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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00064
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: November 1961
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00064
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Matter
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie124pana








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Genuine Friendship


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\\ .\. CARTtR, Governor- president
\\. P. LI R- aR, Lieutenzant l i (ern r
\\WILL .\RE\
Panama Canal Infornmtion Officer


PAN AMA L I'


Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly at Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone


N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Press Officer
JOSEPH'l CONNOR, I'ublications Ediloi
Editorial Assistants:
EUNICE RICHARD and T`Bl BITTEI.
\\ ILLIA. BURNS, Official l'hotogrphlei


)O sale at all Panama (anal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House i,r 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal moiny orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box MI. Balboa Heights. C. Z.
Editorial O(tices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C. Z.


Jnimno



Satcionat



be



Sanama


Alcanzamos por fin la victoria
En el campo fcliz dc la uninll
Con ardientes fulgorcs de gloria
Sc ihinnina la niteva nacion.

Es preciso cubl'ir con un celo
Del ipasado el calcario y la crIiz
Y qne adorned e aznl a i de ti ciclo
Dc concordia la csplcndida hIz.

El progrcso acaricia tus lares
Al comps de sublime cancion
Vcs rngir a tus pies ambos mares
Que dan irnbo a tit noble inisiin.

En tu suelo ctlbicrto de florcs,
A los besos del tibio tcrral
Tcerminaron gtIcrreros fragores
S61o rcina el amor fraternal.

Adelante la pica y la pala
Al trabajo sin ias dilacio'
Y scrcmos asi prcz y gala
Dc csfce niundo feraz de Colon.


In This Issue
EVENTS which lead to the establishment of a new
and independent country among the family of nations
always have a certain drama and poignancy, particu-
larly for the natives of the new country. An account
of the events of November 3, 1903, which led to the
independence of Panama, starts on page 3, to provide
readers with some of the history associated with this
month's 5Sth anniversary of Panama's independence.
The account was written in a somewhat longer
version a number of years ago by A. V. McCeachy,
a citizen and lifelong resident of Panama, who for
many years was editor of the Star & Herald and now
is Editor Emeritus of that newspaper. Mr. McCeachy,
who was 13 years of age on November 3, 1903, gave
permission for TIHE REVIEW to condense the article
and publish it in this issue for the benefit of readers
not familiar with the story.

ELECTION of delegates to the nine Civic Councils
of Canal Zone communities is to be held Tuesday,
November 7, and a number of candidates are running
for each vacancy. A listing of the candidates for
seven of the nine Councils is on page 15.

IF YOU HAVE questions concerning medical care
and how and where to obtain it in the Canal Zone,
tile article on page 17 is designed to provide answers
for those most frequently posed to hospital officials.
There also is a map of Corgas Hospital illustrating
the article.



November 3, 1903-Day of Destiny --- 3
Reception Readied-for Mules ___ 7
Drilling to Bedrock __--- S
Spanning Time and Space ___------ 9
Visitors---- --- -- 11
Crowing Canal for Future Demand ----- 12
Recognition for Invaluable Service 14
Zonians' Colorful Christmas Displays 14
Election Coming Up- - --- 15
Worth Knowing_ ---- 16
Guide to Medical Care ---- 17
Anniversaries ----- 18
Promotions and Transfers ------- 19
Safety 20
Canal History ------ 21
Retirements -- 21
Quarterly Shipping Statistics --- 22
Shipping ..24
hi ----- --- ---------- 3
2 NOVE1MBER 3, 1961







N OVEMBER 3, 1903, Panama's Day of Destiny,
dawned pregnant with possibilities for the Isthmus
and its people. The first rays of the rising sun revealed
two vessels riding at anchor in Colon Bay. The),
carried 500 Colombian troops.
These troops obviously were Colombia's answer to
reports of discontent and unrest on the Isthmus.
News of their arrival at Colon caused deep conster-
nation among Panamanian leaders in Panama City,
the provincial capital.
The arrival of the troops on November 3 brought
home to the Panamanian patriots the necessity for
prompt and decisive action. The leaders involved
were: Jos6 Agustin Arango, Manuel Amador Gue-
rrero, Carlos Constantino Arosemena, Nicanor A. de
Obarrio, Ricardo Arias, Federico Boyd, Tomis Arias,
and Manuel Espinosa B. They formed the Revolu-
tionary Junta. Associated with them in an auxiliary
junta were: Carlos A. Mendoza, Juan A. Henriquez,
Eusebio A. Morales, Gerardo Ortega, Carlos Clement,
Eduardo Icaza, Ram6n Valdez L., Domingo Diaz,
Pedro A. Diaz, Pastor Jim6nez, Carlos Zachrisson,
Porfirio Mel6ndez, and Orondastes Martinez. In addi-
tion there were hundreds of other Panamanians iden-
tified with the movement to a greater or lesser extent.
The heroic attitude of one woman, Maria Ossa de
Amador, wife of Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, is
perhaps one of the most important events of that
memorable morning of November 3, 1903.
Dr. Amador, supreme leader of the separatist move-
ment, was among the first to be informed of the
arrival of troops in Colon.
He immediately started out to inform his fellow
conspirators of the event and its possible effect on
the separatist plan and was invariably greeted with
the remark, "Then, everything is lost." Dr. Amador
returned home in profound depression and dis-
consolatelv threw himself into his hammock, telling
Mrs. Amador, "I think everything is lost. My com-
panions are faltering and I fear they will abandon us."
Mrs. Amador stiffened her husband's morale by
objecting to the idea of abandoning the movement,
saying, "If you are left alone, then you will have to
fight alone. It no longer is possible to draw back.
Come, get up and begin to fight."
She suggested that Panama Railroad officials might
he induced to prevent the newly arrived troops from
crossing the Isthmus immediately. Dr. Amador saw
great possibilities in the suggestion and hurried out
immediately to try to transform it into a reality.
On reaching the street, lie encountered H. G.
Prescott, Assistant Superintendent of the Panama
Railroad, accompanied by Nicanor A. de Obarrio,
Prefect of Panama, who said he had just been
informed about the arrival of the Colombian troops.
Dr. Amador said he already had told leaders of the


November 3, 1903


DAY



OF




DESTINY




(codeiinsed from an article
BH .\. .Mh(;eachy
Editor Emieritus, Star .? Herald








movement and had found them discouraged.
"We must carry out the coup without delay or we
will lose all," Dr. Amador said.
The trio proceeded to Prescott's office to call
Col. J. R. Shaler, Superintendent of the Railroad, who
lived in Colon. Colonel Shaler immediately consented
to do anything and everything in his power to prevent
the troops from crossing the Isthmus by train. This
point settled, Dr. Amador convoked a plenary meeting
of the Junta at 9 o'clock that morning.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW













"Allow me to express my gratitude

to the high authorities, both civilian and

military, of the United States of Amer-

ica, for the decisive and wise manner

in which they have acted during all this

time, with the lofty and sincere purpose

of placing the relations of our countries


in the highest form of harmony.


President Chiari addressing Panama
National Assembly, October 1, 1961.


Many voiced the opinion that the
movement should be abandoned, but
the determination of Dr. Amador and
Federico Bovd eventually overcame all
opposition. Their opinion was staunchly
supported by Carlos Constantino
Arosemena, who declared:
"If having, as we have, the support of
the Batall6n Colombia, which the entire
Isthmian people stand ready to follow,
we still hesitate, then we do not deserve
to be Iree but should be hanged."
Following this conference, Dr. Ama-
dor communicated with Cen. Domingo
Diaz, a leader for whom the populace
of Paanama would have gone to any
extremes of sacrifice. General Diaz
established headquarters in a barber-
shop in Santa Ana Plaza and summoned
the men who had served as his officers
during a revolution the previous year.
To them he entrusted the work of
rallying the people.
(enI. I'jstclan llnertas, commander of
the HBtallon Colombia, garrisoned in
Iainia City, was well aware of the
Splitting and indirectly had
own that his sympathies were
wit tie Planamanianl pIople.
Gcnial fliel tas was informed of the
arrival of li troops at Colon and was
tohl that .imioni the ollicers were


Cen. Juan B. Tovar, who had been
named to relieve him as commander-in-
chief of all Isthmian troops, Gen. Ram6n
G. Amava, Angel M. Tovar, and Luis
A. Tovar, the last two being nephews
of the commander-in-chief.
Colonel Shaler convinced the Colom-
bian generals to cross to Panama City
alone, assuring them that their troops
would follow in the afternoon as soon
as he could assemble the necessary ears
to transport them.
General Huertas and his Batall6n
Colombia marched to the Panama City
railroad station to receive the generals.
The appearance on the streets of these
veteran troops caused some misgiving
among those who saw them swing down
Central Avenue. Though members of
this unit had resided on the Isthmus for
many years and might be expected to
side with the people whose joys and
sorrows they had shared over such a
long period, there was no certainty that
they would do so. After all, they were
Colombians. Would they line up with
the Panamanians against Colombia?
That was the unknown quantity.
At II a.m., the Colombian generals
arrived and were received by the depart-
menit governor, Don jos6 Domingo do
Obaldia, and other notables of the city.


Full honors were rendered by the Bata-
ll6n Colombia. From the station, the
generals were driven to the Palace of
Government. The Batall6n Colombia, in
final salute to the newcomers, marched
past the palace alnd returned to its
barracks in Las Bovedas.
Meanwhile, feverish activitywas being
displayed by the lieutenants of Gen.
Domingo Diaz. News of the revolu-
tionary movement had gained city-
wide circulation and almost unanimous
response. The Colombian generals noted
the undercurrent of unrest and tense
activity. General Tovar requested that
immediate steps be taken to have the
Tiradores troops transferred to Panama
without further loss of time. Governor
Obaldia promised to act immediately.
General Tovar communicated his
uneasiness to General Huertas and in-
structed him as to the best method of
defense in the vicinity of the barracks
should the populace stage the rumored
uprising. At this juncture, Dr. Julio J.
Fabrega, secretary to Governor Obaldia,
arrived to inform them that Colonel
Shaler was placing obstacle after obsta-
cle in the way of the transportation of
the troops; that his latest excuse was
that he could not undertake to move
them because the Colombian Govern-


NOVEMBEn 3, 1961

















"The friendship between the people

of the Republic of Panama and the

people of the United States is well

known and of many years' standing."


Governor Carter speaking at Shaler
Triangle, September 21. 1960.


ment was already heavily indebted to
the railroad company. General Tovar
sent word to Colonel Shaler through
Governor Obaldia that he would cover
in eash any account pending between
the government and the Panama Rail-
road but, by all means, the troops
should be dispatched immediately to
Panama City.
The hour was drawing near for deci-
sive action by General Huertas. Free
of General Tovar, he sauntered along
Las Bovedas promenade, immersed in
his thoughts, when he encountered
Capt. Marcos Salazar. "What's new?"
General Huertas asked.
"General, it is said the Yankees are
landing in Colon and are preparing to
come and attack us," Captain Salazar
replied.
Throwing his arm over Salazar's
shoulder, General Huertas remarked,
"That's nothing. There is another thing
more serious which I have not vet com-
municated to any of mv comrades,
because I wish to carry out a plan and
do not wish-if things go wrong- that
the\, be blamed."
"I will second you," Salazar told the
General, though the latter had not indi-
cated the nature of his plan. Because
of this spirit of implicit faith and abso-

TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5


lute obedience, General Huertas felt
confident of success for his project.
About 5 p.m., Ceneral Huertas in-
structed Antonio Alberto Valdez to
gather a group of determined men and
arrest the Colombian generals at their
headquarters. Valdez had started on his
mission when he saw the potential
prisoners on their way to the barracks.
The plan frustrated, Valdez hurried to
inform Gen. Domingo Diaz of the
situation.
General Tovar, increasingly con-
eerned by the unusual activity and
evidences of unrest, asked general
Huertas if he knew anything about it.
Huertas admitted he had heard some
things, but was prepared for any\
eventualities.
Though fully realizing the grave
danger he was in, General Huertas
remained calm and, with all the courtesy
and uneoncern possible, asked General
Tovar to excuse him while he mounted
a few pieces of ordnance on the parade
ground. Then Huertas turned away from
the group. At that instant, he caught
sight of Captain Salazar, whom he called.
Entering the barracks with the cap-
tain, General Huertas ordered him to
arm himself. Salazar left to do so and on
his return found Iluectas in the assembly


hall with eight soldiers, fully armed
with rifles and fixed bayonets.
General Huertas tok'l Captain Sala-
zar: "Arrest all those who are sitting on
the bench outside."
"\Who?" asked the captain in astonish-
ment. "The generals?"
"Yes." replied Huertas. "Let it be
them rather than us. You will arrest
them and take them to the police station,
Where you will turn them over to the
eustody of Commandante Arango."
Captain Salazar unsheathed his sword
and went out with his men, whom he
lined up behind the benches. Stepping
to the front, he stood before the group
of officers and said:
"Gentlemen, you are under arrest."
General Tovar leaped to his feet.
"Under arrest." he roared, challenging
the insolence of this captain. "Don't
\ou know the commander-in-chief of
the army?"
"I never have been made to recognize
him," retorted Captain Salazar.
General Tovar then sprang for Sala-
zar, but the latter presented the threat-
ening point of his sword. At the same
time, he gave the order that brought
the points of the bayonets on his men's
rifles against the backs of the others on
the bench.


WOMM". __ ___ A-a














/"We have . attained an

atmosphere of great cordiality

in our relations with the com-

munities of the Canal Zone."


President Chiari making


his annual "State of the Union" address, October 1, 1961.


Furious, General Tovar called: "Huer-
tas! Huertas! Where is Huertas?" To this
the captain replied: "There is no Huer-
tas now. Here will be done only that
which I order. You are my prisoners."
General Amava interrupted, saving,
"General, we are indeed prisoners; there
is no remedy." The generals then were
escorted to the police station.
The populace, summoned to Santa
Ana Plaza, awaited word to move for-
ward and procure arms at the barracks
of the Batall6n Colombia. Archibaldo
E. Boyd reached the plaza with the
news that the Colombian generals were
prisoners and the Panamanian populace,
absolutely unarmed, started on the last
leg of their move to sever the last ties
that bound them to Colombia.
The crowd swarmed toward the
barracks' parade ground (today the
Plaza de Francia) only to find the end
of the narrow streets blocked by a strong
guard. The guard, ignorant of the true
meaning of this invasion of the army's
sacred premises, prepared to resist the
advance. It was only through the deter-
mined efforts of Sgt. Manuel Samaniego,
in immediate command of the detach-
ments, that a bloody massacre of the
unarmed Panamanians was avoided.
Samaniego called for Cen-
cral Ilihrts, 'who appeared at the doors
of tl Ia racks and ordered:
lt the in; they come to give us
prot, ction.
withinn a few minutes, the parade
ground was thronged by an enthusiastic


mass of patriots, already glorying in the
triumph of their cause. General Huertas
had ordered Captains Clodomiro and
Luis Gil to allow the people into the
barracks, but quickly changed his mind
and directed that they move to the Las
Monjas barracks, situated where the
National Theater stands today. The
general accompanied them and placed
Don Carlos Clement in charge of the
arms distribution.
The arming of the populace was fol-
lowed by the rounding-up of all Colom-
bian leaders in the city. At about
7:30 p.m., Governor Obaldia, the last
representative of Colombian rule on the
Isthmus, was placed under arrest and
confined in the home of Dr. Amador.
With these details completed, Gen-
eral Huertas and General Diaz entrusted
the duties of officer-of-the-day to
Col. Victor Manuel Alvarado.
Apparently all danger of attack was
remote, in view of the fact that Colonel
Shaler had steadfastly obstructed all
efforts by the Colombians to cross the
Isthmus. But there still was some
element of danger from the naval units
in Panama Bay, especially from the
Bogotd, commanded by Col. Jorge Mar-
tinez L., who was not in sympathy with
the separatist move.
"Either you deliver the generals to
me," Colonel Martinez had written Dr.
Amador, "or I will bombard the city."
In a verbal reply through the mes-
senger who brought the note, Dr. Ama-
dor said, "Tell him to do as he pleases."


At about 8 p.m., the Bogotd fired the
first hostile shot in the separatist move-
ment. Seeing Capt. Raul A. Chevalier
nearby, General Huertas ordered him
to man the battery on Las Bovedas and
return the Bogotd's fire.
Captain Chevalier's first shot almost
grazed the Bogotd's bow-the ship was
backing out of the anchorage-but his
second fell short, the vessel having
succeeded in getting out of range of the
light 3-inch gun.
The Bogotd fired a total of 9 shots.
One fell in El Javillo district and caused
the death of a Chinese citizen. Another
fell on a private residence on First
Street, totally destroying the roof. A third
fell on the building originally occupied
by the Normal College for Girls on West
12th Street. The 6 other shots fired by
the ship caused no damage whatever,
apparently falling short.
Ashore, the Municipal Council gath-
ered in extraordinary and solemn session.
It was meeting to approve and accept
the separatist movement and the abso-
lute independence of the Isthmus from
Colombia for all time. This action took
place in the same chamber where,
82 years previously, the Municipal
Councilmen of 1821, on November 28,
proclaimed the independence of the
Isthmus from the rule of Spain. The
action by the Municipal Council, late
on November 3, definitely confirmed
the movement that severed the country
from Colombia and established the
Republic of Panama.


NOVEMBER 3, 1961























,".
'h


WHILE operating tests equal to 6
months of actual work at the locks of
the Panama Canal are being given to
the first of six new towing locomotives
now nearing completion in Japan, plans
for receiving the new "mules" and put-
ting them into operation on the east
lane of Gatun Locks are far advanced.
Two veteran lock operators have
visited Japan, watched the mules in
operation, familiarized themselves with
the controls and functioning of the
machines, and recently have returned
to the Canal Zone, ready to serve as
instructors when the new locomotives
arrive. Two other locks employees,
Oliver H. Hendrickson and Douglas S.
Smith, have gone to the United States
to study the hydraulic equipment used
in the winches.
Robert Blair and Felix Karpinski
spent several weeks in Japan studying
the performance of the new locomotives
and, in written reports to Locks Division
Chief Roy Stockham, said they believe
the new mules will be completely satis-
factory, although they did comment that
it's going to take operators a little while
to become familiar with the handling
characteristics of the new machines.
To take care of that problem, the
Engineering and Construction Bureau
has made a film on the mules and the
Locks Division is preparing a hand-


book explaining the operation of the
new locomotives and their appurte-
nances. Each of the new machines is
equipped with two hydraulically-driven
cable winches, in contrast to the single
mechanically-operated winch on each
of the present mules. Operators will be
given an orientation on the new ma-
chines before they start using them
to assist ships.
The two winches, which are con-
sidered the single most outstanding
feature of the new mules in contrast
with the old ones, each are capable of
exerting a pull of 35,000 pounds, thus
giving each of the new machines a total
of 70,000 pounds of pull, in contrast to
the 25,000 pounds of the present mules.
Arrival of the six new locomotives at
Gatun Locks also will mark the begin-
ning of the end for the last of the
25-cycle electric current installations in
the Zone. In the Zone-wide changeover
from 25-cycle current to 60-cycle cur-
rent which was started in 1954, the
towing locomotives were not modified
to use the 60-cycle current. The new
machines will use it, however.
In preparation for the changeover,
new electrical installations to supply the
power for the new mules now are
being made on the east lane at Gatun.
The new circuits and other equipment
are being installed without removal of


Reception



Readied



... for Mules








First of six new towing
locomotives is put
through its paces on
test track in Japan.


the 25-cycle current installations, which
must be used until the changeover.
When the time comes, the changeover
will be completed by making a few final
connections and then pulling the switch
on the 25-cycle current and throwing
the switch on the 60-cycle. If circum-
stances should require the new locomo-
tives to be taken out of service during
the 3-month test period planned for
them, it will be a similarly simple matter
to restore the 25-cycle current for use
by the old locomotives.
Each of the new machines will weigh
approximately 55 tons, about 5 tons
more than the present locomotives. To
insure adequate strength in the lock
walls to support the additional weight
and the extra power of the new ma-
chines, the bridging over the gate
recesses has been reinforced.
Another major change in the lock
walls which has been necessary to
accommodate the new mules has been
the filling of the declivities formerly
occupied by the emergency dams, which
were installed as part of the original
lock equipment but have since been
removed. This was necessary in order
to raise the new mules to a point where
the cables, which extend from a lower
point on the new machines than they
did on the old ones, will not become
(See p. 8)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






(Continued from p. 7)
fouled on the lock wall.
Two more changes still to be made
at the locks are installation of center
wall turntables and modification of the
repair shelters at the locks. The turn-
tables will be necessary\ because the
cables of the new locomotives extend
from only one side of the machines.
Fhis means that each time one of the
new mules is moved from one lane to
the other on the center wall it will have
to be turned around so that cables are
in the correct position. The cables of
the present mules can be used on either
side of the machine, a variation that
was not possible with the configuration
of the new locomotives.
The modifications which will have
to be made to the repair shelters will
be necessary because the greater width
of the new locomotives will not permit
them to pass the supports of the present
shelters, which are located directly
alongside the tracks on the lock walls.
In addition to the greater power of
the new locomotives, they also have a
greater variation in speeds at which
they can be operated. The 40-year-old
mo(lels now in use have towing speeds
of 1 and 2 miles per hour and a "run-
ning" speed of 5 miles per hour. The
new ones will be capable of towing at
speeds of 1, 2, or 3 miles an hour and
can run at 6 to 9 miles an hour when
not helping a ship.
All of the improvements incorporated
into the new locomotives are expected
to make them much more capable of
handling the ever-larger ships whieh
are transiting the Canal. A number of
ships which use the waterway require
10 old-type locomotives to move them
through the locks and help control their
movements while in the lock chambers.
A few ships require 12 of the present
locomotives. Canal officials believe that
six of the new locomotives will be able
to handle any vessel that can pass
through the waterway.
If the 3 months of tests which are to
be conducted at Catun Locks with the
six locomotives scheduled to arrive in
[anuary prove that the new mules are
satisfactory, an order will be issued to
the Japanese manufacturers to proceed
with construction of the remaining ma-
chines needed to equip the entire Canal.
As each set of locks is equipped with
the new\ locomotives, they also will
receive one locomotive crane for use
on the center wall. These locomotive
cranes, which also will operate on
(- crret, will replace the pre-
s : crvle machines. Thus, by mid-
1 ;i th 2.')- t:1l equipment will belong
to hisl aii the future will belong
to the nw, more powerful, 60-cycle
machines.


Drilling fo

THE NEW BUILDING being con-
structed to house the main offices and
most of the medical service clinics of
Gorgas Hospital will stand on tremen-
dous underground stilts reaching down
to bedrock and providing a solid footing
for the weight of the structure.
A giant brace and bit apparatus is
being used by the Case Foundation Co.
to drill holes for the stilts-or caissons,
as they are more formally known-w which
will support the 8-story building.
The big drill grinds its way through
earth and rock with equal ease to dig
holes which are from 24 to 54 inches
in diameter and from 35 to 40 feet deep.
By the end of October, most of the
52 caisson holes needed for the hos-
pital were completed and work was


a .. Massive brace and
bit drills hole for
hospital support.













.








r Bedrock

beginning on pouring concrete for the
grade beams and spread footings, which
will be flush with the ground and
approximately 6 feet wide.
The next step in the hospital founda-
tion work, which is scheduled to start
in mid-November, Nwill be construction
of the supporting columns which will
rest on the concrete caissons and caps
and hold the building proper one story
above ground.
Case Foundation Co., which also has
done work in connection with the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge substructure, is
working as a subcontractor with the
Uhlhorn Construction Co., prime con-
tractor for the $31 2 million hospital
building. The new building is scheduled
for completion early in 1963.


NOVEMBER 3, 1961






Public Law 87-125:
T/atc/hr Ferry Bridge






Spanning



Time


and



Space


Maurice H. Thatcher.


AT THE ANNUAL meeting of the
Federaci6n Panamefia de Educaci6n
Vial on July 31, 1930, a motion was
unanimously approved that started a
chain of events which have spanned the
years since then and recently culmi-
nated in action by the U.S. Congress
naming the new bridge across the Canal
in honor of an early Canal Zone official.
The motion adopted by the Panama
Federation for Highway Education
directed J. Berrocal, president of
the organization, to ask Canal Zone
Governor Harry Burgess to name the
highway then being built between
Balboa and Arraijan in honor of Maurice
H. Thatcher.
In a letter to Governor Burgess, Pres-
ident Berrocal said the Federation he
headed "would like that recognition be
given in this manner to the Honorable
Maurice H. Thatcher for his very suc-
cessful efforts on behalf of the Republic
of Panama, by having submitted to the
U.S. Congress, and secured the passage
thereof, the act that has enabled the
construction of the section of road men-
tioned and the ferries that will be put
in service across the Pacific entrance of
the Panama Canal."
Thus it was that Thatcher Highway
and the associated Thatcher Ferry came
to be named after the youngest member
of the Isthmian Canal Commission; the
man who headed the Department of
Civil Administration of the Canal Zone
from May 13, 1910, to August 8, 1913,
thereby acquiring the popular title of


"Governor of the Canal Zone," although
that formal title was not actually estab-
lished until after opening of the water-
way in August 1914; the man whose
name will be carried into the future by
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
Mr. Thatcher, who today is the only
surviving member of the ICC, which
guided the Canal organization during
the construction period, still practices
law in Washington. He observed his
91st birthday this past August 15.
Throughout the 48 years that have
passed since he concluded his duties


with the ICC, Mr. Thatcher has re-
tained an active interest in the Canal
Zone and the Republic of Panama and
frequently has participated in actions
concerning them.
While serving in Congress as a Rep-
resentative from Kentucky from 1923
to 1933, Mr. Thatcher introduced the
legislation which led to construction
of Thatcher Highway and Thatcher
Ferry and also authored the act which
created the Corgas Memorial Labora-
tory in Panama City. Research in
tropical diseases at the Laboratory has


Thatcher Ferry crosses the Canal with full load near piers of bridge which will succeed it.
Thatcher Ferry crosses the Canal with full load near piers of bridge which will succeed it.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



































Steel superstructure of $20 million bridge is taking shape under skilled hands of workers.


benefited not only residents of the Isth-
mus of Panama, but inhabitants of tlhe
tropics throughout the world.
In recent years, Mr. Thatcher encour-
aged action by Congress which provided
retirement pay for the non-U.S.-citizen
employees of the Canal organization.
Above the desk in his Washington office
is a certificate making him an honorary
president of the Canal Zone Retired
Workers' Association, an Isthmian organ-
ization of non-U.S.-citizen employees.
During his 10 years in Congress,
Mr. Thatcher visited the Isthmus on
three different occasions and since \Vorld
War II has made three more visits, each
time as a guest of the Canal organiza-
tion. In a recent interview with United
Press International, Mr. Thatcher said,
"I did what I could to promote good
relations between the United States and
the Republic of Panama. I always tried
to see that the Republic had a fair deal
and I believe that 1 have the good will
of the people of Panama."
litsidents of Arraijan, whicl was
joined to Panama City hy means of
the Thatcher Highway, honored Mr.
Thatcher for his efforts in connection
\with the highway and ferry service by
presenting limn with a plot of ground in
thIl I a token of their gratitude.
Mr. later arranged for his land
to l x ; ld for another tract, which
as mad ,,. and named
Parquc Iil il Maurice II. Thatcher
by officials ol tlh village.
Mr. Thatcher also has been honored


by the Government of Panama, which
awarded him the Order of Vasco Nifiez
de Balboa con Placa. Ecuador and
Venezuela also have honored him for
his services to tropical America. Ecuador
presented him with the Order of Al
Mdrito and the Order of the Col6n
Alfaro Foundation. Venezuela awarded
him the Order of Libertador (Bolivar)


in 1930, when Mr. Thatcher served as
a member of the U.S. Commission
which presented Venezuela with the
statue ot Henry Clay which now stands
in the Henry Clay Plaza in Caracas.
The new bridge, the soaring super-
structure of which will rise 384 feet
above the average level of the Canal
below it, will be the largest bridge on
the Pan American Highway, final sec-
tors of which from the United States to
Panama City now are under construc-
tion. Extension of the highway to South
America will make the bridge a major
link in the intercontinental highway
connecting the two great continents of
the hemisphere.
As a personal memento for Mr.
Thatcher, President Kennedy gave him
the pen with which he signed the bill
naming the bridge. This was the 13th
pen given the former Zone official by
Presidents of the United States for his
contributions relative to various Acts
of Congress.
The Thatcher Ferry, which will be
taken out of service after the bridge is
opened to traffic about a year from
now, started operation in September
1932. By the time it is discontinued, it
is estimated that 20 million cars and
100 million passengers will have used
it to cross the waterway.
But even as the ferry service passes
into history, the fact of its existence and
the man who played a major role in
having it established will be permanently
memorialized in the name of the grace-
ful and functional structure which will
replace it, the Thatcher Ferry Bridge.


Thatcher Highway, connecting Panama City with highway system outside Canal Zone.


10 NOVEMBER 3, 1961













II -- 4





















TWO HIGH OFFICIALS of the U.S. governmentt were .
1Ws













r. Edward rs Edardurrow, fR. urro duriradg isitand ttoelevilirfl




VISITORS


Lieutenant Governor Lbcr conducts D)r. Charyk on locks tour.








newscaster and commentator and now director of the
U.S. Information AgencyCILS of e nt part of a te we rekd o
amonthe Isthmus, conferring with local U.S. ofctoberials. Duringle
residents brief sta, Zor. urrow antinued their noife visited Mira-



flores Locks, where they saw ships being raised and -
lowered through of the public of Panambers and heard ants
explanation of the locks control system operates.
Edward R. Nlurrow, famous radio and television



scaDr. Josep V. Charyk, Under Senow diretary of the U.S.
U.S. Information Agency, spent part of a weekend on L 4


Air Fore Isthmus, confevisited th local U during the month, -
his braccompanied by his ife. During his ife2-day stayed ira-


Dr. Charyk spent considerable time with military offi-
cials Locks, hee theCommand and its components, and
particularly through te Caribbean Air Commbers and at Abrook Air
Forexplanation of how the locks briefed onol system operation of these.
Isthmia aterway a nd was taken on a visit to the locks.
the Zone residents rce, als o visited the Isthus durinterior of the month, Repu-
accompanied by his wife. During his 2-day stay,



blic. They spent a day and a night at Divisa and Chitre,offi-
attendingals of the Vocational, Industrial and Agriculturalpoents
particularly the Institute of Mechanical Arts in Divisa, which
Force Base. He also wvas briefed on operation of the


Isthmincluded a Canal organization exhibit on a visit to the locks.
Lieuof the Cans operation and its ole in world commerce Lt. Go W P Leher and wife with San Bamongas Indians at
the Zone residents who visited the interior of the Repu-
blic. They spent a day and a night at Divisa and Chitre,
attending the Vocational, Industrial, and Agricultural
Fair at the Institute of Mlechanical Arts in Divisa, which
included a Canal organization exhibit on various phases
of the Canal's operation and its role in world commerce. Lt. Gov. NV. P. Leber and wife with San Bias Indians at I


I panel to
ores Locks.


ivisa Fair.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11





































TIlHE RESTRICTIVE "big ditch" se'-
tion of thie Panaomia Canal soon will beI
redtCued to just half its Itr'mr length.
]llamios Gaillard Cut through tlie-
Continental Divide be\'wen 'Peho Mi-
gie'l Locks iand (:Camboa still is 8 miles
long, of course, but half ol it soon) will
lie 500 feet wide instead of 300. The
r maiunining 4 miles which is only 300 feet
widely is iretr-ating daily before tih coIm-
bined cllorrts of thie project contactotr
and lite Canal's IDredging Di\isioll
A inmajol Iilestoliir ill til' C(t-widl.n-
ing project is expected by thie end of
this monilth. \whle widening \\ork is
scheduled to be finished orn Cliaiaciha
l rach, ni er (:ontlrctlors Hill. Coimphr.
tion of this sctttion of the project will
11ilte previously w v id.ened Culelra eachll
with thie \\idlved s:.l.'tioll sotih ont ConII-
trac1lors l ill to produce I a continuouts.
4-mrile strip of 500-foot-w\ide ctinnel.
Full benefits to w\orl shipping of tli"
S-46 million widening prOiijet will not
It: realized until work is compt1leted on
the entire S miles in fiscal sva 1966.
lbut stim., advantages alrend\y: are result-
ing. Some inprinovemcnts in the Canal's
s:r\'ice to international shipping s\ill
develop as the w itdi'eing work coln-
tinn s to shollen tih' historic bottleneckI
-\ few ol the operating and niainte-
tnaiee ati antages exlpeited to result
from the \\wilcninig s \\k anld tlhe asso-
ciated pioirctl f bank lighting now are
being realized to some degree. As the


GROWING CANAL


for




FUTURE DEMAND


widening work continues to shorten lihe
rnwidcin-d portion of thie channel,
tle degree to \which these advmt.ages
are realize'd \will continue to increase.
Major advantages expected from com-
pletion of the first half of the widening
work \ill be in great'i safetys for trans-
ittmgshilps aud occasionally faster transit.
The unbroken, 4-mile length of tlie
\ideined channel \\ill, at le.at eoca-
siionally. le useId for twro-way traffic b\
ships which pre\o isl\ could not nmeet
in tihe Cut, Some noitthbound slips
w\hilch in tih past would have been
forced to wait At Pedro \liguel Locks
until a southbound ship reached thet
other lane of the locks will be able to


proceed into the widened portion of the
Cut and meet the southbound ship there.
The greater width of the widened
channel swill provide more space in
which to maneuver vessels safely under
their own powes, thus tending to reduce
the danger of ships striking the banks
or requiring the assistance of nne or
more tugs.
Two major factors which are expected
to result from the widening work are:
(1 CGreater use rof the Cut for two-way
tlffic. \\ith tewe\\ ships being required
to wait until all oncoming vessels have
learned the S-mile strip; and (2) a slight
increase in average ship speed through
the Cut.

12 NOVEMBER 3. 1961


The ability of the Canal to handle
ships of greater length with more case
and less risk than at present is expected
to result from the greater width of the
- channel, particularly at the turns which
ships must negotiate while transiting
the Cut.
Evco the possibility of slides is being
reduced in the course of the widening
work as the slope of the banks is
r.-duced to help stabilize them.
As experience in using tile wider
channel is acquired. Canal officials
believe ships will le able to travel some-
what faster than the present limit of
6 knots per hour through the Cut. Any
increase in speed carries with it the
concomitant benefit of more effective
handling of thie ships, man) of v'which
begin to lose the ability to control their
own movements at speeds below 6 knots.
Thus, an indirect benefit of any increase
in the speed limit would be additional
safety for the vessels involved and, pos-
sibly, less need for the help of tugs.
At the present time, Foster-Willianms
Brothers., has completed approximately
85 percent of the dry excavation ont
S Empire Reach and the Dredging Divi-
sion has started the wet excavation
necessary to complete this section of
tile project.
Even before the dipper dredges
Paraiso and Cascradas complete their
part of the mile-long Empire Reach
project, work is expected to start on the

ll THE PANAMA CANAL RE\7IEW 13


final 3 miles along Bas Obispo and Cas-
cadas Reaches. Present plans call fir'
bids to be taken on that section early
next vear and fri the work to li- clm-
pleted sometime in 1966, to drop the


anchor on the biggiRst Istlhian earth-
movinrg project since the construction
period and keep the Canal abreast of
the renlireiments of prisent-dary worli
shipping.


Fertilizer for Blasting?
AMMONIUM nitrate, commonly used ;is fertilizer, may Iet used for blasting
matL iial loose for removal (during tihe next Canal Cut-widening along las
Obispo andl Las Cascadas Reaches, if tests now being conducted in tihe
United States prove successful.
Since ammonium nitrate costs considerably less than dynamite and is some-
what safer to use under certain conditions, ith extent to which this material
could be employed on the remaining Cut-w\idening might affect the cost of
the work and result in considurabli benefit to the Panama Canal Company.
A studs of tests conducted by the Monsanlto Chemical Co. ot St. Louis, Mo.,
was made in October by Cha.irles McG. Iralldl, project egineci for tlhe
Cut-widening project
Mr. Brandl made a preliminary study of the rise of ammonniuml nitrate for
blasting and later went to Parish, Ala., where Monisanto has been using
ammonium nitrate as a blasting material on strip miining operations where
materials being blasted and other conditions are similar to the Canal
widening work.
The humidity of the tropics is one of the main deterrants to the use of this
material in the Canal Zone. Recently, however, Monsarnto and other ammonimn n
nitrate manufacturers have been making tests and have indicated that they
know of a successful way of using it noder \wet or submerged conditions.
The remaining contract will he twice as big as the present Empire Reach
work, \with approminately 14 million cubic yards of material to be removed.
It has been estimated that it would take approximately 12'/ million pounds
of drnanmte to do the job.






Recognition:

For Invaluable Service


letter of appreciation from Governor Carter.


ELOUISE GARNES of the teaching staff at Rainbow
City Elementary School, who for the past 6 years con-
ducted a weekly 1-hour class, after regular school hours,
for the prisoners at the Canal Zone Prison for Women
and Juveniles at Gatun, last month received a letter of
commendation from Governor Carter, and a check for
$200, in recognition of her voluntary service.
She was principal of the Chagres School at Gatun
when she volunteered to conduct classes at the prison
in Gatun. The Chagres School was closed on February 7,
1958 and she was transferred to Rainbow City Elemen-
tary School, but she continued her classes, even during
her own vacation periods, according to Sgt. George A.
Martin, sergeant-in-charge at the Gatun prison.
Instruction was given in Spanish on school subjects
consistent with the educational level and ability of the
inmates, following the Canal Zone Latin American school
curriculum. Under her tutelage, inmates who could only
make an "X" for their names, and couldn't even tell time
when they entered the prison, soon could do both as
their educational levels were raised.
Governor Carter's letter commended her highly for
her invaluable service, and added his personal thanks
for a job well done.
The work Elouise Carnes carried on as a volunteer,
with a 1-hour class once a week, has expanded to a
regular school curriculum on Mondays, Wednesdays,
and Fridays, from 1 to 3 p.m. The classes now are
conducted by a teacher assigned by the Canal Zone
Division of Schools.


. .For Zonians' Colorful Christmas Displays


ELEVEN of the many colorful Christmas decorations
which are displayed outdoors in the Canal Zone during
the annual holiday season are featured in an illustrated
article in this year's issue of McCall's Christmas Make-It
Ideas magazine.
At least two of the decorating ideas shown were
displayed last Christmas by Zone residents living on
Oleander Place in Balboa, a spot more popularly known
as "Santa Claus Lane." Both of the "Santa Claus Lane"
displays were made by Henry Gaskin, an employee in
the display shop of the retail store branch.
A third display pictured with the article is of two
large, bow-tied lollipops on the door of the James M.
Slover home in Diablo Heights. The other decorations
pictured, none of which are identified by ownership,
are believed to have been displayed in Curundu.
One of the two "Santa Claus Lane" displays was in
the lawn of Mrs. Marguerite Orr's home. It shows eight
redsuited elves playing a variety of musical instruments.
The other "Santa Claus Lane" display, at the home of
Wesley Thompson, features Santa and his helpers
carrying packages from the lawn to the top of the house,
via a decorated ladder.
Mr. skini, who each year handles outdoor Christmas
decorations for a number of Canal Zone families, has
worked f:. the Canal organization for the past 12 years.
A citizen f Panama, Mr. Gaskin attended Zone schools
and took a train ing course as a printer, but never worked
at the trade, going into the art field instead. A resident
of Rio Abajo, he is married and has four children.


4 \


Artist Henry Gaskin applies final brush strokes to a self-portrait.


NOVEMBER 3, 1961










Election




Coming Up



RESIDENTS of Canal Zone communities housing Company/
Government employees will elect Civic Council representa-
tives November 7, exercising their franchise much as many
residents of the United States will be doing on the same day
in various State and municipal elections.


The men and women selected to serve on the various Civic
Councils will assume much of the responsibility for leadership
in their respective communities, just as similarly elected men
and women serve in local, State, and national elective positions
in the United States.
The objectives of the Civic Councils in the Zone are to
encourage and foster a spirit of community interest among
residents of the various communities and help provide leader-
ship in the development and planning of programs where
public interest and welfare are involved. To attain these
objectives, the Civic Councils help formulate and direct plans
for certain community programs, including recreational activi-
ties, and make recommendations and suggestions to Company/
Government authorities in matters of public interest and concern.
Candidates for posts in seven of the nine Civic Councils are
listed below. Candidates for the two other Civic Councils
had not been named by REVIEW press time.


COCO SOLO CIVIC
COUNCIL
Paul L. Beck
Mrs. Majel Reinheimer
Thomas W. Grimison
Mrs. Joan Hutchinson
Gerald Fruth
Betty Heppenheimer
Henry Heppenheimer
Ray Bunnell
Mrs. Jane Frost
olhn Frost
Mrs. H. D. Cheshire
George D. Edginton
Mrs. Ferry Frazer
George Babineez
Capt. Thomas W. Gove
R. E. De Tore
D. S. Smith
GAIBOA CIVIC COUNCIL

President
Arnold S. Hudgins
Russell A. Stevens

Council Members
Austin J. Byrd
Donald J. Connor
David C. Danziger
Paul Riggs Forrest
Marie \. Gibson
Charles S. Howe
Rosalie P. McDaniel
Charles L. Pierce
James H. Russell
\V. Allen Sanders
Katherine A. Sellens
Russell A. Stevens
GATUN CIVIC COUNCIL
Mary Dugan
Bill Deaton
Peggy Valentine
Betty Wood
Gladys Lasher
George Mitchell
Anne Kennon
Henning Soilling
Norma DeVoll
Gloria Geddie
Norma Christiansen
Sonia Schaek
William Clute
Mrs. John Lasher
James W\eiselogel
Marnie Clinchard
Art Cherry
Mrs. Dale Fontaine
Henry DeVoll

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


PACIFIC CIVIC COUNCIL

Balboa

Mrs. Ann Dolan
loseph Dolan
James O'Donnell
Harry C. Egolf
Daniel R. Hared
Sam Roe

Diablo Heights

Paul J. Brooks
Mrs. MI. Evans
W\. C. Grimes
Gardner R. Harris
C. R. Vosburgh
Wilson Waldron

Aneon-Balboa Heights

Mrs. Marjorie Brown
1. L. Demers
Edwin C. Jones
Harry E. Pearl
Harry W. Post
Thomas E. Spencer
Al S. Zon

Los Rios

Edward Filo
Edward J. Lucas
Roger D. Michel
James W. Riley
James P. Young

PARAISO CIVIC COUNCIL

Precinct I

Harold Williams
Raymond George
Cyril D. Atherley
Edith Brown
Arthur Betty
Sergio Rueda
Inez McKenzie
Adolfo Bedoya

Precinct 2

Ruben Eversley
Samuel Blenman
W\ilbert Cittens
Newton Skeet
Lionel Worrell
Ruth Smith
Myrtle Gordon


Precinct 3

Maudlin Holder
Clarence Sisnett
Eghert Best
Darnley Foster
Rebecca Nurse
Alfred Bowen
Norman Blades

Precinct 4

Sylvester Callender
Clifton Lopez
Thomas Sawvyers
Cecil Cittens
Rupert Phillips
Muriel Johnson
Cuillermo Dixon
George Richards
Irvin Moore

Precinct 5

Leonard Pennycook
Hubert Thompson
Philmore Alexis
Livingstone \White
Olive Hinds
Lucille Lawrence
Alphonso Alexis
Ernest Williams

PEDRO MIGUEL CIVIC
COUNCIL

Livingston Reece
Earl S. \Walrond
Eric I. Raphael
Arthur Davis
Ralph Flemming
T. Jemmnott
Robert Bennett
Leo Chandler
Stephen R. Gordon
Mrs. W\. Layne
Edgar Shaw
Philip Joseph
Cleveland Roberts
Samuel Turner
Clifford Jemmott
Noel I. Pilgrim
Darnley Smith
A. B. Castillero
George F. Earle
Mrs. E. I. Raphael
Mrs. C. Jemmott
C. G. Callender


RAINBOW CITY CIVIC
COUNCIL

Rainbow City District

Kelvin Barnett
Harold O. Blackman
Holden L. Cockburn
Alberto Dogue
Mrs. Brunilda Dogue
Peter A. Ellis
James Harding
Felipe Lee
George V. Lewis
Rathburn Springer

Camp Coiner District

Clement Belle
Mrs. Myrtle Crooks
William Davis
Cedric Gittens
Edward Green
Mrs. Levina R. Greene
Astor Lewis
Mrs. Rose E. Mignott

Rainbow City Heights District

Santiago Graham
Moses N. Raymond
Horace Roberts
Stanley Spence
Kenneth Weeks
George G. Mandeville

Camp Bierd District

Victor Arehbold
Ruben Cohen
Purcell Gilmore
Phillip A. Henry
Wilfred R. Johnson
Winston 0. Thomas

Chagres-Mindi Distriet

Jorge Castro
Andres De Le6n
Eleuterio GAlvez
Richard Holness

Mount Hope District

Percival Appleton
Lloyd Bennett
Wilderth T. Dryden















DR. EZRA HURWV1TZ, Superintendent
of Palo Seco Leprosarium, is leaving
Canal Zone service this month after
33 years as mayor, mentor, doctor, and
friend to the Leprosarium patients.
Dr. and Mrs. Hurwitz will remain
on the Isthmus and have moved to
Panama City.
Actually, Dr. Hurwitz was retired
from the Canal organization in Novem-
ber 1956. He was immediately re-
employed under special authority and
remained in his post as Superintendent
of the Leprosarium for another 5 years.
At the time of his formal retirement,
Dr. Hurwitz was awarded the U.S.
Department of the Army's Meritorious
Civilian Service Award.
Born in Kansas City, Mo., Dr. Hur-
witz has been a Zonian since 1927, most
of which time he spent as head of Palo
Seco Leprosarium, where he was the
first resident doctor.
For his outstanding service at Palo
Seco Leprosarium and his ministration
to the patients, most of whom are
Panamanian citizens, the Republic of
Panama honored him in 1951 by award-
ing him the Order of Vasco Nuifiez de
Balboa in the Grade of Comendador.
At the time of Dr. Hurwitz' retire-
ment in 1956, President Ernesto de la
Guardia, Jr., of Panama, attended the
retirement program held at the Lepro-
sariin. Canal Zone Governor Potter
presented the retirement certificate and
other officials and friends of Dr. and
Mrs. Hurwitz were present.



MEMBERS of the Canal Zone Society
of Professional Engineers are seeking
local applicants for 4-year engineering
scholarships provided annually by the
Armco Foundation. Application forms
and complete information about the
scholarships are available from the
principals of Balboa and Cristobal
High Schools.
Each scholarship recipient will receive
an awNard of 8750 per academic year.
The award will be renewed annually up
to a total of I academic years, provid-
I satisfactory personal and scholastic
st rds nar maintained by the winner
and i. "", is made toward
a baci in civil engineering.
Complh t. applications for local


seniors must be submitted to the high
school principals by December 1, 1961.
A committee of the Canal Zone Society
of Professional Engineers will evaluate
the applications and conduct personal
interviews with all local candidates to
select area finalists. Final selection of
the five national award winners and five
alternates will be announced about
May 1, 1962.




El Canal de Panama




....1...

t -
. ,











iAlen le 1 11I111do

Cover of new Spanish-language pamphlet.

THE BIASIC information pamphlet, The
Panama Canal, Funnel for World Coin-
merce, which describes the Canal and
its operation and which has been dis-
tributed for a number of years in
English recently has been translated
into Spanish for the benefit of Spanish-
speaking visitors to the waterway.
Governor Carter sent complimentary
copies of the new pamphlet to Panama
President Roberto F. Chiari, local rep-
resentatives of Spanish-speaking conn-
tries, and Panama newspapers, advising
them of the new pamphlet's availability.
President Chiari, in a letter to the
Governor, said, "I wish to express mvy
sincere thanks for your kindness inl
sending me the pamphlet on the Panama
Canal and its activities, recently pub-
lished in Spanish. 1 found it most
interesting reading."
President Chiari also expressed pleas-
ure at the initiative shown by Governor
Carter in having the publication issued
in the Spanish language.


Worth Knowing


A FAMILIAR name and scene caught
the eve of Hartley Rowe of Boston,
Mass., as he turned to page 19 of the
September issue of THE PANAMA CANAL
REVIEW, where a brief article outlined
the history of the bridge which once
carried the Panama Railroad across the
Rio Grande.
Writing Governor Carter, MIr. Rowe
said the article was of special interest to
him because he was the engineer who
designed and constructed the dam
across the river under the bridge, work-
ing under the supervision of Clyde
E. Marshall.
Mr. Rowe said the dam was built
during November and December of
1904 and January of 1905, and it was
his first engineering and construc-
tion job after graduating from Purdue
University in June 1904.
About 2i% years ago, while visiting
the Isthmus as a member of a special
Board of Consultants on Isthmian Canal
Studies who reported to Congress on
a long-range program for 1sthmian
Canal transits, Mr. Rowe saw the dam
once more.
"While 1 was not surprised that it
was still standing after 56 years, there
are some pertinent factors in refer-
ence to the dlam which may be of
interest," Mr. Rowe said in his letter to
Governor Carter.
"The concrete was entirely mixed by
hand on mixing boards and was all done
by four Hawaiians, whom 1 believe had
jumped a ship. It was entirely rein-
forced by Decaulle rails recovered from
the jungle, where they had been left
by the French Canal Company. It is,
therefore, certain that the steel and
concrete were not nearly stressed to
their allowable limits and would be, at
the present time, entirely uneconomical."
Governor Carter, in his reply, told
Mr. Row\e that in the process of cutting
a 5-foot diameter hole through the dam
as part of a flood control system for the
Rio Grande drainage area, some of the
structural qualities of the dam were
revealed. "The concrete drilled and
blasted through in the base of the dam
was in excellent condition and shows no
ill effects of age or shock from the
drilling and blasting," Governor Carter
said. "It again proves that the early
work done with concrete in the Canal
construction was soundly engineered."
Mr. Rowe, who served in various
positions in design, construction, and
operation of the Panama Canal from
1904 until 1919, when he resigned as
head of the Construction Division, served
as consultant to the Manhattan District,
Los Alamos, and was a member of the
General Advisory Committee of the
Atonie Energy Committee from 1946
to 1950.

16 NOVE.MBEn 3, 1961




























C287 11




Guide to


Medical Care

QUESTIONS frequently arise about medical care, especially
how and where to arrange for needed services while in the
Canal Zone. Gorgas and Coco Solo Hospitals combine to
provide essential care and services for most Zone residents.
Hospital officials point out that children must be accom-
panied by a parent if they are to receive medical treatment,
because only a parent or guardian can give legal consent for
such treatment. They also emphasize that it is not necessary
to pay cash in advance for medical services provided by the
Canal organization, although it is desired. To answer some of
the other most frequently asked questions, officials of the two
hospitals supplied the answers given below.
How to obtain medical care:
During regular hospital hours, 8 a.n. to 4:30 p.m., Monday
through Friday, patients should go to the outpatient clinics,
with or without appointments, although appointments are
preferred. Outside of regular hours and on Saturdays, Sundays,
or holidays, patients should go directly to the emergency
rooms. First visit maternity patients should arrange for
appointments at the obstetrical clinics.
Gorgas:


Emergency
Outpatient ____
Obstetrical -
Coco Solo:
Emergency __
Outpatient .___
Obstetrical _


-1211
----_ 2-6369 or 2-6454
--- __ 2-6456

_ --_ 3-1211
-- _ 34-55
_--- _ 34-03


Main Office
Bldg. 255
Bldg. 261

Main Office
New wing
Main Office


What to do in an emergency:
Report to emergency room. If possible, someone should
alert the hospital that an emergency case is on the way b\
calling and supplying as much information about the nature
of the emergency as possible. If the patient cannot be moved,
call the emergency number and explain the problem, giving
location of patient. Canal Zone physicians cannot respond to
calls outside the Canal Zone.
How to obtain medical care at your Canal Zone home:
If you or a member of your household becomes seriously ill


MAIN OFFICE
I'I Ir c(Iicyg room
hitfori'm tioxl deskl
I'liaOnnaey>d
EyeI, cai, nosc and throat
clinics
X-ray clinic
BUILDING 255
(enclral tpatienit clinic
Plood Bank
Pediatric clinic
Annual chest X-rays
Pre-employment and annual
physical
BUILDING 253
Medical clinic
Psychiatric clinic


Orthopedic clinic
Surgical clinic

Obstetrical and vGyncolo, ical
clinic
BUILDING 242
Chest clinic
Allergy clinic
BUILDING 236
Urology clinic (3rd floor)
BUILDING 240
Orthopedic brace shop
BUILDING 287
Dental clinic (2d floor)


at home and the services of a doctor are desired, you should
call the emergency room and explain the situation, giving as
much information as possible. Normally, it is suggested that
the sick person visit the hospital to obtain medical services,
because more comprehensive diagnostic and treatment
facilities are available.
How to arrange for dental care or an examination to
obtain a prescription for eyeglasses:
Arrange an appointment in advance by calling proper clinic.
Gorgas:
Eye clinic- ----- __ 2-6453 Main Office
Dental clinic_ ____ 2-3765 2(1 floor, Bldg. 287


Coco Solo:
Eye clinic ___
Dental clinic ---__ 34-13


--- 34-63 New wing
2d floor, Main Hospital Bldg.


How to arrange for a physical examination:
Anrangements for general, checkup type physical examina-
tions and special examinations such as those required for
college entrance, to obtain insurance, and similar purposes
each are handled somewhat differently at both hospitals, but
appointments for either type should be made in advance.
Gorgas:


General physical-
Special physical
Coco Solo:
General physical
Special physical -


2-6369 or 2-6454
- 2-6308


Bldg. 255
Bldg. 255


S 34-55 New wing
34-80 New wing


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ENTRANCE-

DD
-Living Quarters

0
04
S


CORCGAS HOSPITAL DIRECTORY


_ml~ __








ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Jeanne E. Brown __

School Teacher
Bernadine U. Hanna /
Elementary and SecondarI-.
School Teacher
Florence A. Lamson
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher

ENGINEERING A
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Abel Ortega
Surveying Aid
James C. Slade
Engineman


MARINE BUREAU
,us W. Field
ief Foreman Shipfitter
o A. )uncan
Se. ]an
s Ricktts
ai an
Cl vc nd A. Moran
o room Attendant
S PLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Ronald C. Bushell
Utility W'orker
Rupert M. Cranston
Milker
Angela R. DaCosta
Packager


TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU
Wilfred Gittens
Clerk Checker


ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Muriel L. Hart
Craphotype Machine Operator
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Pauline E. Long
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Mildred H. Slater
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Sophie D. McLimans
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Jacob Rand
Window Clerk
Elva K. Stewart
Window Clerk
Constantine Downs
Clerk Typist
Eugenie E. Plummer
Dressing Room Attendant
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
William L. Bingham
Power Plant Chief
Wilfred U. Forbes
Helper Machinist
Burnell F. Dowler
Operator-Diesel Machinist
Alfonso L. Rodriguez
Heavy Laborer
Robert Graham
Seaman
William C. Lashley
Maintcnanceinan, Distribution
Systems
Ambnlrsio Rivas
Asphalt or Cement Worker
Astor Hawkins
Painter


Vernon C. Douglas
Lead Foreman, Public Works
Road Construction
Elvin S. Rinns
Surveying Aid
Everette N. Clouse
Welder
John W. Ilnson
Electronics Mechanic
Arnold J. Landreth
Electrician, Pipeline Dredge
IIEALTI BUREAU
Edgar J. Moodie
Medical Teclduii
Herbert \V. N ir
Nursing A Leslie J. Pryce
Nursing Assistant
Delsada Perry Carr
Nursing Assista (
Dorothy E. Ilalgai
Medical C nography
MA NE BUREAU
George E. Ricy, Jr.
General Foreman, Docking
and Undocking
Vincent King
Seaman
James R. S. DeFrees
Lock Operator Machinist
Leslie C. Mclntosh
Helper Lock Operator
Luis A. Nieto
Launch Operator
D. L. S. Dickenson
Seaman
Candelario Pineda
Lead Painter, Maintenance
Ronald J. Sanderson
Heavy Laborer
Bernardino Ortega
Seaman


Evaristo R. Manuel
Boatman
Carlos Giroldi
Helper Boilennaker
Jos6 A. Caciano
Seaman
OFFICE OF TIHE
COMPTROLLER
Ruth K. Pctcrson
Stenographer
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
A .
S ~Cen Supervisor
V cnt C. ils
Stock Cont Crk
ecilia C. Wyx er
Clerk
label L. Grims
Sales Seetio ad
G. iel C6 vas
Ilea abo r
I.ve
Pantryman
Gwendolyn V. Batson
Sales Checker, Retail Store
Floris N. King
Flatwork Presser
Ethel O. Stephen
Sales Checker, Food Service
Margaret Fields
Sales Checker, Food Service
Ralph S. Buddle
Heavy Laundry Worker
Abel A. Ortiz
Laborer Cleaner
Muriel L. Dole
Sales Clerk
Oscar II. Blackman
Sales Section Ilead
Aubrey Brown
Laborer Cleaner


Osvald E. Duggon
Flame Scrap Cutter
Enid E. Lascelles
Sales Clerk
Bernice E. Smith
Clerk Typist
Clifford L. Barton
Sales Section Head
G. E. Gittens
Sales Checker, Retail Store
Alice M. James
Clerk
Marie O. Strachan
Sales Clerk
John A. Gulston
Warehouseman
Harold F. Brown
Truck Driver
Olga A. Josephs
Pantryman
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Kenneth L. Reid
Supervisory Clerk Checker
Preston E. Minton
Automotive Machinist
Arnold G. Rich
Heavy Laborer
Juan Srinehez
Heavy Laborer
Arthur Thomas
Brakeman
Walter L. Ilund
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher
C. de la C. Zapata
Railroad Trackman
John M. Henry
Timekeeper
Gabino A. Escobar
Ship Worker
John K. Brayton
General Foreman, Ship
Cargo Operations


18 NOVEMBER 3, 1961








PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
September 10 through October 10


EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between September 10 and
October 10 are listed below. Within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Elizabeth Lester, from Clerk-Stenographer,
to Clerk (Typing).
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Bernhard 1. Everson, from Transportation
and Terminals Director, to Civil Affairs
Director.
Amos W. De Raps, from Customs Guard,
to Customs Inspector, Customs Division.
Division of Schools
Dorothy T. Ahplanalp, Janc W. Fleet,
Patricia E. Grez, Florene H. Olsen, Olga
F. Stallworth, Ana C. Stearns, Vera S.
Walburn, Olympia I). Lafuente, from
Substitute Teacher, to Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher.
Irma G. Leignadier, from Substitute
Teacher, Latin American Schools, to Ele-
mentary and Secondary School Teacher,
Latin American Schools.
William P. Fusselman, from Student Assist-
ant, Business Administration, Electrical
Division, to Life Guard.
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Mae B. Cross, from Accounts Maintenance
Clerk, to Accounting Assistant, Office of
the Director.
Engineering Division
Corwin E. Hinson, Jr., from Towing Loco-
motive Operator, Locks Division, to
Supervisory Surveying Technician.
Eustaquio Herrera, from Ship Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Dredging Division
Austin J. Byrd, Jr., Wilfred A. Campbcll,
from Dipper Dredge Engineer, to Chief
Engineer, Towboat or Ferry.
John L. Hughes, Jr., Alfred G. Norkunas,
Andrew II. Page, Wallace 0. Stendahl,
from Pipeline Dredge Engineer, to First
Assistant Engineer, Pipeline Dredge.
Bruce Banks, from Lead Foreman, Debris
Control, to Welder.
Pablo C. Petit, from Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Community Serv-
ices Division, to Boatman.
James II. Holder, from Navigational Aid
Worker, to Guard.
Gerald Wilson, from Clerk, to Guard.
Electrical Division
Robert F. Ausnehmcr, John B. Coffey, Jr.,
Leslie \V. Croft, Jr., from Operator-
Hydro, to Senior Operator, Generating
Station.
Dorothy S. Bright, from Property and
Supply Clerk, to Stock Control Clerk.
William Kosan, from Marine Machinist,
Industrial Division, to Shift Engineer.
Maintenance Division
William G. Mummaw, from Lead Foreman,
to General Foreman.
James F. Ahearn, from Lead Foreman,
Quarters Maintenance, to Lead Foreman
Plumber.


Max C. Conover, from Lead Joiner, to
Lead Foreman.
Louis S. Damiani, from Refrgeration Me-
chanic, to Leader Refrigeration mechanic.
Malcolm A. Brissett, from Asphalt or
Cement Worker, to Carpenter.
Epifanio Hernandez M., from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Contract and Inspection Division
Bob D. Maynard, from Lead Foreman
Plumber, to Construction Representative.
Richard Swearingen, from Electrician, to
Construction Representative.
George V. Kirkland, from Supervisory
Construction Inspector, to Supervisory
Construction Representative.
Ralph E. Furlong, Jr., from Construction
Inspector, to Supervisory Construction
Inspector.
IIEALTH BUREAU
Olga Tonk, from Staff Nurse, to Staff
Nurse, Medicine and Surgery, Gorgas
Hospital.
Matthesw M. Walcott, Theophilus A. Wilson,
from Kitchen Attendant, to Patient Food
Service Attendant, Gorgas Hospital.
Cynthia V. Jones, from Sales Clerk, Suoply
Division, to Nursing Assistant, Coco
Solo Hospital.
MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Robert S. Peake, from Pilot-in-Training, to
Probationary Pilot.
Etelberto Bustos, Samuel A. Grant, Wilhur
T. Greaves, Alonso Sanchez, Felipe Soo,
from Launch Seaman, to Deckhand.
Jorge A. Fuentes, Ricardo R. Lasso, Rafael
A. Lascano, from Launch Operator, to
Launch Seaman.
Industrial Division
Edward II. Sadler, from Crane Hookman,
to Guard.
Joseph 0. Inniss, from Counter Attendant,
Supply Division, to Helper Rigger.
Ernest V. Baptiste, Alhert M. Rowe, from
Laborer Cleaner, to Helper Rigger.
Arturo Smith, from Laborer Cleaner, to
Helper Boilermaker.
Norman J. Clarke, from Heavy Laborer,
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Laurel R. Denny, from Package Boy, Sup-
ply Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Earl D. Lines, from Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Locks Division
Juan M. C6rdoha, Eustace A. Walters, from
Heavy Laborer, to Helper Lock Operator.
George Albert, from Laborer Cleaner, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Heavy Laborer.
Marciano Alvarado, from Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Samuel Walker, from Waiter, Supply Divi-
sion, to Heavy Laborer.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Accounting Division
Malcolmn A. Johnston, Jr., from Payroll
Systems Officer, to Chief, Payroll and
Machine Accounting Branch.


John J. Fallon, from Payroll Systems
Officer to Time, Leave, and Payroll
Supervisor.
Ielen N. Minor, from Time, Leave, and
Payroll Supervisor, to Payroll Systems
Officer.
Treasury Branch
Carolyn L. Ilolgerson, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, Accounting Division, to Clerk-
Typist.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
Robert G. Rowe, from Retail Store Super-
visor, to Commissary Store Manager.
Iorace M. Roberts, from Clerk, to Retail
Store Supervisor.
Leonard W. Collins, from Leader Laborer,
to Retail Store Super\isor.
Cleveland Roberts, from Sales Section
Head, to Service Center Supervisor.
Earle G. Moore, from Mail Supervisor, to
Mail Clerk.
Ralph Rowland, from Utility Worker, to
Leader Laborer.
Aubrey C. Baxter, from Heavy Laborer, to
High Lift Truck Operator.
Ilarold T. Kildare, from High Lift Truck
Operator, to Stockman.
Rosa A. Prados, from Meat Packager, to
Sales Clerk.
Carlos Alvarado, from Utilit V Worker, to
Sales Clerk.
Cecilia W. Brathwaite, from Utility Worker,
to Counter Attendant.
Lucil J. Frank, from Packager, to Meat
Packager.
Radames Ben, Basil C. De Sousa, Damian
Gill, Jr., from Pinsetter, to Utility
Worker.
Community Services Division
Jack E. Van Iloose, from Housing Manage-
ment Aid, to Iousing Project Assistant.
Gerald H. IHalsall, from Housing Man-
agement Assistant, to Housing Project
Assistant.
Arthur C. Payne, from Accounting Assist-
ant, to Assistant Manager, Cristobal
Housing Office.
Jackson J. Pearce, from Assistant Manager,
Cristobal Housing Office, to Assistant
Manager, Balboa Housing Office.
Euclides Castillo, Francisco Santana, Sim6n
Arancibia, from Laborer, to Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
Hilton Goodridgc, Ugent M. Lord, from
Leader Laborer Cleaner, to Lead Fore-
man Laborer Cleaner.
Albert E. Watson, from Field Tractor
Operator, to Lead Foreman. Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
Frederick D. Stewart, from Laborer
Cleaner, to Leader Laborer Cleaner.
Efrain Meza M., from Stockman, to Crater
and Packer.
Francisco Martinez, from Laborer, to Heavy
Laborer.
Winston S. Johnson, from Stockman, to
Furniture Repairman.
(See p. 20)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Promotions and Transfers
(Continued from p. 19)
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Capt. Axton T. Jones, U.S.N., from Captain
of the Port, Navigation Division, to
Director.
Terminals Division
Jules A. Lelaidier, from Guard, Locks Divi-
sion, to Liquid Fuels Gauger.
Solomon A. Ewen, from Winchman, to
Leader Ship Cargo Operations.
Ricardo Moreno, from Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, Division of
Schools, to Clerk Checker.
Pablo Jaramillo, from Dock Worker, to
Winchman.
Rupert A. Knight, from Truck Driver,
Supply Division, to High Lift Truck
Operator.
Hedley Allen, from Ship Worker, to High
Lift Truck Operator.
Roberto Avila, Santana Avila, Luis Barrera,
Arthur Hughes, Norman A. Jeff, Suriit
Singh, luntley E. Snape, I ctor Vega,
from Dock Worker, to High Lift Truck
Operator.
Gerardo A. NSfiez, from Dock Worker, to
Ship Worker.
Railroad Division
Gilherto Anaya, from Utility Worker, Sup-
ply Division, to Railroad Trackman.
Roman L6pez, from Dock Worker, to Rail-
road Trackman.
Motor Transportation Division
Ramon Rivera, Jr., from Truck Driver, to
Heavy Truck Driver.
Ram6n C. Luna, from Tire Rebuilder, to
Leader Tire Rebuilder.
Luis A. Salazar, Encaniaci6n Corpas, Josd
Barraza, from Helper Tire Rebuildcr, to
Tire Rebuilder.
OTHER PROMOTIONS
PROMOTIONS which h did not involve
changes of title follow:
Cecil D. Gooding, Retail Store Supervisor,
Supply Division.
David S. Beckett, Service Center Super-
visor, Supply Division.
John C. DeYoung, Inspector, Gas Plant
Products, Supply Division.
Rose V. C. Brogic, Clerk-Typist, Supply
Division.
Elda M. Mendoza, Aida 1. Morales, Clerk-
Typist, Community Services Division.
Christopher Greaves, Luciano C. D. Sablo,
Clerk, Community Services Division.
Robert J. Saarinen, Service Center Super-
visor, Supply Division.
George R. Downing, Accountant, Account-
ing Division.
Paula C. Decker, Clerk-Stenographer, Ac-
counting Division.
Frederick W. Jones, Signalman, Navigation
Division.
Edna M\. Donohue, Cartographic Compila-
tion Aid, Engineering Division.
Juan R. Criffin, Bus Service Inspector,
Motor Transportation Division.
Claudio C. McFarlane, Freight Clerk,
Panama Local Agency.
Alvin II. Ilassock, Clerk, Locks Division.
Alfred Mason, Clerk, Electrical Division.
Ilermiinio Figueroa, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Comnunnity Serv-
ices Division.
Pablo A. Aguilar, Abraham Ilernmindez,
,'..r i A ,id, Engineering Division.
.\11.n \. Forbes, James Grant, Ilubert
A. White, Ashton L. Wilson, Utility
Worker, Supply Division.


1


THE ABILITY to drive safely at night
depends upon several things, but the
most important is the driver's own vision.
Other factors such as illumination, vehi-
cle speed, and weather also play a part,
and a clean windshield is, of course,
a necessity.
Your eves play tricks at night. For
example, you can see an expected or
familiar object much farther away than
an unexpected one.
Periodic vision checks are a must as
a driver grows older. The average
55-year-old driver with 20/20 vision
needs twice as much light as the
20-year-old with the same visual rating.
Vision defects are exaggerated at night
and good drivers take this into account.
At night, drivers must depend upon
artificial light-from their own head-
lamps, from other cars, and sometimes
from overhead highway illumination.
The latter sometimes creates additional
sight problems for drivers.
Annual inspections of vehicles operat-
ing in the Canal Zone and the Republic
of Panama include a check of the head-
lamp performance on vehicles, but it
mav be necessary to have them adjusted
between vehicle inspections.
A really good driver knows the rela-
tionship between his headlamps and his
stopping distance at highway speed. If
he doesn't know this-if he goes hurtling
into a black hole of darkness at a speed
that will make it impossible to stop


-ACCIDENTS
FOR

THIS MONTH
AND

THIS YEAR


SEPTEMBER

ALL UNITS
YEAR TO DATE


NAIIONAL SAFETY COUNit

within the distance he ean see-then he's
playing a dangerous game of chance
with unknown dangers.
Driving experts agree that night
driving demands slower speed. Vision
studies prove that your sight distance
shrinks the faster you go. At 20 miles
per hour a driver can see and identify
objects SO feet further away than he
can at 60 miles per hour.
This narrowing and shortening of the
visual field, plus the efficiency of the
headlights, plus your stopping distance,
all determine your safe speed at night.


r;.
FIRST AID DISABLING
CASES INJURIES
*61 '60 '61 0
236 213 4 11
2788(397) 2213 100(4) 106


DAYS
LOST
*61 *60
265 206
9426(58)14210


, ) Locks Olerhaul Injuries Included in lolal.
20 NOVEMBER 3, 1961


Watch Where




You're Going








CANAL



HISTORY


50 Years Ago
MORE THAN 3 million cubic yards of
concrete had been laid in the construc-
tion of the three sets of locks for the
Panama Canal 50 years ago this month.
This was approximately three-fourths
of the concrete required for the locks.
The figures quoted did not include the
spillways. At Gatun Locks, the center
and side walls of the upper and middle
locks were practically finished and in-
stallation of the first of the cylindrical
valves in the locks had been started.
Plans were being made for the con-
struction of a dry dock at Balboa. The
design for the dock and other facilities
was under direction of H. 1. Rousseau,
U.S. Navy civil engineer.
November lived up to its reputation
as a rainy month 50 years ago. On the
night of November 28-29, all Isthmian
records for excessive rainfall for short
periods were broken at Portobelo, when
2.46 inches of rain fell in 3 minutes.
The total rainfall for the "shower" at
Portobelo was 7.60 inches.


RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of October to the
employees listed below, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service,
and future residence.
William Adams. New York; Police Private,
Police Division; 21 years, 10 months,
23 days; Panama.
Gustaves Downs. Panama; Helper Lock
Operator, Locks Division; 26 years, 5
months, 14 days; Colon.
Claudio Garay, Panama; Heavy Laborer,
Locks Division; 39 years, 9 months,
28 days; Colon.
Francisco GonzAlez, .Martinique; Laborer,
Community Services Division; 17 years,
4 months, 3 days; Colon.
John A. Grenald, Panama; Heavy Laborer,
Locks Division; 11 years, 7 months,
25 days; Colon.
Capt. Francis J. Harrington, Massachusetts;
Pilot, Navigation Division: 27 years,
2 months, 1 day; Florida.
Louis C. Hasemann. New York; Finance
Branch Superintendent, Postal Division:
32 years, 1 month, 11 days; Florida.
Frederick H. Hodges, Virginia; Locomo-
tive Engineer, Railroad Division; 35
years, 11 months, 3 days; Virginia.


25 Years Ago
SPEEDY ratification of the 1936
Panama-United States treaty' was ex-
pected in Panama official circles 25
years ago as a result of the overwhelm-
ing victory of President Franklin 1).
Roosevelt in the U.S. presidential elec-
tions. President Dem6stenes Arosemena
asked the Panama National Assembly
for speedy action on the treaty.
As a committee from the U.S. Senate
departed for the Isthmus to probe local
working conditions, the Panama Canal
administration expressed flat opposition
to any legislation which would require
the wholesale replacement of aliens by
U.S. citizens. A bill was being con-
sidered by Congress which would pro-
vide that all skilled positions in the
Canal organization be filled by U.S.
or Panamanian citizens.
In Kansas City, Mo., Maj. Gen.
Smedlev D. Butler made a speech urging
that the Panama Canal be international-
ized. He said that it was false security
for the United States to depend on the
Canal, because it could not be defended
in case of war.


Adolphus Kelly, Jamaica; Heavy Laborer,
Supply Division; 15 years, 4 months,
6 lays; Colon.
George T. McLintock. Delaware: Electro-
plater, Electrical Division: 25 years,
11 months, 13 days; Pennsylvania.
Robert D. Martin, Barbados: High Lift
Truck Operator, Terminals Division; 37
years, 8 months, 12 days; Colon.
William G. Mummnaw, Pennsylvania; Gen-
eral Building Foreman, Maintenance
Division; 21 years, 3 months; Florida.
Dionicio Rodriguez, Panama; Oiler, Locks
Division; 39 years, 6 months, 3 days;
Colon.
Enrique Rosero, Colombia; Floating Plant
Fireman, Dredging Division: 41 years,
7 days; Panama.
Clarence R. Taht, Pennsylvania; Water
System Controlman, Maintenance Divi-
sion; 21 years, 2 months, 2 days;
Washington.
Dorothy 11. Tinnin, Mississippi; Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting
Division; 20 years, 10 months, 2 days;
M.ississippi.
Alfred S. Walker, Jamaica; Motor Vehicle
Dispatcher, Motor Transportation Divi-
sion; 38 years, 4 months; Colon.
IDonald A. Walters, Jamaica; Sales Clerk,
Supply Division: 32 years, 8 months.
3 days; Panama.


10 Years Ago
FEDERAL employees in the Canal
Zone still were fighting the U.S. income
tax 10 years ago. In November 1951, a
suit challenging the constitutionality of
the income tax in the Canal Zone w'as
filed in the U.S. District Court in Aneon
on behalf of 749 Federal employees.
Attorneys John O. Collins and Donald
McNevin, \who filed the complaint,
wanted a judicial pronouncement that
the ammenldment to the tax law which
extended the income tax to the Zone
was unconstitutional. They also asked
for an injunction to stop collection
of the tax.
Despite an east coast stevedore
strike, Canal traffic during October 1951
was reported to be the highest since
March 1939. Transits averaged 17.5
ocean-going ships daily.
1 Year Ago
THE FLAGS of Panama and the United
States flew side by side along Canal
Zone streets used last year as parade
routes by Panama and Colon groups
who celebrated Flag Day on Novem-
ber 4 by marching through the Canal
Zone. On November 3, top U.S. officials
from the Canal Zone joined the festive
celebration of the Republic's indepen-
lence and a spirit of neighborliness and
relaxation prevailed on the Isthmus.


CAristmai 9/if
CHRISTMAS is coming and so are
a deluge of holiday packages.
Canal Zone residents who plan to
send hona fide gifts to the United
States under the U.S. Customs regula-
tion which permits such gifts up to
$10 in value to enter free of duty are
reminded by the Canal Zone Cus-
toms Division that they must mark
each package "Bona Fide Gift."
Officials of the U.S. Customs office
in New Orleans have told Zone Cus-
toms officials that approximately 90
percent of the parcels received at
New Orleans are not marked pro-
perly as required regulations. When
parcels are not properly marked, \ ith
the words "Bona Fide Gift," they
are treated as commercial shipments
subject to duty.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


RETIREMENTS







TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
First Quarter, Fiscal Year


United States intercoastal____ _____
East coast of United States and South America - _--
East coast of United States and Central America __--
East coast of United States and Far East ________
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia --__
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada ._-_
Europe and South America _________
Europe and Australasia __-- _-- __-
All other routes- ___-- ___ _______
Total traffic ______ ____


1962

113
564
90
636
74
187
277
91
725
2,757


Avg. No.
1961 Transits
1951-55


2.700 1,680


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal Years)


Month


July_- ---------
August - -
September- - -_
October
November- ___
December
January _
February -
March ________
April______
May __
June


Three-month
total --


Total for year_


Transits
Avg. No.
1962 1961 Transits
1951-55
931 941 557
934 912 554
892 847 570
607
568
599
580
559
632
608
629
599

2,757 2,700 1,681
6,562


Gross Tolls *
(In thousands of dollars)
Average
1962 1961 Tolls
1951-55
$4,776 $4,680 $2,432
4,749 4,585 2,403
4,523 4,172 2,431
2,559
2,361
2,545
2,444
2,349
2,657
2,588
2,672
2,528

14.048 13,437 7,266
-- 29,969


* Before deduction of any operating expenses.


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY


Nationality



British- -- --
Chilean ---___
Chinese --__
Colombian _
Danish _
Ecuadorean - -
French ____. -
German -----_
Greek __
Honduiran- . -
Italian __
Japanese ---___
Liberian
Netherlands- _-
Norwegian _ _
Panamaniann -_ -_
Peruvian ___
Swedish --. -
United States. -
All others .-_..
Total - -


First Quarter, Fiscal Year


1962
Number Tons
of of
transits cargo
295 1,991,212
28 181,379
22 179,929
67 119,125
72 292,442
11 7,257
32 180,271
262 749,007
198 1,727,366
32 29,082
69 477,523
221 1,255.601
223 1,863,016
116 631,482
8 13,957
366 2,607,642
96 455,475
37 179,184
89 469,026
429 2,448,822
84 450,877
2,757 16.309.675


19
Number
of
transits
271
32
18
59
1(01
13
44
275
157
43
47
223
272
113
20
301
71
18
70
497
55
2,700


161 1951-55
Tons Average Average
of number tons
cargo transits of cargo
1,788,327 286 1,753,044
226,270 15 67,567
95,801 3 28,206
107,020 35 40,056
328,024 60 220,751
24,684 34 20,882
216,402 31 129,938
887,836 38 85,956
1,498,122 28 221,195
31,973 93 131,492
236,931 30 146,915
1,328,877 57 367,978
2,222,645 31 189,420
666,393 28 131,769
42,264 4 3,288
2,005,177 189 723,252
431,025 96 548,900
80,438 5 13,392
353,744 48 183,337
3.011,115 538 3,364,851
203,380 31 130,501
15.786,498 1.680 8,502.690(


SL a=-, ---




Dream Cruises
SEVERAL hundred tourists will visit
the Panama Canal during the winter
cruise months on their way to or from
such exotic places as Pago Pago, Malaya,
Tonga, Indonesia, Thailand, and Hong
Kong. Others will be visiting Madeira,
the Canary Islands, and the Caribbean.
These dream cruises are being lined up
for the lucky tourists who will be travel-
ing during the winter months aboard
the luxury liners Bergensfjord, Caronia,
Rotterdamn, and Andes, all of which
are represented at the Canal by the
Pacific-Ford Agency.
The Cunard Line's 34,172-ton Caro-
nia, one of the world's most luxurious
liners, is due in Cristobal February 1
from New York. She will dock on both
sides of the Isthmus and will sail
February 2 for the South Pacific and
Far East on a 90-day cruise. The vessel
will return to the Canal in April on her
way back to New York.
Two other cruise vessels represented
by Ford also will be on their way around
the world. They are the Norwegian
American liner Bergensfjord due in
Cristobal Januarv 24 from New York
and the Holland-American cruise ship
Rotterdam, which will arrive in Balboa
April 9 en route to New York, on the
last leg of a world girdling trip.
The Royal Mail liner Andes will be
one of the few cruise ships to arrive
here from England. This ship is due
in Cristobal January 24 from South-
ampton by way of the Canary Islands
and St. Lucia. She will transit the Canal
on her way to Honolulu and the U.S.
west coast and will return to Panama
in February. The vessel \will return to
Southampton via Barbados and Madeira.


First Visit
TIlE FLAGSHIP of the Canadian
Pacific Line, the 27,000-ton Empress of
Canada, will make her first visit to the
Canal February 1, when she arrives in
Cristobal from New York on a Carib-
bean cruise. According to \V. Andrews
& Co., agents for the line, the newest
addition to the Empress fleet will dock
in Cristobal at 7 a.m. and will remain
in port until 11 p.m. the same clay.
The Empress of Canada was built last
year for the North Atlantic trade and
is making her debut this year in the
winter cruise trade. In addition to Cris-
tolal she will visit a number of West
Indian and Caribbean ports.

22 NOVEMBER 3, 1961


First Quarter, Fiscal Year


i







CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT

First Quarter, Fiscal Year


^ J--- f.





Automation at Sea
THE FIRST Japanese ocean-going ship
to be equipped with a remote control
and automation system for its main
machinery should pass through the
Panama Canal soon after the first of the
vear. It is the Kinkasan Maru, which
was built at the Tamano Shipyards for
the Mitsui Steamship Line. It is sched-
uled for completion late this month.
Main feature of the remote control
and automation equipment, is an en-
closed, soundproofed, and air-condi-
tioned remote control room within the
engineroom itself. It is connected to
various parts of the engineroom by an
automatic telephone exchange and the
key part of the engineroom can be kept
under observation through a double
pane window. The vessel is expected to
have a maximum speed of 19 knots
when fully loaded.



Harbor Launches
TWO LAUNCHES to be used for
harbor work after completion now are
being built by the Panama Canal Com-
pany. One is a wooden hull launch to be
named Dove and the second is a steel
hull launch to be called Robin.
The Dove, being built by the launch
repair forces of the Industrial Division
in Gamboa, is the first small craft of its
type to be constructed by the Canal
since 1949. The Robin is under construc-
tion at the Industrial Division in Cris-
tobal. Both are scheduled for completion
in about 6 months and will be assigned
to the Cristobal Port Captain's office.


Scientific Expedition
AMONG the small craft which transited
the Canal recently was the I09-foot
sailing vessel Argosy, which sailed from
Balboa with 1'2 tons of equipment
designed for use by a group of Univer-
sity of Miami scientists to collect biologi-
cal and ecological data from the waters
off Panama and the coast of Ecuador.
Also aboard the boat was special
oceanographic gear for study of water
temperatures, currents, and salt content.
Data gathered on the cruise will be
furnished the United States Government
and those of Panama, Colombia, and
Ecuador, the scientists said.


Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going_____---------
Small*-------------------
Total commercial__--- --

U.S. Government vessels: **
Ocean-going---- -----------
Small *_----------- ------
Total Government- -- ---
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernent ---------


Atlantic
to
Pacific

1,433
63
1,496

35
13
48!

1,544


1962
Pacific
to Total
Atlantic

1,324 2,757
31 94
1,355 2,851

14 49
22 35
36 84
1,391 2,935


1961

Total


2,700
206
2,906

45
40
85
2,991


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-5S

Total


1,680
304
1,984

201
89
290
2,274


Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)

I First Quarter, Fiscal Year


Commodity


Ores, various ---------------------
Lumber ------------------------
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)_--
Wheat - - - - - - -
Sugar---_------------------------
S u g a r . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canned food products -- -----------
Nitrate of soda -- ----- ------- ---
Barley - - - - - - - - - -
Bananas - - -- -- -- ----
Metals, vanous- -------------------
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) - - - - - -
Coffee--------- -----------------
Cotton, raw-_ ----- ----------
Iron and steel manufactures-------- ----
Copra _-- -- - - - - -
All others --- - - - -------
Total - _--------- --------


1962

2,003,487
777,993
555,489
116,196
791,009
260,157
183,833
46,551
249,295
276,972
171,829
105,792
56,795
89,677
46,543
1,149,123
6.880,741


1961

2,623,671
764,848
519,733
250,541
527,764
254,225
198,702
184,430
260,132
277,820
163,545
94,883
59,943
93,711
54,242
1,131,723
7.459,913


Average
1951-55
987,567
798,109
339,598
473,208
346,218
309,830
250,093
25,235
155,958
175,110
142,823
60,065
37,857
39,171
63,275
665,633
4,869,750


Atlantic to Pacific

First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodity Average
1962 1961 1951-55

Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)--- 2,174,384 2,394,830 709,710
Coal and coke __-----------.------ 1,780,714 1,546,752 539,013
Iron and steel manufactures ------------ 396,912 376,715 376.917
Phosphates - - - - -488,427 454,485 156,591
Sugar ------------------------ 695,444 187,394 99,311
Soybeans---------- ------- --- 201,390 292,294 43,705
Metal, scrap ---------------------- 1,285,250 672,343 10,321
Sulphur - - - - - - 108,772 145,118 96,831
Ammponium compounds --------- -- -- 60,577 97,100 57,794
Paper and paper products------------- 95,058 99,355 90,900
Ores, various ----------- ---------- 140,874 209,585 53,676
achiner -------------- --- 84,088 76,052 66,690
Chemicals unclassified -- - - - --- 155,760 166,220 45,236
Corn --- - - - - - 116,974 144,446 12,729
Wheat ----------------------- 236,921 84,941 66,627
All others-------- - - - ----- 1,407,389 750,049 1,206.849
Total ----------------------- 9,428,934 7,697.679 3,632,900


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










SHI


SHIPPING statistics for Canal traffic
during the first quarter of fiscal year
1962 show that the fastest-growing
trade route served by the Isthmian
waterway continues to Ibe between the
east coast of the United States and the
Far East.
Bolstered by the continuing boom in
Japanese industrial development, the
United States east coast-Far East trade
route led all others in number of ships
during the first quarter of the current
fiscal year, outstripping the historically
leading route between the east coast of
the United States and the west coast
of South America.
The continuing growth of Japanese
industry and its demands for materials
has climbed to the point \\here approxi-
mately 40 percent of all cargo moving
through the Canal at present is bound
either to or from Japan. The current
upward movement in cargo shipments
involving Japan started last May after
having leveled off for several months
prior to that.
Shipments of scrap metal to Japan
during the first quarter of this fiscal
year set the pace for all other commo-
clities moving over the United States
east coast-Far East trade route. Scrap
metal shipments were approximately
double the level ol such cargo move-
ments during the first quarters of fiscal
years 1960 and 1961.
Closely allied with the increase in
scrap metal shipments was the con-
tinuing upward climb of coal and coke
movements to Japan. These shipments,
which have been in a steady upward
climb throughout the several years of
the Japanese industrial boom, showed
an increase of 15 percent during the first
quarter of this fiscal year, as compared
with the first quarter of fiscal year 1961.
The worldwide shifts which have
occurred in the sale of sugar also have
resulted in a sharp increase in the
quantity of this commodity moving
through the waterway, although tlhe
change has not involved sufficient ships
to show a major effect on leading trade
rolIte patterns.
The shifting pattern in the world
sugar market is indicated by the fact
that almost four times as much sugar
m111 d through the Canal from the
Atlanti to l Pacific during the first
quart i nC rnt fiscal year as was
shippi i t direction during the
comp;i)arl p' ds f 1960 and 1961.
Siiunltai i ith the growth in
sugar slhipili fm tlantic to Pacific,


PP


TRANSIT BY OCEAN-C
VESSELS IN SEPTEM


Comnelllrcial
1 .5. (ivenriim nt
Totlal
TOLLS
Cmi mriiii cial $4,176,218
U.S. (;moernment 46,398
Toual $4,222,616


CARGO **
4,844,190
it 35,445


Cmi-uncicia


4,,S79,6a35


Includes tolls on all ves-Is, ocean-goini
- (- lT ign, a .,r inll ng I ni e ll

there has been a 50 percent ii
the amount of sugar moving in
direction through the waterwa
This double-shuffle in sug
from Cuban sugar being shipped
the Canal to China, Russia,
Far Eastern points, while si
Peru and a number of Pacifi
including the Philippines, For
Hawaii, is sent through the
movement to the east coa
United States.


N


G


OING ]n contrast to the booming increases
BER in shipments of scrap metal, coal, and
sugar through the waterway, shipments
19'6 19l l of barley and wheat from Pacific to
847 892 Atlantic have declined sharply from a
14 13 vear ago, with barley shipments this
f861 !3 y'ear being only about 25 percent of
W hat they were during the first quarter
of fiscal year 1961 and wheat shipments
$4.525,029 being reduced to less than half of their
73,131 ear-ago level. On the other hand, wheat
$4,59S.l(,160 shipments from Atlantic to Pacific have
increased, being almost three times the
level of a year ago.
5,021 ,i Ore shipments from Pacific to Atlantic
72,521 were down approximately 20 percent
5,1091477 from the 1961 level, although they con-
g and Ismall. tinned to lead in total tonnage of prin-
cipal commodity items shipped through
the Canal. The level of ore shipments
crease in during the first quarter of this fiscal year
the other were even slightly less than the total
iv. during the comparable period of 1960.
ar results The ever-shifting pattern of cargo
d through movements also was reflected during
and other the first quarter in the fact that total
lgar from tonnage moving from Pacific to Atlantic
c islands, declined more than 7 percent, com-
mosa, and pared with the same period last year,
Canal for while tonnage moving from the Atlantic
st of the to the Pacific increased bv more than
22 percent.


OCEAN-GOING TRANSITS
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL


1100

N
,000 U
M
B
900 E

BOO
R
0
F
T
R
A
700 N
S
I
T
600 s

0


MONTHS


24 NOVEMIBEn 3, 1961


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