Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00072
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: March 1963
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00072
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
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Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Matter
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text


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Channel Widening
Blasts Aimed Safely
Darien Gap Route
Locks Overhaul



ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor

PN hlk kf% k 4

FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication Editorial Assistants
Panama Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heigbls, C.Z. EUNCE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and TOMAs A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights. C.Z.

Status of oiajor Canal

nmprovemen ti

WIDENING OF GAILLARD CUT: Work began in January on
the third, final, and largest phase of this $43.7 million program
which started in 1959. In the Las Cascadas-Bas Obispo Reach
project, excavation will total approximately 17 million cubic
yards. Bids are to be asked in May for the Zone 11 work
(below elevation 95), with contract completion scheduled in fiscal
year 1966.

APPROACHES: There now are 550 lights on the east bank, where
work is completed, and 360 on the west bank, with fixtures on
the west bank to be removed from their present location and
reinstalled as widening is completed. Completion of the banks
lighting will mean installation of an estimated 1,100 fixtures.
A total of 812 fixtures on the locks give approximately 2-foot
candles illumination on lock wall surfaces. Approximately 3,000
feet of Canal are lighted on the Atlantic and Pacific approaches,
with 104 lights on the Gatun approach and 129 on the Miraflores

NEW LOCOMOTIVES FOR LOCKS: Tests are being resumed
after modifications to the test locomotives delivered in January
1962. The new tests are expected to be completed by April to
enable a June go-ahead order on the $5.9 million contract for
59 locomotives and 3 cranes for completion in November 1964.

mately 90 percent completed and the contract for the voice radio
system was awarded in December. Installation of this by Canal
personnel is scheduled the latter part of this year. Design of
the "sensing" system for exact ship location, monitoring, and
scheduling is to be completed during the next fiscal year, for
purchase and installation within the following 2 years. Total cost
is estimated at $2.4 million.

now at Miraflores Locks, and scheduled for Pedro Miguel Locks
in 1965 and Gatun Locks in 1966. Lock lane service outages will
be reduced to about 24 hours by unhinging gate leaves, using a
floating crane, floating the gate leaves to a remote drydock for
repair, and rehanging them with a crane, and through use of
cofferdams to do hollow quoin work which has in the past
necessitatedd dewatering of locks chambers, with outages of as
*ich as 30 days prior to 1959.


Channel Widening___ _-------

Blasts Aimed Safely -----_ ---

Keeping 'em Rolling ---------

Preventing 'Unavoidable' Accidents----

Darien Gap Route-__--_------

Locks Overhaul_-------- ----

Expanded Photo Section ------__ _---

Caps in History Filled_--------

Anniversaries____ --------

Promotions and Transfers.

Canal History _---




_ 16

WELL OVER 300 cubic yards per scraper
per hour under ideal or favorable conditions-
that's the earth-moving accomplishment already
marked up by the scrapers of the type pictured
on our front cover. They're the biggest power
scrapers ever used on any Panama Canal pro-
jects, each with heaped capacity of 44 cubic
yards. For more about them and the channel
widening project, see the article on page 3.
Success of safety measures on blasting, how
blasts can be "aimed" and pictures of results are
the subject of a companion article on page 4.

MARCH 1, 1963

JOSEPH CONNOR, Acting Press Officer
Publications Editors

Canal Widening Nears Final Phase

FOUR OF THE biggest power scrapers
ever used on the Isthmus are eating
away at the west bank of the Canal
near Gamboa-taking as much as 44
cubic yards at each bite.
They're at work on the start of the
final phase of the project for widening
the Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet
-the 3.1-mile Bas Obispo-Las Cascadas
Reach. Active earthmoving on the pro-
ject started January 21 and is scheduled
for completion October 30, 1964.
Largest power scrapers ever before
used on any Canal Zone projects have
been only about half the size of the ones
at work on the $2 million contract for
removal and disposal of approximately
4. million cubic yards of earth and rock

on this project. The unit price is slightly
less than 45 cents a cubic yard.
Moretti-Harrison, the joint venture
Miami, Fla., firm which has the con-
tract for the work, decided on power
scrapers as the principal equipment for
accomplishing the job, in which there
is a lower percentage of rock than in
previous widening projects.
Importance of completion of the
widening to better serve shipping is
brought into sharp focus by transit
Vessels of 80-foot beam and above
increased from 64 in fiscal year 1955 to
457 in 1960, approximately 614 percent.
In fiscal year 1962 there were 541, a
6.3 percent increase over the 509 in
1961. This indicates the increase in

requirements for clear-cut passage
Zone II work (below elevation 95)
on the current project is slated for com-
pletion in 1966 or 1967, depending on
availability of funds for capital improve-
ments. It involves removal and disposal
of approximately 12 million cubic yards
of earth and rock.
Construction equipment for the Bas
Obispo-Las Cascadas work arrived Jan-
uary 18. A landing craft-type vessel of
the West Indies Shipping Line, the
Inaugua Cloud, arrived at the mouth
of the Mandinga River across the Canal
from Gamboa. Here, on an earthen ramp
prepared in advance, the cargo of
equipment was unloaded under its own
(See p. 5)

As landing craft touches shore, mechanics and operators hurry aboard
to begin unloading equipment.


Mechanics begin final assembly of one of the big scrapers
as unloading proceeds.





DURING the 8 years the Panama Canal
Widening Program has been in progress
powerful drills have bored thousands
of holes into the rocky material along
the Canal banks.
These holes' total length has amounted
to more than 4 million ]incar feet-more
than the distance from New York to
Into them more than 9 million pounds
of dynamite have been loaded and fired.
From the resulting blasts, 13 million
cubic yards of hard material has been
broken sufficiently to permit its eas\
removal from the Canal banks.
Planned loading and detonation can
"aim" blasts. This is done by millisecond
delays in time of explosion of charges.
In such a blast as the one pictured here,
for example, if there were two charges,
the one on the side away from the
channel would be detonated a fraction
of a second earlier than the other charge.
Thus, the first charge has time only to
loosen up the earth and rock around and
above it before the second charge is
detonated, the force of the second
charge kicking out the material loosened
and started on its way by the first one.
One of the most remarkable features
of the blasting program is the excellent
safety record which has been made and
sustained by the various contractors.
Use of so much dangerous material
so close to the busy Canal waters meant
extraordinary safety measures had to be
taken for every phase of the work. Fore-
most was safety of the passing ships. It
was imperative that no action connected
with the widening work should en-
danger or delay any vessel in transit
through the Canal.
This meant being constantly on the
alert to avoid knocking large rocks or
trees into the waterway, being sure that
the powerful flood lights used for night
work did not blind pilots guiding the
ships, and making certain beyond all
reasonable doubt that effects of blasting
would not endanger or impede ships'

A high, badly fragmented "fly rock" wall standing almost vertically above the Canal waters.
This must be broken (blasted) in such a way as to minimize the amount of fractured material
which falls or is thrown into the Canal. Also shown are a passing ship and the contractors'
equipment. These must be carefully considered before detonation of a blast.

The blast of the rock wall. Note how the planned loading and detonation has caused the
rock to he thrown away from the Canal waters and back into the quarry pit, and the safe
location of the contractors' equipment and absence of any craft in the Canal.

Immediately after the blast shown above. Note how all the broken rock has been thrown
safely onto the pit floor.

'" -

V. .. +

i R.
Pi k -w*
x? .

Canal Widening
(Continued from p. 3)
power and assembled in a servicing
The new equipment, all made by
Caterpillar Tractor Co. of Peoria, I1l.,
represents the latest and finest of its
type available.
The four huge scrapers with heaped
capacity of 44 yards, each with dual
powerplants, mounted on both front
and rear, are supported by two D-9
tractors and two D-8 tractors. The
tractor units have blades for bulldozing,
push pads for assisting the scrapers in
loading, and huge teeth to rip and frag-
ment the rock to a size within loading
capacity of the scrapers.
Portable light plants, compressors,
welding machines, and a variety of
trucks were included on the shipment.
All were unloaded without incident,
and work of final assembly and adjust-
ment of the scraper cutting and loading
mechanisms was done. The units now
were ready to go into production.
For a couple of weeks prior to arrival
of the excavating equipment, the con-
tractor had been clearing the areas of
excavation and making access roads to
the spoil dumps.
With the manufacturer of the equip-
ment concerned that the machines give
a good account of themselves, several
representatives of the Caterpillar organ-
ization were present when the equip-
ment arrived. They remained until it
was operating satisfactorily and the con-
tractor's personnel were proficient in its
operation and maintenance.
Work accomplished during the rela-
tively short time the scrapers have been
in operation indicates they have the
capacity and capability of easily meeting
the contractor's schedule and should
enable the firm to complete work well
within the 700 calendar days which the
contract allows.
C. McG. Brandl is Panama Canal
project engineer for the widening work.
Blair Henderson is project manager for
Moretti-Harrison and William H. Edgen
is the firm's job superintendent. Thirty-
four men are employed by the contrac-
tor for the project, and employment
probably will average around this figure
for the duration of the job.
Due to the natural hazards of the job
site, poor visibility, limited roads or
trails, hazards of the work, and to avoid
interference with the contractor's opera-
tions, the contract work area is strictly]
off limits to everyone except those
actively associated with the work in


THE PANAMA CANAL has more than
half a million dollars worth of bronze
rollers which keep the rising stem valves
operating smoothly.
Each rising stem valve rides against
two roller trains. There are 56 of these
valves at Gatun Locks, 36 at Miraflores,
and 24 at Pedro Miguel for a total of
116. That means a total of 232 roller
trains or 14,152 rollers in use at all locks.
Plus a reserve supply of used rollers
suitable for re-use.
Remachining makes the rollers use-
able again, with results similar to
Chicago packing houses' use as by-
products of everything but the squeal
of the pig.
The rollers, each 4 inches in diameter
and 6 inches long, are initially bought
with 1Y4-inch diameter trunnions. When
the trunnions become worn, they are
removed and the trunnions are re-
machined to 1s-inch diameter. When
the trunnions become worn again, the
rollers are removed and a recessed
bearing is cut in each end of the roller.
Then the rollers are useable once more.
They receive little wear on the rolling
surfaces. Those with appreciable wear
have the rolling surface remachined so
that they can be used again.
As a result of this reconditioning
system, very few new rollers have been
required during recent locks overhauls.
Approximate cost of a new' roller, fully
machined, is $35. No new ones have
been purchased for many years.
Worn rollers, when removed, are put
aside and stored until it is worth while
to remachine a number of them at the
same time so that complete roller trains
may be built with rollers of the same
size remachined trunnions or with the
same size remachined roller surfaces-
or both.
On the basis of present experience,
the life of a roller train averages about
6 years at Miraflores Locks, as long or
a bit longer at Pedro Miguel Locks, and
a maximum of 5 years at Gatun Locks,
with some going out earlier.
Many roller trains are built in
advance of overhauls so the ones in
service which have deteriorated can be
replaced by entire new units. This avoids
the delay which would result if all the
remachining and rebuilding had to be
done during an overhaul.

4 e ,% '- 1-

:. I

This is a section of a roller train, a series
of rollers which keep rising stem valves in
the locks culverts rolling, up or down, in
spite of the heavy pressure of water
against them.

Three of the rollers which make up the
trains. There are 61 rollers to each train,
each train is 27 feet long and 2 are required
for each rising stem valve. Finger points
to worn trunnion, hand indicates relative
size of roller.

Keeping 'em Rolling...

A 35 mm. sound filmstrip projector now is
available from the Safety Branch for worker
and supervisor training purposes. Henry
M. Winter, Safety Officer, is shown at the
projector, partially obscured by the LP
record player. Records are synchronized
with a strip of still movie shots. Picture and
record can be stopped to emphasize points
or allow for questions from the audience.

The filmstrip-projector units in use at a meeting of the Maintenance Division Northern
District Safety Committee. A shadow box screen permits showings in undarkened rooms.
This committee was the first organized, having been started late in 1940 by the late Nelson
Magner when work was in progress on the dam on the spillway at Gatun. Edgar D. Miller,
Camp Bierd, one of the original members, still is on the committee, which includes public
works, building maintenance and water and lab branch personnel.

Preventing 'Unavoidable' Accidents

"THE ONLY WAY to get some of 'em
down is to shoot 'em down."
This comment capsulized one ob-
server's reaction to the degree of par-
ticipation and interest evident in a
recent Safety Committee meeting.
When some committee members get
the floor, they're far from reluctant to
express their views on safety hazards
and proposed solutions. And they're not
shot down, for active participation is one
of the keys to effective safety programs.
Nearly 60 Panama Canal safety
panels are at work regularly, with
meetings scheduled monthly, to make
their jobs, yours, and mine, less haz-
ardous. Unit committees' membership
ranges up to about 25. At any one time,
more than 300 persons, supervisors and
employees, are engaged part time in
the safety program.
Supervisors' safety program involve-
ment is necessarily almost continuous.
On the employee level, job and safety
training is the goal, with a turnover of
committee personnel about every 6
months, for two reasons: Greater direct
interest by more employees in safety
and to keep interest and training chan-
neled into concentration on problems in
the employees' own fields.
Supply and Community Service Bu-
reau agencies have 22 safety commit-
tees, Engineering and Construction
Bureau has 10, Marine Bureau 9, Trans-
portation and Terminals Bureau 7, and

the rest are scattered among other units
of the Canal organization.
The Safety Branch has visual training
aids ammunition for safety personnel
to use to meet almost any needs, with
main reliance placed on 16-mm. sound
films and 35-mm. sound film strips,
supplemented with use of "safety
graphs not requiring a projector, sound
equipment, or operator.
Subject fields range from driving, first
aid and fire hazards through materials,
office, protective equipment and rail-
roading to shopwork, stevedoring and
supervision. The basic listing of films
available from the Safety Branch con-
tains 26 pages and there are 18 pages
of film strips available. In addition,
other titles can be obtained on a
loan basis from the huge Army film
library lists.
Minutes are kept on safety committee
meetings and votes taken on recom-
mendations to be made in regard to
specific local hazards and problems.
Requests for action along certain lines
can, if desired, be kept anonymous in
the minutes, which go on to supervisors'
meetings for action.
Some committee meetings are formal
to the extent of opening with prayer,
others more informal. Local ground
rules prevail. Following the training
portion of the meeting, judgment is
passed, after discussion, on whether
recent local accidents were avoidable

or unavoidable. If it isn't obvious that
an accident was unavoidable, a mere
statement to that effect isn't accepted
by the members without challenge.
There may be and often are suggestions
by the members or instructors as to how
"unavoidable" accidents could have
been avoided.
Pre-film showing true-false tests may
be conducted, followed by similar tests
after showings, to see how well points
have gotten across. Pre-film papers
aren't collected, or identified, but the
tests and their review let the instructor
and the committee members know how
well or ill-informed members were
beforehand in the field with which the
film dealt.
Plans can be prepared, in advance, of
what the films are to teach and how,
including audience participation and
directed discussion. Highlights can be
selected in advance to be further
expanded during discussion.
Accidents are unplanned events that
take place in what should be orderly
work procedures. They are costly in
man-hours of work lost, in disablement,
sometimes permanently, and in cost to
the victims via pay loss. The safety
program and safety committees' goal is
to substitute foresight for hindsight and
try to "plan" in advance what could
happen, so that workers know how to
"plan" to eliminate accidents from
their jobs.

MARCH 1, 1963

P jC

Big Step

Taken Into

Darien Gap

"SOONER OR LATER we'll have it,"
declared Engineer TomAs Guardia, Jr.,
director of the Darien Subcommittee,
who for many years has been a sup-
porter of the project for construction
of the Pan American Highway through
the southern area of Panama, over
the Darien Gap-a barrier that many
consider insurmountable.
Here some 450 miles of well-nigh
impenetrable jungle region will have
to be cleared. More than half that
mileage is in Colombia.
"The most important step has been
taken," he said, "in awarding the con-
tract for the definite construction plan
to the firm of Brown & Root, Inc., of
Houston, Tex. (Brown & Root is rep-
resented in Panama by Horacio Glare
& Associates, and in Colombia by
Vialidad, Ltd.)
The highway would extend through
extensive and fertile valleys and would
pass through the basins of the Bayano,
Chucunaque, Tuira, and Balsas Rivers
in the Panama portion of the project.
Four field crews have been working
since January in Colombia, and three
others started work in Panama last
Cost of the project will be about
$100 million when completed. The road
soon will extend from Chepo to the
agricultural region of Caflitas, a strip
of about 22 miles constructed jointly
by Point Four and the Ministry of
Public Works of Panama. The former
contributed the heavy equipment, and
the latter paid the laborers. The
Darien Subcommittee had charge of
the technical aspects, inspection, and
For the formal studies now under
way, the United States agreed to con-
tribute double the amount apportioned
by the Latin American countries
collectively, up to $2 million.
Six large bridges will be necessary,
three in Colombia and the other three
in Panama. Largest of all will be the
bridge over the Chucunaque River, near
Yaviza, Darien.

Through a land of the past, a road into the future. The first 22-mile link, built with United
States Point 4 help, from Chepo to Cafiita.

The topography is more rugged on
the Colombian side of the border, where
major earth-moving operations will be
required as well as construction of
graded roadbeds.
Besides Engineer Tomas Guardia, Jr.,
the members of the Darien Subcommit-
tee include Engineer TomAs Guar-
dia, Sr., Engineer Jorge Garcia Tellez
for Colombia, and Engineer A. F.
Ghiglione for the United States.
The difference in the designations
of Inter-American Highway and Pan
American Highway lies in the fact that
the name Inter-American Highway is
applied to that section from Mexico to
the Isthmus of Panama, and is under a
special financing plan, while the Pan
American Highway unites Alaska with
Great assistance to the project has
been given by the Inter-American
Geodetic Service (IAGS), which has
its headquarters at Fort Clayton, C.Z.
The IAGS has contributed, among other
items, portable communications equip-
ment, work instruments and equipment
for use in the jungle, and has supplied
aerial photographs and reconnaissance
reports of the Darien and El Choco
Point Four of the United States has
provided effective assistance in heavy
equipment and training of operators
of the equipment.
The only complete Panama to Bogota
transit completed by motorized vehicles
was accomplished by the Trans-Darien
Expedition. The approximately 590-
mile expedition, in 1960, was com-
pleted in 4 months and 20 days in two
specially-equipped trucks.
The "U.S. Army TRECOM Trans-
portation Environment Research" made
a trip during the rainy season in 1961
along about 82 miles of jungle in 12
heavy trucks, some on caterpillars.
During the dry season that year three

North American-manufactured pas-
senger cars, accompanied and assisted
by three double-traction vehicles,
traveled from Dundee, III, to the
Panamanian-Colombian frontier.
In 1959 Dr. William Stern and
Dr. Kenton Chambers of the Forestry
School of Yale University traveled for
3 months in the Darien forests and
published a book concerning their trip.
In 1961 Dr. Owen J. Sexton and
Dr. Harold Heatwole made a series of
investigations under the sponsorship of
the National Foundation for Sciences of
the United States.
Dr. Leslie Holridge and Dr. Vincent
Raymond of the U.S. Army Transport
Research also have conducted studies in
the fields of forestry, geology, soils, and
travel, as well as rains.
Dr. Reina Torres de Arauz, Panama-
nian anthropologist, accompanied by
students of the University of Panama,
also has carried out scientific studies in
the Darien.

Not impenetrable, but survey teams don't
find many sidewalks. And stakes just may
take root and grow.


Vecaring a mask with air hose line attached, Armando GonzAles crawls out from under one
ol the huge cylindrical valves. Masks with air hose attachments are worn by workers in
restricted areas where fumes effects might result, Visible on the left support of the valve
is one of the heavy steel brackets which assure that the vale's inside "drum" remains
elevated slhile work is in progress. At left is McNair C. Lane, lead foreman painter.

Trnumani II Iloenke, in charge of the Mira-
flores Locks overhaul, points to rivet heIad
corrosion In on e of the old style riceted
rising stem valves taken from the center-
twall culvert. t:ightecn iall-welded valves
arc hecing installed during the current over-
lndl, completing a chanievc r io this type
started during the 1958 overhaul. Mr.
luncnike is Locks Sipieriiteondent. 'acifice
Branch. T'his is the titli locks oerliail in
wlhirh le has hcen involved.

Zinc locks are attalied to some rising
stem valves to reduce dlctrioratoin from
tecctrolytic aotinn. W%'ith these in place,
this action first attacks the sine, rather than
the steel snl the valves. Sonie valves lire iti
water in whicl salinity is so lew zinc bileks
would have no efflet.t. It takes a certain
amount of snlinity in wviiter o coilnductivitv
to make them work to curh corrosion.

This comment came from an observer
watching Miraflores Locks overhaul
work. lie was looking at a huge casting,
parts of it clean and bright, the rest
will cove red with protective coating.
It wasn't new. In fact, it was a piece
of original locks machinery installed
half a century ago.
The r mark was a double testimonial:
'l'o tlie workmanship and supervision in
this and previous overhauls, and to the
simple, massive original design of locks
ma;hisnesL and equipment.
Parts needing cleaning get it-with
.il-powered and hand-powered, chip-
ping hammers, scrapers, and wire
A cylinthical valve stem pulled dining
till current iioerhalil was marked "Do
Not Clean," lTe renovation and protec-
tive coating given it during the last
ov erhaul 5 yc ars ago had lasted so well
that only small spot sections ol "patch"
cleaning iuni new hot-applied litu-
mastic enamel coating were required.
Detcrioralion by corrosion, although
severe, has been less than found during
thli 1951 S overhaul. This is attributed
paIuly to use of improved materials
Changes ar'e made legiularlV as mate-
rials prove th' eir worth in experimental
installation or tests.
ThIis overhaul is expected to be the
last which will require more than
2-1-hour service outage of a lane at
Miraflores Locks. During this over-
haul, lin oin colferman seats-accuratels-
finisled concrete surfaces against which
rubber seals of moveable cofferdams
\will fit snugly-are being prepared. The
colferdanm s ill be used for access to

gate work which has previously been
possible only by draining lock cham-
bers, with resultant cutback io transit
All rising stem valves are being
pulled, inspected and renovated or
replaced as necessary this time. Each is


approximately 11 by 18 feet and
weights about 12 tons Eighteen welded
rising stem valves are being installed
during this overhaul, completing the
conversion from riveted rising stem
Valves started when 18 were replaced
in 195S. The welded valves are smoother

A group of employees in the center culvert
these salves opening off the Miraflorcs LockI
culverts, where rising stem valves provide
60 cylindrical values, a

siar" -, i

BRbert E. Budreau, lead foreman painter, checks cleaning and painting work on one of
the cylindrical valves. Visible just below his right hand are the large nuts holding in place
the iron segments which retain the rubber seals which bear against the inner moving
"drum" section of the cylindrical valve. At right is George W. Pinnock.

and easier to clean and coat thoroughly ,
meaning less corrosion than with the
si\eted type.
Cylindrical valves were repaired in
place. For the most part, only the stems
not pulled in 1958 were removed this
time. These could be inspected from


the centerwall culvert. If they didn't
pass inspection, they we e removed and
damaged sections were replaced oI
repaired, Plastic tape, similar to plastic
electricians' tape, hut heavier, is heing
used instead of bitumastic enamel near
the bottom ends of valve stems where

'ne of the cylindrical valves. There are 40 of
lenvrall culvert, none in the east or west lanes
water control necessary. Gatun Locks have
Pedro Miguel Locks, 20.
'". ...
'' .,

.. 1


deterioration is most severe, Some of
this applied 5 years ago still was in
such good condition it wasn't renewed
during this overhaul.
Besides the cofferdam system, the
major change being made during this
overhaul to decrease locks outage time
is installation of new heavy rubber seals
at the bottom of the locks gates. These
seals will be free to move to compensate
for downstream movement of the mi-
tered position of the gates as the vertical
bearing plates wear and corrode.
Total cost of the current ira-
flores Locks overhaul is estimated at
$2,100,000, with major special equip-
ment in use valued at more than $2
These major equipment items include
two locks entrance caissons, two pil-
sonnel elevators for access to the center-
wall culvert, two clevatois for access to
the locks chamber floor, two bridges for
access across open chambers, four
25-ton diesel locomotives, five 30-ton
steam locomotives, and two cilvirt
pumps, each 250 horsepower and each
with capacity of 15,000 gallons psi
Protection of gates against corrosion
is being improved by applying cathodic
protection, Aooldes are being installed
in the chamber floors and walls near tlhe
gates through which low-voltage current
will be applied. Zinc and magnesium
anodes also are being secured to the
underside of certain gates for the same
purpose. Plastic strips have replaced
bronze ones holding the rubber seals
along vertical edges of rising stem
Corrosion was found greater at the
(Spe p. 12:

William Black, Maintenance Superinten-
dent, Pacific Branch, with a section of the
ine rubber seal for bottoms of the lock
gates. These heavy, tough rubber pieces
sceigh 19 pounds per foot. They're re-
placing thinner rubber strips fastened along
the bottom edges of the gates.

One of the temporary bulkheads holding
the waters If .liraflores Lake back from
the centerwall culvert. Floor level of the
culkrtt here is approximately 43 feet below
the surface of the lake. A certain amount
of leakage is planned, not accidental, to
keep a Hlow of fresh water going through
the culvert to prevent stagnancy of water
in the culert where the men are working.
Six bulkheads are required at each end of
Mfiralores Locks during center culvert
overhaul. Each bulkhead is in two sections.
each section heing approximately 11 hy
14 feet in dimcnsinns, and weighing S tons.

Going over the script for a Republic of Panama Fair Selectra-Vision
presentation, and listening to a playback of the tape, are W. E. Bums,
left, Photo Section Chief; Alberto Acevedo, photographer; and Miss
Mercedes Acevedo, well-known professional announcer and script
writer. She's called in at times to make recordings and is the girl
"Guide" voice in these presentations. She's a sister of Alberto.

C. W. Browne, contract assistant on the Gorgas Hospital
construction work, examines a picture of progress on part
of the project.



Plus 40 Other

Related Services

Photographer Arthur L. Pollack checks
print quality with Pablo Alba in the Photo
Section darkroom.

Dan Fiore, illustrator, Allen Chandler, audio-visual specialist, and TomAs A. Cupas, of
the Information Office, left to right, in a planning session for a Selectra-Vision presentation.



Cleve Soper, standing, left, microfilm technician, gives instruction in operation of the
microfilm equipment to Henry S. Olton. At right, standing, William E. Hall, systems
accountant in the Office of the Comptroller, inspects some of the microfilm work with
W. S. Wigg, Records Management Section Chief.

BROADENED services to meet wider
demands, combined with technical ad-
vances, have changed Panama Canal
Photo Section operations to an extent
undreamed of less than two decades ago.
As recently as 1954, the section oper-
ated with.only one photographer and
two laboratory men in a small part of
the attic of the Administration Building.
Its responsibilities now include more
than 40 services in photographic and
related fields, its equipment is valued at
approximately $60,000, and 11 persons
are required for its operations.
Photographic print production the
last 2 years has run around 40,000
prints, but the recent production sched-
ule has been at a rate which would
mean nearly 70,000 prints a year. And
in a single month this year, besides
photo prints, 83 rolls of photo slide
film (nearly 1,700 pictures) and 15
microfilm rolls, of 2,500 frames each,
were shot.
The Photo Section, a unit of the Ad-
ministrative Branch, provides studio,
in-plant and field services in still photog-
raphy. Other services include motion
pictures, audio-visual planning and pre-
paration, photoreproduction, and spe-
cialized applications, plus consultation
on problems with possible photographic
The section's principal responsibility
hasn't changed, however, since the con-
struction days of 1907, when a one-man
photo section made official record pic-
tures for reports prepared for and by
engineers here and in the States.

Although the current workload, in
pictures taken and prints produced,
doesn't reflect it, the principal mission
is Canal operational photography serv-
ice for working units, such as on locks
overhauls, contract and inspection work,
machinery details, and special projects.
An estimated 6,000 pictures were
taken, for example, during Thatcher
Ferry Bridge construction, for a progress
record and use, if needed, in contracts
settlements. On such projects as locks
overhauls, it's impossible to recall exact
details of all procedures and problems.
Photographic records are available for
future study, including even under-
water areas accessible only at intervals
of years.
Approximately 15 selected employees
of other Panama Canal units have been
issued cameras and given training in
their use, for taking routine field photo-
graphs which otherwise would require
additional personnel, if the work had to
be done by the Photo Section. Pictures
taken by these men are processed, and
prints made, along with those taken by
the regular photographers.
It is felt that there is a large still-
untapped field along the lines of indus-
trial photography which could be
entered with advantage to some Canal
The number of negatives on file is
conservatively estimated at more than
90,000. These include approximately
14,000 glass-plate negatives dating back
prior to 1900, some of them from
French construction days. Before 1907,



Panama Canal official pictures were
obtained on a contract basis.
The most persistent continuous
problem of the section is time, compli-
cated by lack of regularity in the work-
load. Preparation of a 6-minute Selectra-
Vision program requires a minimum of
80 hours. Setting up for briefings-there
mav be 20 to 30 a month-means 3 hours
work per briefing, exclusive of any slide
preparation. There are as many as 3
briefings some days, none on others.
Flexibility of operation necessary also
is obvious in view of the distance from
suppliers, with equipment repair capa-
bilities needed for the same reason. The
section frequently works with Eastman
Kodak Co. in making new equipment
displays available for demonstration,
and maintains liaison with the Kodak
sales, laboratory, and research agencies
in Panama. Through this, there's access
to 10,000-volume library on photog-
raphy and related fields, for special
equipment design or special processing.
All personnel of the section are bi-
lingual. Two have learned English and
one has learned Spanish since joining
the section. While five in the section
take photographs, only two are regularly
assigned as photographers.
Audio-visual presentations require
planning and coordination to match and
time slides with briefings data. Much
of the illustrator's work is in this field to
provide non-photographic art work for
both briefings and Selectra-Vision
machine presentations.
Microfilming of vital statistics and
irreplaceable files and records, besides
being a precautionary step, makes pos-
sible more compact storage in consoli-
dated areas and reference to these files
frequently is easier than to originals.
The Photo Section was moved from
the attic of the Administration Building
to Diablo Heights in 1954 and remained
there until 1959, when it was returned
to the Administration Building and
given basement quarters now part of
its present area.
It contracts for very few outside
services and its personnel periodically
are called upon to check out photo,
visual and audio equipment operated by
employees of other Canal Zone units.
A large share of the photo print pro-
duction is for international news media,
Isthmian newspapers and official Pan-
ama Canal publications. Some motion
picture production has appeared on
network television programs in the
States and the section gave technical
assistance and editing aid in production
of the sound film on the Panama Canal.
Motion picture work also is done in
training films.

Locks Overhaul
(Continued from p. 9)
middle of the centerwall culvert than
at either end-the fresh water Miraflores
Lake end or the salt water lower end.
Higher salinity sea water apparently
causes less corrosion than the diluted
sea water in mid-culvert.
Lengths of the stems for the raising
stem valves varies between approxi-
mately 27 feet and 57 feet, and length
of the cylindrical valve stems is approxi-
mately 58 feet. After these are cleaned
and protective coating applied, that isn't
the end of work on them. They're ins-
pected again as they're lowered slowly
into place by crane, inspected as they
go down, and have additional protective
coating put on in any place where it
appears to be uneven, too thin, or may
have been damaged in handling
The new cofferdams to be used for
future renovation and repair work at
miter gate quoins will be of steel con-
struction, roughly semicircular, with a
radius of 9 feet. They will vary from
47 to 78 feet in height.
They will be built in sections and
assembled length will depend on gate
height. These heights range from
approximately 47 to 82 feet, with inter-
mediate heights of about 55, 77, 78,
and 79 feet.
During the entire overhaul, any
machine which could cause damage or
injury if inadvertently operated is
removed from remote control and the
switch is either locked out or power
is cut off from the machine so that
it cannot be casually operated by
unauthorized personnel.
When culverts are drained prepara-
tory to the start of overhaul, air, water,
and power lines are the first things to
go in, along with a public address circuit
for paging and telephone lines. Venti-
lator fans are installed to keep a constant
flow of fresh air moving through the
Some years ago, culvert overhauls
were necessary about every 3 years.
Improved designs, materials, know-how
and techniques have gradually extended
the period between overhauls, with
resultant improvement in Canal effi-
ciency. It's expected to be 6 years before
the center culvert at Miraflores will be
dewatered again for overhaul. Mean-
while, however, the upper level will be
entered for inspections at intervals
during extreme low tides, because at
such times it can be drained so that
only about a foot of water remains in it.



Gaps Filled
EVIDENCE THAT Panama was a land
bridge connecting the continents of
North and South America for quite a
period 15 or 20 million years ago is
being unearthed-literally-by Canal
geologists while contractors dig down
in the layers of shale and sediment on
the job of widening the Canal channel
in Gaillard Cut.
Chapters in the geological story
which is constantly being studied by
scientists are being filled in locally by
discovery of the remains of bones of
mammals which apparently lived
happily and well in the Miocene period.
Recently Robert Stewart and Joanne
Allen, two Panama Canal geologists
with the Canal's Civil Engineering
Branch, came upon the bones of what
appear to be a rhinoceros, primitive
deer, a large camel, members of the
rodent family, crocodiles, and turtles.
The remains are fragmentary, but to
the trained eye of the geologist, it was
apparent that they were of the North
American species and had developed
to such an advanced stage that they
were able to migrate across the land
bridge of Panama and firmly establish
themselves in the area. They were quite
different from the animals which had
developed on the southern continent
while the two land bodies were divided.
From the condition of the bone frag-
ments and the type of earth in which
they were buried, the Canal geologists
have been able to reconstruct a fairly
graphic picture of what life on the
Isthmus was really like 20 million
years ago.
A modern man projected back
through time would have found that
the climate of Panama in Miocene times

Part of pelvic bone of rhinoceros.


- :

Piece of rhino tooth; hunting knife along-
side gives conception of size.
was very similar to that of today. A large
section of the Isthmus was a low flat
plain with poor drainage which became
inundated frequently by flash floods
pouring down from nearby active vol-
canic mountains. The coastal plains had
large swampy areas filled with layers of
silt and clay washed down by the tro-
pical downpours, prevalent even in that
long-gone day.
A landscape similar to that in Panama
20 million years ago can be seen today,
according to Mr. Stewart, in the low
flat area stretching between Anton,
Penonome, and Aguadulce from the
mountains to the Pacific Ocean. The
climate was warm and humid and the
plant life probably resembled that
which can be seen any day growing
along the shores of Miraflores Lake.
The recent discoveries have been
taken to Washington, D.C., by Dr. Frank
D. Whitmore, Jr., a vertebrate paleonto-
logist with the U.S. Geological Survey,
and their identity verified there. They
are being studied by scientists in the
United States and later will be made
available for student research and other

Fragments of jaw of a camel.

MARCH 1, 1963


(On the basis of total Federal Service)

David F. Mead James W. Allen
Supervisor, Agency Records Deckhand Boatswain
Center 16' Magan
Heavy Laborer SER I BUREAU
Lee Redman
Helper Machinis, Nathan hton
Maintenance al pply Officer

Pedro J. Ruiz

Albert I. Hermanny
Detective Sergeant
Robert LaPorta
Police Private
Odessa F. Hearne
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Lucille M. Flenniken
Accounting Assistant
William H. Gonzalez
Victor C. Melant
Construction and Maintenance
Superintendent (Rivers
and Harbors)
Hugh E. Gadsby
Guy Mandeville
Helper Central Office
Ancelmo Mena
Leader Maintenanceman
Keminis R. Clovis
Daniel E. Hebbert
Emanuel Reefe
Juan Scott
Emma E. Klinger
Staff Nurse, Obstetics
James Webster
Medical Aid, Undertaking
Samuel Hart
Medical Aid, Veterinary
Lemuel Joseph
Leader Cook
Elis Martinez
Laborer, Heavy Pest


Ernest C. Flowers
Kenneth L. Middleton
General Foreman, Locks
Lawrence S. Worrell
Helper Lock Operator
Jorge J. Bautista
Walford G. Miller
Maintenanceman, Rope and
Wire Cable
Simon Miller
Launch Seaman
Guillermo Hernandez

Vido O. Chase
Clerk Checker
Claudius Gowdie
Cargo Checker
Winston J. Mitchell
Delay Clerk
Clement J. Moses
Boiler Tender
Edwin Taylor
Trnck Driver
Richard Toppin
Cargo Checker
Ernest S. Gibbs
Heavy Duty Equipment

Ruth J. Bain
Accounting Clerk
Hazel M. High
Clerk Typist

Demetrio Avendafio
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Florence M. Barton
Sales Section Head
Lina Davis
Clerk Typist
Herminio Figueroa
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Arturo G6mez
George A. Gregory
Frank U. Ilolness
Service Station Attendant
George B. Palmer
Stock Control Clerk
Gelmira Silva
Tailor (Alterations)
Cesar A. Viloria
Cemetery Worker
Jacinta M. Fong
Sales Clerk
Mavis R. Grant
Sales Clerk
Gladys II. McKenzie
Sales Clerk
Nlabel M. Murray
Sales Clerk
Leonora E. Waite
Sales Clerk
Aguedo Ortiz
Heavy Laborer
Gustavo O. Jaime
Heavy Laborer


January 5 through February 5

EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between January 5 and February 5 are
listed. Within-grade promotions and job
reclassifications are not listed.
Marcia B. de Ortega, Clerk-Stenographer,
to Translator (Typing).
Charles N. Brathwaite, Truck Driver, Motor
Transportation Division, to Messenger
(Motor Vehicle Operator).
Frederick W. Harley, Order Filler, Phila-
tehc, Substitute, Postal Division, to
Police Private, Police Division.
Division of Schools
Howell W. Atwell, Teacher, Elementary-
U.S. School, to Elementary School
Elizabeth N. Benson, Viviene D. Diercks,
Carole J. Farnsler, Dorothy L. Hauser,
Conchita R. Martinez, Substitute
Teacher to Teacher, Elementary-U.S.
Eileen NM. O'Brien, Substitute Teacher to
Elementary and Secondary School
Electrical Division
Robert R. McCoy, Test Operator-Foreman
(Electrical Power System), to Chief,
Power Plant (Diesel or Gas Turbine).
Joseph F. Green, Robert E. Holland, John
L. Irwin, Gust E. Rosene, Marine Ma-
chinist, Industrial Division, to Shift
Engineer (Mechanical).
Rudolph A. Gangle, Lock Operator (Ma-
chinist), Locks Division, to Shift Engi-
neer (Mechanical).
Donald A. Jeffries, Apprentice Central
Office Repairman, to Telephone Electri-
Horace R. Worrell, Helper Central Office
Repairman to Telephone Operator.
Robert W. Adams, Apprentice Cablesplicer,
first year, to Apprentice Cablesplicer,
2d year.
Alfonso Joseph, Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division, to Helper Machinist
Arthur C. Hubert, Lee Redman, Alejandro
Sheperd, Helper Machinist (Main-
tenance), to Oiler.
Dredging Division
Julian R. lcZeno, Seaman to Oiler (Float-
ing Plant).
Candido A. Melendez, Fireman (Floating
Plant), to Watertender (Floating Plant).
Luis Rosero, Line Handler, Locks Division,
to Fireman (Floating Plant).
Joaquin Brenes, Allan F. H. Brewster,
Kenneth A. Brown, Andres Carrasquilla,
Douglas E. de Gracia, Victoriano Jack-
son, German C. Lambridge, Claudio A.
Layne, Medardo Palomina, Navigational
Aid Worker to NMaintenanceman (Dis-
tribution Systems).
Evance Amantine, Samuel A. Henriquez,
Jerome B. Howard, Boatman to Seaman.
Nashbert Holmes, Clerk to Supervisory

Robert Graham, Seaman to Timekeeper.
Clyde E. Richards, Harold Riley, Mes-
senger to Launch Dispatcher.
Ernesto F. Scott, Messenger to Clerk.
Gene R. Griffith, Laborer to Messenger.
Elias Sanchez, Heavy Laborer to Leader
Laborer Cleaner.
Ira A. Bailey, Utility Worker, Supply Di-
vision, to General Helper.
Engineering Division
Franklin K. Ben, Engineering Draftsman
(Architectufiral), to Illustrator.
Thomas W. Grimison, Enrique Castillo,
Julio E. Cordovez, Engineering Drafts-
man (Architectural), to Architect.
Maintenance Division
David Rosenblatt, General Engineer (Esti-
mates), to Maintenance Engineer.
Roderick N. MacDonell, Plumber to Leader
Clemente Cedefio, Helper Millman, Indus-
trial Division, to Carpenter.
Carlos A. Guardado, Launch Seaman, Navi-
gation Division, to Carpenter.
Oliver F. R. Ifil, Helper Shipwright, In-
dustrial Division, to Carpenter.
Theophilus C. Omeaire, Laborer Cleaner,
Division of Preventive Medicine and
Quarantine, to Carpenter.
Edgar B. Simmons, Carpenter (Mainte-
nance), Locks Division, to Carpenter.
Halden Thomas, Heavy Laborer, Supply
Division, to Carpenter.
Thomas Wellington, Helper Millman, In-
dustrial Division, to Maintenanceman.
Eusebio Quintana, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Community Serv-
ices Division, to Helper Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Mechanic.
Inocencio Leguia, Laborer (Heavy-Pest
Control), to Truck Driver.
Gorgas Hospital
Ingrid K. Anderson, Medical Radiology
Technician, to Medical Radiology Tech-
nician (Therapy).
Capt. Charles J. Fagan, Chief Radiology
Service, Coco Solo Hospital, to Medical
Officer (General Radiology).
Joseph A. Owen, Hospital Resident, 3d
Year, to Hospital Resident, 4th Year.
Bobby J. Stinebaugh, Hospital Resident,
2d Year, to Hospital Resident, 3d Year.
Dorothy E. Brooks, Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, Division of
Schools, to Clerk-Typist.
Navigation Division
Eugene H. Bunnell, Rigger, to General
Foreman, Docking and Undocking.
Conrado Brown, Deckhand, to Deckhand
Luis E. Hurtado, Luis A. Rios, Heavy
Laborer to Deckhand.
Gabriel Blackburn, Laborer Cleaner to
Heavy Laborer.
Industrial Division
Harold S. Brenner, Jr., Heavy Duty Equip-
ment Mechanic, Maintenance Division,
to Maintenance Machinist.
Milan Fernandez, Dock Worker, Terminals
Division, to Laborer.

Locks Division
Robert C. Carter, Lock Operator (Engine-
man-Hoisting and Portable), to Leader
Lock Operator (Engineman-Hoisting and
Rudy NM. Wieland, Towing Locomotive
Operator to Lock Operator (Electrician).
Marcos F. Rueda, Painter to Leader Painter.
Stanley G. Campbell, Helper Lock Oper-
ator to Crane Hookman.
Amado Andrion, Alfredo Dickens, Heavy
Laborer, Maintenance Division, to
Helper Lock Operator.
Victor H. Hoyte, Line Handler, to Helper
Lock Operator.
Vernal S. Jones, Pinsetter, Supply Division,
to Helper Lock Operator.
Supply Division
Beverley C. Halliday, Procurement Agent,
to General Supply Officer.
Joseph H. White, Supervisory General
Supply Assistant, to General Supply
Robert A. Duvall, General Supply Assistant,
to Supervisory General Supply Assistant.
John H. Stevens, Accounting Assistant to
Procurement Agent.
John H. Simson, Management Technician
to General Supply Officer.
Vernon F. Kepford, Jr., Supervisory Gen-
eral Supply Assistant, to General Supply
Harold I. Tinnin, Supervisory Storage
Officer, to Supervisory Storage Specialist.
Thurman W. Napier, Retail Store Super-
visor to Supervisory General Supply
Rolanda M. Dahlhoff, Clerk-Typist, from
Accounting Division.
Edward L. Inniss, Teller to Assistant Retail
Store Manager.
Garnel W. Campbell, Retail Store Super-
visor, to Cash Clerk.
Nemesio Wood, Grocery Attendant, to
Sales Clerk.
Verona N. Pascal, Utility Worker to Sales
Robert Phillips, Utility Worker to Leader
Utility XWorker.
Afilfonso T. Shaw, Utility Worker to Heavy
Alexander A. Butcher, Heavy Laborer,
Locks Division, to Waiter.
Harold R. Agodon, Laborer Cleaner and
Special Waiter, to Utility Worker and
Special Waiter.
Ivanhoe A. Harris, Jr., Package Boy, to
Utility Worker.
Simeon L. Chandler, Pinsetter to Utility
Worker and Pinsetter.
Community Services Division
Robert H. Miller, Housing Project Man-
ager, to Housing Project Manager (Super-
intendent Housing Branch).
P. Byrne Hutchings, Housing Project Man-
ager (Manager, Crisobal Housing Office),
to Housing Project Manager (Manager,
Balboa Housing Office).
Jackson J. Pearce, Housing Project Assist-
ant (Assistant Manager, Balboa Housing
Office), to Housing Project Manager
(Manager, Cristobal Housing Office).

14 MARCH 1, 1963

James R. Shirley, Housing Project Assistant
(Administrative Assistant), to Housing
Project Assistant (Assistant Manager,
Balboa Housing Offifice).
Peter T. Corrigan, Leader Plumber, Main-
tenance Division, to Maintenance Rep-
resentative (Buildings and Utilities).
Charles A. Russell, Accounts Maintenance
Clerk, to Accounting Assistant.
PlIcide Hernmndez, Laborer, to Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
Rupert V. Watson, Laborer Cleaner to
Heavy Laborer.
Terminals Division
Herman C. Graham, Clerk to Cargo Clerk.
Ernesto A. Harrison, Messenger, Adminis-
trative Branch, to Guard.
Jaime E. Boxen, Helper Machinist, Indus-
trial Division, to Guard.
Francinio E. Downer, Helper Lock Oper-
ator, Lock Division, to Helper Liquid
Fuels Wharfman.
Carl R. Kinsman, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Alvin Girdwood, Counterman Supply Divi-
sion, to Cargo Marker.
Albert NM. Rowe, Laborer Cleaner, Indus-
trial Division, to Cargo Marker.
Eusebio J. Vivies, Line Handler to Steve-
Cecil L. Lowe, Cargo Checker, to Super-
visory Cargo Checker.
Railroad Division
Richard E. Bunch, Jr.. Carman (Wood and
Steel) to Inspector (Carman, Wood and
Jos6 F. Quifi6nez, Clerk to Clerk Checker.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
Cecil A. Archbold, Clerk, Dredging Divi-
William J. Boehning, Construction In-
spector (General), Contract and Inspec-
tion Division.
Norris C. Brewster, Clerk-Typist, Naviga-
tion Division.
Jerome C. Brown, Mail Clerk, Supply Di-
Domingo de Gracia, Surveying Aid, Engi-
neering Division.
Gary P. Dunsmoor, Housing Project Assist-
ant, Community Services Division.
Alvin B. Games, Clerk-Typist, Dredging
Norma E. Hamilton, Secretary (Stenog-
raphy), Office of Director, Supply and
Community Services Bureau.
Alba D. Hutchings, Jr., Supervisory Gen-
eral Supply Assistant, Supply Division.
Kerry B. Magee, Industrial Engineer,
Executive Planning Staff.
George B. McFarlane, Life Guard, Division
of Schools.
Edward L. Melbourne, Clerk-Typist, Navi-
gation Division.
Ruby E. Radel, Nurse Supervisor (General
Medical and Surgical Hospital), Coco
Solo Hospital.
Ivan J. Stephens, Clerk-Typist, Mainte-
nance Division.
John R. Thomson, Hospital Administrative
Officer, Palo Seco Leprosarium.
Victor Zakay, Civil Engineer (General),
Engineering Division.

50 years ago
MARKING of the Canal channel with
gas buoys about every mile, with inter-
mediate spar buoys, it was announced,
necessitated special precautions to pro-
tect the buoys from the corroding action
of salt water and sea air in the tropics.
A pocket of earth and loose rock on
the east bank opposite Hodges Hill at
Culebra settled downward and moved
80 feet into the Canal. In 2 hours the
bank sank in places as much as 60 feet.
It was estimated that 2 million cubic
yards were in motion.

25 year cago
CONSTRUCTION of new quarters for
Panama Canal employees was being
considered by the U.S. Congress.

EMPLOYEES who retired in January,
with their positions at the time of retire-
ment, and years of Canal service, are
as follows:
Murphy B. Alexander, Lead Foreman,
Maintenance Division, Atlantic side;
22 years, 6 months, 11 days.
Mrs. Geraldine W. Allen, Counterwoman,
Supply Division, Atlantic side; 20 years,
3 months, 22 days.
William B. Allen, Supervisory Storage
Specialist, Atlantic side; 34 years, 7
months, 25 days.
Gabriel Avila, Chauffeur, Motor Trans-
portation Division, Atlantic side; 22
years, 10 months.
Robert L. Blaney, Supervisory Cargo Oper-
ations Assistant, Terminals Division,
Pacific side; 34 years, 8 months, 4 days.
Leland Brooks, Master, Towboat or Ferry,
Navigation Division, Pacific side; 21
years, 5 months, 22 days.
Claudius Brown, Brakeman, Railroad Divi-
sion, Pacific side; 20 years, 9 months,
29 days.
Wilmoth N. Cameron, Brakeman, Railroad
Division, Atlantic side; 20 years, 10
months, 23 davs.
Lucio Castro, Laborer, Dredging Division,
Pacific side; 16 years, 8 months, 29 days.
James B. Crane, Admeasurer, Navigation
Division, Pacific side; 14 years, 2 months,
21 days.
Abraham Daisey, Chief Engineer, Towboat
or Ferry, Navigation Division, Pacific
side; 31 years, 8 months, 9 days.
Vicente Espinosa, Heavy Laborer, Corgas
Hospital; 21 years, 3 days.
Clair E. Ewing, Terminal Operations Offi-
cer (Assistant to Superintendent), Ter-
minals Division, Pacific side; 37 years,
4 months, 12 days.
Edward H. Halsell, Chief, Locks Security
Branch, Locks Division, Pacific side;
34 years. 5 months, 20 days.
Miss Dorothy K. Henry, Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher, Schools Divi-
sion, Atlantic side; 27 years, 4 months,
12 days.

Canal Zone health authorities tight-
ened up on smallpox vaccination regula-
tions as reports were received that there
was a smallpox epidemic in the interior
of Venezuela.

10 l eard A4go
A CONTRACT for construction of an
elementary school and a kindergarten
school building at Paraiso, and remodel-
ing of the existing building, was
awarded on a low bid of $245,000.

One year Ago
CHANGES liberalizing regulations gov-
erning payment of night differential
added several hundred Panama Canal
employees to those previously eligible
to receive the differential.

William Hyatt, Truck Driver, Motor Trans-
portation Division, Atlantic side; 31
years, 10 months, 15 days.
Anselmo Jim6nez, Leader Maintenanceman,
Electrical Division, Pacific side; 33 years,
9 months, 16 days.
Jacques K. Lally, Postal Clerk, Postal Divi-
sion, Pacific side; 20 years, 4 months,
13 days.
Leslie R. Loga, Master, Towboat and
Ferries, Navigation Division, Pacific
side; 14 years, 11 months, 26 days.
Florencio Maldonado, Surveying Aid, En-
gineering Division, Pacific side; 33 years,
10 months, 7 days.
Eligio Rangel. Painter Maintenanceman,
Industrial Division, Pacific side; 28
years, 10 months, 25 days.
Guillermo C. Rodriguez, Guard, Locks Di-
vision, Pacific side, 21 years, 7 months,
15 days.
Jean Jacques Sablo, Storekeeping Clerk,
Printing Plant, Atlantic side; 40 years,
2 days.
Robert B. Sager, Supervising Structural
Engineer, Engineering Division, Pacific
side; 23 years, 10 months.
Abel Samudio, Laborer, Supply Division,
Atlantic side; 17 years, 8 months,
18 days.
George H. Sanford, Foreman, Printing
Plant, Balboa; 22 years, 26 days.
Harry C. Seaman, Food Processing Spe-
cialist, Supply Division, Atlantic side;
22 years, 10 months, 10 days.
Hugh B. Smith, Lock Operator Electrician,
Locks Division, Pacific side; 13 years,
1 month, 14 days.
Elmer B. Stevens, Supervisor) Bridge En-
gineer, Engineering Division, Pacific
side: 26 years, 4 days.
Louis J. Taylor, Clerk Checker, Supply Di-
vision, Pacific side; 42 years, 9 months,
5 days.
Albert G. Turner, Machinist, Industrial Di-
vision, Pacific side; 23 years, 5 months.
28 days.




1%~ L

New Ship, New Service
A BRAND NEW ship starting a brand
new service passed southbound through
the Panama Canal early in February.
It was the newly-built Henriette Maersk,
which arrived at the Canal on her
maiden voyage around the world. She
arrived here from Copenhagen via
Tampa where she picked up a cargo of
12,000 tons of phosphate. After leaving
Balboa, the new Maersk liner sailed
direct for Moji, Japan.
In the future she will operate on a
new Maersk Line round the world serv-
ice which will take her to Hong Kong
and Singapore, around Africa to New
York, and back through the Panama
Canal to the Far East. The Henriette
Maersk is the first of four new ships
of this line which will be placed in this
run. She is of the new design with the
engine aft, has a gross tonnage of 9,000
tons, is completely air conditioned and
carries no passengers.
The cargo liner was of special interest
to C. B. Fenton & Co., her agents at the
Canal, since her master, Capt. J. E.
Pedersen, is the father of Ture Pedersen,
a Fenton Co. employee in Cristobal.

Next Stop, Ecuador
FORMER Panama Canal ferryboats
President Amador and President Roose-
velt are shown at the La Boca ferry slip
for loading of steelwork and ferry ramp
installations. When loading is completed
on the east bank of the Canal, the ferry-
boats will be moved to the west bank
for a repeat loading performance of
ferry ramp installations there.
Once loaded, the Presidente Amador
and President Roosevelt will proceed to
a new scene of operations at Guayaquil,
The two ferryboats, no longer needed
with the opening of the $20 million
Thatcher Ferry Bridge, were put up for
sale, together with ferry ramp installa-
tions and a selection of spare parts.
Simon Canarte B., c/o American Export
& Import Co., New Orleans, La., was
the successful bidder last October, with
a bid of $39,000 for the two ferryboats.
The ferryboats cost $127,930 each.
They were built in 1931 by the former
Panama Canal Mechanical Division.



Commercial. ............. 769
U.S. Government ......... 20
Free.................... 7
Total.............. 796


Commercial.... $3,872,855 $4,736,412
U.S. Government 87,142 157,033
Total.... $3,959,997 $4,893,445
Commercial.... 4,118,440 5,465,458
U.S. Government 62,340 139,347
Free.......... 39,785 32,342
Total .... 4,220,565 5,637,147
'includes tolls on all vessels. ocean-going and small.
"Cargo figures are in long tons.

Far East Cruise
THE NORWEGIAN America Line's
flagship Bergensfford, due at Balboa
March 29 on the last leg of a South Sea
cruise, already is lined up for a cruise
to the South Pacific and Far East for
the winter-spring season of 1964. Next
year's 80-day cruise will take the pas-
sengers to many places associated with
campaigns during World War II.
These islands include the New Hebri-
des, the Solomons, and New Britain in
the Bismarck archipelago. The cruise
also will include the Philippines, Borneo,
Bangkok, Hong Kong, Japan, Honolulu,
and return by way of San Francisco,
Acapulco, and the Panama Canal to
New York.


New Coal Carriers
SEVERAL new large Japanese-built
coal carriers will go into service soon
carrying coal from Hampton Roads, Va.,
through the Panama Canal to Japan.
Shipping sources report that a new
48,000 deadweight-ton collier being
built by Yawata Iron & Steel Co. for
the Triton Shipping Co. will be able
to import a total of 225,400 tons of coal
in a single 12-month period.
Fuji Iron & Steel Co. plans to add
two more coal carrying vessels to its
fleet, each of some 47,000 deadweight
tons, the report says. One vessel is to
be called the Nagano Mlar, after Shigeo
Nagano, Fuji Iron & Steel Co. president,
and the other the Oswego Fuji. Builders
of these two ships are the Japanese firm
of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Indus-
tries Co., Ltd., and Shin Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., of Kobe.
Both are to be completed this month
and will be able to carry some 45,000
tons of coal per trip from Hampton
Roads. Each will be able to make
between 5 and 512 trips a year.
A number of coal carrying ships are
travelling through the Canal these days
with coal from Hampton Roads to
Japan. On the return trip, most of these
vessels stop in Peru to pick up cargoes
of iron ore which are delivered to
Baltimore. The ships include the Naess
Clipper, Naess Cavalier, and the Naess
Clarion, operated by Naess, and the
Nini. operated by the C. M. Lemus Co.,
which carried a record load of 48,381
tons of coal through the Canal in July.

Ferries Taking "Homes" With Them

2 .

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