Front cover, top left and right-: A labor
train at Tabernilla during early con-
struction days and Miraflores lower
locks, November 10, 1912. Lower left
and right: Construction of sidewall
monoliths at Gatun, February 15, 1910,
and steam shovel loading rock in
Culebra Cut, March, 1911. Center:
Telephoto of Miraflores Locks. On fold:
Gatun Locks, January 31, 1912. Back
cover, top left and right: Cristobal
before paving, January, 1907 and Fourth
of July celebration at Administration
Building, July 4, 1915. Lower left and
right: Gatun upper locks, January 31,
1912 and railroad yard in shop area at
Paraiso. Center: The Administration
Building, headquarters of the Panama
Special credit for this edition goes to Vicki
BoatwriRht for editorial assistance.



Ships from all over the world await transit at Cristobal, the Atlantic entrance to the Panama Canal.

Ships transiting the Canal are raised and lowered 85feet, from The Canal runs from northwest to southeast, with the Atlantic
sea level to sea level, by a system of three sets of locks, entrance 33.5 miles north and 27 miles west of the Pacific entrance


In October 1908 work had scarcely begun on the desolate swampland that would one day be Miraflores Locks.

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10 WINTER 1977


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The "SS Ancon passes a slide in Gaillard Cut during the official opening of the Canal. August 15, 1914.



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Dirt trains are loaded in Culebra between Gold Hill and Contractors Hill, December 28, 1912
of the Canal.

To the left of the flat cars is the bottom

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Steam shovels #230 and #222 meet "nose to nose" on completion of bottom pioneer cut at Culebra May 20 1913 All that remained was
to widen it to 300 feet. The many puffs of steam indicate the great activity all along the line at that time.



Devastating slides, such as this one on December 3, 1913, plagued the Canal during its construction and continued after the Canal was
opened. An avalanche. September 15, 1915, closed the Canal for seven months.

This slide. October 10, 1974, dumped 1,000,000 cubic yards of dirt along with trees and shrubs into the Canal channel

16 WINTER 1977


An aerial view of the October 10th slide shows the craneboat "Goliath" and the dipper dredge "Cascadas "starting clearance work.

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'urvei't re.n i Jcterrninc J tihj hall of th, chIan c I rJl d ~l 14'J r. .r r.e a trat ,.



The Panama Canals fleet of dredges scooped out tons of rock and earth from the newly named Gaillard Cut after a slide in September,
1915 closed the Canal to traffic for seven months.

Dredeine is still an integral part of Canal maintenance. The Panama Canal Company recently added to its fleet the $6 million "U.S. Rialto
M. ( i, ': the largest dipper dredge in the world.

18 WINTER 1977


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On September 26. 1913, the first trial lockage was made at Gatun Locks by the tugboat "Gatun", which carried Colonel George W
Goethals and his wife and other dignitaries.

The purcha;. or the ni lstr luv L I tjlA r jnd H Buri,s i at a J I i m4nliti i. [part .*t L' nj 'r.Jn ':.n.'ii . i..'P iing
pror ram .,f upgrad'inp i; i atrcral'f I.' j... ii. trauriiinn l Thve T i, : 7 e. nuc e re nam taller 11t l, i rih and 'fami, .,-,,rnir.., th, I a idl Zone.


C. ..',i down the big stairway on the west bank of Culebra Cut
i', Il I t was no problem but the 154 steps up to the village
after 10 hours of work made a hard climb.

Theodore Roosevelt, the first President of the United States to
leave the country during his term of r'.., climbs aboard a
Bucyrus steam shovel at Pedro Miguel while inspecting the Canal
work in November. 1906.

The Panama Railroad, which was completed in 1855, stops to disembark passengers. Built by a group of American businessmen, it was
the first transcontinental railroad. Acquired later by the French. it was a part of the French Canal Company when it was purchased
hb the US.

20 WINTER 1977


Mary Goethals, great-granddaughter of Colonel George W4
Goethals, and her husband, Charles M. Poster visit the Miraflores
Locks Control House during a recent visit to the Canal Zone to
get their first look at the Canal.

A characteristic pose of "The Colonel" as Colonel Goethals was
known to the thousands of Canal workers. He was appointed
Chairman and Chief Engineer on April 1, 1907 and served
until completion of the Canal.

With a new coat of red, white, and blue paint in celebration of the Bicentennial of the United States. Engine 901 of the Panama Railroad,
operated by the Panama Canal Company, rounds the bend near Pedro Miguel Locks.


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Horse-drawn wagon trains crossed the Canal's Pacific entrance during maneuvers in 1933. It was called the Thatcher Ferry in honor ol
Maurice H. Thatcher. who served as Civil Administrator of the Canal from 1910 until 1913.

The ferry continued to operate. a .r a ,.. passengers and vehicles across the Canal until October 1962 when the Thatcher Ferry Bridge,
one of the largest steel arch bridp, *. world, was dedicated.

22 WINTER 1977

9 1

Built at a cost of $20 million, the bridge was inaugurated on Columbus Day, October 12. 1962, in a ceremony attended by
Panama and U.S. Government officials and diplomatic representatives.

The brightly illuminated structure is a familiar sight to Panama Canal pilots who guide ships through the waterway 24 hours a day. From
abutment to abutment, the bridge measures 5.428 feet.


Clearing and leveling land for construction of the townsite of Balboa and the Canal Administration Building was underway when this
picture was taken from atop Sosa Hill in June. 1912

Two YearN later in May, 1914. one wing ol the Administration Blhi,,.' had been completed and work was progressing on the employee
quarters along the street that was to he named the Prado.

24 WINTER 1977

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The townsite of Culebra was the official headquarters of the Isthmian Canal Commission during construction days. Located on the banks
of "the Cut, "the town was moved before the Canal opened.

By 1915. when the headquarters of the Canal had been moved to Balboa Heights, the Administration Building and the employee quarters
along the Prado had been completed, i jtii,,r, 1iae ,. .*mpletely landscaped. Centerspread: The view from the top of the Administration
Building stairs at Balboa Heights is a rniiir, ni rt pnorama of Canal Zone landmarks: Goethals Memorial, the grassy expanse called
the Prado, the Thatcher Ferry Bridge, .a ,i .. a H,II


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Early landscaping work can be seen in this 1915 picture of the Prado, the street leading from the center of Balboa to the Administrtion
Building in Balboa Heights. The palm-lined center area was built to the exact dimensions of the lock chambers- 110 feet by 1,000 feet.

ThI., -i .;c.'l ncrete employee quarters along the Prado still stand today, the royal palms are fully grown and a monument to George W
(., tihIa. iraii., at the foot of the steps which lead to the Administration Building.

28 WINTER 1977

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The first of a long list f Ji. i,',,iuili,'J hl, ts to be accommodated at the old Tivoli Hotel in Ancon was President Theodore Roosevelt,
during his visit to the i tt.itn, n .... ,i hn r 1906.

The Tivoli. no longer a commercial hotel but a guest house for visiting officials and government employees on temporary assignment, was
for many years a social center and a landmark in the Canal Zone. It was closed and dismantled in 1971.


The Governors House, originally built in the community of Culebra as the residence of the Chief Engineer during Canal construction
days. was dismantled and moved to its present location before the waterway opened.

Though renovated and air conditioned, the classic architectural style of the early 1900's, the wide verandas and high ceilings, are still
charming features of the Governor's House as it appears today.

30 WINTER 1977

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In 1904, the three R's were taught in rustic little school houses like this one in Gorgona. As the sign proclaims, schooling was free
for employee dependents.


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The school system in the Canal Zone today includes such modern facilities as Balboa High School, on the Pacific side of the Isthmus,
which boasts a 600 seat auditorium where plays and concerts are staged.


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The post office at Empire was one of the first to be opened in the Canal Zone in 1904. As Canal construction work changed location,
post offices were moved or new ones opened to follow the workers.

The Balboa Post (i i,, > one of the two main post offices in the Canal Zone, is located on Stevens Circle. The Circle is named after the
Canalk second Chief Engineer. John F Stevens, who created a living and working environment that made construction of
the Canal possible.



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A new reinforced concrete fire station at Cristobal was completed in August, 1912, and motor equipment was on order to replace the
remainder of the horse-drawn engines.

Today the Canal Zone Fire Division has among its ranks highly trained professionals, skilled at combating fires aboard ship.




In 1905, the Canal Zone Police Station at Mount Hope was located in a dilapidated house left over from French construction days.

Today s Canal Zone Police force is composed of women and men, and they no longer cover their beat on horseback.



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Despite the mud. Colonel George W Goethals is dressed in his traditional white attire to review the Marines at Camp Elliott,
Canal Zone in July, 1911.

Members of the U.S. Armed Forces participate in a recent review in the Canal Zone. The military forces continue to play an important
role in the defense of the Panama Canal



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A reserve of water for the operation of the Panama Canal was created in the 1930's with the construction of Madden Dam and the creation
of Madden Lake. The two U.S. built lakes, Gatun and Madden, provide water not only for the Canal Zone but for Panama City
and Colon as well.

Without this dam, which also serves to operate a hydroelectric plant, the Canal could not meet today's traffic requirements. Panama City
draws raw water from Madden Lake for purification at the Republic s Chilibre plant.


~ _I _

Here is the same street after paving, two months later

Clubhouses offered band concerts, bowling.

Slides, like this one in 1911, were a menace.

Announcements of events were posted in the lobby.

'Houses were dis tled ad mved to new lotions.
Hous.e.* -wer. disane an o
Houses were dismantled and moved to new locations.

Sinnrl, an .-,. ,I'h with the digging of the Canal, the United States constructed housing and recreational facilities for the workers, built roads
and paved streets in Panama and the Canal Zone. Isthmian Canal Commission Club Houses, which offered pool tables, reading rooms
and a variety of other amenities, were run by the YMCA.


This was Panama City's North Avenue in June, 1907.

Sanitation played a vital part in the construction of the Canal. Ridding the area of the dread yellow fever and malaria was the responsibility
of Dr. William Crawford Gorgas.

,''* i 'e and fogging to control the mosquito population and the diseases they carry goes on today in much the same manner as it did
when the Canal was being dug.

38 WINTER 1977


The original Ancon Hospital was built by the French shortly after the French Canal Company began operations in 1880. Americans built
additional hospitals and clinics to care for the health needs of an army of workers.

Ths elven stor\ ,ructire ci'mplt d in the '/ p.r'l I1 ,l., 'pl: i' u infhi: IO G"r'Au !l..,-,rl .' 0/; .i ,I/.i. N ,. .. (j Lil
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One of the greatest changes in shipping since World War II is the shift from general cargo vessels to the huge container ships that
squeeze through the Canal, their decks piled high with containerized cargo.

(At left)
The majestic "Queen Elizabeth 2" set a record in 1975 as the largest passenger ship ever to transit the Canal and another record in 1977
for paying the largest Canal toll, a whopping $68,499.46. The "QE2" is 963feet long and has a beam of 105 feet, a tight fit through Canal
locks which are 1,000feet long and 110 feet wide.


____ ~

The lights of a suction dredge glow brightly as work continues around the clock. Continuous dredging is a vital part of Canal operations.

Moving thir z, h lrratj r. Locks, the "Althea" produces a dramatic night scene. An elaborate lighting system makes it possible for
the Canal to rP' rr 4 4I h.urs a day.

42 WINTER 1977

_ _I

Shrouded in fog, a supertanker is carefully maneuvered into the 110 by 1000-foot lock chamber. Fog is a continuing problem
for Canal transit personnel.

A tropical downpour obscures the control house and cuts visibility to a minimum for these transiting ships. The rainy season poses
special problems for Canal pilots.



Despite the lack of air conditioning, the formality of the times is reflected in the attire of these office workers in the General Office of the
Quartermaster Storehouse at Empire.

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In the age of computers, the traffic situation in the Canal can be viewed at a glance on a 48-foot by 6-foot display board in
the Marine Traffic Control Center at La Boca.










Colonel and Mrs. David D. Gaillard enjoy tea at their home in Culebra. Gaillard directed the work in Culebra Cut. which was
renamed in his honor. On pages 46 and 47: A supertanker squeezes through the west chamber of Miraflores Locks while the
east chamber is dewatered for locks overhaul.


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Four destroyers are locked through simultaneously at Pedro
Miguel Locks in this 1925 photo. Ships of war have used the Canal
since its opening in 1914. just days after the outbreak of
World War I.

Guided with hand-held lines instead of towing locomotives, these
vintage submarines resemble toys in a huge bathtub as they make
their way into the locks which were sometimes used as dry docks
before the Canal was officially opened.

A modern-day destroyer wends its way through the waterway.
U.S. Government ocean traffic reached a peak of 1,504 transits
during the height of the Vietnam war in 1968.

lvtaKing a northbound transit through the Canal with crew
topside, a U.S. Navy nuclear submarine is locked through a
chamber at .lirauilr .



I__ _

Filling the east chamber at Pedro Miguel Locks with her 108-foot beam is the battleship "New Jersey", which along with her sister
ship, the "Missouri", is among the widest vessels to transit the Canal.

The largest Navy vessel, in service today, to transit the Canal is the huge new amphibious assault ship. "Tarawa". Only 13 vessels in the
U.S. Navy are too large to use the Canal. On pages 50 and 51: The Norwegian ship "TSU", one of 10 new general cargo and container
ships that will be regular users of the Canal, makes its way through Gaillard Cut as the U.S. Drill Boat "Thor" works at deepening the



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