Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
IN THIS ISSUE
Babies, Babies, Babies
.:: .f _
* -.7 *1 1 -.. l~
ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor
JOSEPH CONNOR, Press Officer
ROBERT D. KERR and JuLio E. BRICENo
FRi.cx- A. BALDwIN Official Panama Canal Publication Edi l
FRANK A. BALDWIN Editorial Assistants
Panama Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD, TO BITTEL, and TOmAS A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z. \
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C.Z.
THIS IS THE engineering estimate of the value to the Panama
Canal of 2 extra feet to be added to the storage potential of
Madden Lake by installation of flashboard extensions to the tops
of the four existing drum gates.
If the estimate were reduced to more familiar things by an
ordinary housewife preparing breakfast, it would mean approxi-
mately enough water for 128 billion cups of coffee (without
cream), and 288 million pieces of toast (medium brown).
The bonus of water and electrical energy, part of the program
to further increase Canal capacity, will be gained by raising the
maximum level of Madden Lake from 250 to 252 feet, thus adding
24,564 acre-feet, or 1,070,000,000 cubic feet, to the lake's storage
The "flashboards," lip extensions expected to do the job, are
reinforced metal sections which will be welded onto the
4,100-foot-long drum gates. The flashboards have been manufac-
tured by the Industrial Division according to plans prepared by
the Engineering Division. Installation is scheduled for the latter
part of May.
The 2-foot increase in the storage capacity of Madden Lake
will give Madden hydroelectric plant enough additional water
to generate 4,000 more kilowatts of firm power for 1 month, or
Since the water released from Madden Dam pours into Gatun
Lake via the Chagres River, it can be used a second time, either
to put ships through the locks or for electric power. The additional
1,070,000,000 cubic feet, nearly 8 billion gallons, from Madden
will make possible about 170 additional transits or 1,440,000
kilowatt-hours of power generation by the Catun hydroelectric
Although operation of the Catun hydro plant is reduced during
dry season months to conserve water in Gatun Lake, the Madden
hydro plant operates all year. Power from Madden is fur-
nished by 3 hydroelectric generators of 8,000 kilowatt capacity
generating current at 6,900 volts which is stepped up to 44,000
volts for transmission to substations.
Canal Cargoes _____ ______
Cycling to Frontier___
OV Volunteers ---__
Curtain Time --- --------
Promotions and Transfers ------
Babies, Babies, Babies__-- -----
Canal History ----------
Canal Traffic, Transits, Trade
ABOUT OUR COVER: It looks like a ship
cruising through a neglected backyard. Actually,
the Johannes Fritzen is transiting the Panama
Canal. That's Mandinga Slough in the fore-
ground, on the west bank of the Canal just south
of Camboa, in the latest project area for widening
of the Canal from 300 to 500 feet. When the
job's finished a picture like this won't be possible,
for all the foreground of the picture will have
been cut away. There's already been substantial
change in appearance. The MNandinga Slough,
former channel of the Obispo River, was filled
in by the French, the river itself later being
diverted into the Mandinga River.
The German flag Johannes Fritzen is a 24,636-
ton ore carrier, 701 feet long and with a beam of
90.2 feet. Built in 1962 in Bremen, she sails out
of Emden, operated by J. Fritzen & Son.
MAY 3, 1963
PANAMA !-B~~ AAL
The container ship San Juan, a new trader through the Canal, displays
one of the recent developments in cargo handling. Ease of handling and
contents protection are features of such large "packaging."
SHIPS transiting the Panama Canal in
fiscal year 1962 carried enough lumber
to build approximately 183,000 5-room
They carried enough gasoline to take
all privately-owned cars in the Canal
Zone around the world four times.
Whether tonnages for these and other
major commodities will show upward
or downward trends in the future is a
question no crystal ball can answer.
Reasoned guesstimates are based on
studies of natural resources develop-
ments throughout the world, changes
in ship construction, cargo handling
methods and many completely un-
predictable or unforseeable factors.
Even the weather causes short term
The result is that predicting proba-
bilities of shifts in cargoes, which may,
prove major factors in sound Canal
program planning, is something less
than an exact science.
For the immediate future, much of
the Canal traffic picture hinges on con-
tinued industrial growth of Japan. Scrap
iron tonnage figures have shown their
sharpest break recently due to the reces-
sion in Japan. Japan's customers for
scrap have been living off inventories
built up earlier as much as possible, and
curtailing current buying.
Coal tonnage also is off. About 95
percent of the coal passing through the
Canal goes to Japan. With a growing
population and restricted acreage,
Japan also has contributed largely to
the steady high level of phosphates
tonnage through the Canal.
Next in importance in possible effect
on cargoes are possible or probable
developments on the west coast of
South America and tapping of reserves
in the western United States.
Recent cargoes figures show mineral
>ils (petroleum) and canned and refrig-
erated products tonnages on an upward
trend. Behind the oils increase have
been the hard winter in the United
States and Japanese fuel oil purchases
from Venezuela. Crude oil and products
cargoes also are up. Part of the oils
increase is attributed to oil firms' shift-
ing of stocks from one coast of the
States to the other to stay within quotas.
Europe's increasing standard of living
is responsible for most of the canned
and refrigerated products gain, bringing
both an increase in demand and in-
crease in ability to pay. These items
no longer are a luxury item there as
PANAMA CANAL transits figures
don't follow any set pattern during
recessions in the United States.
There are many other factors in-
volved. It's a "world" waterway, and
other countries, at the same time,
may not be hard hit on the commodi-
ties which make up the major Canal
During the last four United States
1949-A transit upturn followed.
1954-Transits leveled off, but
1958-Transits increased during
1961-There was a brief drop,
then an upturn.
During the period 1929-33, a
major depression era, Canal cargo
tonnage was down approximately
45 percent, but tolls dropped only
about 25 percent.
they were for so many \ears after World
In addition to the drops in scrap iron
and coal cargoes through the Canal,
wheat tonnage also is off, largely due to
use of the.St. Lawrence Seaway to move
western Canada's wheat to world
markets. The long term outlook for
wheat tonnages doesn't point to volume,
because European Common Market
effects also are likely to cut Canal wheat
The St. Lawrence Seaway route
doesn't meet all needs of the waterway
area on a year round basis, however.
When Great Lakes shipping is ice-
bound, there's an upsurge in Panama
Canal traffic of foreign ores.
For Canal planning and programing
purposes, "short term" refers to a period
of not more than 2 years, and "long
term" is more than 10 years ahead.
In between times are referred to as
A full review of trends would
require a book. What follows is a mere
Crop failures can play a substantial
role in annual Canal cargo tonnage
figures, although large inventories can
curb immediacy of the effect. One
blowdown can take as many as 3 million
banana plants and this can virtually
shut down a port for as much as 9
months until new plantings are in pro-
duction. Crop failures in wheat and
feed grains in Europe can mean a surge
in Canal transits of ships carrying
cargoes with alternate supplies.
Depletion of major ores and similar
resources in some fields often may have
little effect on transits, for the com-
panies involved are forever prospecting
for new veins, often find them in the
same general area to supplement those
playing out. This has been the story on
iron ore in Chile and Peru.
Changes in ways of handling cargo
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
can have major effects, as in develop-
ment of "superships" and large bulk
carriers, sometimes the difference be-
tween profit and loss or bigger profit
and smaller loss. With larger ships, the
same tonnage means fewer transits. Not
many years ago 16,000-ton tankers were
considered to be the largest needed
or advisable for efficient operation.
Tankers now range as high as 132,000
Shifts in manufacturing emphasis,
with changes in raw materials needs
and power-supply factors, can change
the picture in some commodities
brackets. As a sample, original thinking
of aluminum industry executives was
that plants should be located near con-
sumer centers. Then it changed to the
view that they should be near cheap
water and hydroelectric power supplies.
Now there are indications it is changing
back to the original view, to locate them
near consumer centers. Each such
change, depending on where plants are
located or relocated, can show up in
Canal transits and tonnage figures.
Paradoxically, major hydroelectric
expansion projects do not appear to cut
into fuel cargo figures. This is because
industries are attracted to these areas
with resultant increased raw materials
and consumer goods demands.
Oils, petroleum products, and petro-
chemicals go both ways through the
Canal, with the heavier movement from
east to west. Venezuela is one of the
major suppliers of crude oil for the
west coast of the United States and the
west coast of South America. Oil firms
may "borrow" from each other and
have to meet commitments for repay-
ment of loans, staying within States
quotas, by transferring supplies from
one coast to the other.
Fifty million martinis-or part of the raw materials for 50 million of them. That's the actual
estimated contents of these hundreds of casks of Spanish olives awaiting loading. The ship
is the Charles Lykes of the Lykes Lines, which has 17 ships that are frequent callers at the
Panama Canal. Olives are shipped both ways through the Canal, to the east from the
United States west coast, to the west from Spain.
Different refineries are geared to
different types of crude oil, and it may
be more economical to ship a high
sulphur or low sulphur crude from a
distant point than to modify the re-
With Cuba out of the picture as a
source of supply for the U.S. sugar
needs, there's been a surge of east coast
imports from other sources, primarily
Australia and Peru. Cuba has annual
commitments to Communist bloc na-
tions of 4,860,000 tons of sugar a
year-and with very poor recent crops
hasn't been able to meet the commit-
ments. But part of the Cuban sugar for
Russia and virtually all of it for main-
land China moves through the Canal.
Florida phosphates, good and cheap,
The Ore Convey, one of the largest self unloader type superships. This picture was taken
from a platform atop the self unloading equipment while the ship was in the upper
chamber of Gatun Locks.
have an established market in Japan.
Florida-Asia phosphates shipments
accounted for 82 percent of the phos-
phates traffic through the Canal in fiscal
1962. There's been an average 15
percent per year increase since World
War 11 in phosphates tonnage.
This picture could change abruptly,
however. There also are phosphate
supplies in Peru, under water off the
west coast of the United States, in the
Middle East, and Africa. Utah and
Montana also have large phosphate
reserves, but it's now too expensive to
move them out.
Technological improvements saving
only pennies per ton can make the
difference between marginal operation
and profitable operation; and costs nor-
mally are highest in development stage
or at the tag end, as richness of ore
veins, for example, thins out.
Until 2 or 3 years ago, the major part
of Canal traffic was from the Pacific to
the Atlantic. Now it's from the Atlantic
to the Pacific.
The most significant long term factor
in possible generation of greater Canal
traffic is the possibility of development
on the west coast of the United States
of a number of integrated steel com-
panies such as exist in the eastern part
of the country today.
There are largely untapped reserves
of coal and iron in the Mountain States.
However, the next change in Canal
cargoes could result from a type of
processing not yet developed for a raw
material that can't be handled profitably
now-to meet a need not yet felt.
4 MAY 3, 1963
k 7 .: =z-. b- I -
Paving machinery and crews at work on Inter-American Highway sector
near Told, looking east, the direction in which paving work is progressing.
^ =2-:. ^ *:' -
Rolling "roof" for freshly poured concrete. It keeps rain
or sun off to protect the material during first stage of
setting. One of these is with each paving machine.
By CLOIS C. DUFFIE
President, Canal Zone Chapter,
Worldwide Cycle Club
RIDES ALONG sections of the new
Inter-American Highway under con-
struction between David and Santiago,
a brief stay in jail for one of the tourists,
and an almost broken toe were among
highlights and lowlights of the annual
trip of the club to the interior of
The first of March, just as the past
5 years, found us busy preparing for
the trip, but alas, only two members
showed up: Gus Nellis, road captain,
and myself. Twenty to thirty had gone
on earlier trips to Guatemala, San Jos6,
and interior towns of the Republic. This
year, however, a lot of members were
in school, some working, others unable
to get leave at the time.
There are about 50 members in the
club throughout the Zone and another
50 cyclists often ride with the club.
Members of the Zone chapter also ride
frequently with the Panama Motorcycle
About noon on March I, though. it
was apparent that no others would
come. So we headed west with the
familiar cry of "Let's Motor." We
crossed the new $20 million bridge
THE PAN'AMA CANAL REVIEW 5
across the Canal at Balboa and rode
toward La Chorrera, stopping in Capira
long enough to eat the white cheese
and pastelitos for which this little
village is famous.
Following the Inter-American High-
way along the coast of the Gulf of
Panama, we stopped at San Carlos, and
spent some time on the beach under a
bohio out of the hot sun. On to Santa
Clara and Rio Hato, where the road
turns about 20 miles toward the center
of the Isthmus to Penonom6. Near NatA
we saw the huge factory for processing
Maggi tomato products and other
produce. It is surprising to see this
factory there, way out in the middle of
nowhere. Two-wheel carts are a familiar
A little farther along the road is
another factory where the small candies
known as "estrellitas" are made. The
new highway misses Aguadulce, and
we were familiar with this town, so we
bypassed it and headed for Santiago,
where we spent the night.
I spent part of it in jail because of a
misunderstanding. I guess my Spanish
Clois C. Duffle with natives
in typical scene in the Chiri-
qui Province area near Ca-
fias Gordas, at the Costa
Rica frontier. House is on
right, cooking area on left.
is worse that I thought. The speed limit
had been reduced to 15 m.p.h. due to
a religious festival at Atalaya, but there
were no signs along the road of the
limit. Officials couldn't catch us, so they
called ahead and stopped us with a road
block. I had to stay in jail for a couple
of hours until the proper official arrived,
then was released with a dressing down.
We stayed at the Hotel Santiago,
where air-conditioned rooms with pri-
vate bath are available, or rooms with
just bed for $1. The food was excellent
at the sidewalk restaurant. The happy
feeling we left there with didn't last
long, however, because here began
approximately 122 miles of the worst
road imaginable, through SonA and
Remedios, to the south of the Inter-
American route. It was worse than I had
remembered, with loose gravel, big
rocks, and deep ruts in places.
About 17 miles this side of David we
hit paved road again which goes to
Concepci6n and all the way to the
Costa Rican frontier. Just outside David
we turned up the mountain on a very
(See p. 15)
,. . : ., .
4 .. "-..,,
Down the hatch. A young Paraiso girl is ass
taking the oral polio vaccine involves nothing
swallowing a sugar lump. Shown at the Paraiso
left, is Jan Jensen of Balboa, whose mother, M
hilda Jensen, R.N., is the nurse at the Paraiso Cc
Health Center. At right is Maritza Ipina of t
Red Cross and in the background is Mrs. H. Sk
Public Health Nurse in the schools, who help
The clinic operated in the Cristobal
Women's Club building in Margarita also
used the services of volunteers for the
paperwork and other details connected
with the program. Shown around the
records table here are Doreen Baas, Bar-
bara Dclvecchio, Mrs. Rosalyn Bernstein,
Dr. Howard C. Pritham, Virginia and Jane
Ferris, and Mrs. Lois Thomas. Another
volunteer, Estelle Davidson, was on duty
before the photograph was taken.
"STAMP OUT POLIO"
Irs. Bern- THE FIRST ROUND of the oral vaccine program
community aimed at stamping out polio in the Canal Zone was
he Junior completed with a flourish last month on the Atlantic
ed at the side of the Isthmus as more than 10,000 doses were
administered to bring the total doses of Type I
vaccine administered by the Canal's Health Bureau
to more than 27,000.
The second round, in which Types II and III of
the vaccine will be administered, will be this month.
Pacific-siders will receive their combination doses
Mav 3 and 4, while Atlantic-siders will receive theirs
May 17 and 18.
Health Bureau officials credited much of the
success of the first round to volunteers who worked
in the various clinics-and they are relying on
volunteers for much of this month's second round.
The "honor roll" of organizations which recruited
'I volunteers and otherwise assisted with the first round
included Civic Councils in both the U.S. and Latin
American communities, the Canal Zone Chapter of
the American Red Cross, the Junior Red Cross, Red
Cross Gray Ladies, Girl Scouts of America, Pink
Girls, International Boy Scouts, and the Cristobal
SWomen's Club. There also were many community-
minded individuals who volunteered and served.
S Dr. Sidney B. Clark, Chief of Preventive Medicine
and Quarantine, said the work of the volunteers was
"indispensable" and congratulated them for their
S part in the successful completion of the first round
Smiling volunteer workers greeted those visiting the Diablo Heights clinic in the Junior
High School gymnasium. At the Identification table, right, is Mrs. Alice Meehan. From
left are Andrea Lynn Sollitto, Maria Livia Harcega, and Evangeline Buenofe. At the
feeding table, in rear of room, are Mrs. Peggy Welch, left, and Mrs. Evelyn Koperski, R.N.
Junior Red Cross Volunteens were on duty at the Santa Cruz gymnasium and at Ancon
when oral polio vaccine was given in connection with the Pacific side program for residents
of the Canal Zone and Canal employees who live in Panama. From left are Margaret
Thorne, Dale Davy, Sidney Dyer, Margarite George, Carl Sainten, Stanicia Jones, Ancelmo
Cummings, Eleanor Millett, Damiin Albeo, Victor Joshua, George Brown, Yolanda Evelyn,
Carol Grazette, and Antonio Cooper. Also on duty, but not present for the photograph,
were: Richard Millett, Silvia Haughton, Lydia Dunn, Marva Savory, and Karl Evelyn.
Mrs. Violet Rhaburn, member of the Santa Cruz Civic Council and active
in Girl Scout work, checks the registration form of a young resident about
to receive her oral polio vaccine.
Going through the line at the Balboa oral
polio vaccine clinic is John D. Hollen,
Chief of the Panama Canal Executive
Planning Staff. Mrs. George Pauk, R.N.,
checks his registration form and directs
him to the next table where records were
kept. Immediately behind Mr. Hollen is
Dr. Mary Graham.
In Paraiso, volunteers were recruited to
help with a "grass roots" effort to get the
entire community to take the oral polio
vaccine. Health Bureau officials attributed
this special effort with the "remarkably
high" turnout in that community. The
special effort took the form of volunteers
preparing registration forms for everyone
in the community, then delivering them to
the homes of the families. Working on
registration blanks in this picture are, from
left, Paulina Nieto, Jorge Scott, Ricardo
James, Emilio Singh, Ruth Russell, Marva
Griffith, Elena Springer, and Ricardo
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
Lighting effects have an important place
in the suspense thriller that opens tonight.
"Try this one," says stage manager Dick
Collver, as he hands another light hulh to
Leo Farlow, on ladder. Larry Boutis,
center, is acting as lighting and sound
Tickets and money exchange hands rapidly
from opening night nnl through the run of
the play. Leo Farlow, in the ticket hooth,
fills an order for reserved seats as a very
young theater enthusiast looks on.
THE HANDS of the clock point to
curtain time. House lights dim. Here
and there a program rustles.
Then there's a hushed silence as the
curtain rises and another Theatre Guild
audience in the Ancon Theatre is
landed squarely in the middle of a
period, and a social set, that sometimes
may be familiar, perhaps involved in
amusing bric-a-hrac of a porcelain
comedy, maybe entangled in domestic
details of Old Lace charm, or enmeshed
in a Victorian thriller such as is Angel
Street, the Theatre Guild's fifth produc-
tion of the current subscription season
which opens tonight.
This spine-tingler hegan its career in
London under the title of "Gaslight."
The author, Patrick Hamilton, accus-
tomed to feeding shudders to shudder-
loving audiences, attempts here nothing
more serious than to continue this
Five characters appear on the stage
in Angel Street and, as the plot unfolds,
everything seems so real, so natural, so
easy. Long hours of hard work went
into accomplishing that impression.
Dozens of Theatre Guild members
and helpful friends make up the unseen
company whose members never come
to the footlights for a bow, but whose
FOR "ANGEL STREET"
work is evidenced in the stage setting,
in the lighting, the properties, the
programs, posters, and myriad details
necessary for the birth of a play.
First comes the serious business of
selection of a play which the Theatre
Guild believes the audience will enjoy.
The Guild determines which plays are
available for amateur production and
which ones the physical plant can
Gene Simpson, director of Angel
Street. who has had a long and dis-
tinguished affiliation with the Theatre
Guild. had seen this play in New York.
A mystery was wanted for the May
presentation, and here was a thriller
that had been a surprise hit on Broad-
way when it was presented there.
Angel Street chosen, dates for tryouts
werr set and widely publicized. Anyone
in the Canal Zone or Panama is wel-
comed and encouraged to try out for a
part or w'olk backstage. One doesn't
have to be a Theatre Guild member to
try out for a part, and new faces, new
talent, and people who enjoy making
new friends and doing creative work
are urged to come to the Ancon
On stage, during tryouts, with director Gene .rr.
making his farewell appearance with the Itre.
and leave the Isthmus as soon as the play elo:..
a kindly detective. Seated on the couch is L.,,
They appear as Mr. and Mrs. Jack NManningh,..
the stage. Standing, center, are Meg Fennel ,..,d
Playhouse on tryout nights.
Dates for rehearsal must be set to
accommodate director and cast, for in
many instances key figures are avail-
able for rehearsals or work backstage
only after the working day is over.
The male lead. John McTaggart, who
plays Jack Manningham in Angel Street,
is a placement and employee manage-
ment relations specialist in the Panama
Canal Personnel Bureau. He made his
acting debut in the Canal Zone in 1957
as Grandpere in the Theatre Guild's
production of The Happy Time, which
also was directed by Gene Simpson. He
appeared in several Theatre Guild pro-
ductions while serving in the U.S. Army
.* ,-.,... fr..ir, kfi i (Ir kfi is Dick Cox, who is
., .1 1... hi lII rO eli Ir..m F mama Canal service
,.-il ,itIl he pl,.. rt.e .le of Sergeant Rough,
Sar rr..... I,.I sr,,.; j r1ld., is John McTaggart.
1.. I. C... L- l 1,r i. -eated at the edge of
I l...Iri. [',r.,,'i ,:l' .,I I r.iles of the two maids.
in the Canal Zone and p
of Toglio in The Naked
which was filmed in Pana
LaVonne Garrison of
appears in the role of Br
ham. This is her third apl
the Theatre Guild.
Richard E. Cox, who is
Street as Sergeant Rou
inspector, is executive as
Panama Canal Supply
made his Isthmian debut
Wilder's Our Town and
in a number of plays incl
day for Lovers, The Little
Out of the Frying Pan,
in the Sun,
played the part
and the Dead,
ma in 1957.
seen in Angel
Meg Fennel, who is one of the maids,
is in the Post Library at Fort Kobbe and
the other maid is played by Irene
Michaelis, Dredging Division Clerk-
Dick Collver, a teacher at Balboa
High School, is stage manager and his
wife, Linda, is script assistant. Larry
Boutis of Fort Clayton is lighting and
sound effects technician. Dora Hardy,
a Canal Zone teacher, is in charge of
properties and the art work is directed
by Catsy Taylor Schaffer, a nurse at
While the cast is busy with lines and
situations, the production staff swings
into action. This time they faced the
task of bringing the London of the gas-
light era, complete with sound of Big
Ben in the background, to a Canal Zone
audience of 1963. Ideas are pro-
pounded, the staff challenges each
other's ideas, and then is applied the
test of what those ideas would mean
to the audience in terms of suspense,
humor, and dramatic surprise.
Sets for past productions have been
constructed to depict modern hotel
rooms, a turn-of-the-century living
room, an outdoor patio, a boat deck, an
apartment, and walk-up flat.
Sometimes materials are ordered
MAY 3 THROUGH 11
S1, a poice from the States, but more often than
sistant in the
Division. He not, paint brushes are plied, and prop-
in Thornto erties are borrowed most effectively.
has appeared Working still further behind the
uding A Holl- scenes are the people who compose the
SFoxes, J. B., programs and arrange for their printing,
and A Raisin and those who make the posters. Pic-
and A Raisin r p i r n
tures are taken, publicity written, and
tickets prepared. Even that latter is
tricky, for a careful check has to be
made to ensure that no two people find
rnrl', i ''' themselves sharing a single seat.
Volunteers are enlisted to handle
reservations. Proper make-up must be
procured, and volunteer ushers assigned
for the various performances, in this
case from May 3 through May 11.
Suddenly things that seemed at sixes
and sevens fall into place. It's opening
night. The audience gathers, house
lights dim, and another Theatre Guild
production is launched.
Democracy prevails behind the foot-
lights at the Theatre Guild. Stars and
bit players take bows together, and the
delivery of flowers to the actors on the
stage is discouraged or practically
prohibited. The flowers that are sent to
the theatre are delivered back stage.
Balhoa-37813 is the Theatre Guild tele-
phone number for reservations. Mrs. Tillie
MeTaggart no sooner takes a reservations
nrder and hangs up, than the phone rings
again-with more seat requests.
Every bit of stage business is important.
Pointers are given Meg Fennel (left) by
director Gene Simpson and stage manager
Dick W. Collver.
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between March 5 and April 5 (Within-
grade promotions and jobs reclassifica-
tions are not listed):
Helen A. Adams, Accounting Technician,
Accounting Division, and Extension
Class Teacher, to Clerk-Stenographer,
Administrative Branch, and Extension
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Frank E. Hirt, Window Clerk to Relief
Supervisor, Cristobal, Postal Division.
Hollis Griffon, Police Private, Police Divi-
sion, and Relief Photographer, Admin-
istrative Branch, to Detective and Relief
Division of Schools
Isolina G. Rivera, Substitute Teacher to
Teacher (Senior High-U.S. Schools).
Edna H. Hollowell, Laura Mh. Tarflinger,
Substitute Teacher to Teacher (Junior
Lucile G. Feeney, Evelyn B. Fondren,
Vera C. Phillips, Florence P. Stickney,
Substitute Teacher to Teacher (Elemen-
Joseph E. N. Murray, Laborer (Cleaner)
from Housing Branch, Community
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Walter R. Weeks, Helper Electronics
Mechanic to Stockman, Electrical Divi-
Gale A. O'Connell, Structural Engineer to
Chief, Structural Branch.
James C. Foster, General Engineer to Gen-
eral Engineer (Corrosion Mitigation).
Clate Riddle, Electrician to Leader Elec-
Juan N. Malverde, Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Laborer (Heavy).
Jorge T. Vasquez, Laborer (Cleaner),
Supply Division, to Laborer.
Horman V. Archibold, Storekeeping Clerk
to Radio Operator.
Jose F. de los Rios, Navigational Aid
Worker to Maintenanceman Distribu-
Mateo Cubillo, Oiler (Floating Plant) to
Irene NM. Michaelis, Clerk-Typist, Em-
ployee Services Branch, Personnel Bu-
reau, to Clerk-Stenographer.
Robert C. Herrington, Lead Foreman
(Public Works Road Construction) to
Lead Foreman (Public Works Wharf-
Waldo B. Gilley, Lead Foreman (Public
Works-Wharfbuilding) to General Fore-
man (Public Works).
Coleridge E. Hurley, Clerk from Indus-
trial Division to Gorgas Hospital.
Coco Solo Hospital
Mildred R. Largent, Staff Nurse (Medicine
and Surgery) to Head Nurse (Medicine
Cyril G. Francis, Hospital Attendant to
Florence A. Springer, Hospital Attendant
to Nursing Assistant.
Herbert Brown, Counterman, Supply Divi-
sion, to File Clerk.
Osborn C. Robinson, Deckhand (Boat-
swain) to Launch Operator.
James C. Warner, Laborer (Heavy) to
Gilbert De Touche, Seaman, Launch, to
Michael J. Burza, Machinist (Marine) to
Lead Foreman Machinist (Marine).
Holand A. Adams, Helper (General) to
Helper Blacksmith (Heavy Fires).
Charles R. Scott, Laborer to Laborer
Alfred Braithwaite, Laborer to Helper
Howard NM. Armistead, Electrician to Lock
Joel W. Donawa, Maintenanceman (Rope
and Wire Cable) to Leader Maintenance-
man (Rope and Wire Cable).
Pedro Tufi6n, Laborer (Heavy), from Main-
tenance Division to Painter (Mainte-
Karl A. Sinclair, Line Handler to Clerk.
MNatilde BeltrAn, Helper Lock Operator to
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Emily hi. Brooks, Clerk-Typist to Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Erich L. Reinhardt, Clerk-Typist to Assist-
ant Retail Store Manager, General
Charles N. Norris, Accountant, Gorgas
Hospital, to Accountant Assistant.
Jeannine C. Scott, Library Assistant, Canal
Zone Library, to Freight Rate Assistant.
Esme Rochester, Painter (Sign) from Main-
Segundo H. Mero, Assistant Baker to
Monica O. Marecheau, Counterwoman to
Donald C. Escalona, Utility Worker to
Nicolas D. Bishop, Utility Worker to
Clement A. Murrell, Pinsetter to Utility
Roy Dickens, Waiter to Laborer (Heavy).
Ernest A. Jones, Warehouseman to Clerk.
Community Services Division
Estle H. Davison, Engineman (Hoisting
and Portable), Maintenance Division, to
Leader Engineman (Hoisting and
Luis C. Martinez, Painter (Maintenance),
Locks Division, to Laborer.
Jorge Lugardo, Laborer (Cleaner), to
Alfredo Arosemena, Victor Mh. Castafieda,
Guillermo Cortes, Antonio Martinez,
Claudio D. Prado, Secundino Rangel,
Jose Sosa, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Napoleon B. Ashby, Edgar Carmichael,
Sylvester Grant, Claudius N. Thompson,
Cargo Marker to Clerk (Checker).
Reuben Panton, Dock Worker to Line
Robert NM. Jolliffe, Jr., Laborer Cleaner,
Industrial Division, to Cargo Marker.
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
Louis G. Archuleta, Structural Engineer,
Margaret F. Wiggin, General Claims
Examiner, General Audit Division.
Evelyn W. Brandt, Supervisory Admin-
istrative Services Assistant, Industrial
Donald C. Pierpoint, Cafeteria Manager,
Doris NM. Young, Clerk-Stenographer,
Office of the Comptroller.
Jeanene K. Zimmerman, Clerk Typist,
Mary L. Parker, Mary A. Williford, Clerk-
Typist, Industrial Division.
Elena Cham, Accounting Clerk, Industrial
Basil I. Nelson, Accounting Clerk, Ter-
Robert L. Allen, Timekeeper, Terminals
Robert J. King, Clerk-Typist, Navigation
Leonard A. Shirley, Clerk, Industrial Divi-
Nellie G. Cadger, Library Assistant, Canal
10 MAY 3, 1963
GORGAS HOSPITAL'S obstetrical
cases record for the last decade is as
good as that of large Stateside clinics
on key results, and in most instances
better. Analysis of the three greatest
hazards to pregnant women has been
made in 1,033 cases during the 10-year
Results of the analysis and com-
parison were presented by means of
charts and graphs by Dr. I. J. Strumpf,
Chief of the Obstetrics and Gynecology
Service at Gorgas, at a recent meet-
ing of the Isthmian Medical Society,
attended by 76 doctors.
It was stressed that these results are
Careful prenatal watchfulness and
instant treatment at the first sign of a
complication; constant attendance by a
nurse and two doctors of every patient,
regardless of creed, color, or rank,
during labor and delivery; use of im-
proved obstetrical and anesthetic tech-
niques; the vigilance and dedication
of the nurses and doctors, and the
availability at all times of expert con-
sultation should a complication or
Many graphs and charts also were
shown indicating how newer techniques
in surgery and newer concepts of han-
dling many of the diseases of women
which contribute to the stillborn rate
have been used by the Gorgas Hospital
Obstetrical Service, and how many
babies in each instance have been
saved who under other circumstances
would have died.
The present emphasis is on a similar
spectacular improvement in the salvage
of newborn premature infants, and the
prevention of stillbirths.
Maternal safety is now at such a level
that a perfect record is within reach,
and an appeal was voiced that all
women register early at the Prenatal
Clinic, and to have the utmost faith in
their doctors. In this way, it was pointed
out, an already excellent obstetrical
record may be still further improved
to the ultimate goal of "a healthy
mother and a healthy baby" for every
woman who enters the Obstetrical
Service of Gorgas Hospital.
CLASSES START MAY 9
Latin American Schools
Open Officially May 8
THE NEW SCHOOL year for Latin
American Schools of the Canal Zone
will start, officially, May 8, but the
3,855 children enrolled in grades
kindergarten through 12 won't have
their first day of classes until Thursday,
New school facilities have been
added and there will be a number of
new teachers on the staffs.
Three special education classrooms
have been added at the Rainbow City
Elementary School. They will provide
space for the educable mentally handi-
capped, areas for remedial reading and
speech therapy, and will release class-
room space in the junior-senior high
school for regular high school classes.
On the first official day of school
May 8, faculty meetings will be held by
principals in the respective buildings to
acquaint both old and new teachers
with policies and procedures. During
the day, teachers will be issued the
necessary textbooks and supplies for
Teachers new to the system at Rain-
bow City Junior-Senior High School
are Roberto Acqui-Pinz6n, a university
graduate, who will teach philosophy
and commerce; Felix Figueroa and
Mrs. Gloria Martinez, both of whom
teach Spanish, and Miss Fulvia Esco-
bar, who will teach general science.
At Paraiso Junior-Senior High School,
Pedro Alvarado will teach commerce.
Mr. Figueroa, Mrs. Martinez, Miss
Escobar, and Mr. Alvarado all have
New elementary teachers, all with
university degrees, are Miss Noris SimD-
son at Santa Cruz School; Misses Olga
Tomlinson and Raquel McPherson,
Torge Jimenez and Julio Luque at Rain-
bow City Elementary School. Shaler
Yearwood will be at Pedro Miguel
While pupils were enjoying them-
selves and participating in the vacation
program during February, March, and
April, many of their teachers were
studying, to qualify for bachelor and
Teachers who completed work
toward degrees at the University of
Panama are: George Richards and Miss
Blandina \aterman of Paraiso Junior-
Senior High School, Samuel Skeete of
Rainbow City Elementary School, Mrs.
Vilma Rovo of Santa Cruz Elementary-
Junior High School, and the Misses
Marva Taylor and Mavis McNichols of
Paraiso Elementary School.
Mrs. Clarice M. Bryan of Rainbow
City Elementary School and Miss Vilma
Best of Paraiso Elementary School
earned degrees at the University of
Nebraska. They will return May 8 after
having been on leave of absence.
Other teachers expected to return at
the beginning of school after leaves are
Leslie Thomas and Saturnin Maug6
of Rainbow City Junior-Senior High
On extended leave and to return after
the opening of school in May are Mrs.
Amy E. C. de Boyce of Paraiso Ele-
mentary School; Audley Webster and
Miss Alva Piper of Rainbow City Junior-
Senior High School, and Daniel Mi-
randa, who is studying in Mexico. All
are to return in June.
Mrs. Jocelyn C. de Blugh of Paraiso
Elementary School will report in
August, and Ellis Fawcett, principal of
Paraiso Junior-Senior High School, and
Miss Julette Carrington, principal of
Pedro Miguel Elementary School, are
expected back in September.
Teachers on scholarships for the
school year 1963-64 are Miss Clara
Wattley, Paraiso Junior-Senior High
School, who is studying in England
on a scholarship granted by the
British Embassy, and Miss Beril Jordan,
Rainbow City Junior-Senior High
School, who is studying in the United
States on a U.S. Information Service
Other teachers who will be away on
leave for study for the entire school
year are: Miss Hilma Watson, Philip
Daniel, and Phillip Henry, Rainbow
City Elementary School; Ernest Wattley
and Luis Diez, Paraiso Junior-Senior
High School; Mrs. Silvia Stoute and
Cleveland Ennis, Rainbow City Junior-
Senior High School; Miss Marta Garvey
and Mrs. Daphne Wedderburn, Pa-
raiso Elementary School; and Franklin
Wynter, Pedro Miguel Elementary
Grafton Conliffe, principal of Santa
Cruz School, will leave in August, for
a year, to complete work on his master's
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
50 YearJ 4go
FILL MADE IN the swamp east of
Colon to extend the city from E to G
streets, between the lines of Second and
Ninth streets, had settled, requiring
about 17,500 yards more of fill to bring
it to grade. It was planned to extend
macadam to near 16th street, near the
junction with Mount Hope road. This
extension was to make accessible lots
on natural ground, a part of the original
Manzanillo Island, and several feet
above sea level.
A number of 8-inch spherical bombs
and grape shot were dug up by a
suction dredge operating near the inner
end of the slip west of the new Pier 18
at Cristobal. A hand ax of a type used
about 50 years earlier was found in the
same area. Projectiles were encrusted
with a kind of natural concrete, made
up of coral deposits, sand, and shells,
to a thickness of 2 inches.
EMPLOYEES who retired in March,
with their positions at time of retire-
ment and years of Canal service:
McDonald Allen, Truck Driver, Motor
Transportation Division, Pacific Side; 23
years, 9 months, and 7 days.
Mrs. Louise E. Augustus, Laboratory
Helper, Coco Solo Hospital; 35 years,
6 months, 20 days.
Eliseo Avila, Leader Maintenanceman,
Electrical Division, Pacific Side; 33
years, 3 months, 20 days.
Henry J. Clancy, Electrician, Electrical
Division, Atlantic Side; 22 years, 1
month, 19 days.
Ralph L. Hanners, General Foreman
(Grounds), Community Services Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 20 years, 10 months,
Joseph Ifill, Laundry Worker (Heavy),
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 25 years,
8 months, 10 days.
Landon N. Gunn, Operator, Dipper
Dredge, Dredging Division, Pacific Side;
31 years, 10 months, 10 days.
Eustace S. Lewis, Guard, Transportation
and Terminals Division, Atlantic Side;
42 years, 1 month, 21 days.
Headley McAdams, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Community Serv-
ices Division, Pacific Side; 40 years, 9
months, 28 days.
Clarence B. Mcllvaine, Conductor, Road
and Conductor, Yard, Railroad Division,
Pacific Side, 32 years, 8 months, 19 days.
Leon Ortiz, Stevedore, Terminals Division,
Atlantic Side; 37 years, 7 months, 20
Miss Ella A. Partons, Staff Nurse, Gorgas
Hospital; 8 years, 5 months, 4 days.
25 year c4go
A BILL providing for optional retire-
ment of employees of the Panama Canal
after 30 years of service or at the age
of 55 was introduced into the U.S.
At the same time the Panama Canal
issued a retirement certificate to be
given to employees retiring from serv-
ice. The first certificate, signed by
Gov. C. S. Ridley, was presented to
Genevieve Gage, the first woman em-
ployee to be retired from the Canal
after 30 years of service.
The new Panama Canal tolls system,
which went into effect earlier in the
year, provided a substantial savings
for the Canadian Pacific cruise liner
Empress of Britain, which arrived at
the Canal in May 1938 on a world
cruise. The ship paid nearly $5,000 less
than on a previous transit, since the
new system included a reduction for
large public rooms.
Guillermo T. Perez, Crane Hookman, In-
dustrial Division, Pacific Side; 42 years,
10 months, 21 days.
Jacinto Peters, Guard, Terminals Division,
Atlantic Side; 43 years, 5 months, 9
Eugenio Rangel, Operator, Field Tractor,
Maintenance Division, Pacific Side; 38
years, 6 months, 13 days.
Julian Rodriguez, Assistant Cook, Gorgas
Hospital; 19 years, 5 months, 24 days.
Udham Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 17 years, 12 days.
Miss Ellen M. Tiernan, Head Nurse (Sur-
gical) Gorgas Hospital; 32 years, 8
P. Alton White, Chief, Dredging Division;
38 years, 4 months, 21 days.
10 yearJ a. go
ONE OF THE oldest houses in the
Canal Zone, on Heights Road, formerly
occupied by the Health Director, was
among 16 frame quarters buildings
scheduled for demolition and being
advertised for sale to the highest bidder.
It was one of several moved to Balboa
Heights when the Canal was opened
A total of 30 bushmasters and 2 fer-
de-lance snakes were caught or killed
by men doing clearing work for a tract
of pasture land on the Atlantic side
of the Isthmus. Most of the bush-
masters were found in an area of about
One Year c4go
Robert E. Hansen, of the Veterans of
Foreign Wars of the United States,
became a member of The Esteemed
Order of Bearers of the Master Key to
the Panama Canal. The VFW com-
mander, on an inspection tour of Isth-
mian posts, was presented a key to the
Locks and a certificate giving him the
grade of Lockmaster.
Release of the monthly report of
the Meteorological and Hydrographic
Branch revealed that a total of 58
seismic disturbances were recorded
on the Balboa Heights seismographs
during March. Six had their point of
origin within 300 miles and two were
felt in the Canal Zone. The epicenter
of one was near the Panama-Costa Rica
Water and electrical conservation
measures slowed the drop in level of
Gatun Lake sufficiently to delay imposi-
tion of draft restriction approximately
12 MAY 3, 1963
MARCH CASES CASES ABSEN
'63 '62 '63 '62 '63
ALL UNITS 261(13) 306 20(7) 10 1328(991)
YEAR TO DATE 771(36) 709 48(9) 34 1 5991993)
() Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.
(On the basis
el n C. e
lt atic I en Pressman
SPOT TION AND
TER HN %UREAU
Jos h Boyc
A otive Cran
of total Federal Service)
Thatcher A. Clisbee
Capital Program Coordinator
Bindery ar dEi W ker
CIVIL AFFAIR B AU
CONSTRUCT ) ETAU
Rupert N. Scott
Vincent G. St. Louis
Clerk (Work Orders)
Wesley A. Cole
OFFICE OF THE
Sup i ry General
Cl im Examiner
SUP Y AND COMMUNITY
Granville V. Brown
Rex E. Beck
Clerk of the Court,
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Ralph Dugan, Jr.
Ruth F. Morris
Elementary and Secondary
Pearl C. de Chilcott
Senior High Teacher,
Latin American Schools
Harry P. DePiper
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Hubert A. Rotenberry
Lead Foreman Painter
William W. Spencer
Robert C. Stanley
Power System Dispatcher
Eugene E. Chaudiere
Jos6 B. Felipe
Sidney A. Gordon
Refrigeration and Air
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Hector L. John
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Dudley J. Miller
David C. Mcllhenny
Cecil D. Archbold
Physical Therapy Assistant
Kenneth D ~s
(Medicine and rg ry)
Frances H. Drum ond
Nursing Assi nt
Vernon C. IcC
(Medicine an surgery)
(Medicine an Surgery)
Juan J. Vasquez
Richard W. Abell
(Lock Operations) *
F. G. Berwanger
Leader Lock Operator
Leon S. Fishbough
Leader Lock Operator
Theodore W. A. Krzys
William W. Morris
Gust E. Rosene
James W. Watson
Carl A. Yarbro
Lock Operator (Engineman-
Hoisting and Portable)
Helper Lock Operator
Tombs G. Amador
Clifford A. Anthony
Frank L. Bro.
MIotor Laun h captain
Antonio Can es
Helper Lock Operator
Samuel S. Morgan
Helper Lock Operator
Oscar .T. Phillips
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Joyce B. Bevington
Hamner C. Cook
Aquilino de la Cruz
Maybell Maud Forbes
Cook, Short Order
Abraham W. Forcheney
Alvin G. Gunter
Hannah A. Jackman
Maria D. Nurse
Evelyn R. Condon
Robert W. Parker
Leader Liquid Fuels
Milton E. Stone
Adolphus E. Johnson
Aston L. Morris
Ronald F. Payne
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
1963 1962 Transits
United States intercoastal ------------------ 70 109 146
East coast of United States and South America ____ 535 620 445
East coast of United States and Central America 111 86 129
East coast of United States and Far East--_ _ ---- 462 571 261
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ___- 63 59 48
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada_____ 268 259 193
Europe and South America ____________-__ 305 292 123
Europe and Australasia ---------_-_----- ____ 108 116 95
All other routes--_-----------_-____- ________ 679 626 333
Total traffic 2,601 2,738 1,773
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Transit Gross Tolls
Monras (In thousands of dollars)
Month --------- ----------
Avg. No. Average
1963 1962 Transits 1963 1962 Tolls
July 1962 -------- 978 931 557 $4,980 $4,776 $2,432
August- - - - 950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403
September- - - 909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431
October- _- --882 935 607 4,411 4,646 2,559
November- - -- -- 924 891 568 4,684 4,443 2,361
December - --- 947 938 599 4,983 4,870 2,545
January 1963- - --- 769 917 580 3,871 4,735 2,444
February -- 841 841 559 4,313 4,388 2,349
March---------- 991 980 632 5,084 5,098 2,657
April - 608 2,588
May----- 629 2,672
June--- -_ -- 599 2,528
9 months- - 8,191 8,259 5,226 $41,869 $42,228 $22,181
Fiscal year___ - 11,149 7,062 1$57,290 $29,969
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 i 1951-55
Nationality --; ------ -------- ---- ----------
Nationality Number Tons Number Tons Average Average
of of of of number tons
transit cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
Belgian_ __ 11 37,806 8 36,904 2 2,716
British & Can.__ 332 1,846,957 321 2,142,557 323 1,936,872
Chilean - - 22 146,225 31 211,833 17 85,011
Chinese ------ 17 107,747 17 122,842 6 54,599
Colombian- 48 66,540 68 115,419 35 37,708
Danish ----. 73 380,561 79 475,923 57 224,852
French .--. 26 131,587 30 189,191 35 163,469
German------ 245 746,900 279 853,112 54 109,721
Greek ----- 172 1,452,448 178 1,898,953 29 253,278
Honduran .-- 51 23,686 14 32,431 97 130,876
Israeli-___--- 18 42,947 21 68,793
Italian- -___- 36 198,678 49 336,226 32 182,089
Japanese ------ 188 1,079,996 198 1,085,122 69 470,531
Lebanon __- 10 83,234 5 44,161 .
Liberian -.. _- 200 1,715,665 204 1,815,592 48 300,445
Netherlands - 187 770,299 144 812,867 30 151,379
Nicaraguan _. 13 20,059 3 3,120 6 6,551
Norwegian - 356 2,690,695 378 2,833,448 203 833,741
Panamanian -_- 100 414,403 87 443,530 116 665,039
Peruvian ------ 15 58,151 30 116,573 4 9,135
Philippine - 14 52,072 14 45,786 5 33,662
Swedish-_ - _98 545,096 80 415,508 46 198,424
United States - 338 1,820,862 459 2,694,950 498 3,088,092
All others- - -- 31 171,534 41 160,354 61 125,202
Total ---- ,601 14,604,148 2.738 16,955,195 1,773 9,063,392
Last Cruise Ship
THE SWEDISH America Line cruise
ship Kungsholm, which passed north-
bound through the Canal April 13, was
the last of the big cruise liners to visit
Canal waters during this winter season.
The well-known cruise ship was on the
last leg of its voyage home from a cruise
to the South Pacific, Australia, Japan,
and Hawaii which started January 17
from New York.
The Kungsholm has been using the
Canal since she was first built 10 years
ago and is noted for her luxurious
accommodations and good food. During
the summer, the shin is used on the
North Atlantic run to Europe.
Around the World
ANOTHER BIG passenger ship making
the northbound transit in April was the
Nederland Line vessel Oranje, which
arrived from Australia and New Zea-
land April 15 and docked in Balboa
with 811 passengers. The ship was on
her way back to Europe after a trip
around the world, a voyage she makes
regularly every 80 days.
After sailing from Cristobal April 16,
the Oranje was scheduled to stop in
Port Everglades, Fla. and New York
before continuing on to Southampton
The Royal Rotterdam Lloyd vessel
Willem Ruys, which operates jointly
with the Oranie on the round-the-world
service, is to arrive in Balboa May 4
and will also stop at Port Everglades
and New York on the voyage home to
Europe. Both ships are represented
at the Canal by C. B. Fenton & Co.
TWO "JUMBOIZED" and converted
bulk cargo carriers started traveling
through the Canal recently with cargoes
of alumina from Corpus Christi on the
west-bound voyage and with raw sugar
from Hawaii on the east-bound trip.
The service was started in April with
the SS Inger, which transited south-
bound with a load of alumina from
Corpus Christi to the Columbia River
in Oregon. The second is the SS Walter
Rice, which will arrive here in May
with a similar cargo.
Both ships were "jumboized" by the
Todd Shipyard Corp. for the Reynolds
Metals Co. of Richmond, Va. Formerly
523-foot T-2 tankers, they were length-
ened to 626 feet, and their payloads
increased in the process by nearly
On the return trip to gulf ports, the
vessels will pick up raw sugar under
a freight contract with California and
Hawaiian Sugar Refining Corp.
14 MAY 3, 1963
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERN
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Ocean-going____ _--- ______
Total commercial -_--_____
U.S. Government vessels: **
Small - - --------- --
Total Government _----. .
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
SVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1,
ships transited free.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CA
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
1963 1962 A
Ores, various __-----_ -------------- 1,563,792 1,751,313
Lumber -- ------------------ 988,427 1,022,575
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)--- 350,657 403,833
Wheat-----_ _-------------------- --- 352,651 433,134
Sugar _____________ 416,310 445,890
Canned food products- - - ---------- 235,009 220,450
Nitrate of soda-_ ----- _- --------- 181,503 250,131
Barley - - - - - -_ 169,378 318,567
Bananas-- - - - - ------- 274,884 271,676
Metals, various __ -----------------_ 268,530 342,049
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) - - - - - - - - - - - 282,339 269,045
Fishmeal _______________________ 323,443 -
Cotton, raw --------------------_____________________ 103,738 72,429
Iron and steel manufactures ----------- 219,518 141,215
Pulpwood ------------ - - 119,956 123,407
All others-__ -- - - - - -1,571,945 1,659,616
Total --_ ---------------- 7,422,080 7,725,330 4
Atlantic to Pacific
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1
1963 1962 Av
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)___ 2,222,273 2,463,840
Coal and coke ------------------_ 1,242,702 1,600,782
Iron and steel manufactures ----------- 245,565 423,511
Phosphates - - - - - 500,545 479,224
Sugar_------- _______ ____ __ 68,669 415,026
Soybeans -___________ 404,302 332,670
Metal, scrap----------------------- 344,815 470,155
Sulfur____________________ 80,242 74,441
Corn ____ ______________ 245,419 654,753
Fertilizers, unclassified- ------- 80,824 136,338
Ores, various--- - - - - 228,610 213,629
Machinery______________ ----------------------- 91,926 99,105
Cotton, raw ___-------------- 80,572 110,949
Chemicals, unclassified --------------- 119,797 148,796
Automobiles and parts -______ 78,422 74,688
All others ____ -_------ 1,147,385 1,531,958 1
Total _----- -- ----- ----_---- 7,182,068 9.229,865 4
ENT Cycling to Border
(Continued from p. 5)
g N good black top road to Boquete, one of
Transits or favorite places in Panama. It is more
'''1-ss than 3,000 feet high there and it gets
l ery cold. It felt wonderful after the
hot lowlands. Here we stayed at the
-- Pensi6n Virginia, which is a European-
1,773 style small hotel with reasonable prices
284 and very good food. While there, we
2,057 visited the coffee plantations.
_..... We inspected the new luxury hotel,
Los Rios, built between the forks of a
151 beautiful, cool mountain stream. The
71 dining room and bar look out over the
222 water. Next day found us back down
,2 the mountain and on to Concepci6n,
29 where we stayed at the Caribe Hotel
operated for $1 each. The meals (comida co-
rriente) were 50 cents, very good food
and plenty of it.
Next day we rode up 45 miles to
NAL Volcin and Cerro Punta. The road was
terrible and the rain and 6,000 feet
altitude and cold wind almost drove us
back. Fifteen miles back down the
mountain we stopped at Volcin for the
1963 night. From here we rode about 25 miles
average to Cafias Gordas on the Costa Rican
)51-55 side of the border. We did not go on,
961,032 as this is not the main customs station.
868,628 Back down the hills and headed for
249,439 home, while in David we met the
508,144 gringos" in charge of the paving con-
304,637 struction crews. They asked us if we
360,514 would like to go by the new route 60
58,964 miles as compared to 108 miles of very
192,445 bad road to Santiago. Of course, we
162,399 jumped at the chance. We found about
163,265 20 miles of the new route paved and
2 pavers at work there. Where the
55958 cement still was soft we rode alongside
48,257 the highway, then back on the new
681,354 road surface farther ahead where it
909342 had cured.
Each paver progresses about 800 feet
a day. Only a 2-lane project, work is
slowed by the fact that supply trucks
can't pass each other along sections
1963 where the pavers are at work, which
means only 1-lane traffic for supplies.
5erage The only discouraging thing was that
some of the business places and restau-
968,731 rants have two prices, one for the
676,946 local people and one for visitors.
195,587 I was the only casualty of the trip.
101,508 There were hundreds of dogs along our
134,079 route, and the animals aren't used to
82,173 traffic, either autos or motorcycles. I had
19,077 kicked so many dogs out of the way of
34,616 the motorcycle that I had a nightmare
27,416 about it in SonA, kicked the wall in my
66,290 sleep so hard I almost broke my big toe.
41,822 We had a wonderful time and can't
70,660 wait to go again. And we actually found
,113,667 it cheaper on the road than staving
,042,171 at home.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
EFFECTS AND aftereffects of the
long, costly longshoremen's strike in the
United States speckled the first quarter
1963 pattern of Panama Canal transits,
tolls, and cargoes. Although the strike
ended January 25, cargo movements in
many east and gulf coast ports still were
snarled weeks later.
Large numbers of freighters, rail cars,
and trucks were piled up in coastal
harbors and handling costs mounted
rapidly because of the congestion.
Record numbers of waterfront workers
were on the job in many ports, with still
not enough longshoremen available to
meet demands. As late as mid-March
it appeared that it would be several
more weeks before "normal" operations
were restored at some points.
Capsulized, the effects on the Pan-
ama Canal were:
January-Traffic fell to about the
February-There was some post-
strike recovery, to a level about equal
to last year.
March-Transits tied the previous
high month of May 1961, and marked
recovery in tolls income pushed the
figure to $5,241,310, compared with
$5,200,903 for the same month last
The 1,030 March transits included
991 commercial ships, second highest
month for this category, and 31 Govern-
ment ships, about double the March
1962 level for this bracket. No single
day's traffic, however, matched the 60
ships which arrived for transit last
November 5, highest figure since World
War I1, during the Cuban crisis.
Cargo tonnage moving through the
Canal in March was below the level
for the same month in 1962.
At the close of the third quarter, it
appeared that actual tonnage for fiscal
year 1963 would end up at about the
1961 level of 63.7 million long tons.
General cargo ships have been carry-
ing less cargo per Panama Canal net
ton capacity. This drop has been
evident since 1959. Contributing signi-
ficantly to this has been a downward
trend in Japanese business and cargoes
after a peak in June 1961. Japan tight-
ened currency controls in mid-1961,
eased them starting in October 1962.
It is anticipated that the rate of growth
of Japanese industrial production will
return to its 1960-61 rate in 1963.
A cargo tonnage upturn was shown
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MARCH
Commercial. .............. 991 980
U.S. Government ........... 31 15
Free. .................... 8 10
Total. ............. 1,030 1,005
Commercial.... $5,085,705 $5,099,974
U.S. Government 155,605 100,929
Total.... $5,241,310 $5,200,903
Commercial.... 5,609,988 6,200,254
U.S. Government 113,717 87,543
Free.......... 51,038 39,824
Total.... 5,774,743 6,327,621
"Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
Cargo figures are in long tons.
in Canal records for February, but it
is still too early to determine whether
this is a valid encouraging sign or
merely a temporary condition.
Tanker transits appear to be leveling
off after having peaked in August 1962
at their highest postwar point. The
surge was due in large part to the severe
winter and increased Japanese fuel oil
purchases from Venezuela. Crude oil,
fuel oil, and petroleum products move-
ments generally have been up in recent
Iron ore movements are drifting
downward, as are coal and coke, scrap
and wheat movements, while phos-
phates continue a slow but steady
Europe to west coast South America
traffic is heading upward again after its
first postwar pause in 1962. Traffic from
Europe to the west coast of the United
States and Canada has turned up again
after having reached a low in the
middle of fiscal year 1962.
Beef and sugar shipments are leading
a rise in business between the east coast
of the United States and Canada and
Australia. Meat shipments to United
States-Canadian markets may go to
about 280,000 tons during the coming
fiscal year, compared with only 97,000
in 1959. Sugar shipments, it is indi-
cated, may go to about 270,000 tons,
compared with only 70,000 for fiscal
year 1962 and virtually none for the
previous 3 years.
Offsetting these trends, however, is
an almost certain loss to the Canal of
about 500,000 tons of sugar business
bound for Japan. The Japanese sugar
industry is switching purchases of sugar
from Cuba to South Asia and elsewhere.
A report from Japan states that of the
1.2 million to 1.35 million metric tons
of sugar needed by that country in
1963, contracts with non-Cuban sources
now cover more than 1.1 million tons.
For the last several years, more than a
third of Japan's sugar came from Cuba,
and through the Canal.
-- 700 A
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN