Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00071
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: January 1963
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00071
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Matter
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text


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) V


Oceans at Same Level?
Dry Season Pattern
New Rigging for Pilots
Bridge Maintenance

4- ~c-



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:~L~t~ CI:~L Ci 2- 1;1~-;i;i~il

JOSEPH CONNOR, Acting Press Officer
PThlicat.innsa Pitor.

ROBERT J. FLEhmI, JR., Governor-President

LEBER, Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR and Juuo E
F K A. BL Oficial Panama Canal Publication E
F A. BALDWIN onthl Editorial Assistants
mama Canal Information Officer Pubished monthly at Balboe Heihh C.Z. E E R TO, and
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.u.
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subecriptlons, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Ofices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z.



8oth Anniversary

A Proclamation
WHEREAS January 16, 1963, marks the eightieth anniversary
of the signing of the Civil Service Act of 1883; and
WHEREAS the Civil Service Act has stood the tests of time
in providing the excellence in civil service which is required for
successful execution of Federal programs and policies which have
deep significance to all Americans and all citizens of the free
world; and
WHEREAS the Act of 1883 has been strengthened by sub-
sequent laws, interpretations, and executive actions to create an
even more effective and highly qualified Federal work force; and
WHEREAS the life of every American is touched directly or
indirectly every day by the services which Federal public servants
perform; and
WHEREAS public esteem for career civil servants is a pre-
requisite for attracting well-qualified citizens to compete for
Government service, a fact which requires greater public
awareness of the value of the merit system, the achievements of
Government workers, and the career opportunities offered in
Federal service:
the United States of America, do hereby call upon the people
of the United States to participate in the observance of the
eightieth anniversary of the Civil Service Act during the month
of January 1963.
I also call upon the heads of Federal departments and agencies,
as well as leaders of industry and labor and members of all public-
spirited groups, to arrange appropriate ceremonies in honor of the
public services performed by our able and devoted Federal civil
servants throughout the country.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.
DONE at the City of Washington this twenty-eighth day of
September in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and
[SEAL] sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States
of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.

/cn J- anedW7/
By the President:

Acting Secretary of State.

Oceans At Same Level? No!------_______ 3
Bench Marks Vital, Little Known -___----- 5
Dry Season Pattern Varied---___________ 6
New Information Officer-.---..._-------- 7
New "Rigging" for Pilots---___________ 8
Navigation Division Chiefs Changed_______ 10
Bridge Maintenance ------------------- 11
Executive Secretary's Work Broadened_____ -- 12
Anniversaries ------_---------------- 13
Promotions and Transfers-______________ 14
Canal History-----------------------_______ 15
Shipping---____------- ___-__----__ 16

PICTURESQUE beauty of the Panama City
waterfront, to many, obscures the practicality of
the scene. On our front cover, aground at low
tide and waiting for the next high tide to put
them afloat again, are three coastal trade craft
in the foreground.
Silhouetted against the horizon are a few of
the scores of shrimp boats which help make
Panama a prime supply source of these succulent
Shrimp exports from Panama in 1961 amounted
to more than 9% million pounds, valued at more
than $5.8 million. Peak export year, dollarwise,
was 1957, when the total was near $6.2 million.
Panama's shrimping industry employs more
than 2,200 persons, about 800 aboard more than
160 fishing craft and 1,400 in plants where the
shrimp are beheaded, cleaned, and packed.
Forty-two different concerns operate 3 or more
vessels and 44 operate 1 or 2.

cn Invitation
A CORDIAL INVITATION has been extended
to Canal Zone Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., and
Mrs. Fleming, and all Canal Zone residents, to
attend the agricultural and industrial Fair of
San Sebastian in the picturesque town of Ocu
January 19-21.
A contest on use of draft animals in agricul-
ture will be the climax of the program on
Sunday, January 20.

JANUARY 4, 1963


Acting Pa

t Bk %AW/fa


NO, THE ATLANTIC and Pacific
oceans are NOT level with each other.
Not along the coasts of the Isthmus.
In fact, it's possible that the level of
the Pacific could be nearly 12 feet above
the level of the Atlantic at the same
The difference in level averages only
9.2 inches, however, records of Panama
Canal Chief Hydrographer W. H.
Esslinger show.
Many Isthmians find it important to
keep track of the tides. Bathers want to
know whether they'll find good swim-
ming or mudflats at a certain point.
Fishermen say they affect the catch.
Where marine ways are not available
for hauling out small craft, the practice
is to beach them at high tide, then work
fast to slap on a coat of paint or make
repairs before they're seaborne again
on the next high tide.
Balboa has a regular tide with two
highs and two lows every lunar day,
with an average range from high to low
tide of 12.758 feet and a maximum
range of 22.7 feet.

Cristobal has an irregular tide varying
from two highs and two lows to one high
and one low each lunar day-with all
possible intermediate variations. But the
average range from high to low tide is
only .858 feet and the maximum range
is 3.05 feet.
Why big tides on the Pacific and
small tides on the Atlantic?
The two entrances to the Panama
Canal, by air, are only 40 miles apart.
And aren't the tides caused by forces
of the sun and moon?
Here are the reasons-oversimplified
-as given by Hydrographer T. C.
A look at tides in general is needed
to understand their local peculiarities.
At times of new and full moon, tidal
forces of the moon and sun pull the
seas in the same direction. At first and
last quarters, they are approximately at
right angles to each other. When moon
and sun unite their forces, the tidal
range is large. When they are at right
angles, the tidal range is small.
The mass of the sun is far greater

When the tide goes out along Panama City's La Marina, drydocks aren't needed to get
underneath even sizeable craft. They can be brought close inshore at high tide and
there's easy access at low tide.

... Not Along

Isthmus Coasts

than the mass of the moon. But the sun
is many times farther from the earth
than the moon. Hence its tidal effect
is less than half that of the moon.
Relative movement of the earth,
moon and sun, together with the daily
rotation of the earth, cause two primary
classes of tide-producing forces:
(1) Those with a period of about
half a day, called semi-daily forces;
(2) Those having a period of a day,
called daily forces. The semi-daily
forces are the larger, and, consequently,
at most places there are two high and
two low waters each day.
But rise and fall of the actual tide
at any locality, and the times of high
and low water, depend on conformation
of the ocean shore and depth of the
water, as well as on the tide-producing
The rise and fall of the actual tide is
divided into three types of tides known
as semi-daily, daily, and mixed. The
semi-daily has two high and two low
waters each day, with little difference
(See p. 4)

Lloyd A. Blenman checks tide gage located
in shed at top of ramp to the Taboga
launch landing at Pier 18, Balboa. Note
how loops on gage match loops shown
in Fig. 2 on next page.

.I~~ 1 p9


-2. i ?'.

l- Af .. |,
^^^^^E1^ II






+10 i_
Midnight Noon Midnight
September 7-MIXED TIDE






Midnight Noon Midnight
September 11-DAILY TIDE

+10 --




Midnight Noon Midnight
September 15-SEMI-DAILY TIDE


in morning and afternoon tides. The
daily type has but one high and one low
water in a day and the mixed type has
two high and two low waters in the
same period with considerable differ-
ence between morning and afternoon
The mixed tide results from a combi-
nation of daily and semi-daily tides.
At Cristobal, the daily tide-producing
force is predominant. The afternoon tide
is considerably larger than the morning
tide, as shown in Figure I.
The daily tide-producing force has
little effect on the actual rise and fall
of tides at Balboa. As shown in Figure 2,
there is very little difference in morning
and afternoon tides. Their rhythm is
characteristic of the semi-daily tidal
Here a look at the "stationary wave

theory" of the tide is in order.
In a rectangular tank of water, a wave
may be started by raising and then
immediately lowering one end of the
tank. This wave will not be in the form
of an ordinary wave with crest and
trough. Instead, it is an oscillation, or
apparent swashing back and forth (but
with little water movement except up
and down). This type of wave is known
as a stationary wave.
The stationary wave theory is that
the dominant tides in the seven seas
are stationary wave oscillations set up
by the tidal forces of the sun and moon
in parts of the oceans having periods
of oscillations approximately the same
as the period of the tide-producing
According to H. A. Marmer, of the
Coast and Geodetic Survey, a number


September 8-NEAP TIDE
Midnight Noon Midnight

September I2-MEDIAN TIDE
Midnight Noon Midnight






September I6-SPRING TIDE
Midnight Noon Midnight


JANUARY 4, 1963

Fig. 1

MIXED-Combination of daily and
semi-daily tides.
SPRING-When forces of sun and
moon act in same direction (large
DAILY-One high and one low
water per day.
SEMI-DAILY-Usual two high and
two low waters each day.
NEAP-Small range-when forces of
sun and moon act in right angle
MEDIAN-Mean between spring
and neap tides.

Fig. 2

of puzzling tidal features can be ex-
plained by the stationary wave theory.
At Panama, the Atlantic end of the
Canal opens into the Caribbean Sea,
which is cut off from the open Atlantic
by the girdle of Antillean islands that
mark the limits of the Caribbean. Too,
the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean are
of such length and depth as to have a
period of oscillation of approximately
24 hours. Hence, in this area the daily
tide-producing force is predominant.
The basin comprising the Gulf and
Caribbean is much smaller and much
shallower than the basins of the Atlan-
tic and Pacific oceans. Therefore the
actual tides are smaller.
The Pacific side of the Canal is
situated at the end of an oscillating
system of semi-daily tides and at a con-
siderable distance from the center of the
oscillation. Thus the range of the semi-
daily tide at Balboa is much greater than
the daily tide at Cristobal.
Despite the possible 12-foot differ-
ence in level of the oceans at the same
time, there is no prospect that one
would drain into the other if the Canal
were a sea-level waterway.
In fact, maximum tidal flow current
even at the greatest difference in levels
would be only about 4.5 knots, it is
estimated. Enough to cause transiting
problems for ships in parts of the
channel, but not enough to reduce the
water supply of either ocean.
There are two main reasons for this.
One is the restrictive effect of channel
entrances and channel capacity itself.
The other is that there are tide "rever-
sals"-particularly with non-standard
tides on either side-as soon as highs
or lows are reached. Thus tidal flow
volume and direction, or both, would
be changing almost constantly if the
Canal were a sea-level canal.
Levels of the oceans also vary from
month to month due to effects of wind,
ocean currents, and the cyclic variations
of the heavenly bodies.
Normal dry season prevailing winds
are north to northwest on the Pacific
side and north to northeast on the
Atlantic side. Wind effect on tides is
influenced by land masses and the
number of miles air flow has to "push"
on open water surfaces.
To further complicate things-
There has been an apparent steady
but slight rise in the levels of both
oceans in the last several years. The
"apparent" is stressed because there is
still inconclusive debate in scientific
circles as to whether the ocean levels
are rising or the land masses shrinking
slightly, or a combination of both.

Orlando L. Flye, Jr., supervisor of generation and transmission at the Balboa electric
sub-station, takes a look at the bench mark near the sub-station.

Bench Marks Keep "Trim"

"PBM-45 IS 83 FEET from the west
end of the Electrical Substation, Balboa.
Elevation on pipe cap is 20.440 feet."
That is a sample description of a
bench mark. The letters PBM stand for
"Permanent Bench Mark," the number
45 is its serial number and the elevation
is the height, in feet, above the Precise
Level Datum.
There are more than 250 of these
little-known elevation points distributed
throughout the Canal Zone, according
to the Survey Branch of the Engineering
and Construction Bureau.
They are used in all types of construc-
tion and engineering studies; to lay out
new townsites; to set house funda-
tions at the same elevation; to assure
adequate fall for sewer lines; to estab-
lish the elevation and grade points of
new roads and railroad track and to
check track elevation after reballasting
or other work.
They are used to set pads for big
pieces of machinery and to establish
the elevation of bridge piers. The allow-
able tolerance on the top elevation of
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge piers was
only 1/64 of an inch-roughly the
thickness of a photographic postal card.
The standard precise bench marks
used in the Canal Zone are 18 by 18 by
6-inch concrete slabs with a copper or
brass bolt set in the center forming the
point used for elevation determinations.
The slab is buried about 3 feet in the
ground, with a 4-inch pipe centered
above the bolt and projecting about
18 inches above the ground.

Topping the pipe is a cast-brass cap
with a projection rising from the center.
The difference in elevation between the
top of the bolt and this projection is
measured and the elevation determina-
tion for ordinary work is referred to this
projection. For precise work the cap is
removed and measurements are made
from the bolt at the bottom of the pipe.
Other bench marks may be bolts or
rivets in lock or spillway walls, culvert
headwalls, abutments, or other "solid"
structures. They may be found at the
tops and bottoms of dams, along locks,
roads and trails, and on bridges, and
The first bench marks in the Zone
were established across the Isthmus by
mid-1908 and all were checked in
1924-25 and 1938. Checks sometimes
reveal earth slippages or settlement of
concrete work. Some are removed for
construction work, at which times others
are established nearby.
Some have been lost, through removal
of reference points from which they
could have been located. In recent
years, however, officials in charge of
roadwork and buildings replacement
have regularly notified the Surveys
Branch of removal of signs or structure
changes so that the bench marks can
be cared for properly.
Some of the bench marks are replace-
ments for ones established during
French construction days, with which
the original Panama Canal bench marks
were tied in to establish correct eleva-
tions above sea level clear across the




Pattern Duration

Shows Wide
Average nOV. DEC. JAn. FEB. mAR. APR. mIY June
Variations Dates
WHILE THERE'S a well-known and 191
well-established pattern to the dry 94-
season, its beginning and ending aren't 1915-16
as uniform as faulty memories might 1916-17
lead some to believe. 1917-18
Dry seasons have started as early as 1918-19
mid-November, in 1926, and as late as 1919-20 -
the first of February, in 1956. Average 1920-21
duration, on the basis of 49 years' 1921-22
records: 4 months. 1922-23
The season also has had exceptional 1923-24
ending dates, as early as before mid- 192
April in 1919 and 1960, and as late as 1924-25
past mid-June in 1948. And then there 1925-26
were those dry years 1957 and 1959 1926-27
when there were hardly any rainy 1927-28
seasons at all. 1928-29
Exact starting and ending dates some- 1929-30
times are far from solid, even though 1930-31
almost exact dates are indicated in the 1931-32
chart in the adjoining column. Hydro- 1932-33
graphic Office personnel concede that 1933-34
it's hard to pinpoint one day as starting 1934-35
or ending day, as there often is a 2- or
3-week period during which the dry 1935-36
season start is "hanging fire." 1936-37 -
The formula for establishing the date 1937-38
is not too well defined. For many years 1938-39
the dates of the beginning and ending 1939-40
of the periods when Canal requirements 1940-41
exceeded the inflow of the Gatun Lake 1941-42
drainage basin were used, but that was 1942-43
discarded when the demand for lockage 1943-44
water and hydroelectric power increased 1944-45 -
to the point where it was no longer a 1945-46
suitable criterion.
Then there is the "10-day drouth" 1946-47
method, whereby if there is no 24-hour 1947-48
rain of 1 inch or more for 10 days at 1948-49
any place in the watershed the dry 1949-50
season is determined to have started at 1950-51
the beginning of the 10-day period. 1951-52
Actually, all elements are now con- 1952-53
sidered: wind direction and velocity, 1953-54
both at surface and upper air levels; 1954-55
humidity variation; decline in watershed
runoff; and, of course, the amount, and 1955-56
distribution of rainfall. 1956-57
The purpose of establishing the date 1957-58
is to determine when diesel plants 1958-59
should be started and when the power 1959-60 -
of Gatun hydro station should be 1960-61
(See p. 7) 1961-62

New Information Officer

LONG AND widely-known on the
Isthmus, Frank A. Baldwin this month
succeeds Will Arey as Panama Canal
Information Officer.
Mr. Baldwin, Protocol Officer since
last March, has been with the Canal
organization since 1941, when he took
a position as an accountant. His father,
Floyd H. Baldwin, who retired several
years ago as General Auditor of the
Panama Canal, earlier had served as an
Assistant Comptroller of Panama.
Mr. Arey resigned after 9 years of
service as Information Officer to take a
U.S. Government position in Washing-
ton, D.C. He and his wife, Louise, and
their sons, John and William, returned
to the States last month. William, a
senior in Balboa High School, will
return to the Zone to complete his high
school work. Mrs. Arev is the former
Louise Turner Craft of Hartwell, Ga.
Mr. Baldwin was Chief of Plant
Accounting in the Comptroller's Office
prior to being named Protocol Officer.
He attended grade schools in the Canal
Zone and the Canal Zone Junior College.
He is a graduate of Castle Heights Mili-
tary Academy, Lebanon, Tenn., and the
University of Kentucky, where he re-
ceived his Bachelor of Science degree
in Commerce.
Mr. Baldwin, 42, was born on the
Isthmus. His wife is the former Laura
Garcia de Paredes of Panama. They
have five children: four boys and a girl.
Mr. Baldwin is a major in the Active
Reserve, having enlisted as a private
and been commissioned at the Infan-
try School, Fort Benning, Ga., during
World War II.

Indicative of the high regard in which
Mr. Arey was held were numerous
expressions of regret and best wishes
via both Spanish and English news
media. One noted particularly his
attitude toward the working press,
appreciation of their problems and the
"large reservoir of respect and esteem"
he had earned among newspapermen
in Panama.
In accepting Mr. Arey's resignation,
Governor Fleming said he did so "with
Mr. Arey served 22 years as Public
Affairs Officer with the U.S. Embassy
in Bogota, Colombia, prior to coming
to Panama as Public Affairs Officer of
the U.S. Embassy in July 1951.
Born in Shelby, N.C., Mr. Arey is
a graduate of the University of North
Carolina. He was President and General
Manager of the Cleveland Times Pub-
lishing Co., commercial printing plant
and publisher of the Cleveland Times in
Shelby, from 1941 to 1948, when he
was appointed to the U.S. Foreign
Service of the Department of State.
He had served as president of the
Public Relations Society of Panama,
vice president of the Panama Rotary
Club and was a charter member of the
Panama-North American Association.
Other affiliations in both Panama and
the Canal Zone included the Panama
Carnival Junta, the Board of Manage-
ment of the Balboa YMCA, Board of
Directors of the Canal Zone Tuber-
culosis Association, and Christian Board
of Education of Balboa Union Church.
As Information Officer, Mr. Baldwin
takes charge of all Panama Canal public
relations activities, including providing

Frank A. Baldwin

and family.

counsel in this field in conduct of the
Canal's overall operations.
As directed by the Governor, the
information officer prepares reports
analyzing public opinion relating to the
Canal and Zone. He directs issuance of
news releases and informational mate-
rials. These include THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW and the weekly SPILL-
WAY, published in both Spanish and
Operation of the Canal Zone Guide
Service and the Las Cruces tour vessel
also are under his direction.

The Areys, with son William, standing; son John, seated, foreground, and a disinteres
dog, Pepe.

ted The Dry Season
(Continued from p. 6)
curtailed to conserve water for lockages.
In 1959-60, it appeared that the dry
season already had started, late in
December, but heavy rainfall New
Year's Day, which even caused flood
conditions in the Chagres River, made
it necessary to change the starting date
to January 3.
The mid-May ending date for the
1958-59 dry season verges on pure
speculation, for both rainfall and runoff
were below normal until October 1959
-the 20th consecutive month of such
I sub-par conditions. And this was in the
wake of a long 1956-57 dry season, with
the entire year 1957 one of the driest
on record.



New Rig Helps On

Coming in off the Caribbean ahead of a rain squall, the Oswego
Defender and another ship seemed small craft in the wide locks
area and approaches.

I ii

T .

\ I

But rain overtook the 745-foot tanker, above as its 30,486-gross-too
bulk and 101-foot beam were maneuvered into the chamber
with little space to spare.

WHEN A CANAL PILOT says he's "got a stemwinder," he
means he is going aboard one of those really big, broad, newer
tankers and ore ships which has its bridge way aft.
Nobody along the waterfront recalls how the low-riding
behemoths came to be called "stemwinders," but there's a
suspicion the name was coined by some harassed pilot who
found that when he was standing on the bridge he was too
far astern to see how the bow was entering the Locks.
Some 5 or 6 years ago, when the first big stemwinders began
looming up over the Atlantic and Pacific horizons, nobody had
foreseen the problems of putting them through the Canal.
The waterway had handled many longer and some wider
ships than, for example, the Oswego Defender. But the bigger
vessels were passenger liners or warships provided with crow's-
nests or other points of vantage from which assistant pilots
could observe and give signals.
Not only can the senior pilots stationed on a stemwinder's
bridge get only a general view of what is going on up front,
an assistant pilot peering over its stumpy bow cannot see
either side of its hull. And if he looks over the side, he might
not be able to judge the exact course on which the ship
is aimed.
The problem was solved by the design of twin conning-
station or lookout-post rigs placed aft the bow on port and
starboard. Usually they are constructed of short lengths of
aluminum pipe screwed together. Each rig has a platform on
which an assistant pilot may walk back and forth, plus a
canvas cover to give him a little protection from rain or sun.
When the Oswego Defender showed up in Cristobal Harbor,

Thl lovL.oul.pI.I nr mjn r elenlble hie 'L
adiur n Ini Cian l oil-l, u


The huge tanker
headed for
Catun Lake was
lifted level .q
with lock walls,
fitting so snugly that
ship and locks
as a single surface.

I., mjn,


her two "temporary bridges" already were in place. Marine
Traffic Controllers were expecting her.
As the stemwinder had transited before, Canal officials knew
she was 745 feet long, had a beam of 101 feet, and a gross
of 30,486 tons.
The Liberian flag vessel belongs to Oswego Ore Carriers,
Ltd., of Monrovia. Her local agents are Wilford & McKay, Inc.
She is operated by Marine Transport Lines, Inc., and had put
in at Las Piedras, Venezuela, for her load of 35,361 tons of
crude and diesel oil. She carried a crew of 46, all Spaniards,
including Capt. C. Moragues, who was making his first transit
as master.
Five pilots were put aboard under command of Capt.
Rudolph W. Rubelli, who was to retire and take his last ship
through a few weeks later after 18 years on the reaches.
Rain started as she entered the first chamber. Two assistant
pilots wrapped in raincoats paced the lookout-post rigs some
waterfronters have been wont to call "those birdcages." At one
point, because of the ship's broad beam, she fit so closely
into the 110-foot space between lock walls that pilot and mule
operator could have passed a copy of THE REVIEW across.
The Oswego Defender made a smooth transit in 9 hours
23 minutes. Only 17 days later she delivered her cargo in
Yokohama, Japan. A fast trip, her agent said.
New stemwinders being built today are likely to come out
of the shipyard equipped with deck pipe on which lookout-
posts can be fitted. Their designers often ask Canal engineers
to approve such details, including placement of chocks and
bitts, before the craft leave the drawing boards.

'ard at ractrdj c. hut I I .t' ne( ai
lanl r, i ard oi Ilap,

L .i-. Ip

S% Alvin H. Hassock,
right, clerk
-, Ato the Operations
SSupervisor, and
Clifford B. Bellamy,
far right,
teletype operator,
keep track of
everything on the
locks, before
and after it happens.

Presiding over the manifold details of lifting the Oswego Defender
was Locks Engineer Richard J. Danielsen, Acting Locks

When she arrived in Cristobal, Watch Supervisor Marine Traffic
Controller Martin Sawyer, right, assigned the tanker as No. 9
transit, notified Gatun she was laden with oil, would require
12 mules. . Control House Operator Joseph Elliott turned the
handles that closed the gates, let in the water.

; I

Navigation Division

Has New


CAPT. ELI D. RING, USN, became
Chief of the Navigation Division, Cap-
tain of the Port of Balboa and Chairman
of the Board of Local Inspectors last
month when Capt. Claude S. Farmer,
USN, ended a 3-year tour of duty with
the Panama Canal.
Capt. Ernest B. Rainier, previously
senior assistant port captain, was ap-
pointed temporary Port Captain, Cris-
tobal, and member of the Board of
Local Inspectors.
Captain Farmer has returned to the
States, reporting to the Commandant
of the 6th Naval District, Charleston,
S.C., for reassignment with the Navy.
Captain Ring came aboard as Port
Captain, Cristobal, and member of the
Board of Local Inspectors in January
1962. A Navy officer since 1941, he is
a veteran of World War II service in
both the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters
of Operation. He came to the Zone from
duty with the Atlantic fleet, where he
had been Commander of Destroyer
Division 162.

Captain Ring calls Noble, Ill., his
home town and attended Illinois State
Normal University. He joined the Navy
in 1940, completed officer training the
following year at Northwestern Uni-
versity, and after receiving his com-
mission was stationed in the office of
the Chief of Naval Operations, Wash-
ington, D.C. By his own definition, he
likes to play "at" golf.
Captain Rainier, who was a Panama
Canal pilot for 15 years, was promoted
to Assistant Port Captain, Cristobal,
in 1955.
A native of Mathews County, Va.,
he went to sea soon after graduation

Capt. Ernest B. Rainier

from high school and won advance-
ment through the ranks to master in
12 years, all in service with the
Colombian Steamship Co.
After that company was sold in 1938,
he was employed by the Panama Line
and sailed as second officer of the
SS Cristobal, later becoming chief offi-
cer and master before entering Canal
service and joining the PanCanal pilot
force in August 1939. He holds the rank
of commander in the Naval Reserve,
of which he has been a member
since 1931.
The Colombian ship on which he was
master was a new passenger ship and
he says he was always lucky to be

Capt. Eli D. Ring

master of passenger ships. He went to
two maritime schools and three tech-
nical schools between 1926 and 1930
relative to maritime activities and
Captain Rainier has been interested
in baseball since his youth and was
president of the Colon Baseball Club
of the former Canal Zone Baseball
League in 1947. He's gone overboard
twice on rescues, once for an injured
seaman and once for the master of a
merchant ship who had fallen overboard
in Cristobal harbor.
Before his departure, Captain Farmer
was presented the award of the Army
Commendation Medal by Governor
Fleming, in recognition of his outstand-
ing performance. The accompanying
citation noted his success in handling
the all-time high volume of ship traffic
with the lowest accident rate in the
Canal's history.
Captain Farmer, born in Chatta-
nooga, Tenn., was graduated from
the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis
in 1938.
During World War II he was com-
mander of a submarine chaser out of
Trinidad and Curacao and on destroyer
escort duty in both the Atlantic and
Pacific, including a Pearl Harbor tour.
He attended the Navy's General Line
School, Newport, R.I., after the war
and later was executive officer at the
Mine Warfare School, Yorktown, Va.
He came to the Canal Zone in 1959
from Charleston, S.C., where he was
commander of Mine Sauadron 8.

JANUARY 4, 1963



7,4 NC
*.AN 0111

Gleam in early morning sun isn't everlasting.



PUTTING UP the Thatcher Ferry
Bridge cost $20 million.
Keeping it up may cost around
$200,000 a year.
The maintenance cost figure isn't
solid yet, because there's been no final
decision on several points, but the
experimental crew of 13 men on full-
time maintenance work is thought to
be a minimum.
Paint alone will be a substantial cost
item. The first complete paint job for
the new bridge linking the Americas
required 15,000 gallons of primer and
final coat paint. Another 3,000 gallons
is on hand for touch-up work.
Still undecided is whether to schedule
continuous painting or patch painting,
with a big crew put on for a complete

paint job every several years, dep
on need.
Painting needs estimates are av
on such major bridges only in
climates, so the guide on what r
ments will be for the new bridge
the Canal will have to be estal
by regular inspections to determine
much heat, humidity, and salt a
will cause variance.
The inspection schedule for tl
bridge is still in development st
The initial experimental crew
on full-time maintenance work
made up of a lead foreman in chi
4 maintenance painters, 4 str
ironworkers, and 4 helpers. Ad
may be necessary later. It is b
unlikely it would be possible to
this force.

Safety Factor:

Big Margin

3a For Big Blows

DESIGNED strength of Thatcher Ferry
Bridge puts its sturdiness in high winds
far above any known velocities ever
recorded here.
And its type of construction, combi-
nation cantilever-tied arch, is such that
there are no appreciable "sway" prob-
S lems, such as exist with suspension type
The bridge here has built-in strength
to survive winds of up to 70 m.p.h.
The highest gust (short duration)
ending velocity ever recorded on this side of
the Isthmus was 56 m.p.h. during a
ailable storm in 1943.
other Suspension bridges such as San Fran-
equire- cisco's Golden Gate Bridge sway as
across much as several feet in high winds. The
listed Golden Gate Bridge has the world's
ir here longest single span: 4,200 feet.

ie new
of 13
will be
large of
<^^^ r ^^ .,,,,

Heigh-Ho, Heigh-Ho, it's off to work we go . .

No matter where, or how high, painting for
protection must continue regularly.


Activities of Office

Have Broader Scope

Paul M. Runnestrand

A MARKED CHANGE has been made
during recent months in the administra-
tive structure of the Office of the Execu-
tive Secretary. Its activities, under the
administration of Governor Fleming,
have gained wider scope.
At the head of this nerve center in
the administrative structure of the Pan-
ama Canal is a Minnesota attorney who
has been with the Canal more than
20 years: Paul M. Runnestrand.
Mr. Runnestrand was a legal editor
of the West Publishing Co. of St. Paul,
Minn., before joining the Canal organ-
ization in 1941. He was born in Litch-
field, Minn., and received his law degree
from the University of Minnesota in
He is a member of the bar of the
Supreme Court of the United States,
the Supreme Court of the State of Min-
nesota, the United States District Court
in the Canal Zone, and the United States
Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, New
Associate Attorney in the Office of
the General Counsel of the Canal until
1948, Mr. Runnestrand then was pro-
moted to Assistant General Counsel. In
1953 he was transferred to the Wash-
ington, D.C., office of the Canal organ-

ization as Attorney and Assistant to the
Secretary of the Panama Canal.
He returned to the Isthmus in Octo-
ber 1955 as Special Assistant to Canal
Zone Cov. J. S. Seybold. He became
Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone
and Executive Assistant to the President
of the Panama Canal March 1, 1956.
The Executive Secretary is the prin-
cipal adviser, liaison officer, and official
representative of the Office of the
Governor-President on policy matters
concerning the Government of the
Republic of Panama, the U.S. Embassy,
other diplomatic and consular missions,
and commercial and non-commercial
interests in the Republic and the Canal
These may include religious, wel-
fare, charitable, educational, recrea-
tional, scientific, fraternal, and social
The Executive Secretary also super-
vises policies and regulations con-
cerning eligibility of individuals and
organizations to engage in business
activities in the Canal Zone, to make
purchases in the Zone, or to reside or
remain here.
He also represents the Office of the
Governor in policy matters concerning
laws which govern foreign corporations,
including insurance companies, and the
securities sales law.
In addition to his other functions, the
Executive Secretary performs consular
and related duties prescribed by law or
regulations, including issuance of im-
migration visas; and he is custodian of
the Seal of the Canal Zone Government.
He provides, in addition, administra-
tive supervision of the Magistrates
Courts of Balboa and Cristobal.
As Executive Assistant to the Presi-
dent of the Panama Canal, Mr. Run-
nestrand performs special duties
assigned him by the President.
As required by particular cases, he
takes direct action; serves as staff
adviser and participates in the formula-
tion of policies, or acts as liaison officer

or staff representative in the coordina-
tion or supervision of administrative or
policy matters.
By direction of the President, he
initiates, coordinates and reviews pro-
grams, reports, correspondence and
other assignments involving the presen-
tation of information to committees or
members of Congress, the Board of
Directors and others in matters that
require the attention of the Office of
the President.
Offices of the Executive Secretary
are on the second floor of the Admin-
istration Building, Balboa Heights. Per-
sonnel in these offices provide an Execu-
tive Secretariat for the Office of the
Responsibilities include supervision
of administrative procedures between
the Office of the Governor and other
offices and units as well as general
supervision of the Administrative
Branch and assuring compliance within
the organization with all regulations
and directives relating to administrative
In performing and supervising per-
formance of these varied duties, Mr.
Runnestrand is aided by the Adminis-
trative Assistant, F. C. Dunsmoor, who
is Administrative Assistant to the Gov-
ernor and also serves as Deputy Execu-
tive Secretary. He is authorized, among
other functions, to perform the duties
of "Consular Officer," as well as attest
such acts, as representative of the
Executive Secretary, as are required to
be performed under the Seal of the
Canal Zone Government.
Other members of the staff of the
Office of the Executive Secretary, added
in recent months to handle the new and
additional responsibilities which Gov-
ernor Fleming has assigned the office,
are: J. Patrick Conley, Assistant Execu-
tive Secretary; Robert S. Jeffrey, Staff
Assistant; Sylvester D. Callender, Coor-
dinator of relations with Latin American
communities; and Walter M. Mikulich,
Special Services Officer.

12 JANUARY 4, 1963


(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Louis Cox

rd L. Sampsell
foreman Locks
pnNJ House
o ard
inc ? Espatcher

Nathan Fleckner Clerk
Administrative Assistant

Karl D. Glass
Police Technician
Lyle B. Morau
Police Sergeant
Fred E. Mounts
Police Private
Ethlin L. Fawcett
Elementary Teacher, Latin
American Schools
Elouise Games
Elementary Teacher, Latin
American Schools
Luke C. Palumbo
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Mary B. Turbyfill
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Angel Franco
Fireman, Floating Plant
Allan L. Bodden
Nicolas Ortiz
Boiler Tender
Leonard E. Case
Marine Machinist
Ricardo Rodriguez
Gladstone S. Fowles
Clerk Typist
Marco T. Molinares
Leader Heavy Laborer
Te6filo Urriola
Debris Control Winchman
MAximo Cabezas
Surveying Aid
Emilio Mayorga
Juan Aguilar
Heavy Laborer
Louis Fink
Veterinarian, Public Health
Mildred R. Largent
Staff Nurse, Medicine and
Ruth R. Beck
Herbert W. Dena
Hospital Attendant
Mauricio Rivas
Manuel de J. Cortes


Martin Reyes
Laundry Checker
Jorge Martinez
Emigdio Carvajal
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
Angel Lino
Roland J. Jarvis
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
and Surgery
Alfonso A. Moore
Nursing Assistant, Operating

Towing Locomotive
Antonio Vallejo
Helper Lock Operator
Herbert V. Hutchison
Deckhand Boatswain
John E. Hotz
Guard Supervisor
Manuel Fuentes
Maintenanceman (Rope and
Wire Cable)
Cyril Holt
Clifford O. Blake
Antonio Jimenez
Helper Lock Operator
Juan A. Cedefio
Bookkeeping Machine
Operation Supervisor

Cordelia E. Smart
Sales Section Head
Rupert Hylton
Middle M Morrison
Laborer Cleaner
Jose J. Niiio
Ice Cream Maker
W. J. Sinclair
Cayetano Hernmndez
Laborer Cleaner
Lolita Wade
Clerk Typist
Amilia J. Pinder
Sales Checker, Food Service
Clifford E. Thomas
Crane Hookman
Josephine Charles
Sales Section Head
Alejandro Martinez
Cemetery Worker
Marcos Avila
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Josa D. Altamar
Garbage Collector
Bertene E. Smith
Grocery Worker
Luisa B. Seyrus
Retail Store Sales Checker
Victoria C. de Rojas
Clerk Typist
Cristobal A. Buddle
Manuel Salvador
Helper Liquid Fuels
William D. McArthur
Leader Liquid Fuels
Percival A. Samuels
Timekeeper (Typing)
Kenneth A. Thompson
Leader Automotive Machinist
Hugh H. Harrison
Carpenter, Maintenance
Merlin B. Yocum
Supervisory Cargo Officer
Jose M. Testa
Percival Griffith


November 5 through December 5

EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between November 5 and
December 5 are listed here. Within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed:
Peter J. Barr, Guard, Locks Division, to
Fire Protection Inspector, Fire Division.
Police Division
Braxton W. Treadwell, Police Sergeant to
Police Lieutenant.
John F. Gilbert, Jr., Police Private to
Police Sergeant.
Division of Schools
Martha M. Browder, Mary E. Ellwood,
Substitute Teacher to Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher.
Betty M. Martin, Substitute Teacher to
Era L. Greene, Substitute Teacher and
Visiting Teacher to Kindergarten Assist-
Florence C. Cobham, Substitute Teacher
to Elementary Teacher, Latin American
Hartford Livingston, Laborer Cleaner to
Heavy Laborer.
Frank H. Lerchen, Supervisory Mainte-
nance Engineer (Maintenance Engineer)
to Supervisory General Engineer (De-
signing Engineer).
Electrical Division
Kazimierz Bazan, Electrician to Senior
Operator (Generating Station).
Ernest M. Reinhold, Jr., Central Office
Repairman to Lead Foreman Central
Office Repairman.
John J. McLaughlin, Marine Machinist, In-
dustrial Division, to Shift Engineer
Thomas W. Petersen, Cable Splicer to
Leader Electrician (Lineman).
William W. Good, Window Clerk, Postal
Division, to Radio Mechanic.
Florencio J. Guerrero, Maintenanceman to
Launch Operator.
Dredging Division
Arnold S. Hudgins, Electrician, Towboat,
Salvage, to Lead Foreman Electrician.
Harry J. Harrison, Second Mate Pipeline
Dredge to Leverman, Pipeline Dredge.
Julius Cheney, Leader Electrician (Line-
man) to Electrician, Towboat, Salvage.
Lefard A. Bennett, Seaman to Launch
Clifford H. Standard, Fireman (Floating
Plant) to Watertender (Floating Plant).
Leland Truick, Counterman, Supply Divi-
sion, to Messenger.
Maintenance Division
Carl J. Browne, Supervisory Maintenance
Engineer to Supervisory Maintenance
Engineer (Maintenance Engineer).
Howard W. Osborn, Maintenance Engineer
to Supervisory Sanitary Engineer (Chief,
Water and Laboratories Branch).
Alexander C. McCatty, Joseph C. Stair,
Maintenanceman to Carpenter.
Diego Sierra, Helper Carpenter, Industrial
Division, to Carpenter.

Victoriano Almengor, Asphalt or Cement
Worker to Cement Finisher.
Andres Diaz, Helper Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Mechanic to Oiler.
Maria L. Keller, Staff Nurse (Medicine and
Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to Public
Health Nurse, Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine.
Horace Reid, Clerk, Industrial Division, to
Clerk-Typist, Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine.
Eduardo V. Lindsay, Laborer Cleaner,
Terminals Division, to Nursing Assistant
(Psychiatry), Corozal Hospital.
Gorgas Hospital
Dr. Francis X. Schloeder, Jr., Medical
Officer (General Medicine and Surgery),
to Medical Officer (General Internal
Helen S. Plumer, Stock Control Clerk to
General Supply Clerk (Medical).
Wanda L. Boriotti, Staff Nurse to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Cecile C. Didier, Clerk-Typist to General
Supply Clerk (Medical).
Louis E. Sprauve, Nursing Assistant (Psy-
chiatry), Corozal Hospital, to Medical
Technician (General).
Coco Solo Hospital
Alberto J. Howell, Hospital Attendant to
Storekeeping Clerk.
Cyril E. Hewitt, Counter Attendant, Sup-
ply Division, to Food Service Worker.
Navigation Division
Emley M. Henter, Clerk-Stenographer,
from Police Division.
Heliodoro C. Thachar, Laborer (Cleaner)
to Seaman.
Vincent Blackman, Laborer (Heavy), from
Division of Schools.
Industrial Division
Jean G. Dockery, Clerk-Typist to Clerk-
M. Lucille Behre, Stock Control Clerk to
Accounts Maintenance Clerk.
Ernest V. Baptiste, Warehouseman to Stock
Control Clerk.
Leonard A. Shirley, Messenger, Adminis-
trative Branch, to Clerk.
Wendell H. Reid, Laborer (Cleaner), Divi-
sion of Schools, to Helper Machinist.
Locks Division
Gilbert H. Davis, Leader Lock Operator
(Iron-Worker Welder) to Lead Foreman
Lock Operator (Iron-Worker Welder).
Joseph M. Bateman, Teddy A. Marti, Lock
Operator (Machinist) to Leader Lock
Operator (Machinist).
Elbert L. Hughes, Leverman, Pipeline
Dredge, Dredging Division, to Lock
Operator (Engineman-Hoisting and
Howard M. Armistead, Armature Winder,
Electrical Division, to Electrician.
George K. Hudgins, Jr., Marion E. Taake,
Guard to Towing Locomotive Operator.
William H. Peart, Helper Lock Operator
to Carpenter (Maintenance).
Santiago Evans, Line Handler to Carpenter
Alphonso L. Brandford Warehouseman,
Supply Division, to Toolroom Attendant.

Alfredo Graham, Line Handler to Boatman.
Manuel Linan, Luis E. Rodriguez, Line
Handler to Helper Lock Operator.
Victor E. Waite, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Line Handler.
Ferne E. Levee, Clerk-Stenographer to
General Claims Examiner, General Audit
Ashton Brooks, Jesius N. Barahona, Paul
D. Vergara, Amoldo A. Young, Office
Machine Operator to Bookkeeping Ma-
chine Operator.
Accounting Policies and Procedures Staff
Maenner B. Huff, Digital Computer Sys-
tems Analyst to Supervisory Systems
Julian M. Mountain, Systems Accountant
to Supervisory Systems Accountant.
Supply Division
Donald C. Pierpoint, Service Center Super-
visor to Service Center Manager.
Olianda A. De Alvarado, Accounts Main-
tenance Clerk to Accounting Clerk.
Sidney O. Ford, Warehouseman to Store-
keeping Clerk.
Myrtle S. Anglin, Sales Checker (Retail
Store) to Clerk.
Roy Waterman, Warehouseman to High
Lift Truck Operator (Cold Storage).
Levy Beckford, Sales Clerk to Sales Section
Ronald G. Bushell, Utility Worker to
Leader Laborer.
Alfonso Elliott, Utility Worker to Clerk.
Robinson Caraquitos, Harold G. Fergus,
Utility Worker to Counterman.
Roberto N. Hall, Package Boy to Utility
Alfred D. Jackman, Package Boy to Lab-
orer (Heavy).
Gwendolyn Oddman, Car Hop to Counter
Herman Johnson, Henry H. Phillips, Pin-
setter to Utility Worker and Pinsetter.
Nicolas D. Bishop, Noel A. Jones, Pin-
setter to Utility Worker.
Community Servicees Division
Richard S. Brogie, Accounting Assistant to
Housing Project Assistant (Assistant
Manager, Cristobal Housing Office).
Mariela G. Quir6s, Clerk-Typist, Terminals
Division, to Clerk-Stenographer.
Serapio De Los Rios, Victoriano Ortega,
Jose Santamaria, Laborer to Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
Francisco Barrios, Juan G6mez, Dock
Worker. Terminals Division, to Laborer.
Ricardo M. Martinez, Truck Driver, Supply
Division, to Chauffeur, Motor Transpor-
tation Division.
Terminals Division
Helen L. Meisinger, Cargo Claims Assistant
to Supervisory Accounting Technician.
Elbert F. Ridge, Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman to Liquid Fuels Dispatcher.
Arnaldo H. Davis, Ram6n S. Pinto, Line
Handler to Leader Line Handler.

JANUARY 4, 1963

Juan De Le6n, Arquimedes Mosquera,
Julio Osorio, Tereso Perez, Alejandro
Romero, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Cromwell A. Panton, Bertram O. Bryce,
Line Handler, from Locks Division.
Elvan W. Lim, Line Handler to Water
Service Man.
Onofre Coronado, Railroad Trackman to
Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Alfred Davidson, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Alphonso Bell, Messenger to Clerk.
Pablo GalvAn, Heavy Laborer, Locks Divi-
sion, to Dock Worker.
Railroad Division
George J. Herring, Road Conductor and
Yard Conductor tor Yardmaster.
Jose M. Testa, Laborer to Heavy Laborer.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title follow:
Chester E. Pearson, Hospital Administra-
tive Officer (Assistant Director, Gorgas
Fredrick J. Wainio, Administrative Service
Officer, Terminals Division.
George H. Logan, Management Techni-
cian, Administrative Branch.
Donald S. Hounschell, Assistant Dairy
Manufacturing Technologist, Supply Di-
Harry A. Carlson, Thomas P. Belford,
Construction Inspector (General), Con-
tract and Inspection Division.
Barbara D. Peterson, Clerk-Stenographer,
General Audit Division.
Constance C. Nelson, Clerk-Stenographer,
Navigation Division.
Patricia M. Flores, Clerk-Stenographer,
Industrial Division.
Efrain I. Herrera, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Emilio H. Archer, Clerk, Navigation Divi-
Maria A. C. De Horna, Stock Control Clerk,
Gorgas Hospital.
James A. Dowlin, William H. Lovell, Book-
keeping Machine Operator, Accounting
Ruby M. Jones, Sales Clerk, Supply Divi-
Hugh L. Reid, Clerk, Industrial Division.

EMPLOYEES who retired in Novem-
ber, with their positions at time of
retirement and years of Canal service:
Damley Barrow, Stevedore, Terminals Di-
vision; 33 years, 2 months, 3 days.
Robert A. Berry, Machinist, Locks Divi-
sion; 15 years, 1 month, 25 days.
Mrs. Eileen G. Brady, Head Nurse (Psy-
chiatry), Corozal Hospital; 18 years,
4 months, 17 days.
Santo V. Casella, Towing Locomotive
Operator, Locks Division; 21 years,
28 days.
Samuel T. Crichlow, carpenter, Main-
tenance Division; 31 years, 1 month,
7 days.
James C. Garth, Cargo Clerk, Terminals
Division; 26 years, 8 days.

50 year lcdgo
new Panama Canal were being made.
According to the CANAL RECORD, ex-
haustive studies of the illumination of
the Locks had been completed in order
that a distribution of light best suited
to all of the conditions might be
A few concrete lampposts had been
erected on the walls of the upper Locks
at Gatun and a pair of bracket arms for
trial were being cast at the Gatun
concrete yard. Some concern was felt
over the shading of illumination from
the eyes of approaching pilots, permit-
ting thereby an unhampered vision of
all range and signal lights.
Lighting at Culebra Cut, on the other
hand, would be nonexistent except for
the system of beacons on either side
of the bank. Otherwise, the journey
through the Cut was to be made in the
dark, except for such light as was given
by the moon and stars.
Slides in Culebra Cut continued to
plague the Canal workers. On the after-
noon of January 16, the Cucaracha slide,
on the east bank of the Canal, again
renewed its activity and by the morning
of the 17th the moving mass of material
had covered all tracks in the Canal
except one next to the west bank. The
movement carried material a greater
distance across the Canal than in any
other case except the original movement
of the same slide in 1907.
On the night of January 19, the rock
bluff on the east bank of the Canal south
of Gold Hill broke away at a distance
of several hundred feet and moved into
the Canal, entirely covering all tracks
to the east of the center line.

Mrs. Melba M. Heintz, Accounting Clerk,
Supply Division; 17 years, 6 months,
7 days.
Martin G. Herrera, Ramp Operator, Navi-
gation Division; 35 years, 11 months,
15 days.
James B. Ricketts, Seaman, Navigation Di-
vision; 34 years, 7 months, 23 days.
Reyes Rodriguez, Surveying Aid, Engineer-
ing Division; 34 years, 10 months,
26 days.
Harry H. Stultz, Seaman, Navigation Divi-
sion; 25 years, 2 months, 9 days.
Kenneth W. Vinton, Instructor, Schools
Division; 31 years, 11 months, 16 days.
Alexander Weir, Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division; 49 years, 1 month,
7 days.

25 years Cgo
A PLAN BY which tolls through the
Panama Canal would be reduced on
U.S.-flag ships on the inter-coastal run
was dealt a blow when Senator Bennet
Champ Clark, Chairman of the Senate
Inter-Oceanic Canal Committee, re-
vealed there was opposition from both
the State and War Departments.
The reduction was planned in order
to induce the Panama Pacific Lines to
retain their luxury liners on the New
York, Panama Canal-California run.
Panama merchants, meanwhile, said
that their greatest problem was the
withdrawal of the tourist ships from the
inter-coastal run.
In Washington, President Roosevelt
proclaimed the need for the greatest
U.S. Navy in history-a Navy capable
of defending simultaneously both the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United
States in view of the possibility that
the Panama Canal might be destroyed
or its operation paralyzed in time of war.

10 yearS c4go
STUDIES IN connection with the pro-
posed conversion of the Panama Canal
electrical power system from 25- to
60-cycle current were announced by
President Truman. President Truman
also told Congress that the present toll
rates of the Panama Canal were provid-
ing sufficient revenue for operation of
the Canal.
New rental rates on Panama Canal
quarters became effective. The schedule
was based on the recommendations of
the Rent Panel which were accepted by
the Board of Directors. Increases ranged
from 53 cents to $4.84 a week.

One year g4o
Isthmus for his new post as senior engi-
neer adviser of the Inter-American
Development Bank in Washington, D.C.
Prior to his departure he was honored
at a public ceremony of tribute which
was organized by a group of Panama-
nian citizens. The tribute included a
program of Panamanian folklore, danc-
ing, and presentation of a medal from
the Panamanian people.
Earlier in the month, the appoint-
ment by President Kennedy of Maj.
Gen. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., to succeed
General Carter as Governor of the Canal
Zone, was announced in Washington.






New Grace Liner Due
THE NEW $17 million Grace Line
passenger-cargo ship Santa Magdalena,
which was launched last February, will
arrive in Cristobal February 6 on her
maiden voyage from New York to
Guayaquil, Ecuador. Panama Agencies
announced that the new vessel will
leave New York February 1 and
probably will dock in Cristobal.
The Santa Magdalena, the first of a
series of new replacement vessels to be
placed by Grace Line on the South
American west coast run, is capable
of accommodating 120 passengers and
can carry 175 standard 20-foot con-
tainers or truck trailer vans with a total
capacity of 188,600 cubic feet. Banana
conveyers, installed as part of the ship's
standard equipment, will load at the
rate of 2,400 stems an hour.

"Gulfoba" Going Great
bound, merrily does the Gulfoba, a Gulf
Petroleum, S.A. tanker, transit the Pan-
ama Canal-in 1 day and out the next-
only to be back again in a wink.
The sea-going twin-screw tanker,
which has a capacity of about 6,000
barrels of oil, has been engaged in
carrying oil from the Refineria Panama
on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus to
the Pacific side. When on the Pacific
side, the Gulfoba docks at Pier 4,
The Gulfoba started its heavy traffic
business in November, completing 16
Canal transits that month.
All employees on the Panama Canal
lock walls are on first name basis with
everyone on the Gulfoba, but the tanker

1962 1961
Commercial. ............. 924 891
U.S. Government ......... 38 15
Free .................... 7 4
Total .............. 969 910
Commercial.... $4,685,585 $4,444,586
U.S. Government 213,824 77,727
Total.... $4,899,409 $4,522,312
Commercial.... 5,177,751 5,232,796
U.S. Government 110,207 99,216
Free.......... 51,027 31,534
Total.... 5,338,985 5,363,546
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
" Cargo figures are in long tons.

still uses a pilot and locomotives, just
as does a vessel making a transit for
the first time.
Captain of the Gulfoba is George
Murphy Hayes of Grand Cayman

Speed Demon
ONE OF THE fastest freighters afloat
came southbound through the Canal
December 11 on her way from New
York to the Far East. She is the Pioneer
Moon, an American Challenger Class
vessel which holds the trans-Atlantic
speed record for cargo class ships. She
made the run from Bishop's Rock off
England to Ambrose Light, recently, at
an average speed of 24 knots.
The Pioneer Moon will make regular
trips through the Canal for the United
States Line with general cargo from

Tanker's transit timetable like shuttle service.

- 'v a a . -

. ... ... ... .. ..... ... .. ..... Aa i __

New York to the Far East and return.
The first in the line's $380-million long
range cargo ship replacement program,
the Pioneer Moon was launched in
Newport News, Va., in April by Mrs.
Clarence D. Martin, Jr., wife of the
Under Secretary of Commerce. Mr.
Martin also is a member of the Panama
Canal Board of Directors.

Shipping Agent Retires
ERNEST S. BAKER, manager of
Norton, Lilly & Co. in Balboa and dean
of the shipping agents in the Canal
Zone, retires from his position with the
company in January after more than
37 years of service. Mr. Baker, who has
been with Norton, Lilly since 1925, will
make his home in Panama after his
retirement. His wife was a former
teacher with the Canal Zone Division of
JOSEPH NOONAN, also a veteran
employee of Norton, Lilly, who has
been manager in Cristobal, will take
over as manager of Norton, Lilly on the
Isthmus. The Balboa office of the
agency will be headed by Colin Lawson,
former assistant manager of C. B.
Fenton & Co. Other changes in the com-
pany staff are the appointment of Lloyd
Alberga as assistant manager in the
Cristobal office and of Archibald Irvine,
former chief engineer on the cable ship
All America, as boarding officer in
Cristobal for Norton, Lilly.

Space Ship Part Transits
THE PANAMA CANAL took a part in
the space program recently when a sec-
tion of NASA's huge Saturn was carried
through the waterway as deck cargo
aboard the freighter Smith Builder. The
big missile section, which resembled
somewhat a giant thimble, was manu-
factured at the Douglas Aircraft Co.
plant in Santa Monica and was being
taken on a 41-foot transporter to the
launch and test sites in Huntsville, Ala.
The part was the S-IV upper stage of
the Nation's largest space vehicle and
is scheduled for unmanned earth orbital
missions this year. The Smith Builder
picked up the part in Los Angeles,
Calif., and was taking it to New Orleans.

JANUARY 4, 1963



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