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IN THIS ISSUE
Bells Ring for Latin Schools
Working Conditions and Health
Toward Tropical Comfort
-.. . .. ...... ... .
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A Movie is Born
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A Refreshing Canal Srory
Waterway on Film
M ILLIONS (rI- PEOPLE tlli.. hl..,il li,.- I.'mt.lj I l.t and
L atin A n: ri,_, i,,,, t.\ i[ll h .i ICl.rnir i ri,.- .il.. init I l Ih l11u11 ...1
C anal, p li,.-,.Ill.l\ .1IId l'. 1111,1ill i i.% 111 1lii1 th ir .1:, ni lt dle k1
dinner chairs, or television-viewing positions.
Their opportunity will come through a 28'ai-ininute color film
which was given a special preview last month by the Panama
Canal Company Board of Directors and soon will be circulating
to schools, television stations, and interested organizations
throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Filmed in the Canal Zone and the Springfield, Mass., studios
of Bav State Film Productions, Inc., the movie captures the
historic background, construction-era effort, economic signifi-
cance, cooperative effort, and community life wl\ich centers at
the "Funnel for World Commerce" which crosses the Isthmus of
Panama to connect two great oceans. This month's cover shows
Harold M. Fischer, Bay State's production manager for the film,
shooting a ship in famous Gaillard Cut.
Employing the talents of three bi-lingual actors-Carlos Mon-
talbin, Luis Van Rooten, and George Caynes-the movie was
filmed in both Spanish and English, thus avoiding any necessity
for "dubbing in" voices in either language.
All three actors are experienced performers of stage, screen,
and television. Mr. Montalbin, who has directed, written, and
narrated in addition to his acting, is well known throughout
America for his frequent roles in Spanish-language movies.
Mr. Van Rooten, who has appeared in numerous motion picture
and television roles, is perhaps best known for his role as Knobby
Walsh in the "Joe Palooka" television series.
In thle Canal film, Mr. Montalhbln portrays a Canal engineer,
MIr. Van Rooten plays the role of a Canal executive, and Mr.
Gavnes fills the role of a visitor to the Isthmus.
For the special preview for the Board of Directors of the
Panama Canal Company last month, \IM. Montalhln and Edward
Knowlton, professional author who wrote the script, accompanied
Morton Read, President of Bay State, to Washington and the
Specific arrangements for widespread distribution of the film
through regular distribution channels now are being made. A
print of the completed film is being reviewed prior to being made
available for early public showing.
(Continued on page 12)
For Your Health
Latin American Schools
Villa Caceres -
Making of a Stamp
Audubon of the Zone
Nuclear Construction Proposed
Of Toys and Dolls and Laughter
Cool, Man, Cool
Promotions and Transfers-
MAY 4, 1962
' i i
Too much carbon monoxide? Dr. Robinson and Terminals Training Officer Barrett discuss
possibility while examining exhaust pipe of fumes-producing forklift truck on Cristobal piers.
Conditions on the job
are controlled by Health
Bureau unit to protect
employees of waterway.
IT IS OBVIOUS that wearing a "hard
hat" in situations where a knock on the
noggin may occur simply is common
sense. The hazard to the old bean in
many work situations is well-recog-
nized and the need for safeguards
There are other on-the-job hazards,
however, that are not so obvious or
readily apparent as the threat of a plum-
meting hammer or wrench. These not-
so-obvious hazards offtimes are not
readily apparent to any of the five senses
which normally alert individuals to
danger-but they can be just as deadly.
Your sight or hearing, or both, may
warn you of an object hurtling at you;
vour sense of touch may cause you to
move from danger's path even as you
are brushed by it; your sense of smell
may warn you against a poisonous
But none of your five senses will warn
you about carbon monoxide gas; it is
colorless, odorless, tasteless-but it will
kill just as surely as a skull-crushing
blow by a falling object. Nor will your
senses warn yon that microscopic parti-
cles of dust are penetrating your lungs
like tiny darts, causing you to develop
silicosis. And, of course, none of your
senses can give warning that you are in
contact with disease-causing germs or
viruses which will sicken or may even
There was a time-to take a ease in
point-when mosquitoes were consid-
ered merely irritating pests. Fortu-
nately for those who built the Panama
Canal, Dr. Walter Reed and his associ-
ates proved that certain mosquitoes can
transmit yellow fever to man. Using
this knowledge, Dr. \illiam Crawford
Corgas and his co-workers launched
such a determined and continued attack
on the Aedes aegypti and Anopholcs
mosquitoes on the Isthmus that yellow
fever among construction workers was
eradicated and malaria was reduced to
a bare minimum.
The effort made to improve and con-
trol Isthmian conditions related to the
health of employees did not end with
completion of the Canal, of course.
Such efforts continue today. The Safety
Branch is primarily responsible in the
field of "accidental injury" and the
Health Bureau is primarily responsible
in the more general field of illness.
Direct benefits from the highly suc-
cessful efforts of Dr. Corgas and his
associates were not limitedto employees,
but extended to everyone living and
working in the Canal Zone and area.
The infectious nature of the diseases
being combatted made improvement of
community health conditions an integral
part of the main problem of keeping
employees well and on the job.
Comnunity-wide conditions affect-
ing health are a major concern of the
Health Bureau and have been for many
years. Part of this problem is directly
related to working conditions and the
newest unit of the Health Bureau was
organized just a few months ago for the
purpose of dealing with this specific
aspect of community health.
This nnit, the Industrial Health Sec-
tion, is part of the Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine headed by
Dr. Sidney B. Clark. The recently organ-
ized section is headed by Dr. Donald
Robinson, who has had approximately
15 years of experience in the field of
preventive medicine and industrial
Many of the long-established pro-
grams normally considered a part of a
comprehensive industrial health pro-
grain have been brought under the new
section and new programs are being
added to establish a more complete
industrial health program. The long-
established programs include pre-
employment physical examinations,
periodic examinations for certain em-
ployees, and supervision of industrial
first aid and nursing services.
New measures being developed by
the section include establishment of
routine procedures by which informna-
tion possibly pertinent to job-related
health problems is channeled to Dr.
Robinson for evaluation. By correlating
such information, a previously unre-
cognized problem may be brought
"For example," Dr. Robinson says,
"a single case of skin rash among 50
employees doing the same job or work-
ing in the same shop probably repres-
ents only an individual medical problem
and is of no special concern to the
Industrial Health Section. But if several
employees show up with identical com-
plaints, it indicates that something may
be wrong in the working environment.
That's where we come in."
Indicators which may alert the Indus-
trial Health Section to possible problems
include chronic absenteeism and acci-
dents, as well as reported illnesses. A
TI1E PA\NAMA CANAL REVIEW
steady pattern of absenteeism or acci-
dents may indicate unhealthful condi-
tions on the job which have not been
recognized by either the employees
themselves or the supervisors. The see-
tion also learns of possible problems
through visits to job sites, shops, and
other work locations.
"All these things help us pinpoint
problem areas," Dr. Robinson says, "but
the most direct and effective means by
which problems can be found and
solved are through reports from indi-
vidual employees, members of their
families, or supervisors. In other words,
we need and seek assistance from
laymen with firsthand knowledge of
All requests for assistance by super-
visors are followed by an interview and
a study of the job in question. Some-
times such requests include interview
and examination of one or more indi-
viduals to determine if they have been
affected by job conditions. In all indi-
vidual counseling, the normal confiden-
tial relationship of physician and patient
Once a problem is recognized and
its causes determined, the Industrial
Health Section prepares a recommen-
dation for correcting it. This may be
such a simple procedure as having the
employee or employees wear a protect-
ive mask, earplug, or other device. Or
it may call for a major physical change
in the working environment.
Is there adequate
Only a scientific
"This definitely is a management pro-
gram." Dr. Robinson says, "but, like
the attack on disease-carrying mosqui-
toes, it can benefit employees and resi-
dents of the community, as well as
management. After all, an individual's
health is a matter of major interest to
him and anything we can do to protect
his health certainly is of benefit to him
and not simply some wholly selfish
concern of management, even though
the preservation of employee health
can produce sizable savings for the
enterprise involved, whether it is the
Panama Canal Company or some
Several examples of problems which
have been dealt with bv the Industrial
Health Section are pictured with
Is the residue being removed from these lock gates damaging Eyesight is important to all persons, but lack of good vision may
to health? Probably not, but workers wear masks as precaution. lead to accidents, hence this test of dockworker Frank Mahon.
..... iin m in' U
.. "______.._ ,,-,
MAY 4, 1962
WITH NEW I
THE LATIN AMERICAN SCHOOLS
of the Canal Zone will open their doors
next week to approximately 3,935 pupils
from kindergarten through high school
and with a number of new facilities,
teachers, and expanded programs.
The new facilities include kinder-
garten classrooms at the elementary
schools in Rainbow City and Santa Cruz
and partitioning of the Paraiso Elemen-
tary School kindergarten room into two
classrooms. These new facilities are to
be used for the free kindergartens which
are to be operated in the Latin Ameri-
can school system this school year.
Another major addition to Latin
American school facilities is the new
swimming pool at the Paraiso Junior-
Senior High School, which opened in
March. Use of the Paraiso pool by the
schools there will permit all secondary
school students in the Latin American
schools to have swimming as part of
their regularly scheduled physical edu-
cation classes. The Santa Cruz and
Rainbow City schools previously have
had such programs.
The new facilities and changes in
instructional programs and schedules
will he discussed during a 1-day Teach-
ers' Institute scheduled for all Latin
American school staff members May 8
at the Paraiso Theater and Junior-Senior
High School. Registration of pupils
and classroom sessions will start on
Thursday, May 10.
While pupils in the Latin American
schools were preparing for and partici-
pating in the vacation recreation pro-
gram during February, March, and
April, some of their teachers were them-
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5
The new Paraiso swimming pool will enable
selves, students elsewhere. They were
seeking the training required to better
qualify them as teachers and earn
advancement to the Washington, D.C.,
salary schedule. Several other teachers
now are studying in the United States
and will remain there throughout the
new school year.
Teachers who completed degrees at
the University of Panama in February
are Miss Maria Sanjur, Rainbow City
Elementary School; Miss Gladvs Urefina,
Santa Cruz Elementary School; Miss
Blandina Waterman, Paraiso Junior-
Senior High School; Alfonso Greaves,
Rainbow City Junior-High School; Miss
Thelma Lee, special education; Mrs.
Pearl Chilcott and Mrs. Viola Duncan,
both of Rainbow City junior High
School. One teacher, Harold Knowles,
received a bachelor's degree from the
University of Nebraska.
Teachers planning to he in the United
States throughout the school year start-
ing this month are Leslie Thomas and
Saturnin Mauge, both of Rainbow City
Junior High School; Mrs. Daisy Red-
head, Miss Vilma Best, and Mrs. Joyce-
lyn Blugh, all of Paraiso Elementary
School; Mrs. Clarice Bryan, Rainbow
City Elementary School; and Cleveland
Ennis, Rainbow City High School. Ellis
Fawcett, Principal of the Paraiso Junior-
Senior High School, and Miss Julette
Carrington, Principal of the Pedro
Miguel Elementary School, plan to
leave later this year for study in the
A number of new teachers have been
added to the Latin American schools
this year. They are Luis Sealy, who will
schools there to expand physical education.
teach shop at the Rainbow City Junior
High School; Alcides Bernal, physical
education at Paraiso Junior-Senior lligh
School; Sergio Ruiz, social studies and
Spanish, Paraiso High School; Mrs.
Josefina Cordero, and Mrs. Alicia Sienz,
both in the Paraiso Elementary School;
Mrs. Avis Dick and Mrs. Elsa Skeete,
both in Rainbow City kindergarten;
Mrs. Luz Berrocal, Santa Cruz kinder-
garten; Mrs. Anne Baird and Mrs. Cora-
lia Serracin, Paraiso kindergarten; and
Alberto Abrego, physical education at
Rainbow City Junior-Senior High
School. Also new to the schools will be
Ana Maria Torero, librarian at Rainbow
City Junior-Senior High School.
In addition to the new kindergarten
classrooms and Paraiso sw imming pool,
other improvement projects completed
during the vacation period included
installation of acoustical tile in Rainbow
City Elementary School, Rainbow City
Junior-Senior High School, Santa Cruz
Elementary School, and in Building 128
of the Paraiso High School. Dressing
and shower rooms were enlarged for
the Santa Cruz gymnasium, and hot
water systems were installed at the
Rainbow City gymnasium and swim-
mning pool. Exterior painting and roofing
repairs were ae deto the Rainbow City
High School, the roof of the RainboNw
City High School shop was painted, the
interior and exterior of Building 128
of the Paraiso High School and gym-
nasium were painted, the Santa Cruz
gymnasium was screened, and touch-up
painting was done on Building 132 of
the Paraiso High School, the Santa
Cruz gymnasium, and the Mount
is designed for
SA .. .' . ..
' ~ ~ S '' PAM
Cooperative project provides
SEVERAL HUNDRED Panamanian
citizens employed by the Panama Canal
Company and the Canal Zone Govern-
ment are among those eligible to
become homeowners at modest cost
through a cooperative Panama-United
States program aimed at helping middle-
income families buy houses of their own
in the Panama housing development of
The Canal organization and other
U.S. Government agencies on the Zone
are assisting any employee who has
expressed a desire to buy one of the two-
or three-bedroom houses. PreliminarN
applications for home purchase loans
from Caja de Ahorros, Panama savings
bank, are being prepared with the assist-
ance of the Canal enterprise and for-
warded to the bank for processing.
Canal officials also have readied a
program to help employees solve diffi-
culties they may encounter in attempt-
ing to buy one of the homes. This
part of their assistance to employees is
(hdsignld to insure all possible con-
sideration for those desiring to lbuy
houses in the development. The effort
to assist employees seeking to buy
homes under the program was launched
about the middle of April by order of
Tlh application forms, in both Span-
ish and English, are being prepared for
any employee who calls at either the
Balboa or Cristobal housing office of
the Community Services Division.
The Canal organization also is pro-
viding basic employment information
for applicants, as requested bv Caja de
Ahorros. This includes data as to salary,
length of time employed, type of work
performed, place of work and rating.
The applicants also are required to
provide evidence of Panamanian citi-
zenship, a Panama "Paz y Salvo," a
statement that they do not presently
own a home, a cash down payment of
15 percent of the total purchase price of
the house, and minor "closing costs."
The down payment and closing costs
will total $675 to $800 on each house,
according to Panama officials.
Panama officials associated with the
program said the minimum income for
a typical family qualifying for a loan to
buy one of the houses will be approxi-
mately $150 per month, although
applications from families having less
than $150 per month income also will
The Instituto de Viviencla y Urba-
nismo is developing the land and super-
vising construction of the houses in the
project under terms of an agreement
with Caja de Ahorros. Each house is
located on a lot containing approxi-
matelv 300 square meters. The two-
bedroom houses contain approximately
50 square meters of living space, while
the three-bedroom houses have about
70 square meters.
The homes are constructed with
concrete block or clay tile walls, con-
crete floors with tile surfacing, and a
built-up roof. Each house contains clo-
sets, complete plumbing and electrical
installations, a laundry tray, and clothes-
drying facilities. Refrigerators, ranges
and other furnishings will have to be
provided by the purchasers.
Assignment of the houses to buyers
will be on the basis of individual selec-
tion, or may be by drawing lots. The
houses will be sold and assigned as they
are completed and loan applications are
approved by Caja de Ahorros.
The Villa Caceres housing develop-
ment is located along the Transisthmian
Highway about 5 miles from Balboa.
Work on the cooperative project started
last October and some of the houses
were sold and assigned last month. A
second group of houses now are under
contract and plans call for contracts to
be let on about 50 houses each month
until the development is completed.
The project is expected to include
construction of at least 635 homes.
MAY 4, 1962
The Villa Caceres development is
being financed through a cooperative
loan agreement between the U.S.
Agency for International Development
and Caja de Ahorros. The loan agree-
ment calls for AID to lend up to $21,
million to Caja de Ahorros over a
period of 18 months to 2 years.
through an agreement between Caja de
Ahorros and the Instituto de Vivienda
v Urbanismo (IVU), the $21S million
loan is being underwritten by the
Republic of Panama.
Under terms of the agreement
between AID and Caja de Ahorros, the
sa\ ings bank will provide all the money
for home mortgage loans, then wil
obtain an AID loan equal to 76.5 per-
cent of the total sale price of the house.
Fifteen percent of the total price will be
paid by the purchaser and the balance
of 8.5 percent will represent the direct
investment of Caja de Ahorros.
In addition to the funds provided vy
AID, the savings bank will provide
$250,000 from its own resources each
year for 5 years. This will make a total
of $3,750,000 available for the home
construction program. The entire $2/2
million loaned to Caja de Ahorros
through AID is to be repaid in 22 years,
with interest at 4 percent per year. The
individual mortgage holders will pay an
interest rate of 6 percent per year.
The $2% million loan was made
under the fourth point in the U.S.
Government's 1957 Latin American
9-point program. The willingness of the
U.S. Government to provide it was reaf-
I ~ 4
Costs of Buying Home in Villa Caceres
Two-bedroom house on lot of 300
Total cost. ........... 84,236
Cash payment ......... 678
Loan at 6 percent
Monthly payment on
loan and interest... $. 30
Three-bedroom house on lot of
300 square meters:
Total cost............. $4,981
Cash payment......... 797
Loan at 6 percent
interest ............ ...84.234
Monthly payment on
loan and interest ... :35
0*All fi~rurt", are approximate .111(1 \X ill .i s lilchtl ill iioln i~iual case.IS
firmed in the special 9-point program
of benefits for Panama announced in
1960. The loan agreement between AID
and Caja de Ahorros was signed on
February 10, 1962, after construction
of the first homes already was started.
Loans to homebuyers, under terms of
the loan agreement, are to be payable
in monthly installments over a period of
20 years. Principal, interest, and insur-
ance payments under the mortgage
agreements signed by the homebuyers
will be $30 to $35 monthly, depending
on the size and type of house selected
by the purchaser. Utilities and other
homeowner costs will be in addition to
the monthly mortgage loan payments.
Under terms of the individual mort-
gages, those buying houses in the devel-
opment will not be able to resell them
except with the approval of Caja de
Governor Fleming and
other Canal officials re-
cently visited the Villa
Caceres proieet at the
invitation of Norherto
Navarro of IVU.
Ahorros. Buyers also are required to live
in the homes they buy and not to rent
them to someone else.
Under its agreement with Caja de
Ahorros, the Instituto de Vivienda y
Urbanismo contracted to offer the
houses for sale at prices not to exceed
$5,000 for any house and lot.
Canal officials have urged all employ-
ees interested in purchasing one of the
homes to make application as soon as
possible. They pointed out that the loan
terms available to buyers of the homes
are considerably better than eommonl\
available locally and even in many
places in the United States. "It's a good
deal for our employees," one official
commented, "and I hope that all those
who can do so \\ill take advantage of
the opportunity to acquire a home of
their own through this program.
THiE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
Those postal necessities
don't suddenly just appear
from nowhere - they are
carefully considered and
C.Z. Stamp Advisory Committee examines new issue in print. From left: Hugh Cassibry,
Grover Luee, Robert Stevens, J. B. Clemmons, Paul Runnestrand, Gerald Doyle, Earl Unruh.
RECOGNITION for an historic per-
sonage, a date to be commemorated,
an event of significance, a national or
worldwide effort to focus attention on
a particular subject, recognition of an
institution, invention, or discovery. Any
of these-or a number of others-may
be the subject of a new Canal Zone
An idea or proposal for a new Canal
Zone stamp sets in motion the Canal
Zone Stamp Advisory Committee, which
decides on the color, design, and some-
times, the denomination of a new stamp,
although the latter generally is deter-
mined in advance by the needs of the
The Advisory Committee meets only
\\hen, it has work to do in connection
with the Canal Zone postal system.
Whole months may go by without the
committee holding even one meeting.
Then there are times, like the present,
when the group meets again and again,
with several stamps under consideration
A suggestion for a ne\\ stamp may
be originated by a member of the com-
mittee, by someone outside the commit-
tee, by an outside organization, by an
increase in postal charges which neces-
sitate issuance of a stamp in a new
denomination, or ]) Director of Posts
Earl I. Unri]h, who may point to the
desirabilit\ of a new stamp.
Once a suggestion is submitted to the
committee, ideas are discussed, along
with recommendations as to what
should and what shouldn't appear in
the design. As the ideas begin to take
form, verbally, Committee member
Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., Chief of the Archi-
tectural Branch of the Engineering Divi-
sion, starts sketching "notes" with his
agile fingers. These preliminary sketches
may meet with tentative approval quite
C H 0 L -O, ,p
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\' .UNITED 3TATE5. iAMY
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Final, approved sketch.
All? IN AIlA
UNITED STATES ARMY
FORT GULICK a ~
FOR LATIN AMERICA
readily, or Gerry may be asked to try
several more ideas.
Generally, the committee members
will agree on a tentative design and
shape for the new stamp, then ask
Mr. Doyle to make rough sketches
which can be evaluated and discussed at
the next meeting. These preliminary
designs are carefully "edited" and
screened. Some are discarded entirely,
others have a few details added or
changed. Finally, from the ones ap-
proved, the artist is asked to prepare
a semi-finished sketch.
Sometimes, when several tentative
designs meet with committee approval,
the artist is asked to work them into a
semi-finished stage. In that way, the
committee will have a better idea of the
appearance of the completed stamp and
is able to make a final decision. This
course was followed in developing the
stamp recognizing the U.S. Army Carib-
bean School at Fort Guliek. The com-
mittee asked for semi-finished sketches
on both vertical and horizontal designs,
then selected the horizontal model as
the most desirable.
Approval of a design by the Advisory
Committee is the last step before sub-
mission of the final sketch of the stamp
to the Governor for review and final
action before it is sent to the U.S. Bureau
of Engraving and Printing in Washing-
ton, D.C., by the Direetor of Posts, with
written instructions on the number of
models to be prepared and anyx minor
refinements or changes desired. The
Bureau experts then complete the artis-
tie work required, make the engraving
from which the stamp is to be printed,
MlA 4, 1962
and actually print the stamps ordered
by the Zone Postal Division.
At the printing stage of the project,
extreme care is used to insure against
'gremlins" arbitrarily altering the
approved stamp-and thereby produc-
ing a collectors' item of unusual value.
But, despite all precautions, things
sometimes go awry in the Bureau of
Engraving and Printing and what other-
wise would be merely another stamp
costing a few pennies is transformed
into a rare item sought by philatelists.
One printing boo-boo involving a
stamp issued by the Zone postal service
created a small number of stamps now
given a catalog value of $2,000. This
stamp, cr ptically cataloged as "Scots
No. 31 A 15, inverted center, overprint
reading down," is a green and black,
1-cent stamp issued by the Republic of
Panama and overprinted with the words
"Canal Zone." The gremlin-afflicted-
and, therefore, valuable version-is in
the Zone's 1909-1910 series and is
extremely rare. The boo-boo copies have
the head olf Vasco Nufiez de Balboa
upside down and the Canal Zone
overprint reads down\ instead of up.
Another valuable Zone stamp, in a
more recent series, is a 31-cent airmail
stamp with the map and globe. An error
occurred in perforation of some of the
stamps, with some of them being per-
forated horizontally only and not ver-
tically. A pair is required to show the
error-and such a pair is valued at $300.
The Canal Zone has issued about 50
postage stamps and stamped papers
and plans for 2 more now are being
readied. One of these is an anti-malaria
stamp being planned as part of a World
Health Organization campaign on
behalf of malaria eradication. About
90 countries have either issued stamps
as part of the program, or have signified
their intention to do so. The Republic
of Panama already has issued its anti-
malaria stains) and the United States'
stamp in the series was issued March 30.
Another stamp now being planned is
to commemorate the opening of tlhe
Thatcher Ferry Bridge across the Canal.
Members of the Stamp Advisory
Committee, in addition to Mr. Doyle,
are: Chairman J. B. Clemmons, Jr.,
Assistant to the Director of the Civil
Affairs Bureau; Executive Secretary
Paul M. Runnestrand; Hugh \. Cas-
sibry, rates analyst from the Budget and
Hates Branch of the Office of the Comp-
troller; Robert A. Stevens of the Wage
and Classification Division of the Per-
sonnel Bureau: and Grover D. Luce of
the Internal Audit Branch, who is desig-
nated to represent the general public
Miss Lois Morgan applies finishing touches to bird painting.
Miss Lois Morgan
Audubon of the Zone
BIRD FANCIERS need no binoculars
to see a treasure trove of Isthlnian birds
at close range and all in one location.
Many already have seen the colorful
collection aind those who have not still
have about a week in which to do so.
\\here? In the Civil Affairs Building
True, the birds are not live specimens,
but they are very. very lifelike in the
near life-size water color paintings iIn
which they have been captured 1b Miss
Lois Morgan, Diablo Ileights Junior
High School teacher and able artist.
The feathered creatures caught by
the delicate strokes (of Miss Morgan's
brush are not rare or exotic jungle birds,
but the common varieties she came to
know by observing them at friends'
birdfeeding stations and in the trees
near her Willamson Place apartment.
One possible exception to the "common
variety" label is the cacique, which
Miss Morgan says she was fortunate
enough to observe at a feeding station
on Ancon Hill.
The Diablo Heights teacher, whose
water colors have w\on prizes in both
her native State of Ohio and the Canal
Zone, began making bird sketches some
years ago. She first sketches the birds
from life, in characteristic poses, usually
with a pencil, and makes observations
notes as she watches the birds for hours
at a time so she can more ably capture
their character in her paintings.
Unwilling to rely solely on her own
observations, Miss Morgan checks her
notes against books at the Canal Zone
Library before proceeding to color the
penciled sketches. Using transparent
watercolors and omitting use of opaque
white for lightening, she must carefully
plain all white and light areas before
she starts. The paintings which result
are vividly real and even the eves seem
to be looking about.
A native of Toledo, Miss Morgan
has sketched and painted all her life.
She received her bachelor of arts and
bachelor oif education degrees from the
Tniversity of Toledo. The products of
her sketch pencil and brush have been
exhibited in one-man shows at the
Toledo Musuin of Art and the Toledo
Artists' Club, as well as at the USO-
JWB and the Canal Zone Library on the
Pacific side of tile Isthlus.
One of her previous Canal Zone
shows featured Louisiana scenes painted
while visiting Baton Rouge and others
made during a course of botanical
studies in Florida while on a Ford
Fellowship. She has travelled in South
America and has painted scenes in Pan-
ama from El Valle to the Darien and
from the San Blas Archipelago to
The bird paintings at the Civil Affairs
Building are labeled with the scientific
and popular names of both the birds
and the native flowers and plants with
which they are shown, with Sturgis'
"Field Book of Birds of the Panama
Canal Zone" as the authority.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
File following article, edited slightly to
reduce its length. i.s reprinted by courtesy of
the PORT o0 MOBILE NEWS, monthly maga-
zine in tchich it first appeared. The possibility
of using unclear explosives to build a iner
Istuhmian waterway makes it of special
THE IDEA of a navigable route
between the Tennessee River and the
Tombiglee River to the Gulf of Mexico
is almost as old as the settlement of the
area the waterwav would traverse.
French settlers thought of it first.
Around 1810, a group of Knox Countv
Tennesseans saw it as a means of easy
exchange of their hides and tobacco for
the luxuries Europe could provide, and
petitioned Congress for a waterway.
In 1913, Congress gave the okay
to study the idea and the U.S. Corps
of Engineers did, but turned in a report
saying benefits from a Tennessee-
Tombigbee waterway wouldn't justify
the expense of building it. This dismal
situation didn't improve despite two
other studies. Finally, in 1938. the
Engineers reported that the Tennessee-
Tombigbee project had economic justi-
fication. In 1946 funds were authorized
and planning went on until 1952. The
Nashcille Tennessean has commented
that the Tennessee-Tombigbee is "the
most plannedd constructed w'aterwav
in America." The sleeping giant lay'
until a few months ago. Last August,
the Corps of Engineers recommended
that the project be reactivated.
The project \which has lumbered
,dlo clumsil for a century and a half
Imy o\l have been sleeping until sci-
aught up with a far higher
d sii or A i bold lnew idea may
late; t ad highest ambition: to use
atomic energy-not for war-but for the
advancement of man. As it stands now,
men close to the project believe the
water ay may become the first public
works project in history in which
nuclear devices actually will do jobs up
to now reserved for plain old fashioned
dynamite. "Clean" nuclear explosives
would be used on a portion of the canal.
The proposal to do this belongs to
Andrew Suttle a tall, balding scientist
from Mississippi, who heads the State's
Industrial and Technological Research
"\\'When Dr. Suttle says he knows the
top scientists on the AEC and in the
Department of Defense, he means he
knows them. Just like you know the
fellow at the next desk-or at the neigh-
borhood bar," says a member of his
office staff. Dr. Settle himself says "I'min
just a subaltern in the ranks, but I am in
Out of his friendship with national
leaders has come a highly unofficial but
highly favorable attitude of top men for
using nuclear devices on the Tenn-
Tom project. Among these "friends":
Dr. Gerald \. Johnson, Assistant to
the Secretary of Defense for Atomic
Weapons: Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg. Chair-
man, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission;
Dr. Harold Brown, Director of Defense
Research aid Engineering: and Dr.
Phillip HI. Abelson, Director of the
Dr. Shuttle believes nuclear devices
could be used to open part of the water-
way and in 1960 he brought the idea
bef ore the Ten nessee-Tombighee Water-
way Development Authority, made up
of representatives of three States.
Dr. Shuttle told of some benefits:
I. The project would be a bold step
forward in bringing about man's ambi-
tions to use atomic energy peacefully.
2. A few blasts (Dr. Shuttle estimates
a total of eight now) would not only
remove 90 million cubic yards of
earth (this would be the equivalent of
765,000 box car loads of dirt) it would
also compact the crater area to prevent
loss of water into porous formation.
3. It would save the U.S. taxpayer
between 820 and $30 million, shaving
the project's total cost from $280 million
to $240 million.
The authority bought the idea.
Physically, Tenn-Tom is a canal, 9
feet deep, no less than 170 feet wide,
stretching 253 miles from Pickwick Pool
of the Tennessee River in northeast
Mississippi down to the upper reaches
of the Tombigbee River in Alabama. It
would shorten water distances between
Midwest points and the Gulf of Mexico,
and benefit some 20 mid-continent
States. For example, Cairo, Ill., would
he 279 miles closer, Nashville, Tenn.,
441 miles, and Louisville, Ky., 394
Engineers picture the waterway in
10 M~AY 4, 1962
1. A river section 168 miles long
from Demopolis to Amory, Miss. This
section will have four locks and dams,
will raise the water level 117 feet.
2. Above Amorv a lateral canal 45
miles long will be dug and five locks
will take the water level from 190 to
3. A divide cut 40 miles long will
bring the water up another 85 feet to
the level of Pickwick Pool.
The divide cut will slice through a
sparsely populated area of Tishomingo
County, Miss., and for this Dr. Suttle
proposes the use of "prompt" nuclear
"Prompt" is a term nuclear scientists
like to play around with. In this sense it
means "clean" devices having relatively
little fallout. And here is a problem.
Even a little fallout could set off a wave
of public reaction. In a sense, handling
public opinion will be as much an
experiment as the actual blasts. Not too
much has been said so far. The area has
few people and no one has registered
more than a mild comment. In fact,
Dr. Settle says that the residents of the
area have shown "extreme cordiality"
toward the idea and haven't been
frightened bv it.
"At any ratee" he says, "the AEC's
first consideration is public safety.
And no project will ever be con-
ducted by the AEC unless the public
health is completely free from any
Bombs used would be in the kiloton
range, a kiloton meaning the equivalent
of 1,000 tons of TNT.
Dr. Suttle and his advisers are dis-
cussing eight blasts-six small and two
large. Costs would range from $500,000
to $1 million apiece.
Shortly after Dr. Suttle made his
proposal to the Tennessee-Tombigbee
Waterway Development Authority in
June, 1960, Tishomingo County had a
distinguished visitor-Dr. Charles E.
Violet of the Lawrence Radiation Lab-
oratory at Livermore, Calif. The lab,
an arm of the University of California.
does a large amount of research and
development for the AEC. A great many
scientists consider Dr. Violet the top
authority on underground nuclear explo-
sions. He showed immediate interest.
along with his colleagues, Dr. Edward
Teller, Dr. G. W. Johnson, and Dr. Gary
Higgins. All influential, the Livermore
men have been heavy supporters of an
experiment at Tishomingo.
Officially, how does the idea fare?
No one will say. But men close to
Dr. Suttle sav the scientist's private
opinion is the project stands a better
than possible chance of becoming a
Mrs. Fleming. standing, and daughter watch youngsters on lawn of Governor's residence.
Of Toys and Dolls and Laughter
A COLORED BALL on a stair or
terrace, a pull toy with various intri-
guing figures swimming about inside a
plastic hall, a soft doll of the kind
little folks find so cuddly, a shriek of
laughter, or even an anguished wail.
These sights and sounds emanating
from the younger generation cause no
surprise if encountered in the White
House. at Buckingham Palace. or at the
official residence of Canal Zone Gov.
Robert J. Fleming. Jr. Toddlers and tots
are at home at each of these locations
At 107 Balboa Heights, the Gover-
nor's official residence, there's a little
blonde girl at the wide-eyed charmer
stage of half-past 3 years, her 16-month-
old twin brothers, and a fuzz-pated
baby brother barely 4 months old. To
these youngsters, the Governor and
First Lad\ of the Canal Zone are simply
Grandfather and Grandmother.
The children arrived in the Canal
Zone in March with their mother, Mrs.
Benjamin B. Beaslev. the former Patri-
cia Nannte Fleming. wife of an Armyn
officer present\ stationed in Germanyt
and elder daughter of Governor and
Mrs. Fleming. Within bounds imposed
by parental discipline, the quartet has
brought a childish zest to the staid old
house which has been home to all 14
Governors of the Canal Zone.
Three-and-a-lialf year old Marion
Estelle is poised and active, ever ready
to relate her most recent enthusiasm
and adventures with the breathless
excitement only] a child tof her age canl
bring to the task. The twins, Blenjamin
Bowes Beaslev and Robert Flemitng
Beasley, still aren't too interested in the
outside world, but are nonetheless as
active, inquisitive, and unpredictable
as all 16-nmonth-olds. Bahb John Edward
still is pretty much a nonl-participating
observer of the passing scene.
Marion. who proudly tells of accom-
panying her grandfather on a visit to his
office in the Balboa Heights Administra-
tion Building, currently is awaiting the
homecoming of Demi, a friend of long
standing. Demi is short for Demoiselle.
Governor and Mrs. Fleming's appro-
priately-named French poodle. Like all
clogs brought to the Canal Zone, Demi
has been in quarantine at Corozal since
arriving on the Isthmus early in Janu-
arv. Her 120-day stax will be completed
May 12 and she then \ ill join the Gov-
ernor's household. much to the delight
of Marion and her brothers.
THE PANAMA CANAL RXEVEIEW
..1.. ... ... .. . ........ ...A. ., .L...... . r.I P IG C A A L S.1.
A REFRESHING CANAL STORY
\ .I...'.! .I ...I .I IIh. I.... ... I
.. '1 ,,. I. .,, I ,,,,I ,I I,,,,. I,.
. i,,.-. ,, ...11. I.... I, .,., I I .. LI. I, II
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"'l. .. .' f I .. .. .. 11 \ . ..... h... l
..as..n,:,., ,. ., .., u,..,pI~t,,[ I,. ip o-
vidibw topit's ofI the film to) inler'st'd
". .. r' .1
\ I..,I .. .. .l ...I I,., .... .. I..,
., .. .. .I .. i. , ............... I
I. ,, I IIIIII a i ,,.,ii I.I a.. 1 .I I, ,..
tilth i tlt I-+tIurliN 'iIi it- c."pectiLd to
st, thIi film during its first ear.
tledlicial tlnre fr rtliiplols tv is filmled as Iniie IIl s.Pri'.Cs nerecssl t)o opeIratio (f the Canal.
*r -,. ...r
1 .~+ -,
-'~a' -. I--
C ~ l~I*tI h .i ...i~ I.tl
Sllunds rtrntrded at Industrial Dih)isior
help prnvide authentic atmosphere.
Sh'ip pictured in film are of many nations all of which use Canal on equal basis.
S --' -
--, %,,- - ''* ,B e-.. -- -
,---, .- I' : . . .,
Workmen employed by contracting firm install line which will carry chilled water of centralized air conditioning systernm.
COOL, MAN, COOL
Centralized air conditioning system
to raise comfort level in Zone.
THE CANAL ZONE is getting cooler
these days. The steaming jungle, the
burning sun, the sweating office worker
sitting b\ a buzzing fan, all are still with
us, but air conditioning is making them
a little more remote.
While little can be done about the
jungle or the sun, modern science is
making working and living a lot more
comfortable for the inside worker,
whether r he lives in the tropics or in
The idea of raising the comfort level
by reducing the heat level is, of course,
commonly practiced throughout much
of the United States and in other parts
of the world. Inviting as air condi-
tioning is, however, it was practically
1inworkable in the Canal Zone until the
conversion of frequency-sensitive
electrical equcipmicnt from 25-cycle to
6(i Acl current, a mammoth project
si(. as ronpleted about 2 Cearls ago,
ex.pt (r le towing locomotives oni
ad the Canal emlplo\ ce
> l supplied with tlhe
means by which he could make his
quarterss more comfortable than lhe
began buying small air conditioning
units to cool bedrooms, hobbv shops,
and, in some cases, an entire house or
apartment. Some public buildings,
several theaters, and a number of
clubs soon were equipped with cooling
The obvious public desire for air
conditioning and a belief that it would
increase the efficiency and productivity
of employees led the Canal administra-
tion to consider installation in several
buildings. In search of this goal, the
idea of a central air conditioning system
for an entire area was evolved. And,
if present plans materialize, it may lbe
that within n a very few years stuffy
buildings and the hum of fals will lbe
an exception and not the rule in the
The first step toward this promise of
future comfort is a big one andc is being
taken right now b, the Panama Canal
Company, with installation of a central
system \\ ith \which Canal engineers plan
to air condition many of the public
buildings on the Pacific side.
The idea of replacing individual air
conditioning units already installed in
offices and private buildings resulted
from a survey of the problem by R. L.
Duffer & Associates, an engineering
consultant firm of Miami, Fla.
The Duffer firm said that unless there
\was centralization, the Canal organiza-
tion eventually would be faced with
the problem of operating and maintain-
ing dozens of different types of equip-
ment in various stages of deterioration
and obsolescence. Standby equipment,
surplus refrigeration, and spare parts
for the many different systems would
become a sizable item of cost at some
future time, unless there were cen-
tralization, the Miami consultants said.
Thc\ cited the systems in Federal
building complexes in Washington.
D.C.. and in a number of large shop-
ping centers built in the United States
during the past decade in support of
their recommendation for a centralized
14 MAY 4, 1962
The one finally adopted and now
being installed on the Pacifle side of
the isthmus is to be operated by distri-
bution of chilled water from a central
cooling and pumping station at Diablo
Road and Roosevelt Avenue. Four
1,000-horsepower centrifugal compres-
sors will cool the water, which is to be
pumped through nearly\ 4 miles of under-
ground pipeline now being installed.
Thousands of gallons of chilled water
will course through the insulated pipes
which will parallel Roosevelt Avenue
and Gaillard Highway to Ancon before
making a vast circular sw eep to the new
Gorgas Hospital building and back to
the station, cooling buildings as it goes.
Engineers planning the installation
say the water, which will be chilled to
420 F. at the Balboa pumping station,
can make the complete circuit through
the miles of pipe line, cool all the build-
ings hooked into the system, and return
to the central station no more than 160
warmer than when it left.
At the station, the process of cooling
and circulation through the network of
pipes will start all over again, with the
water being recooled to 420 before
resuming its endless and circuitous
En route, the water will be diverted
into smaller lines which will sprout from
the main line as buildings are connected
to the system. Each of the buildings to
be air conditioned will be equipped
with a smaller circulation system very
similar to that which now keeps tlhe
Balboa Heights Administration Building
at a comfortable temperature.
Among the first structures which are
to be connected with the new systein
are Balboa High School and Canal Zone
Junior College buildings. The contract
for modifying the two masonry build-
ings so they can be air conditioned
efficiently was awarded in March to Bil-
don, Inc. The work will cost S315,560.
Also to be connected to the central
system w\\hen it is completed next year
are the new Gorgas Hospital building.
the Treasurer and Payroll offices, the
two Personnel Bureau buildings in
Ancon, the Middle America Research
building near Gorgas, and the Balboa
Retail Shoe Section building.
Future plans call for air conditioning
the Supply Division headquarters in the
Balboa Industrial Area. the Balboa
Retail Store complex, the Ancon Dis-
trict Court, and the Balboa and Ancon
The Administration Building at Bal-
boa Heights and the Civil Affairs Build-
ing in Ancon. which now have their
own air conditioning systems, also are
to be connected to the central plant.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 15
asphaltic paint '
and glass fabric _
tape to pipe J
air conditioning .a B
system. ~ '-
ONE DAY not long ago, J. J. Link,
vice president of the West Indies Piping
Corp. of Miami, walked into the office
of II. II. Feenev, Chief of the Contract
and Inspection Division of the Panama
Canal Company's Engineering and Con-
struction Bureau, and tossed a plastic-
coated object on his desk.
"There's a porcelain figurine inside
that package." said Mr. Link, "and 'mn
going to mail it home to my wife just
Mr. Link, whose company has the
contract for construction of the central
air conditioning system on the Pacific
side, was demonstrating one of the
many qualities of a versatile plastic
foam being used as insulating material
on the pipes which will carry chilled
water through the new air conditioning
The material, known in commercial
fields as polyurethane foam, has been
used by the construction industry for
dozens of purposes, including insula-
tion. shock proofing, and reinforcement.
It is being used on the Isthmus for
the first time by the Florida Coating
Co., a subcontractor for West Indies
Coating almost 4 miles of pipe to
carry the chilled water for the air con-
ditioning system is a special job all in
itself. The polyurethane components
are applied wiith a spray gun after being
mixed in an automatic metering unit.
The length of pipe to be sprayed is
mounted on a machine that rotates and.
at the same time, causes the pipe to
move horizontally past the spray gun.
To obtain a uniform I-inch coating of
foam, the speed of the pipe's rotation
and forward movement must be syn-
chronized with the rate of discharge
from the spray gun.
Because of the highly volatile nature
cf the raw material from which the
foam is made, it is stored in an air con-
ditioned box at a temperature of 75
or below. Because of the toxic fumes
given off by the foam, the spray gun
operator must be protected by a mask
which looks something like a bee-
keeper's protective mask.
After each length of pipe receives a
1-inch-thick coating of plastic foam, it
is lifted onto a storage cradle and left
until it call be treated with two coats
of a thick, asphaltic-type paint, which
will act as a vapor barrier.
To apply the asphaltic paint, work-
men lift the pipe onto another machine
\\here it rotates while two successive
coats of the paint are sprayed on by
hand in layers which are one-sixteenth
of an ineh thick. While this is still wet,
the whole pipe is wrapped in a bandage
of glass fabric tape.
The lengths of pipe which have
undergone the complete insulation
treatment are now being laved by the
contractors in 8-foot deep trenches dlug
through the Ancon and Balboa districts
from the central pumping plant on
Plastic spray i:
Second Divisa Student
Completes Zone Training
ANOTHER STUDENT from the
National Institute of Agriculture in
Divisa, Republic of Panama, last month
completed a 10-week period of on-the-
job training at Mindi Farm and returned
to his farm home in Chitre prior to
renewing his training at the Divisa
Juan Manuel Peralta is entering his
12th year of school this month and,
while at Mindi, voiced the hope that
he can obtain a scholarship so he may
continue his studies and eventually
enter the veterinary profession.
Young Peralta worked at virtually
every phase of Mindi Farm's operation,
including the use of a tractor, milking
machine, bottling plant, and other
duties. Dr. Paul H. Dowell, manager of
the farm, said the youth was a very will-
ing and adaptable student, intelligent
Just a year ago, another Divisa stu-
dent, Alfredo Orange, spent 2 months
at Mindi in on-the-job training. Both
students were sent to the farm through
a cooperative program between the Di-
visa institute and the Canal organization.
James A. \Villiams
New Director Named
APPOINTMENT of a 59-year-old tele-
phone company executive as a member
of the Board of Directors of the Panama
Canal Company was announced last
month by Secretary of the Army Elvis
J. Stahr, jr., the Company stockholder.
The new director, James A. Williams,
succeeds C. Owen Smith, a Maine mag-
azine publisher, who resigned from the
Board to accept an executive post in
the Office of Defense Mobilization.
Director Williams is Vice President
in charge of Public Affairs for the New
England Telephone & Telegraph Co.
A native of Manchester, Vt., where he
was born on August 21, 1902, he now
livcs in Milton, Mass., and has offices
A graduate of the School of Business
Administration, La Salle College, Phila-
delphia, he once served as secretary\ to
Robert Todd Lincoln, son of the Civil
War President. He left his position
with Mr. Lincoln to join Bethlehem
Steel Corp. for 5 years before joining
New England Telephone & Telegraph
In addition to his duties with the
telephone company, the new director
has served as Assistant Director. Office
of Defense Mobilization, Requirements
and Materials; Director, Office of
Defense Mobilization for Produetion;
and, most recently, as Executive Re-
servist, Office of Defense Mobilization.
I1H also has served as a member of the
Milton, Mass., Town Meeting, and as
1a member of the Democratic Town
Commi itee of Milton.
He attended his first meeting of the
Board of , i m of the Panama Canal
Comipani last month in Washington.
Juan Peralta gives
NMindi beauty a bath.
Civil Affairs Bureau
Receives Safety Trophy
PRESENTATION ceremonies of the
Governor President's Annual Safety
Trophy Award for 1961 were held in
the Administration Building at Balboa
Heights on May 1.
The trophy was presented by Gov-
ernor Fleming to the personnel of the
Civil Affairs Bureau through Bureau
Director B. 1. Everson. The Civil Affairs
personnel earned the trophy\ by achiev-
ing the greatest percentage safety
improvement of any major unit dur-
ing calendar year 1961. A 76 percent
improvement over its previous 3-year
rate was recorded by the Bureau, the
second straight year it has earned
Historic Telegraph Key
Is Used Again
A TELEGRAPH KEY which played a
symbolic role in the opening of the
Panama Canal to commercial traffic on
August 14, 1914, was called into service
again last month, President Kennedy
using it to transmit a signal officially
opening the Seattle World's Fair.
The key, made of gold nuggets from
the Klondike, was used by President
Wilson to set off a blast that officially
opened the Panamna Canal. It also has
been used by other Presidents for
similar occasions, including President
Taft, who used it to open the Alaska-
Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle on
July 1, 1909.
16 MAY 4, 1962
n ing Panama
LITTERIBUGS in the Canal Zone are
likely to run aloul of a new regulation
which went into effect Mala 2 unless
they refrain from scattering litter along
The new regulation, suggested by the
Pacific Civil Council, is aimed at elim-
inating the unsightliness and hazards
created by highway litter. It prohibits
throwing any glass, nails, tacks, wire,
cans, paper, garbage, rubbish, trash,
refuse, or other potentially hazardous
or defacing material upon any Zone
Signed on April 2 by then Acting
Governor, W. P. Leber, the regulation
became effective on May 2. Punish-
ment for violation is a fine of not more
than $100 or 30 days in jail, or both.
In other efforts to reduce litter in
Canal Zone. communities, refuse recep-
tacles located throughout the Zone are
being painted in brighter colors, covers
for them are being readied, and schools
are conducting contests to select anti-
litter slogans for use on the receptacles.
DO YOU KNOW onetime Panama
Canal pilot Capt. M. W. Baisieux, or
where he or his family now are living?
Joe Morgan, Adjutant of Elbert S.
\aid Post, American Legion, Cristobal,
would like to locate Captain Baisieux
or some member of his family in order
to return a past commander's medal
issued by Elbert S. Waid Post which
carries the following inscription:
"To Capt. M. W. Baisieux for Dis-
tinguished Service. E. S. Waid Post
No. 2, 1933."
The medal was found in Ne\\ York
City last year and forwarded to the
local American Legion Post in the hope
that Captain Baisieux might be located
through it. Canal records show that
Maurice W. Baisieux was a Canal pilot
from October 4, 1927, to June 30, 1933,
and that he was born in San Francisco
on August II, 1890.
Anyone with information about Cap-
tain Baisieux is urged to contact officials
of the Post.
THE ISTHMIAN NUMISMATIC
SOCIETY is to conclude its observance
of National Coin Week on May 6 with
a day-long exhibit of rare and unusual
coins at the Panamanian-North Ameri-
can Institute in Panama City. The
exhibit was on display in the Canal
Zone through May 4.
THIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17
DRY SEASON is fair season in the
Republic ot Panama and the Panama
Canal Company, following a practice of
several years standing, has participated
in several of the events through invi-
tation from the committees in charge.
A total of seven calves from Mindi
Farms have been donated for use as
prizes at three different fairs-David,
Los Santos, and Chorrera-with three of
the seven going to the latter event and
two each to the others. Special photo-
grapic exhibits of Canal operations and
improvement programs also were dis-
played at the Los Santos and Chorrera
The Los Santos and Chorrera fairs,
held last month, were attended by Lt.
Cov. W. P. Leber and Governor Fleming,
respectively. The Lieutenant Governor
and Mrs. Leber attended the David Fair.
In addition to the official Canal par-
ticipation in the Chorrera Fair, which
included the loan of some decorative
panels, flags, and a section of bleachers.
the Star In A Circle Square Dance Club
Lt. Gov. Leber, President Chiari, and
Mindi calf at Los Santos Fair.
presented a program of square and
round dancing and a group of Canal
Zone riders presented a horse show.
This pictorial exhibitof Canal activities and operations has drawn numerous spectators at fairs.
Patrick F. Mel)o
Esten J. Scott
James K. Bedswo
Miguel B. Picado
J. N. Carrington
Sylvia V. McDona
Senior High T(
Laura G. de P6re
Senior High Te
Felix A. Aviles
Robert C. Mathen
Courtney S. Deln
Isaac 0 Edwards
Louisa P. Scarlett
RS BUREAU Exier J. Hopkins
n[ell Supervisory Accounting
rth Alice E. Suisinan
Oscar O. Brown, Jr.
Marine Traffic Controller
acher Principal, John L. Fischer
can Schools Supervisory Clerical
teacher, John M. Morrison
can Schools Leader Lock Operator
teacher, Donovan 1. Ge
can Schools Maintenan e M- 17inil s
Sidney Lione ird
Helper Lock Operat
Ernest M. Krueger
ING AND Lock Operator l- ~lint
ON BUREAU Medardo Maravil
Helper Lock per- or
Ernest A. Se
Asphalt or Cement Worker
BUREAU Jerald S. Burke
Stock Control Clerk
Iey Pedro Garav
(of Veterinary edro tman
dii, i Oiler, Floating Plant
, medicine Joeph Scott
iar Charles Blackman
ilt, Medicine Oiler
Jose M. L6pez
OF TIE COMPTROLLER
uit, Medicine Julian MI. .Mountain
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Charles M. Nelson
Commissary Store M1anager
Einniet T. Ilarper
Commissary Store Manager
Mary B. Franklin
Eunice L. \Vittaker
Luisa E. Scott
Sales Checker, Food Service
Mary L. Hunt
Melia F. Lee
S nles Clerk
.A. Scantle. th
Sales Check -tail Store
crt W. W iau sS
olphus J. int
Ilarold P. Smith
Service Station Attendant
LPuii C. Barrios
Ieavi Laboree eer
Amnbrosio Del Cid
Alrick A. Calmpbell
Paniclita C. Grahani
Retail Store Sales Checker
Louise E. Cargill
Lillian M. Baseombe
Milray L. Barrow
Stock Control Clerk
Rosa M. Diaz
Retail Store Sales Checker
Iedro F. PNrez
Lela S. Cadogan
Carmen B. Benjamin
Anna E. Calvit
Supervisory Accounting Clerk
Leader Railroad Trackman
Owen N. Lawrence
Helper Automotive Machinist
Howard C. Callender
Ileavy Truck Driver
Industrial Tractor Operator
Helper Liquid Fuels
Jos6 F. Montes
S1 MAY 4, 1962
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU MARINE BUREAU
Ra ymond George Anthony G. Lynn
Clerk Chief Foreman, Marine
Aleide R. Fnnlr T h nirst
Police P ivate n l rds
U ENGINE EER .'C AND SUPP UREA
CONSTRUCT B EA ie. B n
Lea liver H O. %o n
Conrad O. Beekles High Lift T c Operator
LeaderHea \TRANSP T TION AND
IIEA I B E E S BUREAU
Elvira L. ie C6rd
Nurse Supe general Guar Supervisor
Medicine and Surgical Adolphus E. Mapp
Hospital Helper Automotive Machinist
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
March 5 through April 5
EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between March 5 and
April 5 are listed below. Within-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-
Anna B. Pescod, from Translator (Steno-
graphy), Administrative Branch, to
INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE
Elsa E. Watson, from Clerk-Typist, to
Earl E. Bennett, Earl H. Jarvis, from Mul-
tilith Operator (Trainee) to Multilith
Operator, Printing Plant.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
John R. Lewis, from Firefighter, to Driver-
Charles A. Mullings, Nathan B. Thomas,
from Truck Driver, Motor Transporta-
tion Division, to Firefighter.
Jacob Decker, Jr., from Signalman, Naviga-
tion Division, to Police Private.
Ernest T. Blades, from Laborer Cleaner,
Community\ Services Division, to Deten-
Division of Schools
Beverly A. Bonnell, Myrna R. Gassel, from
Substitute Teacher, to Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher.
Herman O. Myrie, from Library Assistant,
Andres L6pez, from Heavy Laborer, to
Iamilton E. Atherley, Ira N. Ilinkson, from
Laborer Cleaner, to Heavy Laborer.
Canal Zone Libraries
Alfred C. Bushell, from Clerk, to Procure-
Marguerite G. Arens, from Library Assist-
ant, to Clerical Assistant.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Murray Klipper, from Electrician, to Ins-
pector (Electrical Systems), Contract and
Francesco Viglietti, from Motor Launch
Captain, to Master. Small Tug.
Ram6n Castro. Walter C. Gooden, Sted-
deus MeFarlane, Cyril A. Warren, from
Launch Operator, to Motor Launch
Jose D. Vergara, from Boatman, to Debris
Erasmo C6mez, from Seaman, to Floating
Richard A. Lindo, from Linehandler, Locks
Division, to General Helper.
Faustino Abrego, Ram6n Garcia, from Rail-
road Trackman, Railroad Division, to
Cecilio Puga. from Laborer, to Helper
Kazimierz Bazan, John L. Mason, from
Electrician, to Senior Operator (Generat-
Alfred A. Legister, from Laborer Cleaner,
to Helper Central Office Repairman.
Joslyn C. Duncan, from Painter, to Leader
Miguel Escobar, from Helper Roofer, to
Maxwell S. Morgan, from Asphalt or
Cement Worker, to Stockman.
Luis A. Visuete, from Laborer, Community
Services Division, to Heavy-Pest Control
Laborer, Division of Sanitation.
Roy T. High, from Pharmacist, to Super-
Ielen M. Hanson, from Staff Nurse, to
Staff Nurse (Obstetrics).
Sueiying C. Lee, from Staff Nurse, to Staff
Olga R. de llenderson, from Clerk, to Elec-
Evelyn M. Spencer, from Sales Clerk,
Supply Division, to Nursing Assistant
(Medlicine and Surgery).
Alherto L. Hope, from Counter Attendant,
Supply Division, to Housekeeping Aid.
Joseph D. Bucndia, from Hospital Laborer,
to Ward Service Aid.
Coco Solo Hospital
Mary L. Poell, Staff Nurse (Medicine and
Surgery) from Gorgas Hospital.
Cecilia H. Byington, from Staff Nurse, to
Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
William P. Escoffery, from Stock Control
Clerk, to Stock Control Clerk (Typing).
Lorenzo Holder, from Clerk, to File Clerk.
Joseph W. Chamberlain. Louis M. Pascav-
age, from Towboat or Ferry Master, to
Thomas C. Francis, Thomas S. Grant, Fitz
R. Spooner, Lucas Scott, Esteban Mc-
Kay, Leopold II. Anderson, C. A. Sis-
nett, Shaphan Jenkins, James W.
Johnson, Auhrey R. Sealey, James V.
Forbes, Ernest II. Webster, Wilfred B.
Simon, John Stephens, Rcyes Escalona,
Ascension Santizo, Simon B. Smith, Mar-
cos M. Waite. Allan A. Smith, Jos6
Archibold, Winston E. DaCosta, Joseph
R. Smith, Granville U. Gordon, from
Launch Operator, to Motor Launch
Gilberto Escobar, from Clerk-Typist, to
Osborn C. Robinson, from Deckhand, to
Rey N. Blake, Joaquin P. Ruiz, from Deck-
hand, to Launch Seaman.
Ernesto R. Shepherd, from Launch Seaman,
Edgar R. McCollin, from Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Maurice B. Nickel, from Production Engi-
neer, to Chief. Industrial Division.
Cristobal L. Joseph, Gabriel Vargas. from
Helper Carpenter, to M.aintenanceman
Cleveland G. Davis, from General Helper,
Dredging Division, to Helper Pipefitter.
Luis A. Fajardo, from Laborer, to Heavy
Joseph M. Vandergrift, Fred Schwartz,
Fred A. Newhard, Arthur F. Crusey,
John F. Greening. Milton L. Nash, Grace
G. Thomas, Kenneth M. Edwards, Wil-
liam S. McKee, John A. Madison, Genova
J. Gibbs, Kenneth L. Middleton, Eugene
F. Kleasner, John A. Dombrowsky, H. A.
Sneckenherger, Oscar Johnson, Harry F.
Willenbrock, Adrian W. Wcbh, Emmett
0. Kiernan, Joseph J. Riley, Richard W.
Abell, Donald P. llutchinson, from Lead
Foreman (Lock Operations), to General
Foreman (Lock Operations).
John R. McGlade, from Lock Operator
Machinist, to Leader Lock Operator
Theodore F. Babich from Towing Loco-
motive Operator, to Lock Operator Iron
Calvin E. Brown, from Marine Machinist,
to Lock Operator Machinist.
Stergios J. Garos, Guard, from Supply
Marcos Darkins, Bernardo Frio, from
Helper Lock Operator, to Oiler.
Lloyd 1. Anthony, Julio Avila, from Line
Handler, to Helper Lock Operator.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Pauline L. Blais, from Clerk-Typist, to
Accounting Technician, Accounting
Frank W. Alberga, from Clerk-Typist, Gor-
gas Hospital, to Time, Leave and Payroll
Clerk, Payroll and Machine Accounting
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
George N. Ateck, from Retail Store Super-
visor, to Commissary Store Manager.
Edson B. James, from Lead Foreman
Heavy Laborer, to Lead Foreman Gar-
IIumberto Valencia, Ilerm6genes Puga,
Eleuterio Grajales, Vicente Lucena, Eloy
Diaz, from Leader Heavy Laborer, to
Leader Garbage Collector.
St. Marie L. Lafleur, from Heavy Laborer,
Louis F. J. Babb, from Heavy Laborer, to
Scrap Materials Sorter.
Nesta II. Bowen. Leroy Davidson, George
A. Foster, Thelma F. Ward, from Utility
Worker, to Counter Attendant.
Jesus Becker, from Waiter, to Counter
James R. Corinealdi, Ruben G. Cox, from
Package BoN, to Utility Worker.
Ricardo Cameron, from Package Boy, to
Henry G. Fergus, from Laborer Cleaner, to
Brigido Jimrnez, from Dairy Worker, to
Victor E. Waite, from Pinsetter, to Utilit)
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Edward B. O'Brien, Jr., from Marine Ter-
minal Superintendent (Superintendent,
Terminals Division), to Terminal Opera-
tions Superintendent (Superintendent,
Thomas J. Burbine, from Service Center
Supervisor, Supply Division, to Guard
Lenord A. Bishop, Gouldhourn Lewis,
Winston A. Nicholson, Stephen E. Ed-
wards, Harry A. Dawkins, Oscar R.
James, Frank A. Reynolds, Vernal
Wright. Gerald Charles. Carlos Diaz.
from Clerk Checker, to Cargo Checker.
Tomnis Ruiz, from Stevedore, to Cargo
(See p. 20)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 19)
Ausiin N. Ilenriques, Livingston Nolan,
from Dock Worker. to Cargo Marker.
Pedro A. Diaz, Gonzalo Laguna, Augusto
Moreira, from Stevedore, to Winchman.
Manuel A. Arauz, Gil Bonilla, Andr6s
ChAvez, David G6mez, Fabricio E. Gon-
zilez, Martin Ilenriquez, Mariano Nieto,
Luciano P6rez, Juan Ramos, Sotero
Salazar, Gumersindo L. Ureia, Ernesto
C. Victoria. from Dock Worker, to
Enrique Riviere, Faustino Garrido, Carlos
A. Chen, Antonio Carrillo, Francisco
Paredes, Avelino Picota, Ildefonso Rosas,
Juliin Lasso, Jer6nimo Alguedo, from
Laborer, to Heavy Laborer.
Motor Transportation Division
Dona T. Craig, from Clerk-Typist, Office
of General Manager, Supply Division, to
Simon J. Bryce, from Leader Automotive
Equipment Serviceman, to Leader Tire
Clifford Lewis, from Deckhand, Navigation
Division, to Chauffeur.
Donald O. Zohel, from Automotive Equip-
ment Serviceman, to Truck Driver
Agustin Martinez, Wilfred C. Warner,
Truck Driver, from Supply Division.
Gordon B. Gordon, from Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Warehouseman.
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
John E. Fisher, Chief, Accounting Policies
and Procedures Staff, Office of the
Edwin F. Righy, General Supply Officer,
Thomas G. Toda, Structural Engineer,
Ilarvey E. Beall, Thomas J. Dwycr, James
V. Higgins, Jr., Leon T. Williams, Ad-
measurer, Navigation Division.
Ienry B. De Voll, Marine Traffic Control-
ler, Navigation Division.
Edna B. Campbell, Staff Nurse (Operating
Room), Coco Solo Hospital.
Catherine M. Brown, Librarian, Canal
Luther NI. Norwood, Service Center Sup-
ervisor, Supply Division.
Ruth P. Iluldtquist, Accounting Clerk,
Constance C. Nelson, Clerk-Stenographer,
Ruth I. Beck, Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital.
Gabriel A. Riemers, Chief Engineer, Tow-
boat or Ferry, Navigation Division.
Walter G. Laurie, Gordon II. Thompson,
Chief Foreman, Fuel Operations, Termi-
Roy W. Perkins, Maxwell C. Sanders,
General Foreman, Fuel Operations,
Wilbur J. Iockery, Worden E. French,
Parker P. I lanna, Irvin E. Krapfl, Lead
Foreman, Fuel Operations, Terminals
Cyril I). Atherlcy, Supervisory Clerk-Typist,
Navigation division .
Kenneth A. McClaren, Clerk-Typist, Navi-
Mlarquesa II. Francis, Cook, Coco Solo,
L( Frivol, Baker, Supply Division.
Eric S. Wdonicam, Sales Clerk, Supply
Alice Gooden, Utility Workcr, Supply
IF A BABY h
coins, rings, t
of other indi
seem to have
Left to its
forage all k
when all too
throat or lung
Take for er
For some tim
her to eat so
go down. No
been lodged i
plastic toy he
it wXnvt (lo\wn
swallowed a I
ing her doll.
holding the I
her mother cli
tion into the
pose you give
containing a \
the candy un
will spit the
whole, or chi
latter, he is
the Darndest Things
had his way his diet might which will block his air passage or go
ns, bones, marbles, keys, into his lungs. A number of children die
oys, and a conglomeration each year from this cause.
gestible items youngsters Objects children most frequently
a passionate appetite for. consume are safety pins, tacks, pea-
own devices, a baby mav nuts, small toys, seeds, buttons, beads,
inds of inedille goodies and coins.
often become stuck in his Follow these precautions:
s. 1. Don't let your child eat nuts or
example, Linda, 1 year old. candy bars with nuts until after he or
.e her mother couldn't get she is 5 years of age.
et. Don't let a voting child chlew on
ilid food. It just wouldn't 2. Don't let ay g cl eew ,o
wonder. A doctor's x-ray pencils, toothpicks, or other wooden
for 11 months a ring had objects because splinters from them can
in her throat. be inhaled or ingested.
3. Before you place a baby on the
id a favorite little green floor to play, inspect the area for small
liked to suck on. One (lay
ihis throat and although objects.
his throat and although 4. Never leave purses, sewing bas-
n worked for hours he kets, or such containers within reach
e it. Tomnmy died. of babies.
e was a little girl who 5. Never allow children to play with
latpin while she was dress- toys small enough for them to swallow
Why? Because she was ol with toys having loose or detachable
min in her mouth the way parts, such as eyes on animals or bells
id on pull toys.
list can't lbe trusted with If, in spite of precautions-or from
And danger is not simply lack of then-your child chokes on a
ing; it is also from inhala- foreign object, turn him upside down
lhngs. For example, sup- and slap him gently on the back. If this
a baby a piece of candy doesn't dislodge the object take the
whole peanut. Ile will suck child to the hospital immediately.
til it is gone and only the Never try to remove the object from
ns in his mouth. Then he Iris throat with your fingers; you may
peanut out, swallow it push it down into the windpipe. And
oke on it. If he does the don't try to make the child vomit. This
likely to inhale the nut, may only complicate the situation.
Be Careful Not a Statistic
YEAR TO DATE
'62 '61 '62
10 15 319
34 41(4) 6579
(Locks Overhaul Injuries included In total.
20 MAY 4, 1962
50 Years Ago
CONCRETE WORK at Gatun Locks
was so near completion 50 years ago this
month that the steel forms used in the
construction of the walls of the locks
were offered for sale and the rock-
crushing plant at Portobelo, which sup-
plied stone for the concrete, was closed.
The month of May 1912 also marked
the end of 8 years of Canal construction
work on the part of the U.S. Govern-
ment. TIHE PANAMA CANAL RECORD
pointed out that Canal work on the Isth-
mus started on May 4, 1904, but that
the first 3 years were largely devoted
to organizing a work force, improving
sanitary conditions, and developing
plans for excavation and construction
of the waterway.
The drv season ended in May 1912
was the driest on record and the potable
RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of March to the
employees listed below, with their posi-
tions at time of retirement and years of
Harry Akers, General Foreman Carman,
Railroad Division; 32 years, 11 months,
William 1. Anderson, Lead Foreman, Rail-
road Division; 15 years, 2 months, 2 days.
Herm6genes 1. Avila D., Stevedore, Ter-
minals Division; 22 years, 2 months,
William S. Brown, Leader Stevedore, Ter-
minals Division; 22 years, 5 months,
Heriberto Cabeza, Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 17 years, 5 months, 5 days.
Joseph N. Coote, Warehouseman, Supply
Division; 18 years, 11 months, 6 days.
Clayton Cummings, Stockman, Mainte-
nance Division; 46 years, 6 months,
Nicolas Estrada, Metcorological Aid, Elec-
trical Division; 36 years, 4 months,
Cupertino Garrido, Lead Foreman, Dredg-
ing Division; 41 years, 7 months, 7 days.
Roger C. Hackett, Dean, Canal Zone Junior
College, Division of Schools; 31 years.
Joseph Holder, Leader Seaman, Dredging
Division; 48 years, 2 months.
Albert W. Howard, Laborer, Terminals
Division; 45 years, 3 months, 4 days.
Ernest James, Guard, Navigation Division;
38 years, 1 month, 12 days.
Julius Joseph, Chauffeur, Motor Transpor-
tation Division; 28 years, 6 months,
water supply of the Canal Zone was sub-
jected to an unprecedented strain. By
the middle of the month, however, one
of the heaviest rainfalls on record fell
in the Ancon area, producing a total of
7.05 inches of rain during a 512-hour
25 Years Ago
A BILL authorizing the Panama Rail-
road to sell certain lands in Colon at
prices to be fixed by appraisal was
passed by the U.S. House of Represen-
tatives. Canal Zone authorities said the
legislation was to permit implementa-
tion of the announced U.S. intention
to dispose of real estate holdings of a
commercial nature in territory under
Pan American Airways announced
that a new 1-day air service would be
Alfred I. Lavergneau, Truck Driver, Motor
Transportation Division; 32 years,
1 month, 10 days.
Emerish McKenzie, Leader Seaman, Dredg-
ing Division; 39 years, 10 months, 1 day.
Jose Martinez, Seaman, Dredging Division;
31 years, 8 months, 21 days.
Manuel A. MWndez, Stevedore, Tcrminals
Division; 14 years, 2 months, 2 days.
Thomas Palmer, Helper, Lock Operator,
Locks Division; 22 years, 3 months,
Joseph W. Prescod. Roofer, Maintenance
Division: 40 years, 5 months, 15 days.
Natividad Rangel L., Wharfman, Terminals
Division; 20 years, 5 months, 11 days.
Roy D. Reece. Assistant Electrical Engi-
neer, Electrical Division; 32 years,
1 month, 13 days.
Manuel Renteria, Guard, Panama Local
Agency: 17 years, 20 days.
Charles C. Rogers, Helper Electrician,
Locks Division; 28 years, 7 months,
Victor Ruiz, Garbage Collector, Community
Services Division; 30 years, 26 days.
Barbino Sanchez, Boatman, Locks Division;
34 vears, 9 months, 24 days.
Fitz N. Sandiford, Chauffeur, Motor Trans-
nortation Division; 42 years, 2 months,
Jose Schmidt, Laborer Cleaner, Terminals
Division; 21 years, 8 months, 26 days.
Zedekiah E. Smith, Guard, Motor Trans-
portation Division; 47 years, 8 months,
Headley A. Thompson, Deckhand, Navi-
gation Division; 33 years, 9 months,
W. Van Underwood, Leader Lock Oper-
ator, Locks Division; 27 years, 10 months,
started soon between Panama and
Miami, and Maj. Gen. Oscar Westover,
Chief of the Army Air Corps, told Con-
gress that Hawaii, the Philippines, and
the Canal Zone would be easy targets
for invading air fleets due to the short-
age and obsolescence of U.S. Air
The Board of Directors of the Pan-
ama Railroad accepted a bid of
$12,120,000 submitted by the Bethle-
hem Shipbuilding Corp. for construc-
tion of three modern passenger and
freight ships which were to replace
the four Panama Railroad ships then
10 Years Ago
THE GREATEST shift of high Canal
personnel since 1907 occurred 10 years
ago as the result of retirements and
changes of assignment. For the first
time since the Canal organization was
formed, the two highest officials left
the organization at the same time. Coy.
F. K. Newcomer departed early in May
1952 and Lt. Gov. Herbert D. Vogel
left at the end of the month to become
division engineer of the Southwest
Division, Corps of Engineers.
During the same month, three b-ireau
directors retired or left the service.
They were Maj. Gen. C. W. Rice. Health
Director; William H. Dunlop, Finance
Director; and Capt. Robert M. Peacher.
Marine Director. It also was announced
that Lindslev H. Noble, the Comptrol-
ler of the Atomic Energy Commission,
had accepted the appointment to the
new job of Comptroller of the Panama
The nomination by President Truman
of Brig. Gen. John S. Sevbold as Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone was approved
by the Senate.
One Year Ago
ELVIS J. STAHR, jr., Secretary of the
Army, announced appointment of a new
Board of Directors for the Panama
Canal Company a year ago, shortly
before they were to meet on the Isthmus.
The SS Ancon arrived in New
Orleans on May 1 to inaugurate service
on the new and shorter run between
the Zone and the United States. The
Ancon soon was to be succeeded by
the Cristobal, which was undergoing
overhaul in New York.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
S Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
I united States intercoastal _-___- __- _
East coast ol United States and South America -
East coast of United States and Central America ----
East coast of United States and Far East- -_-___---
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia- -__
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada .-__
Europe and South America ____________ _
Europe and Australasia-__- ___- _
All other routes______ _________ _____
Total traffic--____-___-_- _______-__
1962 1951 Transi
109 102 1
620 570 4
86 111 1
571 537 2
259 230 1
292 295 1
626 659 3
2,738 2.673 1,7
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
July_-- ------ ----- 931
August_ __ - 934
September-- - 892
November --_----- 891
December-.- -___ 938
January -__--_- 917
\larch_ - 980
A'ril- -_ -_
Totals for first
9 months of
fiscal year_- 8,259
8,011 5,226 $
Gross Tolls *
(In thousands of dollars)
1962 1931 Tolls
$4,776 $4,680 $2,4
4,749 4,585 2,4
4,523 4,172 2,4
4,646 4,495 2,5
4,443 4.299 2,3
4,870 4,385 2,5
4,735 4,449 2,4
4,388 4.113 2,3
5,098 4,725 2,6
42,228 $39.903 $22,1
* Before deduction of any operating expenses.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
British _- --
German _--- -
cetherlands - -
rm\ ian ______
'nitd Sates -
All others _
transits of cargo
NAY 4. 1962
1962 1961 Transits
Canberra to Transit
net TIE NEWEST and largest ship of the
P & O-Orient Lines, the Canberra, is
scheduled to arrive at Balboa on June 10
o. for her first transit of the Panama Canal.
ts With an overall length of 820 feet, a
s beam of 102 feet, and gross registered
46 tonnage of 45,000 tons, she is slightly
45 larger than P&O-Orient's Oriana, which
61 transited for the first time last July.
48 Built at the Belfast shipyard of Har-
93 land & Wolff, Ltd., the Canberra is the
3 largest passenger liner built in England
33 since the Queen Elizabeth. With a
73 capacity of 548 first class passengers,
S 1.690 tourist class, and a crew of almost
1,000, her sea-going population can
range above 3,200 persons.
Like the Oriana, the Canberra has a
service speed of 27V2 knots, is equipped
with a shipboard television installation,
and nore than 1,000 tons of aluminum
were used in her construction to lighten
the topweight. Constructed at a cost of
$42 million, the Canberra is insured for
32 16 million pounds, a million more than
03 the Oriana.
31 Having made her maiden voyage
61 last summer, the Canberra will transit
45 the Canal on a run from Sydney, Aus-
44 tralia, to Southampton, via Auckland,
59 Honolulu, Long Beach, and Panama.
88 She is scheduled to arrive at the Canal
72 about 8 p.m.. dock overnight at Balboa
28 and transit the next day. She will be
represented at the Canal by Norton,
Lilly & Co., Inc.
New Launches Due
TWO 53-FOOT LAUNCHES, built for
the Marine Bureau by Blount Marine
Corp. of Warren. R.I., which also built
the Canal's sightseeing launch Las Cru-
ces, are to be delivered this month in
the Canal Zone, after being brought
across the Caribbean from Miami under
their own power.
The launches are the first of four being
72 built by Blount Marine for the Panama
11 Canal Company at a total contract cost
99 of $200,920. The second pair is to be
52 ready for delivery before the end of
13 June and will be brought to the Isth-
69 nius in the same manner as the two
78 scheduled to arrive this month.
76 The new vessels are to be used to
increase the Navigation Division launch
89 fleet and will be put into service soon
45 after arrival. Names chosen for the
79 new launches are Ray, Flying Fish,
I Sailfish, and Tern.
39 Alvin Rankin, floating equipment
inspector in the Marine Bureau, visited
4 the Blount Marine vard in April to
2 inspect the first two vessels, which
S were launched April 17. All four of the
2 launches are of welded steel construction.
Hotel Ship Due
THE SHAW SAVILL LINE'S 700-foot,
26,463-ton motorship Dominion Mon-
arch, which is to be used as a floating
hotel during the Seattle World's Fair, is
expected to arrive at the Canal at the
end of May on her vwa to Seattle
Since her regular run has been
between London and Australia via the
Suez Canal, this will be the vessel's
first transit of the Isthmian waterway.
She will arrive here, however, wiih
neither passengers nor cargo. According
to W. Andrews & Co., agents for Shaw\
Savill, the ship probably will be sold for
scrap after she has completed her
assignment at the fair.
Tanker Midbody Transits
AN UNUSUAL CUSTOMER for the
Canal during April was the midbody for
a T-2 tanker, which was being towed
from Japan, where it was built, to Bal-
timore, where it is to be fitted to
the two ends of a T-2 tanker as part of
a capacity enlarging process called
The midbody was being towed 1b
the recently-built Japanese tug Nissho
larui and was to arrive at Balboa about
April 28. The tanker midsection, nearly
as large as an ordinary ship, weighs
13,500 tons, is 415 feet long, and has a
beam of 75 feet.
The tug taking the midsection to
Baltimore is an ocean-going craft with
a crew of 37 men. Five crew members
are being carried aboard the tow. This
is the second midsection to make the
Canal transit in the past year, another
one having made the northbound transit
in July 1961. Norton, Lilly & Co., act
as agents for the tugs and their tows
at the Canal.
New Cruise Season
WITH THE 1961-62 winter cruise
season hardly finished, C. B. Fenton &
Co., Inc., Isthmian agents for Norwegian
America Line, reports that the motor
vessel Oslofjord will arrive at Cristobal
October 1 on her autumn cruise around
the world. She will berth in Balboa
during the afternoon and leave later
that night en route to Los Angeles,
Honolulu, and Hong Kong.
During the 83-day cruise, the Oslo-
fjord will covcr 26,027 miles and visit
18 ports, including Bangkok, Singapore,
Colombo, Bombay, Aden, Suez, Port
Said, Haifa, Naples, Villefranche, and
Tangier, as well as the Canal and New
York, where the cruise ends.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW' 23
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
I Avg. No.
1962 1961 Transits
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic __ __
Ocean-going --------------- 1,406 1,332 2,738 2,673 1,773
Small__ -------------- 99 29 128 122 284
Total commercial ----------- 1,505 1,361 2,866 2,795 2,057
------- i -- -
U.S. Government vessels: *5
Ocean-going___ ---------- 27 24 51 53 151
Small* -- ------------ -- 14 44 58 52 71
Total Government---------- 41 68 109 105 222
Total commercial and U.S. Gov- _
ernment _- _---- 1,546 1,429 2,975 2,900 2,279
0 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
"**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
S Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Ores, various __----------- -------
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)-_-
\\heat _- __--- --- -
Canned food products _
Nitrate of soda-- --- ----
Barley_- -_- -------------
Metals, various _--- __--
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) ______ ___ _
Fertilizers, miscellaneous _
Iron and steel manufactures ________
Pulpwood and products __- ____
All others _____ -__ ___- ___
Atlantic to Pacific
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)___
Coal and coke ___ -___
Metal, scrap ______________
Iron and steel manufactures _______ _
Ores, various -__ - -
Chemicals, unclassified _________
Fertilizers, unclassified -
Cotton, raw _________
Machinery _ _ .__ __ _ _
All others__- -___ _____
Total_________ _ _
8,380,879 4 ,042,171
MORE CARGO moved through the
Panama Canal in March than during
any previous month in the history of
the waterway. Some 6,200,000 tons of
cargo were shipped through aboard
980 commercial vessels, while approxi-
mately 5,560 passengers made the
transit on 204 ships.
Exactly how much do these ships,
and all others served by the Canal, pay
for the cost-saving transit from ocean-
to-ocean? It depends on their capacity.
The revenue-producing capacity of
each ship using the Canal is determined
in accordance with the Rules for the
Measurement of Vessels for the Panama
Canal, as prescribed by the President
of the United States.
The Rules for Measurement state
that tolls on merchant vessels, Army
and Navy transports, colliers, hospital
ships, supply ships, and yachts shall be
based on the net vessel-tons of actual
earning capacity. This tolls-paying, or
earning, capacity is know n as "Panama
Canal net tonnage," which is estab-
lished at the rate of 1 ton for each
100 cubic feet of enclosed, revenue-
producing space aboard the vessel. Tolls
on fighting ships, floating drydocks, and
dredges are computed on the basis of
displacement tonnage, which is a weight
measurement determined by the ton-
nage ol water "displaced" by the vessel.
When any ship, other than those
charged on a displacement tonnage
basis, is carrying any cargo and or pas-
sengers, whether fully laden or only
partially laden, the vessel is charged
90 cents per ton 'for its entire Panama
Canal net tonnage. If the ship is in bal-
last, with no cargo and or passengers
aboard, the charge is 72 cents for each
Panama Canal net ton. The vessels
charged on a displacement-ton basis
pay 50 cents for each displacement ton.
These rates apply equally to the ships
of all nations except vessels owned by
the Government of the Republic of Pan-
ama, Colombian naval vessels, those
transiting for repairs or dry)docking.
and floating equipment of the Canal
organization. These transit free.
To establish the amount of Panama
Canal int tonnage for any vessel, Canal
admonasuirers go aboard, tape measure
in hand, and Imeasture the total capacity
of the vessel. The exact cubical con-
tents of all space below the uppermost
flil-length deck and all permanently
covered( al closed-in spaces on or
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MARCH
Coiini-rcial. 937 980
U.S. C(o\ernmuent. . 18 15
Free. ............ ... 5 10
Total ............. 960 1,005
Commercial. ... $4,728,204
U.S. (Cov\ernecnit. 103,170
Total. ... S4,831,374
U.S. (ov\erninnt. t04,023
Total. ... 5,780,583
, t- i 1 '174
'Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
"Cargo figures are in long tons
above the uppermost full-length deck
are computed. These, minus some
deductions, determine the Panama
Canal gross tonnage.
From the gross tonnage thus estab-
lished, the admeasurers subtract all
space used for navigation and operation
of the ship, all ballast space, all space
devoted to living quarters for the officers
and crew, all space occupied by the
engineroom and propelling machinery,
and, if it is a passenger vessel, all public
rooms. In all ships propelled by power
-and most of them are these days-an
additional deduction equal to 75 per-
cent of the space devoted to propelling
machinery also is deducted. The gross
tonnage, minus these deductions, deter-
mines the Panama Canal net tonnage,
on which tolls are assessed.
Each ship which arrives at the
Canal for its first transit is subjected
to a complete measurement 1y the
admieasluers. The Panama Canal net
tonnage thus obtained is used thereafter
for computation of tolls on each transit,
unless the vessel undergoes structural
alterations. After such alterations, she
must be remeasured.
There are marked differences in the
revenue-producing capacity of various
types of ships-even when their exterior
dimensions are similar.
The 715-foot passenger ship Caronia
has a Panama Canal gross tonnage of
36,185 tons. Public rooms, propelling
power space, quarters for her large
crew, and other allowable deductions
brings her net tonnage down to 16,221,
however, or less than 45 percent of
The 736-foot tanker World Glory,
although longer than the Caronia, has
a gross tonnage of 29,532, or some
6,653 less than the passenger vessel.
But because the World Glory has far
less space which is deductible, her Pan-
ama Canal net tonnage is 23,713, or
more than 70 percent of her gross and
some 7,492 more than the Caronia.
The ore carrier Dynamic, 8 feet
longer than the World Glory and 29 feet
longer than the Caronia, has a gross ton-
nage of 30,881, considerably under the
passenger vessel but slightly higher
than the tanker, but her actual cargo
space is equal to only 11,928 Panama
Canal net tons, less than either of the
other two vessels.
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL
MAY 4. 1962
UL uSP OCT N vV
JAN FLB MAR APR MAY JUN