Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00070
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: December 1962
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00070
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
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Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Matter
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries



Bats Can Be Menace
Canal's Future Shaped
Schooling For "Tomorrow'
An Historic Arch

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FLEMING, JR., Governor-President RORA Publications Editors
LEBER, Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR and JuLo I
WILL AREY Official Panama Canal Publication Editorial Assistants
na Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD, TOB BITTEL, and
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at S cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C.Z.

Tradition .. .

THE BEAUTIFUL traditional nacimiento, or nativity
scene, on the cover of THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW this
month, was photographed at the Campo Alegre home of
Miss Genita B. Icaza by Panama City photographer John
F. Flatau. This nacimiento is much-visited during the
holiday season, and a few years ago, when Panama had
a contest for nacimientos, was awarded first prize.
Most of the figures in the scene have come from Spain
and France and many are more than a half a century old,
handed down from mother to daughter in the family.
Miss Icaza's grandmother arranged the original naci-
miento, and each year new figures have been added. The
largest figures and the castle came to Panama from Bar-
celona. The little flying angels are from France. This
year Miss Icaza's friends have added, from their travels,
water from the River Jordan, stones from the Dead Sea,
and earth brought from Bethlehem.
The family nacimiento usually is ready by Christmas
Eve, and each day the figures of the Three Kings are
moved toward the stable in Bethlehem so as to arrive on
January 6, the Day of the Three Kings. Many of the
children in Latin America receive gifts then instead of
on Christmas Day.
The nacimiento formerly was set up in the patio of
the Icaza home, but due to uncertain weather conditions
at Christmas and New Years, the Nacimiento has been
arranged indoors in recent years.
Visitors from the Canal Zone and Panama are always
welcome to visit the nacimiento, lovingly set up each
year by Miss Genita Icaza at the home of her parents,
Mr. and Mrs. Octavio A. de Icaza on Manuel Maria de
Icaza Avenue, which was named for her grandfather.
Tours of the nacimicntos in the Canal Zone and Pan-
ama usually are made each year by members of the
women's clubs.

... We Share

Our Culturej

The "faces" of the Canal Zone. And the "faces" of
Panama. What are they?
Worn with worry? Strained with anxiety? Smug, selfish,
disinterested, disdainful, or warm and friendly and
How the faces look to others depends somewhat on
the eye of the beholder. And at the, Christmas season,
beholders' views are modified by an image of One
whose face no accurate reproduction exists-only artists'
Thus are understandings born, mutual understandings,
partly through sharing of cultures. For a sketch of this
sharing on the Isthmus, see the tree-decorated story on
Page 5.

" . and of
(Luke 1:33.)

His kingdom there shall be no end."

Bats Can Be Menace__ ----------
Sharing of Cultures
Cut Widening, Housing, Electric Work Advance-----
Schooling for the Future_
Famed Flat Arch------------------------
Canal History, Retirements .
New Equipment for Railroad------
Anniversaries -----------------------------
Promotions and Transfers_----------

DECEMBER 7, 1932

W. P.


s Officer


roMAs A. CUPAs






* S

NOT ALL BATS on the Isthmus are
infected with rabies.
But some are.
Far too many, in the opinion of Canal
Zone Health Bureau authorities, for
employees not to inform themselves
and their families about the potential
menace these creatures may carry.
"We've got to live with the threat of
this disease-rabies-just as we live with
polio and malaria and tuberculosis," a
Canal health official said recently.
The watchful aid of individuals is
Modem medicine may do much for
the person who comes down with para-
lytic polio, malaria, or tuberculosis. But
there is no hope for the patient who
develops rabies.
Hence the Health Bureau considers it
important that the alertness of two resi-
dents of Morgan Avenue, Balboa,
resulted recently in the collection of two
sick bats. The Environmental Health

Perhaps not rabid, certainly not friendly.

Dr. Nathan Gale, Public Health Veterinarian, with species of fruit-eating bat with 24-inch
wingspan. Two rabies-infected bats of this species recently were found near Morgan Avenue.

They Can Be A Menace

To Your Family, Pets

Branch, U.S. Army, recently turned in
two discovered at Fort Clayton. On
laboratory analysis, all of these bats
were found to have rabies.
This served to alert the Health
Bureau to a flare-up of infection in the
bat population. At this time, rabies in
the Canal Zone is confined to bats. But
other susceptible mammals, both do-
mestic and wild, could conceivably
become infected.
The danger from rabid bats is both
direct and secondary. They may bite
people. Or they may bite animals which
in turn bite humans.
Fortunately, bats very rarely bite
dogs or cats. But if one dog does become
infected, a dog-to-dog cycle can occur
with great rapidity, because dogs run
about over a wide area.
Canal Zone regulations require anti-
rabies inoculation for all dogs every 3
years. Many Canal employees provide
the same immunization for pet cats,
which need new shots every year.
Another protection is the 4-month
quarantine for imported dogs and
cats. This is enforced to prevent the
introduction of infected animals from
countries in which rabies is common.
Fresh instructions, summarized on
page 4, were recently explained to
safety personnel whose help might be

sought by a person who sees a bat acting
as if it may be sick. Or one who fears a
bat may have bitten him.
On the Isthmus, rabies was first
reported in 1907, but by 1910 it had
apparently disappeared. As time went
on, one man died at Gorgas Hospital
in 1933 after a dog-bite in Peru, and
another in 1943 after having been
bitten in Nicaragua. But there was no
known instance of rabies of local origin
until 1957.
Then two laboratory-confirmed cases
of rabies in cattle occurred on the
Isthmus. Others were reported through
Meanwhile, a bat seen behaving
abnormally on the Canal Zone was
found by the laboratory of Panama's
Departamento de Salud Animal as
having been rabid. A year-long survey
was started in July 1960 by the Canal's
Division of Veterinary Medicine.
The Veterinary Division of the
Health Bureau caught or collected 4,571
bats of 35 species from 61 locations
on or near the Canal Zone.
Of the specimens analyzed, 43 were
positive. Two of these were fruit-bats
found flapping and struggling in a
densely populated area. Others were
bats which had established colonies in
(See p. 4)


At Chilibre Cave east of the Canal Zone
an automatic trapping device originated in
the famous Carlsbad Caves of New Mexico
was adapted for Isthmian use. It consists
of a grid of piano wires strung tightly
above an automatic hopper. The detection
apparatus of many bats flying out of the
cave does not pick up the wires rapidly
enough to prevent a collision. Once a bat
hits a wire he slides down into the hopper.

Samuel Hart of the Veterinary Division
removing a bat from a hand net in one of
the tunnels under the Madden Road.

Wingspread dwarfs ruler.

(Continued from p. 3)
attics. Some were netted under eaves
or hanging from the under sides of palm
leaves. At Fort Clayton, a man collected
one from his living room floor. Two
were caught in the radio station at Fort
Clayton, and a third found hanging on
a window screen at the PX.
Other incidents underlined the bat
In Fort Kobbe pool, a rabid bat bit
a child. Four months later, at dusk, a
woman bather was bitten. Both were
treated with anti-rabies vaccine, and
neither suffered ill effects.
For practical purposes, bats may be
divided into two types: (1) The free-
living or solitary kind, which roost singly
or in small groups under trees, palms,
or eaves, and (2) The gregarious or
"colonial" kind, which are found in
attics, sometimes in groups of several
hundred. Since many of these nocturnal

creatures can squeeze through a crack
of three-eighths of an inch, such as a
space between roof tiles, access is not
Their presence is made known by
an objectionable odor, by hearing them
as they crawl across the attic floor, and
by debris that may drift through ceiling
cracks from time to time.
Ridding an entire area of all bats
would be impossible, health men say,
and perhaps not desirable. For one
thing, bats help control insects.
As with other potential health
hazards, here and elsewhere, the best
protection against rabies-bat-borne or
otherwise-is a watchful understanding
by the general public.
Republic of Panama and Canal Zone
health authorities are constantly ex-
changing information about rabies and
its spread by bats.

DECEMBER 7, 1962


Caution children not to play with bats, or permit their pets to do so.
Instruct both children and domestic employees to be on the lookout
for any bats to be seen on the ground, either dead or alive, and to report
the presence of these animals to you.
If you find a dead or sick bat, do not touch it. Using a brush, broom,
or other instrument, put bat in a firm box or glass jar and deliver it to
the Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Corozal, or the Northern
District Sanitation Office, Bolivar Road, Cristobal. If you cannot deliver
the specimen promptly, refrigerate it until you are able to make delivery.
If you have any reason to think you or a member of your family has
been bitten by a bat-or had any personal contact-take the individual
to the admitting office at Gorgas or Coco Solo Hospital and report
the circumstances.
Keep the inoculation of your animals up to date.

('" Al .


In Adverse

Action Appeals

A PANEL of hearing examiners has
been established by Governor Fleming
for hearings on Adverse Personal
The hearing examiners are Sylvester
D. Callender, C.W. Chase, Jr., Norman
B. Davison, Rubelio D. Quintero, Harry
D. Raymond, Paul Robbins, Bruce G.
Sanders, Jr., and J. Bartley Smith.
Adverse Personnel Actions procedure
is detailed in Executive Regulation
No. 70, effective July 1, 1962.
Actions which may be appealed are:
Discharges, suspensions for more than
30 days, furloughs without pay, and
disciplinary demotions.
Here, in brief, are the procedural
The employee generally will be given
at least 30 days' written notice of the
proposed action and reasons for it.
The employee has the right to answer,
within 10 days. An extension may be
requested to afford ample opportunity
for preparation of the answer.
A hearing is scheduled if the em-
ployee desires one and makes written
The hearing is to give the employee
a chance for an impartial, objective
review of his case by persons detached
from the events that led to the proposed
adverse action, and gives the employee
a chance to be heard and present
The hearing is before a single hearing
examiner chosen by the employee, from
the panel, for each case.
The hearing examiner's findings and
recommendations are used by the offi-
cial acting on the appeal in making his
This decision may sustain the earlier
decision, modify it, or reverse it.
Notification to the employee of the
appeal decision also must advise the
employee of his appeal rights, if any,
to the Civil Service Commission.
Personal copies of Executive Regula-
tion No. 70, "Procedure Governing
Adverse Personnel Action," are to go
out sometime after the first of the year.


We Share Our Cultures

AT NO SEASON does the cosmopolitan tions. Filled stockings hang just as well
heritage of the Crossroads of the Amer- on a bed frame or door.
icas stand forth more convincingly than The spirit of Christmas seems to be
at Christmas, when almost every Isth- launched in the cities of Panama on the
mian home invites the blessings of the evening of December 7-the night
season with both a Panamanian naci- before the religious feast of the Imma-
miento and a temperate-latitude Christ- culate Conception. Special household
mas tree-often a balsam or spruce shrines of the Virgin are arranged on
from the northern part of the United balconies and in windows. Images con-
States or Canada. sisting of either paintings or statuary are
With a fine disregard for purist' displayed in a frame of flowers set
the peoples of the Isthmus have or o 'vith brilliant and illuminated by
generations been enthusiastic e or special lights. The day fol-
gaged in trading customs and fol ys lo ing is marked in Panama as Mothers'
each December along with a elices Day d is a national holiday.
Pascuas" and a "Merry Chri as." Chris as trees are dressed, stockings
Traditionally in P ma, D cem- hung, and acimientos first lighted on
ber 25 is the feast da Dios. Chris as Ev which for many resi-
And it is not Santa Claus b te Christ dents oX dictions is the occa-
Child who visits homes good children sion of a midnight church service. In
as they lie asleep ving toys or other Panama, after this Misa de Gallo, or
gifts at the side. This custom is cock's mass, a f is served for the
unaffected ears o association, adults. It may be a lig er or a full
just as the filling of Chris as stockings meal, but va s in amales and
by Santa Claus still ho s for the young often contain s until dawn.
children of North erican or European An observan practiced only in Pan-
parentage. ama coincides wit Dia de los Ino-
But the ding and dressing of the centers (the day on whi ing Herod
naci o to represent t merely the decreed the slaying of male i nts).
Holy a er, but often Oddly perhL d, thi tries
the town and towns of Bethlehem December 28 s come to be the annual
and its surrounding villages, is a custom day for playing ranks and tricks. It
adopted read y gringos and other corresponds to Apri ools' Day in many
newcom any families form a per- lands, and here serves t und the note
mane collection o blical person- for the noisy midnight welco he
ages, angels, an arm animals that are New Year 3 days later.
treasured from yea o year. The Day of t welfth
Nor does a namanian child see Night-is not o looked. Children
anything str e in going to market to receive fruits, nuts, little gifts. In
help se a spicy smelling ever n s nacimientos, the res of the
tre nd then decking it out arti Ings o East are placed n the
cial f1 lalls, tinse o tskirts of the sc istmas
and lights. E ch day the householder moves them
Santa Claus himself is thought of by a little closer to the manger until on
the smaller fry in his usual guise of January 6 they arrive before the Christ
a jolly red-clad St. Nick with a white Child.
beard. But they expect him to step out After Twelfth Night, most nacimien-
of an airplane or a helicopter-as he tos and Christmas trees are dismantled.
often does at military posts or in the But by then the dried out balsam or
Interior-rather than to make his flight spruce has almost surely been promised
by sleigh across the jungle treetops. Nor to some neighborhood child for one
is much said at these Crossroads about final rite-the community burning.
chimneys and fireplaces, except in the THE REVIEW could not learn how
few homes where an artificial red brick these January bonfires started in Pan-
mantel is part of the holiday decora- (See p. 12)



ii d


Year Of Progress Shapes Canal's Future

CONTINUED modernization and im-
provement of the Panama Canal to
better serve world shipping resulted in
capital expenditures for the 1962 fiscal
year exceeding $16 million for the
second straight year. Total capital
expenditures since reorganization on

July 1, 1951, amount to $108.1 million.
The 1962 capital expenditures of
approximately $16.1 million were about
$700,000 under the peak expenditures
figure established the previous year.
Largest single item of capital expend-
itures for fiscal 1962 was $5.9 million

Locks wall, bank lighting extension continued.

toward widening of Empire Reach
within Gaillard Cut. A total of $22.8
million has been spent for channel im-
provement during the past few years.
This improvement is expected to cost
an additional $21 million before com-
pletion, which is scheduled for 1966-67.
More than 4.5 million cubic yards of
earth and rock were removed in fiscal
1962 canal widening work, 2,722,369
by contract and 1,788,000 on Dredging
Division projects. Maintenance dredg-
ing during the year accounted for an
additional 3,063,700 cubic yards. This
work was in Gaillard Cut, Atlantic and
Pacific entrances, Balboa harbor, Gatun
Lake, Miraflores Lake, south of Mira-
flores locks, and at Docks 14 and 15.
Cut-widening projects from 1929
through 1962 have accounted for
removal of 32,291,318 cubic yards of
earth and rock and there are approxi-
mately another 14.5 million cubic yards
to be excavated on widening projects
planned from now through 1967.
Dredging from 1915 through fiscal
1962 was 377,405,432 cubic yards,
with total dredging from the start of
Canal construction through fiscal '62
at 663,691,560 yards. Useful French
excavation 'is listed at 29,908,000 and
U.S. dredging 1904 through 1915 at
Other major expenditures in 1962

DECEMBER 7, 1962

included $2.3 million on the housing
replacement program, $1.3 million for
an additional electric generating plant,
more than $600,000 on the central air
conditioning plant for the Pacific ter-
minal area, and more than $500,000 for
locks towing locomotives and cranes.
The quarters replacement program
capital investment was on the Pedro
Miguel, Corozal, and Los Rios projects.
The electric generating plant project at f
will increase the Zone's power output N
capacity 39 percent. Work is in progress -
at the Miraflores diesel station, where
old diesels are being removed to be
replaced by two 11,000 kw. gas tur-
hines. The new generating plant is
expected to be in operation in February.
For comparison, the new Miraflores
facility will have a total of 22.000 kw.
output capacity. The Madden Dam
power installation is rated at 24,000 kw.
and Catun at 18,000 kw. There are a
(See p. 12) One of three new 1,200 horsepower locomotives.

New Pedro Miguel housing development.

Miraflores electrical plant work. Base for
new turbine in foreground.




A'ion M Parchmer.l ii pnncipal of Ilht PFrio Elemen-
tan schooll All hi. leacf.m- career. ,ine 1929. -,.. heen
,ith the Canal Zor.e chll, iHe a. gradualed Far. to
hi, cla" al Xairl LIralerirs in New' Oileani m 19i39.
.ill. the degree of bachelor ol u ienct in rcondan edu-
carton in I .e feld of phicac cd.ducation. Ht ii a 'on of
lotr. Farc.rrienl, ore ofl he pionitte, ir. L.e Canal Z-r.c
school ,s em. and flotiei teacher nrd principal of the
Ganbhoa school

Mrs. Ethlin i Faucett. sho Las bern sil. the Canal
Zne .chi.l .1ctin .lie 1944. hu charge il onenlli..i
ol neu leacl.ti, al the Pedrio MNiutl Eler.tnifan School
She a. cradu.ltd hion. the Normal Se.hf.)l al La B.. and has beeo a teacher in the schools at Gatun, Red
Tank, La Boca, and Paraiso. Mrs. Fawcett is the
senior member of the Pedro Miguel Elementary School
teaching staff.

Grafton Conliffe is principal of the Santa Cruz Elemen-
tary School. He was graduated from the Canal Zone
Junior College, La Boca Extension in 1952 and has been
teaching for 10 years. He taught schools in Red Tank,
Gatun, and La Boca before being transferred to Santa
S Cruz in 1957. He obtained a bachelor of science degree,
with specialization in education, at the University of
Nebraska in 1961 and has summer school credits from
the University of Panama. He plans to go to the United
States next year to obtain a master's degree in education.

A newcomer on the teaching staff at the Paraiso Elemen-
tary School is Miss Alicia SAenz, who is from Pocri,
Aguadulce, and a graduate of the Juan Dem6stenes
Arosemeoa Normal School in Santiago, Veraguas. She
started teaching the first grade of this Canal Zone Latin
American school in May 1962 alter having taught in -
Santiago, Pocri, and Panama. She was graduated from
the University of Panama in 1960 as professor of
pedagogy and is delighted with her new work in Paraiso.

Miss Myrtle Mulcare, teacher in the Santa Cruz Elemen-
tary school, has been teaching 27 years in the Canal Zone
school system. She was graduated in Jamaica in 1926
and studied in education courses at the University of
Panama, later obtaining a bachelor of science degree,
with specialization in education, from the University of
Nebraska. From 1950 to 1952 she was a member of the
Panama National Conservatory Orchestra, playing violin.
Before coming to Santa Cruz, she taught schools in
Gatun and La Boca. She plans to go to Nebraska next
I l I year to obtain a master's degree in education.

Alfredo Cragwell, principal of the Rainhow City Junior-
Senior High School, is a graduate of the National Institute
of Panama City in the class of 1932. He received a degree
in economic science, with specialization in commerce, at
the University of Panama in 1953. He was supervisor in
the Panama Tourist Department in 1946. From 1948 to
1952 he was first alternate Assemblyman and from 1952
to 1956 Assemblyman in the Panama National Assembly.
He was a music teacher in Gatun and then studied
Administration and Direction of Schools at New York
University. His lather, Clarence Cragwell, was a teacher
for 45 years in the Canal Zone schools.





ml. -

A net game. a cnrrmbmnar.,'l t.tball and loolbalL ii
berin played bs a grjoui.rt .-hool plasground. In
ti, garment Ihe pilcher to i ball. the "batter" klick
il in loolhall and tIhr, a a le rnm IU h t. eball



CANAL ZONE Latin American schools
stress an educational orientation to the
students' native country of Panama, in a
program designed to prepare the Pan-
amanian students in the Canal Zone
for their eventual assumption of the
obligations of Panamanian citizenship.
Since 1956, when a committee of
prominent Panamanian educators eval-
uated the educational system in the
Canal Zone Latin American schools, the
programs in these schools have coin-
cided with those of Panama, with the
objective that a student in any Canal
Zone Latin American school may enter
any Panamanian school in the same
grade and academic level. Instruc-
tion is entirely in Spanish, with the
English language only a subject in the
Teachers and Panamanian professors,
with university degrees obtained at the

University of Panama and at universities
in other countries, principally in the
United States, teach in the Canal Zone
Latin American schools and are selected
according to their teaching credits.
The Ministry of Education of Pan-
ama collaborates with the Canal Zone
Division of Schools in establishing the
scholastic program in the schools.
Enrollment in the Canal Zone Latin
American schools is 3,886, divided as
b follows: Rainbow City, 1,716; Paraiso,
1,464; Santa Cruz, 617; and Pedro
Miguel, 89.
The teaching staff in the Canal Zone
Latin American schools totals 154. Of
this number, 67 teach in the Rainbow
City schools; 59 in Paraiso; 22 in Santa
Cruz, and 6 at Pedro Miguel. The six
school principals also are Panamanians.
One is assigned to each of the primary
(See p. 10)


Miss Violet Bingham first grade teacher in the Rainbow
City Elementary School for 36 continuous years, will
retire from teaching at the close of the present school
year. She is a graduate teacher of Jamaica and began her
teaching career on the Isthmus in 1921 at San Jos6
School in Colon. In 1926 she joined the teaching staff at
Rainbow City and has taught there ever since.


L a.

Miss Ana Bennett is the acting principal at the Pedro
Miguel Elementary School. She was graduated from the
La Boca Normal School, the University of Panama, and
the University of Michigan, where she received a master's
degree in English literature. She has taught school in
La Boca, the Panama Professional School, the Junior
College at Bocas del Toro, Chitre High School, La
Chorrera Junior College, Rainbow City, and Paraiso.


Carlos A. Vaz, Jr., of Colon is acting prnnipal at PFariso
High School. He was graduated from hbel Braoo Hich
School in Colon in 1950; from the Unisenirni of Par.aina
in 1955; and from the University of center. Colo. ir.
1960 with a master's degree in sec..ndari t-dicatlon
In 1960 he began teaching in the Canal Zo.i.e 'l _par..h i
instructor in the Latin American School, on the PaCifc
side of the Isthmus. He was a member of It.e Paral o
School staff and then acting principal al Rambho CI.1
High School. Prior to teaching in the Canal Zor.. he u.
a professor at Justo Arosemena Ir..tiule in Panjmra
City from 1956 to 1938.

Mrs. Thelma Coid.ha de Qinlero. uho conte. from
Los Santos, leache, cl-eml.ln ard ph>~ic, al PIaral.o llih
School. She was graduated in 1951 with a bachelor of
science degree from the Panama National University and
in 1957 was graduated from Panama University as a
professor of biology and chemistry. She taught in the
Professional School, the Liceo de Sefioritas, and at Juan
Dem6stenes Arosemena Normal School before joining
the Canal Zone teaching staff. Since 1959 she has been
teaching in Paraiso. This year she participated as an
invited guest in a teachers program at Orchard Park,
*Buffalo, N.Y.

Mrs. Soledad de Epifanio has been teaching Spanish at
Rainbow City High School for only 4 months. She was
graduated from Juan Dem6stenes Arosemena Normal
School, Santiago, Veraguas, obtained a degree in Spanish
at the University of Panama, and her doctor's degree in
romantic languages at the University of Madrid, Spain.
She has taught at Las Tablas, at the Maria Inmaculada
International School, at the Panama National Institute,
and in Chilibre, Bocas del Toro, and La Chorrera.

William Wilkie is principal of the Rainbow City Elemen-
tary School. He was graduated in 1929 from the Kings-
ton, Jamaica, High School and began teaching at Rainbow
City the same year. In 1946 he was promoted to principal
of the school. He is retiring at the close of the present
school year.

Famed flat arch in ruins of Church of Santo Domingo

Front of ruins of church, showing portion
of flat arch through doorway.

Schools For Children's Future
(Continued from p. 9)
schools at Rainbow City, Paraiso, Pedro
Miguel, and Santa Cruz and the sec-
ondary schools at Rainbow City and
The schools at Paraiso, Rainbow City,
and Santa Cruz each have a library,
where the students do their research.
The teaching staff stresses participa-
tion by pupils in Panamanian cultural
affairs, such as Book Week, which has
been observed with considerable enthu-
siasm in the Latin American student
body in the Zone.
For the recreation programs, there
are gymnasiums in Rainbow City, Santa
Cruz, and Paraiso; a stadium at Mount
Hope, with lighting facilities for night
games; playgrounds at the three school
centers; swimming pools at Rainbow
City and Paraiso, and two tennis courts,
one at Santa Cruz and the other at
The sports program, similar to that
in the Panama schools, stresses the for-
mative-gymnastic and recreation-sports
aspects of sports.
The students practice volleyball,
basketball, football, baseball, softball,
all types of athletics, swimming, tennis,
and weight-lifting.
There's also a folklore program, with
typical Panamanian dances taught the
pupils and each school has its own
folklore group under the direction of
physical education teachers.


Arch Spans Centuries

THE FACT THAT the flat arch in the
ruins of the Church of Santo Domingo
has stood for 3 centuries without sup-
port is said to have had a part in the
decision to build the interocean canal
in Panama.
Continued sturdiness of the arch
reportedly led engineers to believe
Panama to be less subject to earthquakes
than Nicaragua, which had been sub-
jected to periodic seismic tremors.
Legend says that the Catholic friar in
charge of construction of the arch stood
under it when it went up for the third
time. It had collapsed on two previous
occasions. The third time it stayed up,
the legend says, asserting that his faith
had held the "impossible arch" up. But
not before it had sagged slightly, which
made it a "flat" arch. It had been
designed as a regular keystone arch.
Santo Domingo, originally the most
splendid religious temple in the rebuilt
city, was destroyed by fire in 1761. The
ruins are on Third Street at Avenue A.

The City of Panama was founded
August 15, 1519. It was sacked by
Morgan and his pirates January 28,
1671, and rebuilt, the ceremony mark-
ing its rebuilding being held January 21,
1673. The city abounds in relics of
colonial days.
On Cathedral Plaza at the beginning
of Central Avenue is the new Cathedral.
Construction began in 1688 and it was
finished in 1796. Its bells were brought
over from the ruined Cathedral of Old
Panama. It is said that when the Spanish
queen visited Badajoz, Spain, upon
being told that they were casting the
bells for use in the capital of the King-
dom of Tierra Firme (Panama), "threw
her Royal finery of purest castilian gold
into the melting pot, there to mix with
the bronze."
In San Jose Church at Eighth Street
and Avenue A is the renowned Golden
Altar, saved from the greed of Morgan's
pirates and transferred to its present
site unharmed.

10 DECEMBER 7, 1962


50 Year- d4go
GATUN LAKE'S commercial value
already has been established, although
surface level still is 31 feet below its
final height. A man from Catun has
fitted out a large launch for sightseeing
parties; the lighthouse service uses the
lake in construction work; launches and
canoes, some rigged with sails, already
are making venturesome trips.
Natives from far back in the bush
are bringing their products to market
in cayucos that, instead of following
the old river courses, are gliding over
fields that were cultivated only a few
months ago.
Strangers to the Canal work do not
understand why the trees have not been
cut in the area (164 square miles)
which the lake covers. To clear this
would require an expenditure of about
$2 million. The ship channel and the
great anchorage basin at Catun have
been cleared.
Erecting of Lock gates is progressing,
with work under way on all but 4 of
the 40 leaves at Pedro Miguel and on
12 of those at Miraflores. There are
92 leaves to the 46 gates on all of the
Canal Locks, and work is advancing on
70 of these. Reaming of rivet holes for
5,750,000 rivets, and driving the rivets,
will be required before the work is

25 Year c4ago
WITH 1,581,400 PASSENGERS and
316,107 vehicles carried, the Thatcher
Ferry broke all previous records during
the past fiscal year.
Two men were under arrest for
cutting down more than 3,000 feet of
telegraph wires, weighing about 250
pounds, for sale as scrap. Part of the
copper wire had been melted into
ingots. Telegraph service into the
Interior was disrupted.
A norther moved in from the Carib-
bean bringing 6% inches of rain within
24 hours and 36 mile gales. The down-
pour sent the Chagres River on a
rampage, pushing Catun Lake level to
85.8 feet. Ten of the 14 spillway gates
were opened as waters rose. Six south-
bound ships were unable to transit and
19 ships were at piers with more to

10 jearJ 4go
WORK IS RAPIDLY nearing comple-
tion on construction of 56 family quar-
ters in Ancon which comprise the largest
single construction project of the year.
The Housing Division announced that
assignments to the 16 houses slated
for early completion were made from
approximately 250 applications.
The last load of coal to be sold at
the Cristobal Coaling Plant was loaded
to stoke the boilers of the SS Arraiz,
which is en route from Chile to San-
tander, Spain, with a load of nitrate and
copper. It was planned 2 years ago that
the coaling plant would be closed at
the end of 1951, but sale of bunker coal
to ships has been so sporadic that it has
required almost an extra year to sell
the stock remaining.
Individual dial telephones will be
used at the Motor Transportation Divi-
sion garage in Ancon instead of switch-
hoard telephones, beginning next week.

RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of October to the
employees listed below, with their posi-
tions at time of retirement and years of
Canal service:
Juan Aguilar, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion; 12 years, 8 months.
Juvenal Arias C., Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 16 years, 11 months, 25 days.
Francis J. Aurelien, Storekeeping Clerk,
Coco Solo Hospital; 37 years, 5 months,
16 days.
Clarence Belgrave, Supervisory Cargo
Checker, Terminals Division; 46 years,
21 days.
Walpert J. Bernard, Storekeeping Clerk,
Supply Division; 46 years, 4 months,
21 days.
David Burkett, Oiler, Electrical Division;
38 years, 10 months, 11 days.
Rixford U. Chase, General Medical Tech-
nician, Gamboa Medical Clinic; 38 years,
2 days.
Elden W. Coffey, Leader Lock Operator,
Locks Division; 21 years, 2 months,
5 days.
Edgar F. Drayton, Labor Leader, Supply
Division: 45 years, 1 month, 18 days.
Adolfo Esquivel, Oiler, Navigation Divi-
sion: 25 years, 4 months, 15 days.
Harold M. Fraser, Central Office Repair-
man, Electrical Division; 37 years, 7
months, 15 days.

One year cgo
THE FIRST THREE of the Panama
Canal's new streamlined towing loco-
motives have been loaded aboard the
American Export Line freighter Pioneer
Myth in Yokohama for delivery to the
Canal Zone in January. The 55-ton
mules were loaded with the ship's own
boom and will be unloaded at Catun
by the same method.
Francis Cardinal Spellman, military
vicar for the Catholic personnel of the
Armed Forces of the United States
and Archbishop of New York, visited
military patients at Corgas Hospital
during a 2-day stay on the Isthmus.
Bids were opened on construction of
a central chilled water air-conditioning
system in the Pacific Terminal area.
This is the first major step in a long
range plan to provide air conditioning to
the Canal's public buildings by means
of a single-pipe loop system through
which water will be pumped from a
central plant.

Sotero Fuentes G., Boatman, Locks Divi-
sion; 18 years, 1 month, 8 days.
Malcolm I. Gatheral, Chief Engineer, SS
Cristobal; 20 years, 5 months, 28 days.
Harold T. Gordon, Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 25 years, 9 months, 12 days.
Mrs. Helen F. Heim, Cargo Claims Clerk,
Terminals Division; 32 years, 11 months,
20 days.
Oscar Johnson, General Foreman Lock
Operator, Locks Division; 21 years, 10
months, 26 days.
Fitz N. Jordan, Maintenancemen, Main-
tenance Division; 44 years, 7 months,
26 days.
Eugene F. Kleasner, General Foreman,
Lock Operations, Locks Division; 26
years, 3 months, 4 days.
Mrs. Julia Loupadiere, Nursing Assistant,
Gorgas Hospital; 18 years, 8 months,
7 days.
Samuel A. Muir, Laborer Cleaner, Printing
Plant; 37 years, 2 months, 9 days.
Jose A. Pimentel, Oiler, Navigation Divi-
sion; 35 years, 8 months, 23 days.
Wallace E. Rushing, Lock Operator Elec-
trician, Locks Division; 18 years, 11
months, 1 day.
Alberto C. Smith, Utility Worker, Supply
Division; 25 years, 1 month, 9 days.
Miss Helen M. Starr, Elementary School
Principal, Schools Division; 28 years,
1 month, 11 days.
Edward C. Wilson, Carpenter, Main-
tenance Division; 35 years, 2 months,
1 day.



Sleek new refrigerator car dwarfs earlier style.
Sleek new refrigerator car dwarfs earlier style.

New Rolling Refrigerato

Capacity, "Endurance" I

new rolling stock that's "real cool"-two
refrigerator cars, or "reefers," as they're
known to railroaders.
The cars' capacity of 3,305 cubic feet
is almost three times that of the cars
already in use and they have four times
as much diesel fuel capacity (400
gallons) for the mechanical refrigeration
units. That means they can operate
safely up to 160 hours on a single fueling
and there'll be less "down time" for
servicing and maintenance.
They're steel construction, higher and
longer than the older cars and have
aluminum inner doors and aluminum
floor gratings. Their capacity is listed at

Cultures Shared
(Continued from p. 5)
ama, but the practice seems to have
come directly from the northern coun-
tries of Europe. It is known in the
United States only in recent years.
Legend has it that the origin dates back
to the pre-Christian era when, during
the dark afternoons following the winter
solstice, the ancient Huns lighted bon-
fires as a hopeful portent of spring.
Whatever their origin, Isthmians like
the burnings, where youngsters dart
about and parents keep a watchful eye.
Food is often served, something like
wieners or snacks-but never the fruit-
cake and eggnog of the holidays to
which the bonfire puts an honest-to-
goodness end.

136,000 pounds and the
limit is 137,700 pounds.
The aluminum inner
placed flat against the wa
make as many as three s
apartments which can b
unloaded separately with
temperature level in otl
ments. Platform level out
mean easier loading.
The cars are equipped
roller bearing trucks, whi
possible less frequent in
will eliminate "hot boxe
were manufactured by I
Foundry Co., Renton, W

Huge Stone

Discovered in

archeological objects of P
found in the National M
Cuba) beside numerous g(
and colorful ceramics, ar
carved figures discovered
of Barriles, Chiriqui Prov
as many household utensil
which date from pre-Colo
Maya, Chibcha, and Ca
cultures left their imprint,
waves, upon the Isthmus
these indigenous groups'
being dug from "huaca
grounds throughout the
Code, Chiriqui, and Vera

- ..
z-- .


Movable doors can compartmentalize interior.

SYear Of Progress
Irs (Continued from p. 7)

number of 2,000 kw. generating diesel
SAs improvements to the waterway
continued, Marine Bureau officials were
ir rated load able to report that during the past year
it was possible to cut the average time
doors can be a transiting ship spends in Canal Zone
Ils or used to waters by a full hour. It is now 15.5
separate cor- hours versus 16.5 the previous year.
e loaded or This represents a possible saving of
lout affecting $50 to $100 an hour in vessel operating
her compart- costs.
:er doors also Panama Canal capital outlay for
transit operations projects included, as
with Timken major items, more than $200,000 each
ch will make on the marine traffic control system, new
section and launches and launch engine replace-
s." The cars ment, and more than $300,000 for locks
car track conversion and other track work
acs ar in connection with the new towing
ash locomotives.
In addition to the major Empire
Reach channel project, smaller capital
Figures outlays were also listed for Paraiso and
Las Cascadas-Bas Obispo widening
pC work and extensions of locks wall light-
CayeS ing. Replacement of Dock 14 at Cris-
tobal was the main item in maritime
historical and services projects and construction of a
'anama to be community center at Rainbow City
useum (Ave. accounted for more than $200,000
)ld ornaments capital outlay.
e huge stone Replacement of Panama Railroad
in the caves rolling stock and replacement of the
ince, as well trans-lsthmian telephone cable from
s and artifacts Gatun to Gamboa made up nearly
mbian days. $400,000 of the capital expenditures for
rib aboriginal transportation and utilities services
in successive projects.
. Samples of Also spent in 1962 was $10,806,000
skills still are toward the $20 million cost of the
s" or burial Thatcher Ferry Bridge. This expendi-
Provinces of ture was from funds appropriated by
guas. the U.S. Congress for the bridge project.

12 DECEMBER 7, 1962



-ITn L.lI

.TIp"I &(. .1


Marie T. Lindh
Clerical Assistant
Charles S. Smith
Police Lieutenant
Walter H. Alves, Jr.
Police Sergeant
Lewis W. Barker
Police Sergeant
Charles C. Fears
Police Sergeant
Elmer W. Bierbaum
Police Private
Richard K. Soyster
Police Private
Darwin E. Crier
Finance Branch
Rochelle H. Head
Robert A. Wainio
Customs Inspector
Roger E. Hamor
Water System Controlman
Augustus Gayle
Distribution Systems
Julian Julio
Crane Hookman
Andrew D. Desousa
Toolroom Attendant
Joaquin P. Cossani
Navigational Aid Worker
Aureliano Bejarano
Heavy Laborer
Domingo Quiiones
Heavy-Pest Control Laborer
Ram6n G. Madrigal
Hospital Laborer
Roy R. Clarke
S. Carballo
Heavy-Pest Control Laborer
Aubrey Batson
Hospital Laborer
Hector Henningham
Heavy-Pest Control Laborer


Arthur J. O'Donnell
Lead Foreman Locks
Control House
Beresford F. Baxter
Marine Traffic Clerk
Eliseo Lemos
Garfield A. Yarde
William T. O'Connor
General Foreman Docking
and Undocking
Reynold Yearwood
Helper Lock Operator
Maximino Herrera
Wilmut A. Clare
lisario Ramos

\ Priest Jr
d easu r
Sa os a.
e hand
arne A. Buter

T. Gitte
im keeper

Painter, Maintenance
Carlos E. Ortega
Urelmo Martinez
Antonio E. Cardoze
Marcial A. Bircenas
Floating Plant Oiler
Clarence A. Butcher
Charles W. Hammond
Lead Foreman Painter
Leslie R. Loga
Towboat or Ferry Master
John Van Der Heyden
Odilio F. Gordon
Line Handler

Ram6n Flores
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Alonso L6pez
Sales Clerk
Clotilde GonzAlez
Meat Packager
Gladys V. Ramage
Sales Clerk
Adina Fargurson
Nettie C. Howell
Franklin M. Reece
Meat Cutter
Cristina P. Samuels
Sales Section Head
Ricaurte Arosemena
Heavy Laborer
Mfiximo Guti6rrez
Helen Cecily Cabey
Sales Clerk
Alexandrina John
Laborer Cleaner
Sim6n Cortes
Eduvigis Rangel
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Fermin Maroto
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Edgar A. Hodgson
Leader Heavy Laborer
Gilberto Carranza
Truck Driver
Aubrey Judge
Leader Heavy Laborer
James J. Belcourt
Lead Foreman, Railroad
F. R. Hollowell
Automotive Machinist
Bernardo C. Polanco
Automotive Equipment
Edward Alien
Truck Driver
Evielyn E. Collins
Water Service Man


(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Aubrey L. Reid Cecil O. Brooks
Hand C___t-- an
ENGI G D liffor odney
Roland E. Willi F CE OF
Distribution Syste s THE O PTROLLER
Maintenanceman Mahlon D D is
Joseph C. Noble Acco n
Joseph C. air I D COMMUNITY
Maintenan ICE BUREAU
Naphtali W. McLean Gamuel E. Brathwaite
Paver Maintenanceman


October 5 through November 5

EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between October 5 and November 5 are
listed here. Within-grade promotions
and job reclassifications are not listed:
Edna A. Kovel, Clerk-Typist, to Printing
Clerk (Typing).
Ernesto A. Harrison, Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Messenger.
Cirilo Alexander, Duplicating Unit Super-
visor, Printing Plant, Balboa, to Bindery
and Finish Worker, Printing Plant,
Mount Hope.
Daniel L. Jenkins, Recreation Assistant
(Sports), Division of Schools, to Police
Private, Police Division.
Fire Division
Enoch L. Hooper, Fire Sergeant, to Fire
Hugh D. Hale, Fire Sergeant, Class 3 to
Fire Sergeant, Class 4.
Postal Division
Carl W. Hoffmeyer, Distribution Clerk,
to Clerk, Mail Handling Unit.
Robert J. Balcer, Window Clerk, to Clerk-
in-Charge, Window Services.
Division of Schools
Josephine A. Morris, Substitute Teacher,
to Elementary and Secondary School
Leticia C. Mindez, Substitute Teacher,
U.S. Schools (Spanish), to Elementary
and Secondary School Teacher.
Yolanda V. Kelson, Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Elementary
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Hubert B. Pryor, Construction Inspector
(General) to Supervisory Construction
Inspector (General), Contract and In-
spection Division.
Eustaquio Herrera, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Surveying Aid, Engineering Division.
Dredging Division
James E. Hayden, James NI. Walsh, Master,
Towboat or Ferry, from Navigation
James N. Duffus, Charles R. Gibson, Elec-
trician, to Leader Electrician (Lineman).
Howard Green, Leader Navigational Aid
Maintenanceman, to Leader Mainte-
nanceman (Distribution Systems).
Joseph B. Atkinson, Pablo G. Romero,
Lascelle F. Williams, Navigational Aid
Maintenanceman, to Maintenanceman
(Distribution Systems).
Nathaniel Brown, Leonard W. McBean,
George Murray, Hubert Tilley, Israel
Watkins, Navigational Aid Worker, to
Naintenanceman (Distribution Systems).
Luis G. Fields, Leader (General), to Leader
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems).
Walter N. Babb, Vivian L. Osavio, from
Navigational Aid Worker, to Naviga-
tional Aid Maintenanceman.
Miguel A. Garcia, Ruben E. Sandoval,
Oiler (Floating Plant), from Navigation
Pedro Osses, Helper (General), to Fireman
(Floating Plant).
Joseph N. James, Ramp Operator, Naviga-
tion Division, to Helper (General).

Ulysis Jordan, Laborer (Cleaner), Com-
munity Services Division, to Mess
Electrical Division
Robert C. Stanley, Senior Operator (Gen-
erating Station) to Power System Dis-
George A. Folger, Leader Electrician
(Lineman) to Foreman (Transmission
Bruce Mh. Morrow, Lock Operator (Ma-
chinist) Locks Division, to Shift Engineer
Evelyn G. Faulkner, Order Filler, Phila-
telic, Substitute, Postal Division, to
Accounting Clerk.
Roy A. Dudley, Helper Machinist (Marine),
Industrial Division, to Helper Machinist
Isidoro C. Fagout, Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Helper Machinist
James A. Scantlebury, Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Laborer (Cleaner).
Maintenance Division
Dorothy D. Douglas, Clerk-Stenographer,
Industrial Division, to Supervisory Cler-
ical Assistant.
Henry E. May, Machinist (Marine), Indus-
trial Division, to Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Mechanic.
Sylvester Rouse, Leader Maintenanceman,
Supply Division, to Maintenanceman.
Jaime L. Martinez, Truck Driver (Heavy),
from Motor Transportation Division.
TomAs E. Obeso, Helper (General), Indus-
trial Division, to Electrical Equipment
Jose E. Ovalle, Laborer (Heavy), from
Locks Division.
Lucila C. Rivera, Staff Nurse, to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery), Coco Solo
Gorgas Hospital
Shirley C. Havasi, Jane E. Pauk, Staff
Nurse, to Staff Nurse (Medicine and
Henry V. Ross, Medical Equipment Repair-
man, to Inspector (Hospital Medical
Raimundo Vergara, Hospital Attendant, to
Ward Service Aid.
Navigation Division
Drummond McNaughton, Master. Towboat
or Ferry (Pilot Trainee), to Pilot-in-
Edgar R. McCollin, Heavy Laborcr, to
Launch Seaman.
Gerardo Davidson, Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Deckhand.
Manuel S. Ponce, Leader Heavy Laborer,
to Leader Maintenanceman.
Locks Division
Arthur J. O'Donnell, Lead Foreman (Locks
Control House), to General Foreman
(Lock Operations).
Clifford S. Asbury. Lead Foreman (Lock
Operations), to General Foreman (Lock
Albert B. Abreu, Arnold W. Jackson,
Leader Lock Operator (Electrician), to
Lead Foreman (Locks Control House).

Robert J. Blair, Lock Operator (Electri-
cian), to Leader Lock Operator (Elec-
James J. Boughner, Joseph A. Plaisance,
William R. Ward, Electrician, to Lock
Operator (Electrician).
James A. Jones, Painter, to Leader Painter.
William Hall, Leader Carpenter (Main-
tenance), to Leader Carpenter.
Arturo G. L6pez, Carpenter, to Leader
Raul Calder6n, Helper Lock Operator, to
Carpenter (Maintenance).
Camilo Polanco, Helper Lock Operator, to
Truck Driver.
Leonardo A. Illueca, Vernon R. Peart,
Helper Lock Operator, to Painter (Main-
Luis Rosero, Floating Plant Oiler, Dredg-
ing Division, to Line Handler.
Perfecto Conis, David A. Taylor, Estanis-
lao Urriola, Jr., Seaman, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Line Handler.
Gerardo Gill, Launch Seaman, Dredging
Division, to Line Handler.
Luis A. Gutidrrez, Theodore McEntosh,
Gilbert W. McZeno, Clifford E. Prescott,
Felipe Smith, Line Handler, to Helper
Lock Operator.
Walter E. Kellman, Heavy Laborer, Rail-
road Division, to Line Handler.
Industrial Division
Harry E. Townsend, General Foreman Ma-
chinist (Marine), to Chief Foreman
Machinist (Marine).
Carlos Grenard, Package Boy, Supply
Division, to General Helper.
John B. Morton, Jr., Accountant, Account-
ing Division, to Accounting Policies and
Procedures Staff.
Accounting Division
George T. Darnall, Jr., General Engineer
(Estimates), Engineering Division, to
Valuation Engineer (General).
Helen A. Adams, Clerk-Stenographer, Ad-
ministrative Branch, to Accounting Tech-
Dora W. Ung, Sales Clerk, Supply Divi-
sion, to Accounting Technician.
Supply Division
Florence M. Burns, Accounting Clerk, to
Accounting Assistant.
Mauricio J. Lovell, Clerk-Typist, to Supply
Clerk (Sales; Typing).
Samuel D. Toppin, Leader Maintenance-
man, from Navigation Division.
Jorge T. VAsquez, Laborer, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Laborer (Cleaner).
Community Services Division
Arthur C. Payne, Housing Project Assistant
(Assistant Manager, Cristobal Housing
Office), to Administrative Services Assist-
Nelson Marquinez, Laborer, from Dredg-
ing Division.
Marcelino Urena, Laborer, to Heavy

14 DECEMBER 7, 1962

Augustus Lemon, Truck Driver, to Heavy
Truck Driver, Motor Transportation
NicolAs E. Calder6n, Laborer, to Helper
Carman (Wood and Steel), Railroad
Terminals Division
Jan Mirrop, Leader Liquid Fuels Wharf-
man, to Liquid Fuels Dispatcher.
Alburt Watson, Winchman, to Leader
Stevedore (Ship).
Leonardo Velarde, Dock Worker, to Steve-
Marcus Aird, Edward J. Atherton, Cargo
Clerk, to Cargo Control Clerk.
John R. Burnham, Package Boy, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Felix Rios, Laborer, Dredging Division,
to Cargo Marker.
Jose Sosa, Milker, Supply Division, to Dock
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
Joseph L. Hickey, General Engineer, In-
dustrial Division.
Herbert A. Greene, Jr., Admeasurer, Navi-
gation Division.
George H. Moore, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Robert G. Orvis, Marine Traffic Controller,
Navigation Division.
Juan J. Saint Malo, Cartographic Com-
pilation Aid, Engineering Division.
Mario Pezzoti, Service Center Supervisor,
Supply Division.
Luis E. De Le6n, Bookkeeping Machine
Operator, Office of the Comptroller.
Jorge Hernmndez, Surveying Aid, Engineer-
ing Division.

Tankers' Size

Has Doubled

OCEAN TANKERS' average size
doubled in a period of 10 years. This is
because unit cost of tanker transporta-
tion (both building and operating costs)
tends to decrease as size of the vessel
increases-up to a point. For example,
cost of carrying crude oil from the
Caribbean to Western Europe is cut
approximately in half if 47,000-ton
supertankers are used instead of the
16,600-ton T-2 tankers of wartime
fame. Above about 70,000 tons incen-
tive to build larger ships levels off, as
potential economies are smaller. And,
of course, the larger the vessel, the
fewer the ports open to her.
Lloyd's Register of Shipping now lists
11 tankers with beams of 116 feet or
more, ranging up to 133 feet 5 inches.
Panama Canal lock chamber width is
110 feet. Length of these super-tankers
ranges up to nearly 950 feet and dead-
weight tonnage up to 104,520 tons.


IS SAFETY a waste of time?
What, if anything, has an organized
safety effort really accomplished in
improving the American way of life?
These are questions which might well
be asked by the American public after
having taken a stand for, and supported,

1921--- __ ___ 1 milli
1946 --_--_----- __---_-- 34 milli
1961 ----- ---- ------- 76 milli
I Deaths per 100 million miles traveled.
Home-In 1912 there were 21 million
homes, and an estimated 26,000 to
28,000 persons were killed in home
By 1961, the number of homes had
more than doubled, to 54 million, but
accidental deaths still totaled only
26,500 and the death rate was lowered
46 percent (from 28 per 100,000 to
15 per 100,000).
Public-Despite a population increase
of nearly 100 percent since 1912, and an
"explosion" in many forms of recrea-
tion, accidental deaths in public places
decreased almost 50 percent by 1961
(from an estimated 28,000-30,000 down
to 16,500), as the death rate decreased
50 percent from 30 percent per 100,000
to 9 percent per 100,000.
Work-The work force not only
doubled from 1912 to 1961, but it
produced four times as much goods.






organized Safety over the past 50 years
-vears in which there were fantastic
increases in automobile travel, factory
production, population, and home
Trafic-Despite fantastic increases in
travel, death rates have come steadily

550 billion
341 billion
735 billion



Despite this, accidental work deaths
decreased from an estimated 18,000-
20,000 to 13,000, and the death rate
per 100,000 population dropped from
21 to 7.
From these brief statistics can be
drawn a number of conclusions as to
what benefits have resulted from safety.
But probably the most thought-provok-
ing fact embodied in these statistics is
that there are literally hundreds of
thousands of men, women, and children
alive today, making valuable contribu-
tions to our national effort, to society,
and to American home life who would
not even have been born if their parents
had allowed themselves to become acci-
dent statistics during the past 50 years.
It is not at all unlikely that you and 1 are
among that fortunate group. If we are,
so are our children and, in turn, so will
their children be who are to come.

's1 '*2 *6s '12 '*C
261 7 11 288 3178
3049(699) 103 111(4) 18516 18538(95)
( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.



For, Against

.. or Neutral?



Ships' Names Match
Theme of Christmas

couldn't have been more appropriate if
they had been planned. The Northern
Star, a 1,400 passenger liner in round-
the-world service, will arrive at Balboa
December 23 and will transit Decem-
ber 24. The SS Jerusalem will berth
in Cristobal after the Northern Star
Christmas time will mark the second
time the Northern Star visits the Canal.
The new Shaw, Savill liner came here
on her maiden voyage September 12.
The Northern Star carries no cargo. The
liner is completely air-conditioned and
is equipped with closed-circuit tele-
vision in the public rooms. En route to
the Panama Canal, the Northern Star
will round the Cape at South Africa,
and will have visited Australia and New
Zealand, said W. Andrews & Co., local
agents for the liner.
The SS Jerusalem of the Zim Lines
will visit Cristobal December 26 on a
13-day Christmas-New Year cruise of
seven Caribbean ports. The fully air-
conditioned liner, which will sail from
the Port of Miami, carries 350 pas-


Commercial ..............
U.S. Government .........
Free ............. .....
Total. .............
Commercial.... $4,412,721
U.S. Government 56,964
Total.... $4,469,685

Free. .

racial. . 4,890,308
government 19,973
. ....... 51,676
Total.... 4,961,957

'Includes tolls on all vessels. ocean-go
"Cargo figures are in long tons.

sengers. The ship has an oul
a movie theater, a duty-free
center, two dance orchestra
entertainment. Ninety-five
the cabins are outside ones.
The SS Jerusalem is to doc
December 26 and will depar
that day, according to word r
the United Fruit Co., the loc

-GOING An expected Christmas Eve arrival
)BER will be the Zeider Kruis, on a round-the
world cruise. Another arrival close to
1962 1961 Christmas will be the Moore-McCor-
882 935 mack line SS Argentina, due to arrive
17 20 at Cristobal December 27 at 8 a.m.
9 2
-The State of Maine, the Maine Mari-
908 957 time Academy's schoolship, commanded
by Capt. A. F. Coffin, is due to visit
$4,647,565 Cristobal and Balboa January 25 to
82,336 January 28. The State of Maine, prior
to entering a sea career as a schoolship,
$4,729,900 was the former Panama Line SS Ancon.
The SS Elizabethport, a new 630-foot
5,284,258 jumbo container ship operated by Sea-
65,050 Land Service, Inc., whose route took
3,901 her through the Panama Canal on a
5,353,209 voyage from Newark, N.J., to Long
Beach and Oakland, Calif., inaugurated
ing and small, the first intercoastal container ship trade
and the United States' most revolu-
tionary freight lift (truck-sea-truck) in
many years. The vessel, a former T-2
door pool, tank ship, was the first ship to be
Shopping jumboized at a shipyard in the port of
s, and live New York.
percent of The Todd Shipyards Corp.'s Hoboken
k at 7 a.m. plant performed the extensive jumbo-
t at m. izing and conversion operation, which
Si involved removing the center portion of
Seceivd by the vessel and then fitting the bow
S. and stern sections to a new 417-foot
German-built midbody.

FERRYBOATS have been a familiar
Canal Zone sight the past 30 years as
they traveled back and forth between
the east and west banks of the Canal,
prior to the opening of the $20 million
Thatcher Ferry Bridge. But a ferryboat
transiting the Canal from south to north
merited second and third looks by
ferryboat fans.
The unusual Canal customer was the
Carquinez, traveling with the tug Capt.
Lew S. Russell, Jr., en route from
Portland, Oreg., to Jacksonville, Fla.
The Carquinez is larger than the
Panama Canal's former sister ferry-
boats Presidente Amador and President
Roosevelt, an overall length of 125 feet.
The Carquinez measures 180 feet and
is 67V feet wide. The tug towing the
Carquinez is 149 feet long and 33 feet
The ferryboat and tug docked at Pier
15 for engine repairs, water, and fuel
before the Canal transit.

DECEMBER 7, 1962



Commuter craft's first trip long one.

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