Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
IN THIS ISSUE
New Crosswalk Guards
ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor
Panama Canal Information Officer
Official Panama Canal Publication
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
ROBERT D. KERR and JULIO E. BRICErO
EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
WHEREAS the people of the Republic of Panama
observe the 59th anniversary of their independence
on November 3, 1962; and
WHEREAS the continued understanding and
friendship between the peoples of the Republic of
Panama and the Canal Zone set an example of
harmony for the rest of the world; and
WHEREAS it is a desire of the Canal Zone to give
due recognition to the vital role played in operation
of the Panama Canal by Panamanians, now and in
the past; and
WHEREAS the people of the Canal Zone join in
the aspirations of their neighbors in Panama for a
way of life which promises increased political,
spiritual, cultural, and economic well-being and
which are so vital for the growth of democratic
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Robert J. Fleming, Jr.,
Governor of the Canal Zone, do hereby invite all
the people of the Canal Zone to take part in
celebrating with Panama the 59th anniversary of her
independence on November 3, 1962.
I request all agencies of the Panama Canal to
encourage, foster and participate in the observance.
I especially encourage our schools, libraries, churches
and religious bodies, civic, service and patriotic
organizations, and our learned and professional
societies to participate in the observance as appro-
priate, all to the end of enriching our knowledge and
appreciation of the history of the neighboring
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, 1 have hereunto
set my hand and caused the seal of the
Canal Zone to be affixed at Balboa Heights,
Canal Zone this 18th day of October, 1962.
By the Governor:
6 oute of Jii tory
CELEBRATION on November 3 of the 59th anniversary of the
founding of the Republic of Panama provides an opportune time to
take note of other important dates in the history of the Isthmus, from
the time Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered Panama in 1501 to the
Among the many other dates spotlighting the route of Isthmian
history from the time of the first visits are the following:
1502-Christopher Columbus explored the Atlantic Coast of the
Isthmus, attempted to found Belen, but was prevented from doing so
by hostile Indians.
1508-Panama first was called "Tierra Firme" and "Castilla del Oro."
1510-The first city populated by Europeans on American soil, Santa
Maria la Antigua, was founded in Darien.
1513-Vasco Nufiez de Balboa and Martin Samudio were elected
the first mayors on American soil; Fray Juan de Quevedo was named
First Catholic Bishop in America; Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean
on September 25.
1519-Panama, first European settlement founded on the Pacific
coast of Isthmus, was established on August 15.
1520-First City Council (Cabildo) was established on American
soil, at Santa Maria la Antigua in Darien.
1521-Charles V granted Panama City charter and Coat of Arms.
1538-Royal Audiencia of Panama was created by Spanish Crown,
with jurisdiction to Nicaragua in the north and Argentina to the south,
and including Cartagena, Peru, and Chile; first transcontinental
highway, Panama to Portobelo, was built.
1671-Pirate Henry Morgan pillaged Panama City and inhabitants
put city to the torch.
1673-Panama City rebuilt 6 miles away from old site.
1698-Patterson established ill-fated Scottish settlement on Northern
coast of Darien Province.
1821-Panama declared its independence from Spain, joining Union
formed by Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
1826-First Inter-American Congress held in Panama City.
1830, 1831, and 1840-Panama frees self from Colombia and becomes
a sovereign State but rejoins Colombia again each time.
1855-First trans-continental railroad in America inaugurated in
Panama on January 28.
1880-French began unsuccessful attempt to build a Canal.
1903-Panama seceded from Colombia on November 3 and became
an independent Republic.
1904-United States started building the Panama Canal.
1914-Panama Canal opened to traffic.
1936-First revision of Panama-United States Canal Treaty effected.
1955-Revised Canal Treaty negotiated between Panama-United
1962-Opening of a high level bridge over the Canal.
Panama-United States Presidents appoint representatives to explore
possible Treaty modifications.
NOVEMBER 2, 1962
Manuel Guardia, left, and Rigoberto Quijada check
mechanization for "bossy."
THREE YOUNG Panamanians return to their agricultural
studies at the National Institute of Agriculture at Divisa
next week after several weeks of learning by doing at the
Mindi Farm on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus.
Manuel Guardia of La Pintada and Rigoberto Quijada
of Penonome are spending 6 weeks at the farm, while,
Cesar Alvarez is spending 5 weeks, having arrived a week
after the others.
During recent weeks they've been checked out on
hand milking, machine milking, general sanitation, milk-
room handling, pasteurization plant operation and bottling.
Along the route they've had on-the-job contact with such
diverse items as pouring of proper cement flooring, vac-
cination, tractor and bulldozer operation, fencing, record-
keeping, and study of grasses-including baling and
personal contact from the business end of a pitchfork.
(See next page)
Dr. Paul H. Dowell, Mindi Farm manager, explains advantages of
lime-coated floors: bacteria, algae are killed, it's non-skid, and
Trainees peer into huge bulk milk cooler.
And the boys show calf how it's done.
Dr. Dowell shows how needle is prepared.
Leon S. Willa, milk plant manager, at graphs showing tempera
milk is heated to, how long it's held at that level.
Bulk raw milk arrives in these.
Joint goals of the Divisa school and
Mind Farm are continued improvement
of sources of supply at farm level and
constantly widening spread of knowl-
edge of sanitation and processing prac-
tices to maintain adequate quality.
The Divisa school has been operating
a general agricultural course 8 years. In
recent years it has included on-the-job
training at ranches and farms many
S places on the Isthmus, with Mindi as
one of these.
Mr. Guardia and Mr. Quijada got
off to a fast start at Mindi. They helped
deliver a calf the day they arrived. Their
milking machine duties are not just
operational; they also learned to tear
down and repair the equipment. They
nature learned to throw and tie a horse, and
the best methods for restraining bulls
or cows, with least injury to the animal
The trainees live in family-type quar-
ters in Gatun, eat at the farm with a
farm family and, while learning and
doing, receive a token salary to cover
food and transportation costs and give
them a little spending money.
Two other young Panamanian dairy-
men have taken the same course. These
two are Alfredo Orange of Santiago and
Juan Manuel Peralta of Chitre.
Alfredo Orange has been working
since February 1962 as chief of milk
production for the La Estrella sugar
company in Aguadulee.
He showed signs of leadership from
early youth, and now has 60 employees
under his orders. His supervisors are
very satisfied with his work, for he has
shown great efficiency.
Tied up like Christmas package, horse not worried.
He nibbled grass.
Ven c4re AFo F e ciiSTned
CANAL ZONE motorists are accus-
tomed to slowing, or coming to a halt,
when approaching a crosswalk. In the
near future, astonished motorists may
need a shove to remind them to move on.
For, instead of a member of the Canal
Zone's finest keeping peak traffic and
pedestrians on the go, the traffic is to be
directed by crosswalk women guards.
Ten women are to be assigned in the
Balboa Cristobal districts communities.
They will not be policewomen, but will
be under Canal Zone police supervision
and police trained.
The crosswalk guards will be from
.21 to 50 years of age, and must be able
to read and speak English. Physical
fitness, mental alertness, I year general
office experience, or I year's completed
studies at a business school or junior
college, and moral soundness will be
While on duty, the crosswalk women
guards will wear dacron-and-wool skirts
of the same material and color as the
Canal Zone policemen's shirts, and
white dacron-and-cotton blouses. The
outfit will be completed with a natty
overseas type cap of the same material
as the skirt.
Each crossing guard will wear mini-
ature chrome badges, similar to the
Canal Zone police guard badges, on
shirt and cap, and each will have a
round shoulder patch bearing the Canal
With the employment of crosswalk
women guards, the Canal Zone is join-
ing important cities in the United States,
where women have been employed on
crosswalk traffic duty for some time.
The new look on the crosswalks of the
Canal Zone comes about as a follow-up
of a recommendation made by J. wV.
Kelly, executive secretary to the mayor
of Kansas City, Mo., when he visited
the Isthmus in March 1958.
At present the only uniformed women
who work with the Canal Zone Police
Division are the matrons at Gatun
Prison for women and juveniles.
Interested and qualified applicants
should contact Canal Zone Police Head-
quarters, Civil Affairs Building, during
Employment will be part time and
will be for about 20 hours each week,
during school terms.
Mrs. Frances Hunnicutt models one of the
new uniforms. She's secretary to Chief
E. S. Shipley of the Police Division of the
THE TIME when prisoners sat in cells
and marked off the days on the walls is
past. New practices in criminology and
penology are constantly improving the
rehabilitation chances of men who have
been convicted of crimes.
Men and women have been taken out
of the roles of mere guards and given
the responsibilities of counsellors, offer-
ing guidance and help to those under
A relatively small penal institution,
like the Canal Zone Prison at Gatun
has the opportunity to give special
attention to those people who need help
and want it. In addition to the wood-
shop, where the inmates are allowed to
do constructive work, and the extensive
grounds used for fruit growing and
recreation, Gatun Prison has instituted
a special program geared toward im-
proving the educational background of
The program was first started more
than 6 years ago when Eloise Games,
of the teaching staff of Rainbow City
Elementary School, volunteered to con-
duct classes at the prison in Gatun.
Instruction was given I hour weekly
in Spanish on school subjects consistent
with the educational level and ability
of the inmates, following the Canal Zone
Latin American school curriculum.
The program was expanded to classes
on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays
from 1 to 3 p.m. under a teacher
assigned by the Canal Zone Division
of Schools and now has been extended
even further to the hours of 7:30 to
9:30 a.m. Monday through Friday under
the direction of Mrs. Yvonne Frederick
Wood for the male prisoners. One-half
hour classes are held daily for the
women prisoners who wish to attend.
"No inmate is forced to attend these
classes, but I can't remember any who
have refused to go," says Sgt. George
A. Martin, sergeant-in-charge at the
Gatun Prison. The boys look forward to
the hours in classes and many of them
who could only make an "X" for their
names and couldn't even tell time when
they entered the prison soon could do
both-and more as their educational
levels were raised.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
PANAMA'S FIRE BRIGADE, founded
75 years ago with two small hand-
engines, today is proudly referred to
by fellow firefighters in the Canal
Zone as "one of the best volunteer fire
departments in the world."
So high is the prestige of Panama's
firefighters on the continent that they
have been invited to organize similar
fire departments in Colombia, Nicara-
gua, and Venezuela, as well as assisting
in organization of such units elsewhere
in Latin America.
Today the fire brigade possesses
modern equipment, but the early Pan-
ama firefighters had to surmount one
difficulty after another. Chief problem
was lack of water, for Panama City in
the 1880's had no aqueduct and, as one
historian states, "either by unhappy
coincidence or by the calculation of
criminals, fires always seemed to occur
during the hours of low tide so that it
was almost impossible to obtain suffi-
cient ocean water to combat the flames."
Finances posed almost as great a
View of the disastrous San Miguel area fire
in Panama City. The flames leveled three
blocks of dwellings. Canal Zone fire truck
can be seen in background.
problem as water, for the fire brigade
was supported mainly by contributions
In Panama City, with reorganization
of the firefighters and election of David
H. Brandon as Commander in 1903,
matters took a turn for the better. Com-
mander Brandon's first action was
toward supplying the city with water
through construction of large reservoirs.
While the greater part of the fire brigade
still was formed by volunteers, per-
manent guards were established in
barracks in several quarters of the city.
The Colon fire department owes its
origin to a disastrous fire on March 31,
1885, when the city was entirely con-
sumed, with the exception of the build-
ings of the Panama Railroad, the French
Canal Company, and the Pacific Mail
Steamship Line. The loss was estimated
at $6 million and 10,000 persons
were left shelterless. As a result, the
Colombian Government authorized
organization of a fire brigade.
The 1885 fire was started by a group
of insurgents at the outset of a so-called
"revolution." The insurgents arrested
Mr. Wright, the American consul; Cap-
tain Dow, the general agent of the
steamship company; the local agent,
Mr. Conner; and Lieutenant Judd and
Midshipman Richardson of the U.S.S.
Galena, then in port. During the night
Captain Kane of the U.S. warship
landed a force, and the next day Colom-
bian troops came over from Panama.
The insurgents were routed, but not
before they set fire to the town.
Panama City has had disastrous fires,
but none of the magnitude of some of
Colon's April conflagrations. "April
seems to be the month of tragedy for
the Colon fire brigade," says a history
of the corps. In fact, an April fire in
Colon which occurred in 1940 is cre-
dited with a major change in organiza-
tion of Panama firefighting forces.
Only six firemen of the permanent
fire company were on duty in Colon on
April 13, 1940 when a fire was reported
in a 30-year-old wooden house on 6th
Street in the Atlantic terminal city.
A general alarm was sounded after a
brisk wind fanned the flames to nearby
structures. Firemen of Panama City and
the Canal Zone, as well as volunteers,
entered the battle against the flames.
Canal Zone tug boats put 800 feet of
hose into use to throw up a water screen
on the blocks from Front Street to
Balboa Avenue. Dynamite was used on
burning houses on 9th, 10th, and 13th
Streets. After 7 hours' work, during
which the firefighters were hampered
by panic-stricken citizens who filled the
streets by the hundreds, the fire was
brought under control. But 293 build-
ings, most of them of wood construction,
had been destroyed and the fire loss
totalled $4 million.
That conflagration was a turning
point in the history of Panama fire-
fighting, for organization of a permanent
fire department was undertaken, "with
the members to be paid a living wage."
Modern Panama City's greatest fire
tragedy, commemorated by a statue in
Fifth of May Plaza, was the explosion
on May 5, 1914, of the powder maga-
zine, then situated in the vicinity of the
old Casino. Several members of the
Cuerpo de Bomberos lost their lives and
a number of others were left invalids.
The Second Commander, Daro Valla-
rino, and Jose Thompson, one of the
Chief W. G. Dolan and William E. Jones,
former chief of the Canal Zone Fire Depart-
ment, joined Second Comandante Luis C.
Endara and group of Panama firemen
during ceremonies marking the 70th anni-
versary of the Panama brigade in 1957.
seniors in the Brigade, each lost a leg
in the catastrophe.
Throughout the 75 years of its history,
the Panama fire brigade has lived
up to its motto, "Discipline, Honor,
Besides the functions inherent to fire-
fighters, the Panama fire department
has, in national emergencies, acted as
guardian of public order. In 1931 a
political movement in Panama City,
Colon, and other areas of the Republic,
resulted in panic and chaos.
The firemen of Colon and Panama
City were called upon to establish and
maintain order in both cities. Fire-
fighters were on duty day and night
until the country returned to normal.
"Never were citizen rights and order
better guaranteed than when the men
in the red shirts served as police," stated
Panama Governor Efrain Tejada in
commending the firefighters for this
As the Cuerpo de Bomberos of Pan-
ama prepare to observe the organiza-
tion's 75th anniversary this month, its
members can look with pride on the
record of service written by them and
their predecessors in combating fire and
RAUL ARANGO N., Panama fire chief
since April 1950.
Canal Zone fire engine joins in parade held in Panama City during Fire Prevention Week.
"' I ',, 7 .. .
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Ht pr e-fu ntl'l r, I uI;'l, t. Jl-j ia II.r la-.. 7 1-r, J.,ill Ir n'.rl. t 1..I bip rhi
the bridge seated in reserved area at dedication ceremonies. From left
to right, they are: Capt. George F. Hudson, a senior Canal pilot: Anthony
Poczatek, one of the many who labored on the bridge; and German
Batista, a small farmer whose products will move to market across
The Honorable Stephen Ailes, Under Secretary of the Army and Chair-
man nt the Board of the Panama Canal, poses heside memorial to lohn
F. Stevens in Balboa with John F. Stevens III, and Mrs. John U. Hlawks,
grandchildren of the Canal engineer. Mr. Ailes was the main speaker.
S *... .... ... ..... ':::
.. .. ., . . .
*** 1 __ _
Pelican State steams under Thatcher Ferry Bridge to become first ocean-going vessel to pass under structure after official
dedication October 12.
olom- V P
emala, A number n( Isthmian oldtimers made a partial transit of the Canal and shared a buffet aboard
Las Cruces during the dedication weekend.
Approximately 2,500 Isthmian residents gathered in Balboa for dedication of Stevens Circle on October t3.
Maurice II. Thatcher snips ribbon opening bridge, as Governor rlemmg,
Frank A. Baldwin, and many of those attending ceremonies watch.
IN THE SCENES...
AND BEHIND THEM
THE DEDICATION of Thatcher Ferry
Bridge and Stevens Circle last month
involved many people and events which
escaped public notice in the press of
more urgent "news." A lew of these
events and some of the people involved
in them are presented on these pages.
This month's cover picture also in-
volves a group which participated in the
dedication ceremonies for Thatcher
Ferry Bridge, but of which only minor
note was taken at the time of the event.
Thie picture shows members of the
american Round Table displaying
of various countries in the hemispl
Flags displayed by the group, h'
by Ester de Boutaud as president,
of Panama, the United States, I
Bolivia, Canada, El Salvador, H
ras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Dom
Republic, Uruguay, Venezuela, C
bia, Paraguay, Argentina, Ecu
Costa Rica, Haiti, Chile, Guate
Ferryboat President Boosevelt moves through locks on way to Gamboa
after being removed from service in wake of bridge opening.
Several hundred guests from the Atlantic side traveled across the Isthmus
aboard special trains during the 2 days of events.
Josephus Liverpool, president of the Canal Zone Betired Workers
Association, and Karl Curtis of Camboo, both construction-era Canal
employees, watch dedication of Stevens Circle from speaker's stand.
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
September 5 through October 5
EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between September 5 and
October 5 are listed here. Vithin-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
William S. Wigg, from Management Tech-
nician to Supervisory Management Tech-
Cleveland C. Soper, from Photographer,
Information Office, Canal Zone Guide
Service, to Photographic Laboratory
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Rudolph R. Beatty, Clerk-Typist, from In-
dustrial Division to Fire Division.
Fitardo A. Henry, from Kitchen Attendant
to Cook, Customs Division.
Dick R. Brandom, from Clerk-in-Charge,
City Division, Balboa, to Finance Branch
Donald H. Secrest, from Window Clerk
to Relief Supervisor, Cristobal.
Division of Schools
Mildred S. Rowe, from Substitute Teacher
and Visiting Teacher to Elementary
and Secondary School Teacher.
Martha Mh. Browder, Jane A. Gruver, Mary
F. Harmon, Rosario R. Maymi, Janice
C. Pitts, Sara H. Platt, Rosalie A. Rowell,
from Substitute Teacher to Elementary
and Secondary School Teacher.
Carlos A. Vaz, Jr., from Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher, Latin Amer-
ican Schools, to Senior High Principal,
Latin American Schools.
Ana T. Bennett, from Elementary and Sec-
ondary School Teacher, Latin American
Schools, to Elementary Teacher-Prin-
cipal, Latin American Schools.
Janet A. Marshall, from Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Senior High
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Millicent F. Forcheney, from Substitute
Teacher, Latin American Schools, to
Elementary Teacher, Latin American
Nora D. Brown, Kathleen D. Stromberg.
from Student Aid to Recreation Assistant
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Mary T. Herring, from Student Assistant,
Contract and Inspection Division, to
Clerk-Typist, Balboa Bridge Project.
Katherine G. Ileadrick, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher to Accounting Clerk (Stenog-
Rosemary D. Reardon, from Supervisory
Clerical Assistant to Accounting Assist-
Klaus Reichert, from Seaman, to Launch
Manuel Macias, from Seaman to Winch-
Adolfo C. Quintero, from Winchman to
Domingo Mufioz, from Boatman to Sea-
Laureano Hidalgo, Crist6bal Torres, from
Railroad Trackman, Railroad Division,
Dionisio De Le6n, from Grounds Main-
tenance Equipment Operator, Com-
munity Services Division, to Boatman.
Guillermo L6pez, from Laborer Cleaner to
Agustin Torres, from Heavy Laborei, Pan-
ama Local Agency, to Helper Core Drill
Howard E. Munro, from Power System
Dispatcher to Chief Power System
Norman C. Anderson, from Shift Engineer
(Mechanical) to Test Operator-Foreman
Cosme Morales, from Laborer Cleaner to
Helper Cable Splicer.
Francisco A. Estrada, from Pinsetter,
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Mary N. Sanders, Clerk-Typist, from Coco
H6ctor NM. De Souza, from Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Plant Operator to
Electrical Equipment Repairman.
Alfonso D. Gittens, from Laborer to Leader
Isidro Avila, Evert NM. Plato, from Laborer
to Heavy Laborer.
Joseph F. Shea, Engineman (Hoisting and
Portable) from Motor Transportation
Elbert T. Chappell, Jr., Velder, from In-
Margaret R. Goulet, from Staff Nurse,
Medicine and Surgery, to Staff Nurse,
Carol J. Smith, from Staff Nurse to Staff
Jeanene K. Zimmerman, from Voucher
Examiner, Supply Division, to Clerk-
Joseph D. Buendia, from Ward Service
Aid to Nursing Assistant, Medicine and
Mary E. Ausnehmer, from Staff Nurse,
Medicine and Surgery, to Head Nurse,
Lloyd G. Wilson, from Bell Boy and Special
\Vaiter, Supply Division, to Nursing
William NM. Brown, from Wood and Steel
Carman, Railroad Division, to Marine
Walter J. Williams, from Laborer Cleaner,
Division of Schools, to Heavy Laborer.
M. Lucille Behre, from Clerk-Typist, Divi-
sion of Preventive Medicine and Quaran-
tine, to Stock Control Clerk.
Earl A. Escalona, from General Helper to
Oliver II. Hendrickson, Joseph H. Young,
from Leader Lock Operator Machinist
to Lead Foreman Lock Operations.
Kenneth F. Millard, from Electrician, Elec-
trical Division, to Lock Operator Elec-
Baldur Norman, from Lock Operator Car-
penter to Lead Foreman Carpenter.
Kenneth P. Scanlon, from Machinist to
Lock Operator Machinist.
Hortensio Gutierrez, from Maintenance
Painter to Painter.
Cleveland Bennett, Dudley Francis, Emi-
liano Mares, from Line Handler to Main-
Robert J. King, Clerk-Typist, from Gorgas
Joseph L. Findlay, Gilberto Morales,
Samuel Walker, from Line Handler to
Helper Lock Operator.
Dodson Hinds, from Line Handler to
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Louis C. Caldwell, from Time, Leave, and
Payroll Clerk to Accounting Technician.
Myron A. Schroeder, from Accountant to
Burton F. Mead, from Voucher Examiner
to Accounting Technician.
Pauline L. Blais, Lucille D. Van Riper,
from Accounting Technician to Voucher
Fulvio Terin, Training Instructor, Con-
versational Spanish, from Office of the
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Community Services Division
Alejandro G6mez, Diego Martinez, Lab-
orer, from Dredging Division.
Eduardo D. Armas, Jose Del C. Moran,
Francisco Pinz6n, from Laborer to
Grounds Maintenance Equipment Oper-
Cayetano HernAndez, from Laborer Cleaner
to Heavy Laborer.
Phyllis D. Powers, from Service Center
Supervisor to Accounting Assistant.
Reginald A. Carter, Ronald Chambers, Jr.,
David J. Failey, Hector J. Markland,
Newton Walker, from Commissary Serv-
ice Trainee to Meat Cutter Assistant.
Oscar Edmund, Jr., from Counter Attend-
ant to Food Service Sales Checker.
George C. Bennett, from Utility Worker to
Roy A. Cox, Cyril E. Hewitt, Ivy F. Lewis,
from Utility Worker to Counter Attend-
Arthur NM. Butcher, Harold Hall, from
Laborer Cleaner to Utility Worker.
Morton F. Levee, from Theater Usher to
Robert C. Husband, from Package Boy to
Elias Gill, from Package Boy to Laborer
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
William B. Huff, from Administrative
Assistant to Supervisory Cargo Checking
Tomis A. Salinas, from Maintenanceman to
Leader Painter (Maintenance).
Domingo Quintero, from Line Handler to
Leader Line Handler.
Walton G. Green, Albert A. McQueen,
from Heavy Laborer to Cargo Checker.
NOVEMBER 2, 1962
Dimas Alvarado, Juan M. Arauz, Delfin
Garcia, Pedro Martinez, Humberto Ossa,
Bernab6 Saavedra, from Dock Worker
Crist6bal Cedeio, from Heavy Laborer,
Dredging Division, to Dock Worker.
Celio Cedeno, Julian Gonzalez, from
Laborer, Dredging Division, to Dock
Leopold T. Douglas, from Line Handler to
Gouldbourn Lewis, from Dock Worker to
Calixto Villarreal, from Surveying Aid,
Engineering Division, to Dock Worker.
Federico Hudson, from Laborer, Mainte-
nance Division, to Cargo Marker.
Alberto Mufioz, from General Helper,
Maintenance Division, to Dock Worker.
Motor Transportation Division
Paul R. Kuyoth, from Supervisory Trans-
portation Operations Officer (Motor)
(Chief, Southern District) to Motor
Transportation Operations Officer (Chief,
Maurice L. McCullough from Super-
visor Transportation Operations Officer
(Motor) (Chief, Northern District) to
Motor Transportation Operations Office
(Chief, Northern District).
Elsie E. Yates, from Clerk-Stenographer to
Clerical Assistant (Stenography).
Cecile C. Marceau, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher to Secretary (Stenography).
Michael A. Shan, from Accounting Clerk
Clifford E. Bovell, Victor H. Hines, from
Helper Automotive Mechanic (Body and
Fender) to Glazier (Limited).
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title follow:
Paul J. Coleman, Valuation Engineer (Gen-
eral), Accounting Division.
Norbert M. Schommer, Supervisory Ac-
countant (Chief, Budget and Statistics
Section), Office of General Manager,
Gerard L. Lavigne, Industrial Engineer
(General), Industrial Division.
Thomas J. Dwyer, Leon N. Sharpensteen,
Leon T. Williams, Admeasurer, Naviga-
George A. Black, Jr., Supervisory Account-
ing Assistant, Motor Transportation Divi-
James D. Dunaway, Finance Branch Super-
intendent, Postal Division.
George H. Moore, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Grace E. MacVittie, General Claims Exam-
iner, General Audit Division, Claims
Joseph J. Wood, Jr., Graduate Intern (Ad-
ministrative Services), Administrative
Marie D. Quinn, Medical Radiology Tech-
nician (Diagnosis), Gorgas Hospital.
George B. Erskine, Raymond D. Parker,
Accounting Clerk, Motor Transportation
Ricardo A. Honeywell, Clerk, Customs
Marcus M. Smith, File Clerk, Gorgas Hos-
Harold G. Fergus, Utility Worker, Supply
Charles C. James, Utility Worker, Customs
A gob of this and a touch of that. It may be a work of art. Mrs. H. M. Armistead, center,
seems pleased as she watches pupils Gail Harrison, Nancy Burns, Jim Young, Jenise
McDaniel, and Gene Benson as they work on their ceramics projects in the basement
of her Balboa house.
Potterying, Not Puttering
"THE POTTERY. Jump in and have
fun with us."
This is the sign on the workshop door.
And the sign really means what it says.
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Armistead, who
live on Barnabv Street in Balboa, are
like pied pipers.
Everyone from the maid to the little
kids down the street to the older mem-
bers of the community can be found
most any time working with clay in
various stages of its development into
ashtrays, dishes, vases, pitchers, or
Regular classes are held Friday
evenings from 7 to 10, officially, but
often the members of the class work
far into the night if they "really get
wrapped up in something."
Mrs. Armistead became interested in
ceramics during college where she
also worked in sculpture. "We first
started to learn about ceramics from the
books in the library, and then to find
out if we were really interested in it,
we took a course from Vada Pence who
lived in Balboa but has since retired
and now is in the States." Since then,
they have had their basement converted
into a work area and storage space
complete with two kilns, one of which
was constructed by Mr. Armistead.
PAMANA CANAL employees who
retired in September, with the positions
they held at the time of retirement and
their years of service with the Canal
Louis W. Chenis, cement finisher, Main-
tenance Division; 40 years, 16 days.
Santiago C6rdoba C., stevedore, Terminals
Division; 22 years, 11 months, 5 days.
Kenneth MI. Edwards, general foreman lock
operator, Locks Division; 28 years,
4 months, 6 days.
Raymond L. Harvey, auto machinist, Motor
Transportation Division; 16 years, 5
months, 21 days.
Robert E. Howell. helper wood and steel
carman, Railroad Division; 47 years,
3 months, 17 days.
Philibert J. Jeanmarie, letterpress pressman,
Printing Plant, Administrative Branch;
38 years, 5 months, 27 days.
Gonzalez Joseph, chauffeur, Motor Trans-
portation Division; 39 years, 2 months,
Daniel Lawrence, helper machinist, Rail-
road Division; 20 years, 9 months, 15
Henri E. Moehrke, chief engineer, towboat
or ferry, Dredging Division; 29 years,
William R. Simmons, cement finisher,
Maintenance Division; 34 years, 3
months, 6 days.
Henslee S. Smith. police private, Police
Division; 1 year, 11 months.
Ashton B. Spence, deckhand, Navigation
Division; 10 years, 8 months, 21 days.
Stewart P. Trail, police captain, Police
Division; 26 years, 4 months.
Robert E. Welborn, fire lieutenant, Fire
Division; 18 years, 1 month, 7 days.
THE PANAMA CANAL REV1EW
50 yearJ cgo
PANAMA CANAL toll rates were an-
nounced in a proclamation by President
William Howard Taft of the United
States on November 13, half a century
ago. Merchant vessels carrying pas-
sengers or cargo were to be charged on
the basis of actual earning capacity.
Vessels in ballast were to be charged
40 percent less than the rate for vessels
with passengers or cargo.
The largest force in the Canal's
history, 40,159 persons, was at work on
the Canal and railroad at the end of
November 1912. The personnel figure
included 3,499 men employed by the
contractors on the lock gates and similar
work, and the development of the lock
machinery under the Assistant Chief
Engineer of the Panama Canal.
The contract for the manufacture and
construction of two 56-foot gate leaves
and anchorages complete for the new
drydoek at Balboa was awarded to the
McClintic-Marshall Construction Co.,
the only firm that submitted a bid. The
contract called for manufacture of the
leaves, the assembly of one of them at
the company's shops, and the erection
of the gate complete in 425 days for
The grand total of Canal excavation
to November 1 was 182,991,045 cubic
yards, leaving 29,235,955 cubic yards,
or a little less than one-sixth of the entire
amount necessary for the completed
Canal to be excavated.
25 year c4go
"BOYCOTT JAPAN" posters were
being issued free by one of the Panama
newspapers as part of a campaign to
"aid China in her brave fight against a
ruthless invader," the paper said. The
Canal Zone commissaries were asked to
stock lisle stockings for the benefit of
Zone ladies who wished to actively
participate in the boycott.
On November 24, 1937, the ashes of
Gen. Jay J. Morrow, third Governor of
the Panama Canal, were scattered to
the swirling waters of the Chagres as
they pounded over Gatun Spillway.
Benediction was by Father E. J. Cooper
and flowers were strewn on the waters
by boys and girls of the then famous
Red, White, and Blue Troop, followed
by an 11-gun salute.
10 years cIgo
CANAL TRAFFIC and tolls broke all
previous records during October,
according to final statistics for the month
released on November 17, 1952. Final
figures on tonnage were not vet avail-
able, but it was expected that these, too,
would top previous highs. There were
674 transits of the Canal by ocean-going
commercial vessels and the tolls totalled
A special supplement of TlE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW containing essential
facts on the proposed rent increase was
distributed by mail to all U.S. employees
of the Canal organization. Featured in
the supplement was a financial state-
ment showing comparative costs in oper-
ation of the U.S. employee quarters for
the fiscal year 1947 and for 1952. and
the projected financial results after the
rental increase scheduled to become
effective December 7.
One year 4go
THRONGS OF Canal Zone residents.
led by Gov. W. A. Carter, joined their
Panamanian neighbors in observing Flag
Day ceremonies and a 3-hour long
parade as part of the celebration of
Panama's 58th Independence Day.
Speaking in Spanish, the Governor wel-
comed the officials and spectators at
Shaler Triangle in the Canal Zone for
the ceremony of the pledge of allegiance
which opened the observances.
Seat Belts Protect
Good Drivers, Too
WE DEPLORE senseless speeding like
that which recently caused a car in the
States carrying two young men to skid
250 feet on a sharp curve, change lanes,
skid another 90 feet back into its own
lane, skid 50 feet more, flip over, sail
15 feet through the air, slide upside
down for 49 feet, carom off a stone wall,
and flip back onto its wheels.
Yes, the car was a mess: but the
occupants received only minor bruises.
Both were wearing seat belts. They
were lucky- but how lucky' would an
innocent family have been if it had
been coming the other way in a car
without seat belts and couldn't get out
of the way of that bouncing, sliding
wreck? Obviously, seat belts offer pro-
section for good as well as bad drivers.
A warning has been issued by The
Society of the Plastics Industry that
most plastic "Jerry" cans (shaped like
those Cl metal gasoline cans during
World War 11) are not safe for storing
gasoline. At temperatures from about
145 degrees Fahrenheit and up, easily
reached in the trunk of a car or the
covered bow of an outboard boat on
a hot day, gasoline will disintegrate the
Don't be deceived by the shape of
plastic cans. The safest way to carry
spare gasoline is in heavy gage metal
cans carrying the approval of the Under-
writers' Laboratories or Factory Mutual
SEPTEMBER FIRST AID DISABLING DAYS
CASES INJURIES LOS T
'62 '61 '62 '61 '62 '61
ALL UNITS 227 236 9 4 280 365
YEAR TO DATE 2217 2788(699) 95 100(4) 8228 15360(95)
( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.
NOVEMBER 2, 1962
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
NS RUCTI U
S orem, buildings)
S rIL N C N UNITY
E ICE UAU
\VilliaLma. A. fill
Howard S. al
Chief, C unicatio
Charles \V. Hu
Supervisory Constr til
George V. I
Dario E. Perez
Leonard B. Wilson
SE 'I BUREAU
Clifford Nil s
Field Tra to Operator
Mack P. Ao
Carba C sector
S ROTATION AND
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
George L. Cooper
Robert P. Carey
Hubert S. Wilson
Ivan B. Hooker
Faye C. Minton
Egbert F. R. Watson
Walwin H. Gaynor
Louis L. Seldon
Jes6s NI. Moreno
Vicente Angel Smith
Inez D. Barker
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
C. V. Torstenson
Dixie P. Bender
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Raymond F. Hesch
Lock Operator Machinist
Antonio N. Hudson
Helper Lock Operator
Helper Lock Operator
Enos A. Williams
Pedro A. Gasparini
Juan R. Valladares
Jonas P. Archibold
Helper Lock Operator
Frank H. Thomas
Li el ton
1 in na en nn
Fra li E. hi ips
au h pe t oor
elper Lok erator
u Yun Sing
OFFICE OF THE
Francis J. Reilly
Plant Accounting Assistant
Nye C. Norris
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Curtis B. Parnther
Retail Store Sales Checker
Maudline A. Lashley
Food Service Sales Checker
Pura C. Adams
Amanda T. Green
Miguel A. Pineda
Violet K. Delrozario
Rene J. Agnoly
Flora E. Sutherland
Stock Control Clerk
Ruben N. Padmore
Catalina C. Mendoza
Roy A. Carter
John Louis Smith
Helper Liquid Fuels
Leopold V. Dutton
Harris T. Phillips
Homer L. Marcum
Heavy Truck Driver
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 Transit'
United States intercoastal-_----- ------------ 113 118 178
East coast of United States and South America __.. 599 643 387
East coast of United States and Central America - 118 120 113
East coast of United States and Far East __------ 536 535 239
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia - 82 62 49
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada 227 214 167
Europe and South America_ ------- -------- 321 268 111
Europe and Australasia ____--- ------------- 90 77 83
All other routes - - - - - - - - - - - 751 663 353
Total traffic_----------------------- 2,837 2,700 1,680
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
GTr s ross Tolls *
Transits (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1963 1962 Transits 1963 1962 Tolls
July 1961 -------- 978 931 557 $4,980 $4,776 $2,432
August- ----_- -- 950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403
September - - - 909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431
October __----- -607 2,559
November 568 2,361
December -_--- 599 2,545
January 1962------ 580 2,444
February 559 2,349
March 632 2,657
April 608 2,588
May- 629 2,672
June- -- 599 2,528
3-month_ _ 1,681 $7,266
Fiscal year___ 2,837 2,757 7,062 $14,523 $14,048 $29,969
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 1951-55
Number Tons Number Tons Average Average
of of of of number tons
transits cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
Belgian -_--_- 20 26,376 6 26,034 1 2,307
British-----_ 314 2,012,718 271 1,788,327 286 1,753,044
Chilean -__- -- 36 203,165 32 226,270 15 67,567
Chinese ---__- 28 183,627 18 95,801 3 28,206
Colombian - 70 115,063 59 107,020 35 40,056
Danish -- _---- 78 398,827 101 328,024 60 220,751
Ecuadoran -- 16 13,642 13 24,684 34 20,882
French-----.. 26 204,148 44 216,402 31 129,938
German ------ 300 876,260 275 887,886 38 85,956
Greek - -- 162 1,572,161 157 1,498,122 28 221,195
Honduran---- 34 32,653 43 31,973 93 131,492
Israeli---__. 27 44,776 6 4,092 __
Italian------- 49 238,172 47 236,931 30 146,915
Japanese------ 235 1,256,617 223 1,328,877 57 367,978
Liberian------ 207 1,611,840 272 2,222,645 31 189,420
Netherlands_ -_ 164 841,287 113 666,393 28 131,769
Nicaraguan __- 14 13,536 20 42,264 4 3,288
Norwegian __- 366 2,313,389 301 2,005,177 189 723,252
Panamanian..-- 122 413,107 71 431,025 96 548,900
Peruvian--___. 21 127,445 18 80,438 5 13,392
Philipine 18 53,257 5 26,990 6 30,561
Swedish _-- 95 577,583 70 353,744 48 183,337
United States 411 2,290,839 497 3,011,115 538 3,364,851
All others ----- 24 173,305 38 146,264 24 97,633
Total_ 2,837 15,593,793 2,700 15,786,498 1,680 8,502,690
SS "France" on Cruise
THE FRENCH LINE'S famous France,
the worlds longest ship, is due to make
a call at Cristobal next March on a
winter cruise. The 1,033-foot luxury
liner will arrive March 25 and dock at
pier 9, which is 1,036 feet long. Port
authorities believe the ship can be com-
fortably brought to dock with the use
of a pair of harbor tugs.
Built last year and put into service
in February, the France is too large to
use the Panama Canal. She not only is
too long to fit into the Canal locks, but
also too wide. The big ship has a
110.6-foot beam and weighs in at 67,000
gross tons. This will be her first visit to
the Canal, the French Line in Cristobal
Cruise Season Under Way
THE 1962-63 cruise season began last
month with the arrival of the Norwe-
gian American Line Oslofjord and the
Swedish American Kungsholm. A num-
ber of well-known luxury liners will
follow them to Canal Ports during the
next few months.
In addition to the France, which will
make her maiden visit to the Canal,
ships lined up for cruises which will
include Panama are the Homeric and
Hanseatic of the Home Lines; Grip-
sholm and Kungsholm of the Swedish
American Line; the Norwegian Ameri-
can liner Bergansfjord; the Stella Polaris
out of New Orleans; The Zim Line's
well-known Jerusalem; Moore-MacCor-
mack's Argentina; Grace Line's Santa
Paula; the United States of the United
States Line; the Bremen of the North
German Lloyd Line; the Rotterdam and
Nieuiv Amsterdam of the Holland-
America Line; the American Export
Line's Independence; and the Empress
of England of the Canadian Pacific
C. B. Fenton & Co., agents for several
of the shipping lines, have announced
that most of these vessels will visit Cris-
tobal for a day or two as part of a cruise
through the Caribbean islands. The
Kunlgsholm, however, is due at Cristobal
January 22 and will transit the Canal
the following day on her way to the
South Seas. The Bergansfjord, due Jan-
uary 21, also is bound for the South
Pacific. Both will return to the Canal
in March and April on their way back
to New York.
The small luxury cruise ship Stella
Polaris, which will come to Cristobal
NOVEMBER 2, 1962
from New Orleans, is due here both
February 28 and March 2. She will call
at the San Blas Islands before docking
Panama Agencies have announced
that the Grace liner Santa Paula proba-
bly will make a call at the Canal Novem-
ber 17 on her way back to New York
following a cruise to the Caribbean.
This same agency handles the huge
United States, which, next to the France,
will be the largest commercial vessel
to dock in Cristobal this year. The
United States is due February 9 and in
March, following calls at Nassau,
Martinique, Trinidad and Curacao.
The Jerusalem, operated by the Zim
Lines, will make two calls, according to
the United Fruit Co. The first will be
December 26 and the second Feb-
ruary 12. This company also represents
the Argentina, which is slated for three
The Bremen of the North German
Lloyd Line is calling twice this year and
the Rotterdam will call at the Canal in
April on her way back to New York
after a round-the-world cruise. The
Nieuw Amsterdam, an old cruise cus-
tomer, will call at Cristobal once in
Dedicated To Panama
THE $17,500,000 Grace Line pas-
senger-cargo ship Santa Maria, spon-
sored jointly by Mrs. Aquilino Boyd,
wife of the Panamanian Ambassador to
the United Nations, and by Mrs. Edwin
M. Martin, wife of the Assistant Secre-
tary of State for Inter-American Affairs,
is dedicated to the Republic of Panama.
Two of the Santa Maria's sister ships,
the Santa Magdalena, dedicated to the
Republic of Colombia, and the Santa
Mariana, dedicated to the Republic of
Ecuador, are being completed. The
Magdalena will be the first of the
20-knot, 127-passenger liners to go into
service the early part of next year.
A fourth sister ship, as yet unnamed,
dedicated to the Republic of Peru, will
be built on the ways from which the
Maria was launched last month.
The Santa Maria will have accommo-
dations for 127 passengers in air-condi-
tioned first-class quarters. Her cargo
space of 616,200 cubic feet can
handle containers, cargo packed on
pallets, liquids, and shipments requiring
refrigeration or cooling.
The new Grace Line vessels will
operate from New York to the Carib-
bean, the Canal Zone, and the Pacific
coast of South America.
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
I First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Ocean-going ---_---- -------
Small *------------- -----
Total commercial -------
U.S. Government vessels: **
Ocean-going _------ --------
to to Total
Pacific I Atlantic __
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
emrnment --------------- 1,520
*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
"*Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodity1963 1962 Average
1963 1962 15-
Ores, various --------------------- 1,744,426 2,003,487 987,567
Lumber ------------ ----------- 846,560 777,993 798,109
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) -- 423,933 555,489 339,598
Wheat_- ----- ----------------- 101,464 116,196 473,208
Sugar ----------------------- 539,182 791,009 346,218
Canned food products---- ---- ------ 257,815 260,157 309,830
Nitrate of soda--------------------- 154,428 183,833 250,093
Barley ---------- ------------- 119,884 46,511 25,235
Bananas----- ---------------- 260,739 249,295 155,958
Metals, various--------------------- 259,404 276,972 175,110
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)_------------ ---------- 214,947 171,829 142,823
Coffee----------------- 131,022 105,792 60,065
Fishmeal --------- ------------ 211,528 -- - -
Iron and steel manufactures ---- ------- 179,013 89,677 39,171
Pulpwood -------- - ------------ 147,650 119,882 44,248
All others _---------- ---------- 1,158,907 1,132,619 722,517
Total ------------------ 6,750,902 6,880,741 4,869,750
Atlantic to Pacific
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
1963 1962 15
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)-_- 3,235,828 2,174,384 709,710
Coal and coke -------------- --- 1,363,624 1,780,714 539,013
Iron and steel manufactures------------ 345,803 396,912 376,917
Phosphates -------------------- 379,159 488,427 156,591
Sugar_ --_ ----- ------------ 481,555 695,444 99,311
Soybeans- --------- ------------ 189,419 201,390 43,705
Metal, scrap --- --------- -------- 402,243 1,285,250 10,321
Wheat__- ---------- 175,917 236,921 49,017
Cotton---_---- ---------------- 76,384 93,861 72,834
Paper and paper products-------- 85,887 95,058 90,900
Ores, various ----- --------- 140,991 140,874 53,676
Machinery --_ ____------------- 107,231 84,088 66,690
Corn-----__ ----------------- 234,562 116,974 12,729
Chemicals, unclassified -------------- 144,080 155,760 45,236
Fertilizers, unclassified __------------ 101,065 87,531 35,221
All others-_ _-------- ----------___ 1,379,143 1,395,346 1,271,029
Total __-_------ --------- 8.842,891 9,428,934 3,632,900
TIIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
SHIPPING \was in a slump at the end
of the first quarter of the current fiscal
While traffic for the first quarter of the
1963 fiscal year continued at a high level
for transits and tolls, cargo tonnage was
down, according to figures compiled by
the Executive Planning Staff of the
One of the factors responsible for the
decline of cargo tonnage is that Japan
early this year applied stringent ex-
change controls to try to control loss of
foreign exchange. Approximately one-
third of the Canal's cargo tonnage
travels to and from Japan.
Coal is an important import of Japan,
and hundreds of thousands of tons of
coal per month have traveled through
the Canal for use in the country's grow-
ing industries. A year ago in August
692,000 tons of coal transited the Canal
headed for Japan. In August 1962
the coal cargo to Japan dropped to
Another important import for Japan
is scrap iron. A year ago in July 556,000
tons transited the Canal, as compared
with 97,000 in July 1962. Scrap iron to
Japan in August 1961 totaled 366,000,
while the August 1962 shipments totaled
Tolls and transits for the first quarter
of the current fiscal year were slightly
higher, totaling $14,886,430, as com-
pared with $14,299,354 for the same
period last year. Transits the first 3
months of the current fiscal year totaled
2,902 ocean-going vessels as compared
to 2,806 for the same period last year.
But there is a drop, when cargo
figures are compared. The total long
tons of cargo during the first 3 months
of the current fiscal year was 15,593,793,
as compared to 16,309,675 last year in
the same period.
More ships transited in ballast this
first quarter, the total of 501 in ballast
transit since July comparing sharply
with the 462 ballast transits from July
through September 1961.
The load factor, according to Execu-
tive Planning Staff figures, is the lowest
since 1959. Referring only to cargo
carried inside ships transiting the Canal,
the load factor in August 1962 was 0.91,
lowest for an August since 1934. The
July 1962 load factor of 0.96 was the
lowest since July 1936, and the 0.93
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN SEPTEMBER
U.S. Government. .........
Total ............ .
U.S. Government 73,131
Total. ... $4,598,160
Commercial .... 5,021,956 4,932,450
U.S. Government 72,521 138,709
..... .. 2,916
'Includes tolls on all vessels. ocean-going and small.
-Cargo figures are in long tons.
figure for September was the lowest
Petroleum and petroleum products,
among the major commodities shipped
through the Canal, were at record levels.
A big rise in petroleum shipments was
noted, especially in increased move-
ments of crude oil from Venezuela and
the Lesser Antilles to California.
A movement of crude oil from Libya
to the west coast last month marked the
first such movement of African crude
oil to the West Coast.
Indicative of the slump in shipping
was the transit of an average of 29.06
ships per day for the first 18 days of
October, the lowest average for the
same period since 1960.
On October 14 a low of 21 ships
transited the Panama Canal. A peak day
was May 7, 1960 when 47 ships made
Service To Be Expanded
THE MARITIME SUBSIDY BOARD
has authorized Grace Line, Inc., and
Culf & South American Steamship Co.,
Inc., to provide subsidized service
between Atlantic ports in Panama and
U.S. Atlantic and gulf ports. At the
same time, the board authorized Grace's
subsidized vessels serving U.S. Atlantic
and east coast of South America ports
to call at the Canal Zone on a privilege
In a related decision, the board ruled
that present U.S. service from New York
to the Canal Zone is adequate and no
additional sailings are necessary.
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
NOVEMBER 2, 1962
I ' "