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\W \. V C Ut AIE Governor Presitlent
W\~. I,. I A I IR i f JL 1 1,1 ("I '\ Urij,,r
Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monlhly At Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed at the Printing Ilant, Mfount i C r Zone
N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Press Officer
JOSE'H CONNOR, Publications Editor
I NICE RICHARD and T'M13 BITTEL
\ .ILLIAM BtRNS, Official I'lint..;r.aphee
Onii Sale ia e( (' Retail Stores, and "' ioli Guest llous for 10 d~as alter pi ation (.lae at S cerit1 .-ach.
-bs lptions, $1 a year-, rnalt and back copies. 10 cents each.
.bl t0 ` Panama C0 I i should be mailed to Bar M. F L I leights, C. Z.
Ire 1, ad in the .rot ni rz i Building, Balboa Hei- CI Z.
In This Issue
Jiner on Jirit Canal Vran it
A PARTIAL TRANSIT through the Canal was made last month
by Gov. W. A. Carter and Lt. Gov. W. P. Leber aboard the Orient
Line's new 40,000-ton passenger liner Oriana. The ship was making
her first trip through the Canal as part of her maiden voyage
around the world. The cover photograph pictures the Governor
and Lieutenant Governor high atop the ship, with the Governor's
flag and the pilot's flags whipping in the breeze behind them.
One of the largest passenger ships to transit the waterway since
the old German liner Bremen established the record in 1939, the
Oriana arrived at Balboa from the west coast of the United States
and tied up overnight in Balboa. She made the northbound transit
the following day and then spent the night in Cristobal before
proceeding to Great Britain.
A great-great-grandson of an Admiral who fought with Admiral
Nelson at Trafalgar is in command of the new ship. Capt. Clifford
Edgecombe, R.D., R.N.R., a former II.M.S. Worcester naval cadet
who joined the Orient Line in 1934, played host to the Governor
and his party aboard the ship. British Ambassador C. E. Vaughan
also was a guest of Captain Edgecombe for the transit. The
Captain, like his ancestor, Adm. Sir Charles Bletsoc, also has seen
wartime duty. Ile served with the British Navy during World
War II, returning to the Orient Line after the war and being made
a captain in 1955.
Retirements ---- -
Promotions and Transfers _
Modern Civic Center Planned
Shipping Statistics ---- --.
- --- 21
- _,- 24
AUGUST 4, 1961
Maintaining the Waterway 3
Stepping Out _ _ 5
Mr. Health Bureau_ -- 6
Pied Piper With a Trombone 7
July in the Canal Zone S
Jay Bee's in Port-It's Lobster Time 10
From Sea Rover to Wall Decoration 11
Copper for World's Industries 12
Cable Splicing Made Easy -____--- 14
Safety Pays-In More Ways Than One --- 15
Hospital Rates, Insurance Coverage Com-
pared ----------------------- 16
Canal Histor -------------- 17
..:. .. . -I.
Lights glow as night settles over Gatun Lake, the Canal's big suction dredge pursues the task of removing high spots in the channel.
Maintaining the Waterway
Suction dredge Mindi vacuums floor of Canal's
channels, scouring away depth-reducing high spots.
To keep the dredge operating 16 hours a day, workmen repair pipeline during darkness. A VESSEL which has no motive power
of its own but has to be shoved from one
place to another by a tug if it is moving
ver far has been plodding through
Gatun Lake the past 3 weeks on 66-ton
stilts and sweeping high spots from
the Lake section of the Canal channel.
The suction dredge Alindi, its 36-inch
maw chewing its way back and forth
across the Lake bottom in a massive
simulation of milady using a vacuum
cleaner, has removed approximnatelv
300,000 cubic vards of material from
the channel since it moved into the
Lake July 10.
Working about 5 miles north of
I CGamboa, the Mindi has been operated
*_ 16 hours per day, 5 days a week, with
both crew members and supplies shuttled
back and forth between it and Gamboa
by launch and tug. In addition to the
fuel used to fire the boilers which power
the main turbine and its auxiliaries, the
supplies include food for those aboard.
1THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 3
Workers on each watch have a meal
aboard the vessel during their 8 hours of
duty and 6 crewmen who stay aboard
throughout the week have all their meals
provided. Most of those working on the
Mindi, however, spend only 8 hours at
a time on board, then leave until it is
time for them to go back on duty.
Shortly after dawn each weekday,
crew members and operating officers for
the first watch assemble at Gamboa for
the trip to the dredge. Those on the
second watch assemble shortly before
3 p.m., and the vessel which takes them
to the dredge returns the first watch
group to Gamboa.
These men who operate the vessel are
a hardy, much-traveled lot. Many of
them, including Master David J. Burkett,
have worked for the Canal before and
have had experience on the lindi. A
number of them were recruited in order
to put the dredge back into operation
after 212 years of idleness.
All of the operating officers have one
thing in common, though: They are
familiar with dredging equipment. Most
of them have been employed in harbor
and channel dredging projects along the
shores of North and South America.
Captain Burkett, who has been
employed by the Canal for 28 years, has
had experience aboard both the Alindi
and other dredges. Recently, while on
leave from the Canal, he worked aboard
the dredge Sea Haven at Las Minas Bay.
Throughout the 16 hours of the two
watches, from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m., the
dredge swings to and fro in the channel,
the 22-ton cutter head at the front of the
vessel gobbling up rocks, mud, and other
debris from the bottom. The powerful
vacuum draws tons of material into the
~T _~ ~a,
-. - '-
S --- -
- a -^'-
IB^^ ^ M-l-.?^.***
Discharge line from dredge spews material into a section of the Lake which a tew days
earlier was 25 feet deep, but has been filled by discharged material, including those rocks.
big centrifugal pump, which forces it
almost half a mile through a 2S-inch
pipeline and discharges it into the Lake
far from the channel.
The side-to-side sweeping motion of
the dredge is achieved by using 7-ton
anchors on opposite sides of the vessel.
Cables attached to these anchors are
reeled in alternately, forcing the dredge
to swing toward first one anchor and
then the other.
Minor forward movements of the
dredge are made by using the two 66-ton
spuds at the rear as stilts. While the
Dredge Master David J. Burkett, right, and Second Mate Harry J. Harrison take their turn at
dinner as other officers keep the dredge in continuous operation despite brief break for meal.
7 aI-." .m"
cutter head is being swung from side
to side, the spuds serve to hold the vessel
in place. But when the dredge is to be
moved forward, one of the spuds is
lifted while the Alindi is at one edge of
a swing, then the vessel is swung in the
other direction and the spud is lowered.
The procedure then is repeated with the
second spud, moving the vessel forward
approximately 8 feet.
The length of the cutting head deter-
mines the forward movement on each
bite, just as the width of a broom deter-
mines the width which can be swept
with it in one movement. Mounted on
the end of the 100-foot long ladder which
extends in front of the dredge, the cut-
ting head revolves continuously, chewing
up virtually everything in its path and
making the material small enough to
pass through the pumps and pipeline.
Although the cutting head is capable
of smashing rocks into bits, it occasionally
encounters something that is too solid
for it to break. If the object seems to be
simply a large rock, rather than a solid
mass of stone, the dredge operator may
maneuver his cutting head to dig a big
hole directly alongside the offending
obstruction. The ladder and cutting head
then are lifted to the opposite side of the
rock and used to shove it into the hole,
whereit will be below the bottom surface
of the channel.
Occasionally, the vacuum of the dredge
will suck something in which the rest of
the mechanism is unable to handle. Such
a large piece of material sometimes hangs
up in the centrifugal pump or elsewhere.
(See p. 21)
AUGUST 4, 1961
HENRY L. DONOVAN, who wears
eight different hats under a single title,
Director of the Canal Zone Civil Affairs
Bureau, is about to exchange his many-
faceted position for retirement and, in
the immediate future, a trip around
Accompanied by Mrs. Donovan, he
will leave the Canal Zone August 28 on
the SS Pretoria, a 12-passenger, freighter-
type ship, en route to Copenhagen, with
several stops scheduled along the way.
The Donovans plan to spend several
weeks in Denmark, then visit Sweden
and Norway. Although the Donovans
have been in Europe before, this will
be their first visit to the Scandinavian
Boarding ship once again, they will
travel to Manila, through the Mediter-
ranean, with stops in several storybook
ci.. -, i -r along the way. They will have
a.1 I, ,.,:l to see the Suez Canal, and visit
tlH...': Kng, Japan, and Hawaii before
r,.tui.iniii to the United States sometime
a.t.i II,. first of January.
Ib C(.lifornia. Mr. and Mrs. Donovan
pil.ii, I.' pend quite a while with former
(C.i..Il -mployces who are old friends of
|Ih- ..,'iple. Then will come a trip to
.An i.,:.I .mnd a look around the Phoenix
Ir,-.i. allowed by a visit in Chicago with
tir,-l l..,ighter. Peggy Ann, who is doing
.,..I.,l ,.l\vice work in South Bend, Ind.
I- min IIlis point, weather will play a part
Ir, pl II, If the weather is inclement in
the Boston area, a Florida visit will be
indicated, with Boston shelved until fair
Eventually, they expect to make their
home in Florida.
Mr. Donovan has headed the Civil
Affairs Bureau since November 1953.
P.li,.-emen. firemen, teachers, customs
Ir.' ....I.., postal employees, librarians,
li,,.. Ii.ei'au, and civil defense unit
prs.iii.,,1I .1ll are under his direction.
I,. ~' .I Ihorn in Brookline, Mass., and
\.is ..ikirlg for the Boston Engineering
Dl..,ll.,. ii in 1929 when he took and
r,.....l i'. il service examination which
il-d r.. .i ib as a structural draftsman in
\". hi. rini,\w the Panama Canal's Engi-
Mr. and ,
oil stairs of '
and Sosa Hill
neering Division. lie and his bride were
on their wedding trip when they came
here in October that year.
He was loaned as Chief Building
Inspector to the Constructing Quarter-
master during the construction of the
present towns of Gatun and Gamboa. In
1937, lie returned to his position as
structural designer. After several promo-
tions, hIe was assigned to Quarry Heights
in 1945 as an engineering consultant and
served on the Commanding General's
staff as civilian adviser on matters relating
to the Panama Canal and the Republic
of Panama. He returned to the Canal
organization in 1950 as the first Director
of theCommunity Services Bureau. Since
1953 he has been Director of the Civil
Mr. Donovan was awarded the Gold
Medal of Panama during 1956 ceremo-
nies commemorating the 69th annivesarv
of the founding of the Cuerpo de Bom-
heros, Panama's firefighting force. The
medal was given in appreciation of the
cooperation between the firefighting
forces of the Canal Zone and Panama.
Civil Affairs Director Donovan accepted
it on behalf of the Canal Zone Fire
Mr. Donovan was president of the
Balboa Baseball Club and the Canal Zone
Baseball League, and was the first Com-
missioner for Little League Baseball. He
also has been active in Canal Zone Red
Cross work, and served as campaign
chairman during two fund drives. He
also served as Regional Director of Civil
Defense during World War II and inter-
mittently as Director for the entire Zone.
Mrs. Donovan, wlho also has been
active in the Red Cross, is an active
member and a former president of the
Inter-American W\oman's Club.
Till I '\.\ [A CANAL REVIETV
WILLIAM BROWN, who is retiring
early next month as Assistant to Direc-
tor of the Canal Zone Government Health
Bureau, for 33 years has made the Health
Bureau his life. He has worked in all
divisions, coming up through the ranks to
his present position and he understands
operational details intimately.
A tireless devotion to duty, a high
sense of ethics and intellectual honesty,
and a sympathetic understanding of tlhe
problems that beset the big, the little,
the sick, and the poor, are all part of
him. He was the confidant of Health
Directors and CGovernors and at the same
time his telephone and door were open
for the problems or imagined problems
of any employee. Actually the hale, the
lame, and the blind came to his desk for
counsel and help. They were never
In addition to his humanistic qualities
he was efficient in his job, keeping
abreast of the many rapid and, at times,
bewildering changes in organizational
structure, personnel, and fiscal policies,
fat years and lean years, particularly the
latter. He represented a continuity and
bridge of factual information and his-
torical background between successive
Directors and Governors that was
Bill Brown, w ho was born in Omaha,
Nebr., arrived in the Canal Zone in 1926
in the U.S. Army-he was stationed at
Quarry Heights where he was the Post
Sergeant Major. On receiving an honor-
able discharge in May 1928, he was
employed at Corgas Hospital and has
been continuously with the Health
Bureau since that time. In effect, he has
held the position of Assistant to the
Health Director for 20 years.
During his career he has witnessed
many changes in the Bureau and in the
entire Canal organization. He partici-
pated in planning the expansion of the
Bureau to provide medical and dental
care to the personnel of those engaged
in big Zone projects during the early
1940's, the tremendous expansion of
medical facilities to care for the vast
increase in the number of military per-
sonnel and civilian employees of all
agencies during World War II, and the
ultimate contraction after the war. He
can tell about the patients who were
bitten by snakes while pioneering the
Madden Highway through the then
impregnable jungles, medical aspects of
the construction of Madden Dam in the
early 1930s, and on the contractors'
liberal policy in covering hospital bills
for employees who participated in con-
struction of Albrook Field when it was
just a "sock" and an "airdrome."
With a little urging he can be led to
reminisce about the hospital car attached
to the noon train of the Panama Bail-
road, which transported patients from
the Atlantic side to Gorgas, the planning,
construction, operation, and ultimate
demolition of Margarita Hospital, the
Section "E" Hospital, the merchant
marine clinics, dispensaries in each town,
the 30 to 40 first aid stations operated
at construction locations from Chame,
to Casa Larga, to Howard Field, and
even on construction sites of the
As to more recent times, he can tell of
the campaign conducted in collaboration
with the Republic of Panama to eradi-
cate the yellow fever mosquito in this
area during the late 1940s. Although ihe
is not a doctor, he can convincingly
discuss and demonstrate the beneficial
aspects to humanity here in the Canal
Zone which have resulted from the dis-
coveries and application of the sulfa
drugs, antibiotics, and of the presently
When he joined the organization,
Gorgas was known as Ancon Hospital,
the Health Bureau as the Health Depart-
ment, and the Canal Zone Government
as The Panama Canal. The Health Direc-
tor then had the title of Chief Health
Officer, And, of the 18 Health Directors
since General Gorgas, he has served
under 12 of them.
The present Health Director, Col.
Erling S. Fugelso, and Bill Brown were
classmates at the 13th Interagency Insti-
tute for Federal Hospital Administrators,
conducted in Washington, D.C., in
October and November 1956.
Those in distress and those saddened
and bewildered by illness or death in
the family, and others who sought or
needed his help, will long remember
Bill Brown. He always has been anxious
to help those in distress or "tied up in
red tape." To a grateful "thank von" he
responds "we're in business to help you
-that's why I'm here."
Attesting to his insight into human
problems, and his understanding of
human relations are the letters of appre-
ciation which have been presented to
him by departing Health Bureau
As a hobby, Mr. Brown is an amateur
watchmaker, a field that lie developed
through his own study of the intricate,
minute mechanisms which offered him
an interesting challenge.
Accompanied by his wife and two
daughters, Ruth and Marian, Mr. Brown
will leave this month for San Jose, Calif.
Their two sons are already in the United
States-the older, Richard, is in Califor-
nia and the younger, Wayne, is in
Atlanta, Ga., taking his final year in post
graduate work leading to a master's
degree in public health.
AUGUST 4, 1961
Assistant to Health Director, Retiring.
Balboa High School
taking year's leave
of absence to work
on advanced degree.
Victor Herr in a typical pose as he directs one of the groups he has instructed here since 1950.
Pied Piper With a Trombone
VICTOR HERR, a Pied Piper with a
trombone, who has led hundreds of
Canal Zone boys and girls down melody
lane, is leaving the Isthmus the first of
September on a year's leave of absence
to work for his Doctor of Education
degree, with a major in music, at
He is planning to sail on the SS Cris-
tobal for New Orleans, and from there
probably will fly to New York via west-
ern Massachusetts. A visit along the
upper Hudson River Valley also is part
of his plans for the period before school
starts September 26.
Mr. Herr has been with the Canal
Zone Division of Schools since Septem-
ber 1950, when he came to the Isthmus
as music teacher in the Balboa Junior
High School. The following year lie
became music instructor at Balboa High
School, a position he has held ever since.
A native of Everett, Wash., he was
graduated from the Everett, Wash.,
High School in 1945. From 1945 to
1946, he was a noncommissioned officer
in the U.S. Army Air Corps and a
member of the band, where he princi-
pally played trombone. As a band mem-
ber, he traveled throughout the United
States and played for President Truman
at his home in Independence, Mo.
After receiving an honorable dis-
charge, he was a scholarship student and
was graduated with honors in 1948 from
Everett Junior College. In 1949, he
received his bachelor of music educa-
tion degree at Denver University and
attended Columbia University for a
semester before coming to the Isthmus.
In 1952, he received his master of arts
degree at Columbia University, and he
has taken advanced studies at the Uni-
versity of Colorado, University of
Washington, and Columbia University.
Since he has been here, he has devel-
oped a marching band. This year, for
the first time in Balboa High School
history, the ROTC had its own band.
This is the third year that Mr. Herr
has worked with the summer music
program, which is beamed primarily at
elementary school students and begin-
ners' music studies. As there is no instru-
mental music program in the elementary
schools in the Canal Zone, many children
have their first introduction to musical
instruments through the summer course.
Some have continued their interest in
music and, in high school years, have
become part of the school band.
Some 14 of Mr. Herr's pupils have
received music scholarships in the
United States, and several are teaching
music now. Most outstanding of his
students has been Don M. Randel, a
major in music at Princeton University,
in the top 5 percent of his class, and
student conductor of the Princeton band,
who plans to continue studying until lie
receives his doctor of philosophy degree.
Young Randel plans to become a
musicologist after completing his studies.
Mr. Herr has been Canal Zone Car-
nival committee chairman for 2 years.
With Don Musselman of the high school
faculty, he wrote the Tivoli Pageant and
the Roosevelt Centennial Pageant. He is
a Past Exalted Ruler of Elks Lodge 1414
and in 1956 won the American Legion
award for the outstanding teacher in
Canal Zone schools.
While in New York, Mr. Herr will
share an apartment with two young
writers. In addition to his studies, he
hopes to do some traveling in Europe
before he returns to the Isthmus.
During his absence, James Breen of
Kingsport, Tenn., also a professional
trombone player, will be instructor of
music at Balboa High School. He will
arrive about August 20 to spend a few
weeks with Mr. Herr before the latter
leaves. Mr. Breen is a Marine Corps
veteran of World War II, is married, and
has two children of grade school age.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Who needs any explanation about the Fourth.
A CANAL ZONE policeman was
honored last month by the Republic of
Panama by being made a member of the
Order of Vasco Ndfiez de Balboa in the
grade of Knight Commander. The pre-
sentation to Policeman Casey J. Hall
took place during a picturesque cere-
mony in the village of Laguna in the
Gatun Lake region.
The award was made in recognition
of Policeman Hall's humanitarian work
during the time he was assigned to water
patrol duty in Gatun Lake. Camilo Levy
Salcedo, Chief of Protocol of the Repnb-
lie of Panama, made the presentation on
behalf of Panama President Roberto
F. Chiari. Speakers included Belisario
Guevara, who spoke for residents of
Those visiting Laguna for the program,
in addition to Policeman Hall and the
Chief of Protocol, included Zone Police
Chief E. S. Shipley and several other
Canal Zone police officials.
.,if .-_ -.
EDWARD KENNEDY, the 29-year- partial tranist of the Canal during his
old brotherof President John F. Kennedy, brief visit to Panama last month. lie is
accompanied Cov. W. A. Carter on an shown here with the Governor as they
inspection tour of the locks and made a inspected the Cut-widening.
8 AUGUST 4, 1961
ADM. ARLEIGH A. BURKE, Chief of U.S. Naval Opera-
tions, became a member of The Esteemed Order of Bearers of
the Master Key to the Panama Canal when he called on Gov-
ernor Carter at Balboa Heights last month. The Covernor
presented Admiral Burke with the master key and certificate.
Accompanying the visiting Admiral, who was returning to
the United States from dedication ceremonies for Ecuador's
new Naval Academy, were Rear Adm. Eugene J. Peltier, Chief
of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, Rear Adm. John Quinn,
Director of Pan American Affairs, and Rear Adm. Richard S.
Craighill, Commandant, 15th Naval District, who was host
to Admiral Burke during his brief visit in the Zone.
LATIN AMERICAN military com-
manders, assembled on the Isthmus for
their second annual conference, were
addressed in Spanish by Governor Carter
during a visit to Miraflores Locks. The
visit to the locks was made prior to
boarding the Canal's new sightseeing
launch Las Cruces for a partial transit of
the Canal as guests of the Governor.
The military conference, which was in
session throughout the second week of
July, was designed to allow direct dis-
cussion of mutual problems, permit an
exchange of ideas, and to strengthen
the bonds of friendship and understand-
ing among countries of the Western
Considerably larger than last year's
conference, the representation this year
by the United States and 16 Latin
American nations encompassed an
area of 10,775,000 square miles with
a total population in excess of 367
TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9
THE FIRST sightseeing trip aboard the Canal's new launch
Las Cruces was made by a delegation of 150 women of the
General Federation of \\omen's Clubs. who paid a 2-day visit
to the Isthmus while en route home after attending a convention
in Rio de Janeiro.
The 63-foot launch has a 23-foot beam, is fitted with double
decks, and can comfortably carry 200 passengers. It was
acquired b\ the Canal to provide a convenient method for
visiting groups to view the Canal and is expected to help
Panama in the development of its tourist trade.
Arrangements for reservations to use the launch may be made
by telephoning Balboa 3192. The vessel is available on a rental
basis for use by Company-Government employees, religious,
civic, fraternal, and similar organizations, tourist agencies, and
other organized and responsible groups.
4; 4- 1; 3;-
9/ P~4, 1
Miamians change native
fishing habits to build
lobstering business at
Mr. and Mrs. Bowers pause for a moment of relaxation aboard their sea-going home.
Jay eeia Jn Port - 9t otob5 ter Jime
ONCE EACH MONTH a 104-foot
fishing boat arrives at Cristobal and the
word quickly spreads among Atlantic-
side residents that the Jay Bee is in port
again. That grapevine-acquired knowl-
edge is the signal for lobster lovers to
head for the vessel to buy a supply of
frozen lobster tails.
The Jay Bee, a diesel-powered boat
built in Florida in 1944, is the only
fishing boat which makes regular trips
into Cristobal with quick-frozen, freshly
caught lobster aboard.
Although individual sales are made
while the boat is in port, most of the
frozen lobster is transshipped from
Cristobal to New York City, normally
being transferred directly from the
refrigerated hold of the fishing craft to
a New York-bound ship.
Owned by a family corporation headed
by C. C. Bowers, a native of Miami, the
Jay Bee has been a familiar vessel in
these parts for the past 8 years. It was in
1953 that Bowers and his wife first came
to the Canal area to try their hand at
shrimp fishing in both the Atlantic and
After 5 years of shrimping and faced
by declining prices, Mr. and Mrs. Bowers
in 1958 decided to try to develop a
lobstering business at Corn Island, 40
miles off the coast of Nicaragua. After
making the necessary arrangements with
Nicaragua, the couple started buying
lobsters from the natives of the island.
"Our first trip up there we only got
358 pounds of lobster," Mr. Bowers said
recently, "but this last trip we brought
back more than 13,000 pounds."
He said when they first went to the
island the natives used lobster pots made
of a local cane and lobstered in water
no more than 2 fathoms deep.
"They didn't think lobsters lived in
more than 2 fathoms of water," Bowers
said, "and it took us a long time to teach
them to lobster in deeper water. We also
had to help thmci develop a lobster pot
suitable for use in deep water."
For Bowers, who has been a fisher-
man all his life "except for a little while
in the Navy during World War I," the
problem of locating and catching lobster
in the deeper spots near the island was
no great problem, but convincing the
natives that he knew what he was talking
about was somewhat difficult.
"\We finally convinced them, though,"
Virtually the only industry on the
island which the Jay Bee uses as its base
of operations are a couple of coconut
oil presses, neither of which has been
in operation much in recent months
because of the depressed price of the oil.
Consequently, many of the natives have
turned to fishing for lobsters to sell to
Bowers and thus earn a living.
A quick-freeze unit which was used
aboard the Jay Bee during the early
months of the Corn Island venture and
prior to that for the boat's shrimping
activities has been taken ashore and
housed in a small processing plant which
the Bowers' recently completed.
About 20 natives of the island are
employed in the processing plant, which
is managed by Mr. Bowers' brother,
R. M. Bowers, who remains on the island,
buying and processing lobster while
the ship makes its once-a-month trip
Six seamen work aboard the fishing
boat, which has not been actively
engaged in fishing efforts during the
initial period of the Corn Island venture.
"If we get back to fishing as well as
buying the natives' catch, we'll add 12
or 15 crewmen to help," Bowers said.
Admitting that the first year and a
half at Corn Island were "rough" from
a financial standpoint, Mr. and Mrs.
Bowers report that with the increasing
volume of lobster which they now are
able to purchase, the situation is some-
what improved and they hope to have
the operation on a more sound basis soon.
10 AUGUST 4, 1961
Fisherman Leo Krziza examines fishing trophies under gleaming bulk of 540-pound
black marlin decorating wall of his office in Ancon.
Jrom Sea Rover to Wall ebecoration
THE ONLY 540-pound black marlin to adorn a Panama
Canal Company office has been mounted on a wall of the Motor
Transportation Division office in Ancon, directly above the
head of Leo Krziza, Administrative Assistant, and the man
responsible for the marlin's transfer from sea rover to
landlubberly room decoration.
Fisherman Krziza-and the marlin-also are responsible for
keeping the marlin record on the Isthmus, saving it from
the threat of being carried to Miami by Mrs. Betsy
Walker, who had been leading with a 518-pound marlin.
Mr. Krziza's 540-pound marlin, the largest caught in
Panama waters in the year 1960, was landed on December 9
last year in the waters of Pifias Bay, Gulf of Panama, near
the frontier of Colombia, about 130 miles southeast of Balboa.
He used heavy tackle and, for bait, a bonita that weighed
approximately 5 pounds. The record marlin, the second
member of the marlin family to be caught by Mr. Krziza in
that one afternoon's fishing, is 12 feet, 1 inch long and has a
girth of 64 inches. It was landed in only 35 minutes.
There's a bit of irony intermingled with the story of the
record-breaking marlin catch. Leo, who is a committee chair-
man of the Panama Marlin Club Committee, had participated
in the Panama Marlin Club tournament last November, but
didn't catch a single fish. On leave during December, he went
out on the fishing yacht Seri and after five fruitless-or, rather,
fishless-days was practically on the way home when he met
with phenomenal fisherman's luck, boating not one, but two
marlin in quick succession. The first weighed 368 pounds.
The second cinched the year's record for Mr. Krziza.
The record catch fulfilled a personal ambition Leo has had
for years, and brought him handsome trophies, including a
silver cup inscribed by the Panama Marlin Club as first prize
in the annual competition. Incidentally, the Company-Govern-
ment is cooperating in the International Marlin and Sailfish
Tournament this year, as it has in the past. The contest is from
July 29 through September 4.
The 1960 record marlin, however, is not the largest marlin
Mr. Krziza has ever landed. In November 1958 he caught a
552-pound marlin about 10 hours before that year's tournament
closed and, with it, took second prize.
Mr. Krziza's 1960 first prize marlin was shipped to a taxi-
dermist in Miami to be mounted, a task that took 6 months
If the marlin had been eve-popping when brought to Balboa,
its return from the taxidermist was almost as spectacular, for
the crate that contained the mounted marlin was of the dimen-
sions of a piano box. Which isn't surprising, considering that
the span of the tail alone, from tip to tip, is 45 inches, or prac-
tically 4 feet, quite aside from the 12-foot length of the fish.
Iappy fisherman with the two marlin he caught in a single afternoon.
THE PANAMA CAN.AL. REVIEW
Molten copper produced from concentrated ore goes into furnace.
Copper ingots are loaded aboard ship in harbor at San Antonio, Chile.
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . I...',. lvi.; ,. ..d.
ThbroDli the lI s'linai later'wa
Copper for World's Industries
II' I l I I . ...rI.. I I
.iI h I .hIh i I ,..
Shells for marine horns get final touches at \Marion, Ind., plant. Some 1,500 pound of copper were use( ( toepair tlls motor for Canal.
II, .,.,. 1 I .. ,.,i ,*. ,,,.1 I.., 1
jj13-7--t **7tr~IL LJ .
I , ., ,. I ,..r... ... II., ,,L ,,I
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(Continued from p. 13)
world's greatest underground copper
mine, El Teniente. Both are located at
an altitude of more than 8,000 feet in the
Andes, with El Teniente in central Chile
and the other in the northern part of
The mines of central Peru, like their
cousins in Chile, nestle in the Andes
range. These deposits have made Peru
the second-ranking producer of copper
in South America. Mexico, too, is an
important producer of copper, with major
deposits in the northeastern State of
Sonora and in lower California.
The word "copper" is derived from the
Latin cuprunm, or cyprium, the Latin
name for the island of Cyprus, renowned
in ancient times for its copper mines and
thus lending its name to the metal.
Because of its great variety of proper-
ties copper is indispensable in industry.
Copper products are utilized principally
in light and power lines, telephones, tel-
egraphs, radios, television, automobiles,
airplanes, railways, and shipbuilding.
To recover copper from ores, one of
two methods generally is used: Concen-
tration followed by smelting of the con-
centrate, or leaching with acid followed
by electrolytic precipitation. The elec-
trolytic copper produced by the latter
method is melted into ingots for sale.
In the concentration method, the ore
is crushed and ground, then reagents are
used which cause the particles of copper
to separate from the other materials and
rise to the top on bubbles of air forced
through a mixture of water and the
These copper-encrusted bubbles over-
flow from the flotation machine, then the
water which goes with them is removed
to further concentrate the copper. At the
El Teniente mine in Chile this concen-
trate is loaded into 1-ton buckets on an
aerial tramway which carries it to the
Caletones smelter, 4 miles from the mine
The smelting process separates the
copper from the impurities still in the
concentrates, thus producing almost pure
copper which then is cast into ingots.
Some of the copper thus produced later
is refined further to make an even more
pure metal for electrical wire and
Operation of the Panama Canal has
contributed greatly to the development
of the copper industry in both Chile and
Peru. Because of the Canal, copper from
those countries can be shipped to other
countries of the world economically and
at prices competitive with copper mined
elsewhere. More than 550,000 long tons
of the metal was shipped through the
Canal to Europe and the United States
in 1960, along with approximately
80,000 long tons of ore.
A MACHINE which can fasten two
pieces of steel cable together in seconds
and do it better and quicker than the
laborious splicing formerly used has
been added to the equipment of the
Using 500 tons of hydraulically
created pressure, the machine clamps a
steel sleeve around two ends of cable,
fastening them as securely as if they
had been made a single piece.
The steel sleeve is slightly oval before
being used and the two ends of cable
are placed inside it, one atop the other.
The collar then is set in the die-equipped
jaw of the machine, which squeezes it
so tightly that the sleeve is round and
smooth when removed.
Not only is the resulting junction
stronger and more quickly made than
by the old method of intertwining the
cable strands, but there are no sharp
ends of cable protruding to snatch and
Howard Clark inspects cable
which line broke but sleeve
after test in
tear hands and clothing when the cable
is being used.
In a test conducted at the Industrial
Division to check on the strength of the
junction made by the swedged steel
sleeve, the cable broke at approximately
double its certified strength, but the
junction still held, unmarred by the
strain experienced by the rest of
The machine has been installed in
the rope fender shop of the Industrial
Division. It can be used on cable from
Y4 inch up to 114 inches in diameter.
Jaws of swedging
'. machine prepare
to clamp shut
around steel sleeve
and cable ends.
14 AUGUST 4, 1961
Posing with Governor Carter after a ceremony last month during whieh they received eash awards for ideas are 9 of the 14 award winners.
SAFETY is allays important and it
just makes good sense to practice it at
all times. It also makes good sense to
think about ways to improve procedures
and equipment to reduce the chance of
injury or make the job easier. Changes
which result in improved safety condi-
tions or improved operations are eligible
for cash awards under the Incentive
Proof that many Company-Govern-
ment employees think safety is impor-
tant is indicated by the relatively high
number of suggestions submitted to the
Incentive Awards Committee which
involve safety. Last month, for example,
a group of 14 employees received incen-
tive award checks for suggestions they
had made. Three of those 14 suggestions
Albert B. Collins of the Motor Trans-
portation Division received a check for
$20 for suggesting that removable hand-
rails be installed on ship-loading ramps
and that the ramps themselves be painted
with a non-skid paint. Mr. Collins noted
in his suggestion that the loading ramps
are very slippery when wet and particu-
larly when there are particles of green
fruit such as bananas or plantains on
them. Incidentally, he got the idea while
investigating an injury accident.
Carl W. Reynolds of the Locks Divi-
sion received a $20 cheek for designing
a jack to be used by workmen repacking
a section of the rising stem valves which
are part of the locks equipment. Mr.
Reynolds pointed out in his suggestion
that lifting the 30-pound pieces by hand
could result in straining the back or other
injury. The jack provides a safer way of
doing the job and now is in regular use.
\. C. Willoughby of the Engineering
Division earned a $20 check for a sugges-
tion which involves both operations and
safety. He proposed that colored plastic
caps be used to cover grease fittings
through which bearings are lubricated.
As pointed out by those reviewing the
suggestion, the plastic caps not only will
keep dirt and moisture from reaching
the bearing, but also will keep the fitting
from being damaged and protect work-
men against hurting themselves on the
point of the fitting.
Like most suggestions received by the
committee, these involve simple, easy-to-
understand uses of familiar equipment
applied in new and different ways. They
do not involve complicated engineering
principles or considerations and simply
were the result of close observation
coupled with some thought.
Many similar opportunities for sugges-
tions exist throughout the Company-
Government. They are simply waiting
for someone to discover them. Some
involve safety, as the three outlined here
did, and others simply involve improve-
ments in operations or ways of doing
things. But all of them are valuable. The
person making the suggestion may
receive a cash award, the person who
does the job may find it easier or
safer, and the Company-Government's
operations are improved.
If you have a suggestion in mind,
submit it. The job you make easier may
be your own or someone else's, the injury
you prevent may be to yourself or a
fellow workman, but the cash award you
receive will be yours alone.
YEAR TO DATE
FIRST AID DISABLING DAYS
CASES INJURIES LOST
'61 '60 '61 '60 '61 '60
284 242 12 11 6321 6340
1579(397) 1507 74(4) 73 7630(58)13508
( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.
TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
In More Ways Than One
Hospital Rates &
\WIT CHARICES for medical care in Canal Zone
hospitals to be increased on November 1, it has become
necessary for a number of changes to be made in tlhe
group health insurance plans sponsored by the Canal
Zone Insurance Board so they will cover the increased
costs. The changes necessary in the plan covering
U.S. citizens employed in the Zone have been com-
pleted. Changes in the plan covering non-U.S. citizens
have not vet been completed, but will be announced
in detail as soon as possible.
Before November 1, all U.S.-citizen employees will
have a chance to change insurance plans, if they wish.
Details of how such changes can be made soon will
be provided all affected employees. Basic details of
the new hospital rates and the various insurance plans
are compared in the table below. A similar comparison
of the new charges for non-U.S. citizens and the group
health insurance plan available to them will be made
in an early issue. The Personnel Bureau soon will
distribute new booklets about the various plans.
Boom and Board
$12 per day in ward,
care $5 per day,
laboratory $2 per
day, others vary
$12 per day room
and board, $75
B1-WEEKLY COST TO EMPLOYEE
Female with nondependent husband --
A. F. C. E. GROUP
Low Option High Option
$12 per day in
$20 per day
up to 70 days
services in full
for 70 clays;
$150 of other
Zone rate on
Isthmus, up to
$177 for each
in cases of
First $2,500 per
80% of over
$50 per year
in hospital or
80", of over $50
per year, tup
$3 57 .7.11
Low Option I High Option
First $250 per First $1,000 per
year, 75% year, 807
over that over that
75% of all over
$50 per ve.r,
up to $10,000
75% of all over
$50 per year,
up to $1(),00
$10 per day for
10 days, plus,
for doctor: $60
80% of all over
$50 per ve ir,
up to $30,000
80% of all over
$50 per year,
up to $30,000
$15 per day for
10 clays, plus.
for doctor: $90
In full for
In full for
$10 per day for
in full for
In full for
Up to $100;
$12 per day
for 60 days
First $150 in
full, 75% of
Up to $250 per
can; $300 for
50 Years Ago
PLANS FOR construction of the
Washington Hotel and for extensive
improvements to the former Tivoli Hotel
were announced in August 50 years ago.
The new Washington was to be built
on Colon Beach by the Panama Railroad
Company at a coast of approximately
$500.000. A swimming pool, one of the
first on the Atlantic side, was included
in the plans.
Renovations to the Tivoli included
construction of a new wing which would
provide 16.000 square feet of floor
RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of July to the employees
listed below, with their birthplaces, posi-
tions, years of Canal service, and future
Katheryne D. Ackerman, New Jersey;
Window Clerk, Postal Division; 18 years,
8 months, 22 days; undecided.
Wiliam H. Beck, New York: Chief, General
Accounting Branch; 32 years, 3 months,
3 days: New York.
Earl F. Bienz, Ohio; Towing Locomotive
Operator, Locks Division; 12 years,
5 months, 29 days; remaining on Isthmus.
Daniel D. Bloomfield, Jamaica; Oiler. Locks
Division; 35 years. 1 day: Panama.
Jerome S. Bortner, New York; Voucher
Examiner. New York Operations Office;
12 years, 5 months, 12 days; New York.
Edward Carlson, Sweden; Chief Engineer,
Water Transportation Division; 15 years,
1 month, 16 days; New Jersey.
Charles Chase, Barbados; Leader, Ship
Cargo Operations, Terminals Division;
44 years. 10 months, 17 days; Colon.
Lloyd N. Church, Crenada: Guard, Dredg-
ing Division; 32 years, 10 months,
14 days; Panama.
Carmi E. Clough, New York; Window Clerk,
Postal Division; 10 years,21 days; Florida.
John T. Dillon, Massachusetts; Chief Engi-
neer, Dipper Dredge, Dredging Division;
21 years. 1 month, 7 days; undecided.
James A. Green, Jamaica; Seaman, Dredg-
ing Division; 41 years, 3 months, 25 days;
Frank L. Hall, lamaica; Maintenanceman,
Maintenance Division; 27 years, 22 days;
Winthrop H. Havenor, New York: Assistant
Chief. New York Operations Accounting
Office; 33 years, 4 months, 29 days; New
Marie V. Hayes. Georgia; Telephone Oper-
ator, New York Operations Office;
27 years, 4 months, 14 days; New York.
Albert J. Joyce, Massachusetts; Electrician,
Electrical Division; 33 years, 22 days;
space, add 38 rooms, and increase the
seating capacity of the dining room to
more than 700 persons.
A contract for about half of the steel
rail for the track of the towing locomo-
tives along the walls of the locks was
let to the Bethlehem Steel Co., which
offered open-hearth rail at $31.35 a ton.
By August 1, 1911, the grand total of
Canal excavation was 145,486,536 cubic
yards. This left 41.727.508 cubic vards,
or less than one-fourth of the entire
amount for the completed Canal, still
to be excavated.
Rebecca T. Kendall, Maryland; Staff Nurse,
Gorgas Hospital; 30 years, 1 month,
4 days; Delaware.
Gertrude T. Kueter, Michigan; Clerk, Com-
munity Services Division; 17 years,
11 months. 3 days; Florida.
Dorothea F. McNall, Illinois; Time, Leave,
and Payroll Clerk, Comptroller's Office,
24 years, 10 months, 13 days: remain on
Cuthbert E. Maner, Colombia; Boatswain,
Marine Division; 44 years, 7 months,
18 days; Panama.
Helen C. Milloy, Massachusetts: Supervi-
sory General Medical Supply Officer,
Gorgas Hospital; 40 years, 10 months,
12 days; Massachusetts.
James linto,Jamaica; Helper Mason, Main-
tenance Division; 43 years, 7 months,
11 days: Colon.
Jack C. Randall, New York; Chief, Com-
munity Services Division; 28 years.
6 months, 2 days; Florida.
Alexander F. L. Rienks, Holland; Inspector,
Cranes and Elevators, Industrial Divi-
sion: 20 years, 5 months, 29 days; remain
Wenceslao C. Robinson, Colombia; Leader
Seaman, Port Captain's Office, Balboa:
46 years, 8 months, 18 days; Panama.
Aristides Samudio,Panama: Heavy Laborer,
Terminals Division; 15 years. 5 months,
18 days; Colon.
Henry II. Shirk, Pennsylvania; Lead Fore-
man, Lock Operations; 25 years, 7 months,
22 davs; Pennsylvania.
Capt. William J. Steffens, New York;
General Manager, Water Transuortation
Division; 21 years, 11 months. 11 days:
Daniel M. Thomas, Jamaica: Roofer, Main-
tenance Division; 39 years; Panama.
Richard Thomoson, Jamaica; Signalman,
Navigation Division; 39 years, 2 months,
10 days; Colon.
James G. F. Trimble, New York: Lock
Operator Electrician. Locks Division:
21 years, 4 months, 17 days; New York.
25 Years Ago
COL. CLARENCE S. RIDLEY, who
had served 4 years as the Canal's Engi-
neer of Maintenance, was appointed
Governor of the Panama Canal Zone
25 years ago this month to succeed Gov.
Julian L. Schley. In addition to holding
the office of Engineer of Maintenance,
the new Governor also had served as
Assistant Engineer of Maintenance from
1920 to 1922.
While governors were being changed,
a storm of protest arose from U.S.
citizens living in Panama over the ruling
that free education in the Canal Zone
schools would be restricted to residents
of the Canal Zone and to children
whose parents or guardians were U.S.
citizens employed by the U.S. Govern-
ment. A direct appeal was made to
President Roosevelt by members of the
American Society, the American Legion
and the Elks.
10 Years Ago
UNITED STATES citizens employed
in the Canal Zone had no sooner gotten
used to the idea of paving Federal
income taxes 10 years ago than they
were made subject to the Selective
Service Act. In August 1951, President
Truman signed a proclamation requiring
citizens of the United States in the Canal
Zone and Guam to register for the draft.
This was followed by a proclamation
issued by Gov. Francis K. Newcomer
setting September 6 as registration day
for draft-age U.S. citizens in the Zone. It
was estimated that there were 300 draft-
age U.S. citizens here who had not
For the first time in the history of the
Canal, U.S. Government vessels started
paying tolls. In August, 10 years ago, it
was announced that tolls for July 1951
included $208,964 credited to the
Panama Canal Company for transit by
U.S. Government vessels.
One Year Ago
APPROXIMATELY $250,000 worth
of damage was caused by the fire w which
swept the second floor offices in the west
wing of the Administration Building at
Balboa Heights on August 2 last year.
The blaze began in the office of Comp-
troller Philip L. Steers. Jr. Due to the
outstanding job done by Canal Zone fire-
fighters the blaze was confined to the
wing in which it started.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of
11.\11, 1 t BUtil L T. 1
James q. Henry
I B ti[nan [
IR.,\NSPR F ;r\r0\ ND
-'11.RMIN l.A I lHll" \li
Cl,.ai-. I Crant
A.\,linLOl .I Ci' i Upl, rator
total Federal Service)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU IEALTI BUREAU
Ellis L. Faweett Marie B. NlMNeff
Principal, Latin American Director of Nursing
Iligh School John O. Welsh
rXr i INA'1 'inl OFTIIE
C(".>,.LC.IIO. IL'It \t 0 ( OF TE
Cm,. II C,,O\ / % 1- 0 I ROLLER
Lead ForemaniLlce iac / Joh A. Mole
Florice Renee Accountan
Carpenter SUPPLY AD COMMUNITY
MARINE BUREA SERI C BUREAU
Raymond RiAVil- / Pereival-. Aams
1 II,|.1.' J b I2hl r unick Operator
W\\ .,ic C. IlBe" James-. Alphonse
Guard Storekeeping Clerk
Alexander Beverly Wilfred W. Irving
Helper Sheetmetal Worker Sales Clerk
Victor NM. Bricefio Ierbert A. Johnson
John M. Purvis, Jr.
Head of Press Section
Kenneth I lenry
Charles A. Gareia
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Joseph L. Sestito
S. II. Laremont
John D. litehusson
cBfrigeration and Air
Archibald I all
Leader Hleavy Laborer
Ilaskel 0. Archihold
Juan D. Rodrigoez
Floating Plant Oiler
Robert A. Flowers
Sydney O. Moore
Urban R. Neslield
Floating Plant Water Tender
Clive 0. Garbutt
Dr. Peter J. Guokas
Medical Ollicer, I'sychiatry
Doris R. Kintigh
Ralph L. Damage
William F. Aleman
Clarence G. Pitter
OFFICE OF TIHE
Philip L. Steers, Jr.
Albert M. Jenkins
Slelen N. Minor
Time, Leave, and Payroll
Clilford M. Barter
Sidney WV. Peth rs,..
John F. \1iliern'i.n n
I cermngenes Ramo
Floating Plant \' i.r :endr
Iloward E. Robis6oi
Lock Operatir .I 1, 1 I,,.
Julio Ochoa ..
Launch S.e i-.um
Russell B. Bainw..'-
Sebastian F. Navarro
lHoward G. Anderson
General Foreman Carpenter
W. NM. Ferguson
Floating Plant Oiler
Robert G. Forsythe
Leader Lock Operator
Dallan II. Stephen
Parts and Equipment
James V. Forbes
Robert L. Wertz
Norris L. Brewster
Wilfred W. Anderson
Clifford A. Knight
Wallace E. Rushing
Lock Operator Electrician
Marcus E. Ilart
William J. Niekisher
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Horace F. Jenner
Vincent J. lubert
Mn Iin. t" Ow licer
.' N lli -L''Ma Enii .,-u1
l.illi.n A. I ilrI-.a
.lIs Clerk \
i ( oll lon Cumnsings
S(... 1 1 IIN I- lit
\ 1d1.. .1 Bell ,"
ii. r j......
Field Tractor Operator
Charles E. Thompson
Lead Dairy Foreman
Leader Laborer Cleaner
Sales Section lcad
Emily M. Thomas
Manuela D)e Gallardo
Muriel E. Walsh
Lucille A. Wood
Gladys B. Ccville
Stock Control Clerk
Mareella W. Atkinson
Ruby V. Ilarry
Cesar A. Martinez
Melvina MeL. Thomas
Charles A. Alexander
Lead Grounds Foreman
Willis A. Brown
Extractor and Tumblerman
Pearl A. Brathwaite
V. C. Ramirez
Lilias Inez lHurley
James S. Lewis
George Ilarding, Jr.
High Lift Truck Operator
Louie II. McNish
Supervisory Clerk Checker
Arthur A. Lewis
Ralph A. Nelson
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher
Isaiah E. Lawrence
Adrian A. Ricketts
18 AUGUST 4, 1961
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
June 10 through July 10
EMPLOYEES who were promoted
or transferred between June 10 and
July 10 are listed below. Within-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
Robert G. Hammettcr, to Head, Bindery
Section, Printing Plant.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Everett L. Farlow, to Administrative Serv-
ice Officer, Office of the Director.
Junie N. Scott, from Truck Driver, Motor
Transportation Division, to Firefiglter.
Donald V. Howerth, to District Police
Toward C. Richards, Jr., to Police Lieu-
Edward V. Amason, to Police Sergeant.
Division of Schools
Patricia E.Headley, to Elementary Teacher,
Latin American Schools.
Juan Phillips, to Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Beverley Bicker, from Third Officer, SS
"Cristobal," Water Transportation Divi-
sion, to Master Towboat or Ferry.
John T. Danahcr, from Rigger, Industrial
Division, to Master, Small Tug.
Dean L. Kelly, to Master, Small Tug.
Iarry P. DePipcr, Lloyd A. Roberts, to
Chief Engineer, Towboat or Ferry.
William K. Renner, from Third Assistant
Engineer, SS "Cristobal," Water Trans-
portation Division,to First Mate, Pipeline
Harry J. Harrison, Donald L. Crull, from
Towing Locomotive Operator, Locks
Division, to Second Mate, Pipeline
Luther J. Quinn, to Second Mate, Pipeline
Slaughter H. Sharpensteen, from Towing
Locomotive Operator, Locks Division, to
Third Mate. Pipeline Dredge.
David W. Sullivan, to Third Mate, Pipeline
Andrew H.Page,from Third Assistant Engi-
neer, SS "Cristobal," Water Transporta-
tion Division, to Engineer, Pipeline
Robert F. Dunn, to Dipper Dredge Operator.
Daniel R. Klotz, Welder, from Industrial
Lloyd N. Church, to Guard.
Armando Chow, to Leader Seaman.
Francesco Viglietti, from Supervisory Store-
keeping Clerk, Supply Division, to Launch
Frederick Burns, Humberto P. Halsall,
Carlos F. Joseph, George H. McFarlane,
Felipe Moreno, Edwin N. Perryman, to
Aniceto Palacio, from Deckhand, Naviga-
tion Division, to Floating Plant Oiler.
Fitzgerald G. Mitchell, from Helper Lock
Operator, Locks Division, to Floating
Alfred W. Browne, Jr., Darnley Grilfith,
IHasall Speid, Percival Wade, to Floating
Felipe Fula, from Helper Lock Operator,
Locks Division, to Floating Plant Fire-
Candido A. Melendez, to Floating Plant
Manuel J. Castillo, Jos6 F. de los Rios, Juan
Melony, Camilo Rodrigucz, to Naviga-
tional Aid Worker.
Claudio Gil, from Railroad Trackman, Rail-
road Division, to Seaman.
Rafael Secaida, Joseph N. Lavalas, Miguel
A. Moreno, Miguel de la Rosa, Leonard
S. King, Edward E. Davis, Edward C.
Price, Leroy A. Finn, Pablo Marnn, from
Helper Lock Operator, Locks Division,
Pascual Ramos, from Truck Driver, Gorgas
Hospital, to Seaman.
George C. Worrell, from Kitchen Attendant,
Coco Solo Hospital, to Seaman.
Sydney A. Smith, from Leader Laborer
Cleaner, Division of Schools, to Seaman.
Stanford N. Christie, from Heavy Laborer,
Division of Schools, to Seaman.
Oswald A. Sealy, from High Lift Truck
Operator, Supply Division, to Seaman.
Rito Tufi6n, from Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Seaman.
Donald A. Williams, from Helper Boiler-
maker, Industrial Division, to Seaman.
Rodolfo C. Soley, from Deckhand, Naviga-
tion Division, to Seaman.
Lefard A. Bcnnett, from Launch Seaman,
Navigation Division, to Seaman.
Sehastian Sinchez, Rudolph A. Knight, from
Boatman, Locks Division, to Seaman.
Rodolfo Davis, JuliAn Olmos, to Seaman.
Jos6 D. Villarreal, Alvin A. Boles, from
Heavy Laborer, Locks Division, to Sea-
Jose E. Delgado, Estanislao Perea, from
Dock Worker, Terminals Division, to
Christopher T. Cox, to Seaman (Launch).
Evaristo E. Rodriguez, from Helper Lock
Operator, Locks Division, to Seaman
Slenue P. Gilbert, Harold Irvin, Joshua II.
Chapman, from Heavy Laborer, Locks
Division, to Seaman (Launch).
Luis A. Rivera, from Garbage Collector,
Community Services Division, to Sea-
IIector A. Prince, from Laborer, Supply
Division, to Seaman (Launch).
Patricio Martinez, from Railroad Track-
man, Railroad Division, to Seaman
Luis E. Lame, Luis H. Agredo, Efrain
Morales, Paulo Aguilar, from Dock
Worker, Terminals Division, to Seaman
Narciso G6mez, from Railroad Trackman,
Railroad Division, to Boatman.
Luis A.Guill6n,from Heavy Laborer, Locks
Division, to Boatman.
Melit6n SAnchez, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Boatman.
Fedrick A. Lawrence, from Produce Worker,
Supply Division, to Truck Driver.
Walter Sinckler, to Truck Driver.
Dalton R. Ferdinand, from High Lift Truck
Operator, Terminals Division, to Helper
Iermes Rivera, Richard J. Joseph, from
Utility Worker, Supply Division, to
Cleveland G. Davis. from Laborer Cleaner,
Community Services Division, to Helper
Lucio Castro, to Heavy Laborer.
Harold G. Smith, Clifford A. Rogers,
Alphonso II. Thomas, from Utility
Worker, Supply Division, to Heavy
Aristides L6pez, from Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Community Serv-
ices Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Faustino Martincz, Relmigio Romcro, from
Laborer, Community Services Division,
to Heavy Laborer.
Daniel S. Hogan, Juan D. L6pez, Ramn6n
Tenorio, Arturo A. Ratista, from Dock
Worker, Terminals Division, to Heavy
Antonio C. Dixon, from Service Station
Attendant, Supply Division, to Laborer.
Antonio Quintanilla, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Helper Rigger.
Joel W. Tappin, from Sales Checker, Supply
Division, to General Helper.
Francisco J. Pineda, from Laborer Cleaner,
Division of Schools, to Helper Welder.
11 c6tor L. John, from Laborer Cleaner, Divi-
vision of Schools, to Helper Machinist.
Carol G. Rigby, to Accounting Clerk.
Donald E. MacLean, to Senior Operator-
Joln B. Coffey, Jr., to Operator-Hydro.
William P. Fussclman, from Life Guard,
Division of Schools, to Student Assistant,
Josei A. C6rdova, to Power Plant Wiper.
Waldo B. Gilley, Carl E. Iall, Peter A.
Warner, to General Foreman Public
Fredrick S. Rauinbach, to General Foreman
George P. Fullman, to Leader Instrument
Owen W. Smith, to Instrument Mechanic.
Mortimer II. Jordan, to Clerk (Typing).
Byron E. Brooks, to Accounts Maintenance
Alvin V. Stewart, to Toolroom Mechanic.
Nicacio Baloi, Pio C6rdoba, Michael A.
Ilaywood, Domingo Mojica, Dionisio
Pantoja, Titus J. Stephen, Zacarias Sala-
zar, to Heavy Laborer.
)ionisio Navas, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
Contract and Inspection Division
James R. Palumbo, from Life Guard, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Student Assistant
Barbara J. Falk, to Secretary (Stenograph),
OFFICE OF TIE COMPTROLLER
Charles E. Belden, to Supervisory Account-
Alda L. McLeod, to Voucher Examiner.
Luz E. Reyes, Cleik-Typist, from Contract
and Inspection Division.
Luis A.Fong, from Supervisory Timekeeper,
Industrial Division, 1o Accounting Clerk.
Edward J. HIughes, David M. Kennedy,
Edward S. Mack, John F. Stoll, to Pilot.
Paul R. Guerriero, Kenneth R. Orcutt, to
(See p. 20)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 19)
Clifford Bowen, Jos6 C. Sanchez, from Dock
Worker, Terminals Division, to Deck-
Joseph N. Goddard, from File Clerk, Supply
Division, to Deckhand.
Carlos J. Reyes, from Laborer Cleaner,
Division of Schools, to Deckhand.
Matthews M. Kelly, to Seaman.
Henry M. Games, to Seaman (Launch).
Julio Avila, Henry 0. Bailey, Norman
Blandford, Ivan Burke, Jr., Josh Cerda,
Nicolas Castillo, Alexander Johnson, Juan
Joseph, Carlos F. Master, Howard L.
McKenzie, Gilberto Morales, Evaristo
Rodriguez, George Simpson, Albert E.
Waithe, to Ilelper Lock Operator.
Jose de la C. Dutary, Felix Herman, Euclid
C. Jordan, to Boatman.
Elisha E. Gordon, to Chauffeur.
Gregorio Navarro, from Railroad Trackman,
Railroad Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Stephen C. Lessard, to Budget Analyst.
Carlos II. Herrera, to Leader Calker.
Milano Camafio, Alberto Hawkins, Jorge
L. Velez, to Painter.
Alhin E. Coke, to Timekeeper.
Randolph L. Green, James Smith, to Main-
Gabriel Vargas, Cristobal L. Joseph, to
Albert MI. Rowe, from Life Guard, Division
of Schools, to Laborer Cleaner.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Community Services Division
Te6filn Alveo, to Field Tractor Operator,
Jnos D. Altamar, to Garbage Collector.
Romaldo Amor, Segundo Pineda, Fermin
Marnto, Alejandro Rodriguez, Isabel
Zamhrano, to Grounds Maintenance
Jos% A. Reyes, from Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Laborer.
Joseph J. Pustis, to Service Center Manager.
Hazel M. Myers, Rafaela Salas, to Snack
Lnrenza I lowell. to Accounting Clerk.
Carmen L. Iassocks, to Personnel Clerk.
Linda M. Armstrong, Headley A. Cargill,
Tiburcio GonzAlez, Sarah A. Searle,
Iedro A. Tufi6n, to Storekeeping Clerk.
Ismael C. Rivera, Segundo I. Nlero, to
Dudley A. Smith, to Clerk.
George L. Trottman, to Editorial Clerk and
Motion Picture Operator.
Claudine A. Daxon, Nelly M. Titus, to Sales
Section I lead.
Isabel J. Powell, Gladys V. Ramage, Irene
Williams, to Sales Clerk.
Ronald Chambers. Jr., to Commissary Serv-
Lilllian E. Luddy, to Ticket Seller.
Miguel Mitchell, to Service Station
Miguel Couloote, High Lift Truck Operator,
from Terminals Division.
Phillis M. Grant, to Pantryman.
Blakely Ford, Ernest A. Jones, to Ware-
Cedric Dickens, from Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Utility Worker.
Alfredo Cortez, Leonardo L6pez, Margarito
Olivardia, Jose C. Quirds, Hermes Rivera,
Vicente II. Ramos, to Utility Worker.
Orme W. Wilson, to Counter Attendant.
Sahino John, to Heavy Laundry Worker.
Josephine L. Orville, to Garment Presser.
Olga E. laynes, to Shirt Presser.
Motor Transportation Division
John C. Brown, to Heavy Duty Equipment
Richard T.I ayden., to Automotive Mechanic
Basil L. Lloyd, Elisha E. Gordon, Chauffeur,
from Locks Division.
Fitz Marshall, from Heavy Laborer, Supply
Division, to Truck Driver.
Leroy II. Chaplin, to Cargo Clerk.
Felipe Lee, to Sign Painter.
Pablo A. Alemin, to Maintenance Carpenter.
George A. Foster, Truck Driver, from Main-
Carlos R. Evering, Wendell P. Maynard,
from Waiter, Supply Division, to Clerk
Segundo Villalva, to High Lift Truck
Jorge L. Pico, to Ship Worker.
l)anvil G. Morris, to Messenger.
Levi Best, from Warehouseman, Supply
Division, to Dock Worker.
Selwyn O. Brown, Hagar E. Salmon, from
Heavy Laborer, Locks Division, to Dock
Joseph E. Frederiek, to Helper Machinist.
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
William L. Benny, Service Center Manager,
Ilenry A. Tooke, Superintendent, Miraflores
Filter Plant, Maintenance Division.
Donald II. Boland, Business Analyst, Budget
and Rates Division.
Richard II. Egolf, Accountant, Accounting
Fred R. Middleton, Constable, Magistrate's
Thomas W. Carter. Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
Paul L. Wlhitlock, Graduate Intern Mechan-
ical Engineer, Engineering Division.
Sylvia E. Staples, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Gertrude M. Roberto, Accounting Clerk,
Anthony J. Zablocki, Master, Towboat or
Ferry, Navigation Division.
Dale I). DeMoss, Retail Store Supervisor,
Constance G. Ilarbison, Clerk-Stenogra-
pher, Accounting Division.
Carl R. Seals, Cargo Clerk, Terminals Divi-
David A. Fyffe, Service Center Supervisor,
Gladys R. Ceville, Stock Control Clerk.
Jane E. Nicholls, Clerk. Supply Division.
Beatrice L. Douglas, Cash Clerk, Supply
Agustin Garcia, Service Center Supervisor,
John R. Carrington, Sales Clerk, Supply
Alba M. Coffey, Clerk-Typist, Supply Divi-
I lumberto Villaeres, Baker, Supply Division.
Julio C. Castillo, Percival Gordon, Cook,
Ernesto Cedefio, Utility Worker. Supply
Rito Ruiz, Grounds Maintenance Equipment
Operator, Community Services Division.
James J. Boughner. Apprentice Electrician,
Douglas C. Schmidt, Water System Control-
man, Maintenance Division.
New York Office Closed
CAPT. WILLIAM J. STEFFENS,
whose home port was New York for the
many years be served on Canal organiza-
tion vessels, and who more recently
headed the New York Operations Office
for the ships, said his goodbyes and
headed for retirement last month, along
with five other employees of the New
York office. The office was slated to close
for good the last day of July. All Panama
Canal Company ship business now is
being handled in New Orleans and on
Captain Steffens' service with the
Panama Canal Company was broken
when he went on active duty as a lieu-
tenant commander in the U.S. Navy
during World War II, so that his Panama
Canal service totals 21 years, 11 months,
and 11 days.
Senior to him in years of service in
the Nevw York office is Winthrop H.
Havenor, Assistant Chief in the New
York Operations Accounting Office, who
was employed during his entire business
career with the Panama Canal Company,
a total of 33years.4 months,and 29 days.
A close second in the service record is
William H. Beck, Chief of the General
Accounting Branch of the New York
Operations Office, whose whole business
career also was with the Panama Canal
Company, a total of 32 years, 3 months,
and 3 days.
Others in the office who retired in
July are Marie V. Hayes, telephone
operator, with 27 years, 4 months, and
14 days' service: Edward Carlson, Chief
Engineer of steamship operations, with
15 years, 1 month, and 16 days' service;
and Jerome S. Bortner, Voucher Exam-
iner, with 12 years, 5 months, and 12
The closingof the Panama Canal Com-
pany's New York Operations Office at
21 West Street, New York, has affected
154 employees in that area, not counting
the non-officer personnel on the Com-
pany vessels. Of the 154 employees, 30
'were transferred to the New Orleans
office; 70 have accepted other posi-
tions; 30 were offered employment and
declined; I received reduction-in-force;
4 were offered identical positions in the
New Orleans Operations Office, but
rejected the offer; and 13 more are
eligible for retirement, in addition to
those who retired in July.
WILLIAM D.YOUNG,a position clas-
sifier with the Wage and Classification
Division of the Personnel Bureau, is the
AITGST 4. 1961
author of an article which recently
appeared in Personnel Administration,
otticial journal of the Society for
Mr. Young's article, which was pre-
pared while he was a graduate student
in the Industrial Relations Center, Uni-
versity of Minnesota, is concerned with
the productivity of groups and ways
of forecasting what the productivity
of a specific group will be in a given
Centering on one way of doing this,
the article concludes that such measure-
ments "are at present practicable as a
tool for research, but not for manage-
ment in the solution of group produc-
tivity problems." The article points out,
however, that success in forecasting
productivity of a specific group would
be a big step forward in efficient
Mixed Doubles Tourney
LT. GOV. W. P. LEBER will roll the
first ball to open this year's United Fund
Mixed Doubles Handicap Bowling Tour-
nament at the Balboa Bowling Center on
August 25. Rules for the 3-day tourna-
ment have been posted and entry forms
are available at all bowling centers.
Entry fee for the event is $3 per
person, with $1 of the fee going to the
United Fund. Individuals may enter as
many times as they wish, with the same
or different partners. Trophies, cash
awards, and merchandise prizes will go
to the highest teams.
A BILL TO REVISE the Canal Zone
Code, as proposed by the special Gov-
ernor's Advisory Committee, has been
introduced in Congress by Representa-
tive Edwin E. Willis.
The revision will omit obsolete laws;
reconcile conflicting laws; modernize the
arrangement, language, style, and termi-
nology of the Code; clarify and improve
procedures in Canal Zone courts; and
add or substitute provisions on some
subjects. Some of the specific changes
include improvements in procedures for
dealing with the mentally ill, stiffening
the penalties for driving while intoxi-
cated, and authority for the Governor
to issue fishing and swimming regula-
tions which would have the force and
effect of law.
The bill was referred to the House
Committee on the Judiciary for study
and consideration. David J. Markun,
General Counsel, has served as Chair-
man of the Governor's Advisory Com-
mittee, members of which also include
Dr. Charles J. Zinn, a member of the
Board of Directors of the Panama Canal
The Rainbow City Auditorium will be flanked by other facilities when plans are completed.
Modern Civic Center Planned
WORK SHOULD be started before
the end of this year on the construction
of a modern civic center for the Latin
American community of Rainbow City.
Plans for a service center, health
center, post office, and other facilities to
be built adjacent to the existing Rainbow
City auditorium have been drawn up
and bids on the project will be solicited
sometime in September.
The new Rainbow City Auditorium,
which replaced the old motion picture
theater at Camp Bierd, was built last
year at a cost of approximately $100,000
by the Dillon Construction Co. The build-
ing is located off Randolph Road at the
corner of Jamaica Street and adjacent
to the Rainbow City Elementary School.
It has a capacity of approximately
300 persons and is available for stage
shows, school productions, musicals, and
public meetings as well as regular
The additional structures which will
make up the new Civic Center will be
built on both sides of the theater build-
ing. On one side will be the new post
office and health center, with space for
a barber shop and beauty shop. On
the other side will be a service center
and restaurant. All buildings will be
connected by a covered passageway.
A parking area adjacent to the exist-
ing theater building w ill serve the new
Maintaining the Waterway
(Continued from p. 4)
One such chunk recently removed from small tug, an anchor barge, a power
the pump was a stone approximately float, a welding float, an oil barge, a
30 inches long and a foot thick. water barge, a spare parts barge, spare
The Mlindi's equipment is designed to pontoons and pipe, special range targets
handle anything which is not bigger which dredge operators can use to keep
than the 28-inch pipeline through which the dredge centered above the channel
the discharge is pumped. It is only infre- area it is clearing, and 98 employees.
quently that the dredge is forced to shut The work in the Lake, which started
down while something too big for it to July 10, was to be halted this week, at
swallow is removed. least temporarily. The dredge is to be
The pipeline which trails out behind moved south through the Cut and Pedro
the Mindi as it works is floated behind Miguel Locks into Miraflores Lake this
the vessel on special pontoons. As the week for some channel maintenance
discharge flow moves tlnough this line, work during the lane shutdowns at
tumbling large rocks against the steel Pedro Miguel Locks. The shutdowns are
pipe, the sound resembles nothing so to permit sections of towing track to be
much as the sounds normally associated raised and strengthened in preparation
with a stone-crushing plant or a boiler for the new towing locomotives. One of
factory, with the sharp ring of stone th- MAindi's major jobs at Pedro Miguel
against steel muffled only by the water will be to move in close to the south
which serves as a carrier for the end of the lock lanes when they are
dredged material. closed and remove silt which has accu-
To keep the lindi in operation on its emulated. After this month, the Mindi
present schedule requires a launch, a will be moved to Cristobal.
TIHE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
LUnited States intelcoastal..........................
East coast of United States and South America........
East coast of United States and Central America.......
East coast of United States and Far East..............
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ......
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada ........
Europe and South America .........................
Europe and Australasia ............................
A ll other routes ..................................
T otal traffic...............................
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
September .... ......
December. .... ...
January ........ ...
1,002 974 629
947 881 599
Totals for Fiscal
oYear........ 10,866 10795 7,062
* Before deduction of any operating expenses.
(In thousands of dollars)
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
bia ...... 244
.rcan .. . 1
n1 ......... 1,129
. ......... 612
. . . 191
Sse .... .. 863
S..... . 1,044
lands. . ... 485
gulanr ...... 45
gian ....... 1,324
ati.n ...... 383
an. ..... .. 1(02
line ....... 59
s. ......... 314
States ..... 1,792
tulan ...... 29
ers ........ 110
Total .... 10,866
number tons of
436 2,415 123
24 137 74
2,122 13,215 379
New Philippine Ship
TIlE NEW Philippine flag freighter
Philippine President Carcia made her
second transit through the Canal July 26
on the outward half of her maiden
voyage between New York and Manila,
via Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The 12,000 deadweight ton motorship
is the seventh new ship of this class to be
placed in service between the United
States, Manila, and other Far Eastern
ports by the United Philippine Lines in
the last 6 months.
Capt. Jos6 Ferrer, commodore of the
line's fleet and a survivor of the Bataan
death march of World War 11, commands
the 510-foot vessel. She and her sister
ships are fitted with refrigerated cargo
compartments and deep tanks for bulk
liquids. Her agents at the Canal are
C. Fernie & Co.
THE CHILEAN LINE, or Compailia
Suld Americana de Vapores, one of the
South American shipping companies
which regularly use the Canal, recently
added three ships to its express service
between U.S. gulf ports and Chile. They
are the Marie Skot, Lotte Skoui, and
Grete Skoi, 2-year-old, 4,219-gross ton
cargo carriers, with a speed of 17 knots.
They started regular sailings in June
from Mobile, Houston, New Orleans, and
other gulf ports, passing through the
Canal to Peru and Chile. The Chilean
Line has 12 other ships passing through
the Canal on regular schedules from
Valparaiso and way ports to the North
Atlantic and Europe. Fenton & Co.
represent the line here.
Small Bulk Carrier
A NEW small-sized Norwegian bulk
carrier named the Stove Transport,
which is running through the Canal these
days, is one of the first ships to go to sea
equipped with the new Velle cargo han-
dling system, which replaces a normal
pair of derricks. The Stove Transport
does not carry stoves as her name
might suggest, since Stove is a common
Norwegian family name.
Owned by the Stove Shipping Co.,
the vessel has been chartered by the
Canadian Transport Co. of Vancouver
for operation between U.S. Atlantic
ports, the west coast, and the Far East.
Wilford & McKay represent the ship
at the Canal.
AUGUST 4, 1961
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Pacific Steam Executive
A FORMER member of the staff of
the Balboa and Cristobal offices of the
Pacific Steam Navigation Co. has been
appointed general manager of the west-
ern area for the Royal Mail Lines, Ltd.,
and the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
He is Roland F. Williams, who has been
oVith the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
since 1931 and who has travelled exten-
sively for the company in Central and
He was assigned to the Cristobal office
between 1935 and 1939 and was conm-
pany representative in Balboa from 1942
to 1946. After leaving Panama he served
as manager in Peru and Chile and was
appointed manager of the head office in
Liverpool in 1955.
In his new position, Mr. Williams will
be manager ot the head office, as well as
take over supervision on behalf of both
the Royal Mail Lines and the Pacific
Steam Navigation Co. for the whole of
Central America, Panama, Ecuador,
Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean
area. He will be based in Jamaica.
New United Fruit Manager
SAMUEL D. PULLER, assistant man-
ager for the United Fruit Co. in Cris-
tobal the past 2 years, has been named
manager to succeed A. F. Raymond, who
retired June 1. Mr. Raymond, who had
been with United Fruit at Cristobal since
1922, has left the Isthmus to make his
home in the United States.
Well known in Atlantic side shipping
circles, Mr. Puller has been with United
Fruit on the Isthmus since 1937. He
served with the U.S. Navy from 1943
until 1946 and was discharged with the
rank of lieutenant commander.
Regular Cargo Service
THREE NEW cargo ships recently
joined the Fern-Ville Far East Line
Caribbean Service which brings cargo
each month to Canal ports from the Far
East and U.S. west coast ports. The ships
are the Fernview, Fernstate, and Fern-
lake, all owned and operated by Fernlev
& Eger of Oslo and A. F. Kaveness & Co.
of Lysaker, Norway.
The ships arrive at the Canal on the
27th of each month from the Far East
and the west coast. After discharg-
ing cargo here, they continue on to La
Guaira, Puerto Cabello, and Maracaibo,
Total commercial. .............
U.S. Government vessels: **
Small *............. .... ...... .
to to Total
5,655 5,211 10,866
347 280 627
6,002 5,491 11,493
Total commercial and U.S.
Government ................ 6,221
5,689 11,910 12,040(
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
O res, various ............................
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)....
Wheat ................. ...............
Canned food products .....................
Nitrate of soda...........................
M etals, various.........................
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit). . .................. .........
Iron and steel manufactures................
Fertilizers, unclassified. ................... .
All others ...............................
Atlantic to Pacific
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt).....
Coal and coke............................
Iron and -ceel manufactures................
Sugar. ....... ....................
C orn ................ ...................
Chemicals unclassified .....................
Wheat ................ ..............
Paper and paper products .................
M achinery...... .....................
1961 1960 Average
10,072,697 7,308,024 3.838,198
5,661,907 4,704,207 2,514,297
3.239,640 2,209,664 53.593
1.670,383 1.501,967 713,733
1.546,142 1,713,770 1,674.314
1,440,560 1,256,696 425,681
979,772 612,893 525,470
S90,482 271,592 88,222
783,829 734,888 103.507
588,377 536.101 182,804
567,570 538,308 2n. 151
409,974 421,851 374,408
402,594 296,452 127.709
382,543 378,975 381,452
355,476 288,687 281.062
5,555,699 4,799,766 4,522.852
34,447,645 27,573,811 16,077,453
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
FOR THE FIRST time since the
Panama Canal was opened, ships flying
the Norwegian flag have attained second
place among commercial ships using the
waterway. British ships claimed the third
spot during the fiscal year which ended
June 30, as they did during fiscal year
1960. Germany was in second place
during the 1960 fiscal year, but dropped
to fourth place this fiscal year. United
States ships were in first place both years.
While the number of commercial ships
using the Canal during fiscal year 1961
totaled only 71 more than luring the
previous fiscal year, the number of ships
filing the Norw(egian flag increased 157.
The number of ships flying United States,
British, and German flags decreased. The
greatest decrease was in U.S, ships,
which dropped 297 below the previous
The number of Liberian ships, filth
numerically but second only to the
United States in amount of cargo carried
through the Canal during fiscal year
1961, also increased during the year.
A total of 1,044 Liberian ships transited
the waterway in 1961, compared with
977 which transited in 1960.
The trend toward ever-larger ships
indicated by the fact that Liberian
vessels carried more cargo than the
numerically greater number of German,
British, and Norwegian vessels also was
pointed up by Colombian, French, and
The number of commercial vessels
flying the Colombian flag fell from 269
in 1960 to 244 in 1961, but the amount
of cargo increased from 366,985 tons to
466,907. Transits by Chilean vessels
remained virtually stable, with 107 in
1960 and 108 in 1961, but the amount
of cargo went from 614,137 tons to
838,912 tons. Transits by French ships'
fell from 167 to 133, but the amount of
cargo was virtually the same, with
794,021 tons in 1960 and 785,407 tons
The mnimber of ships flying the Greek
flag, many of which are tankers and
supercarriers, climbed from 273 in 1960'
to 612 during 1961, for an increase of,
more than 100 p_ recent. This dramatic
increase moved (Greek shipping from 10thi
place to 7th place, numerically, and
from 7th place to 5th place in volume
of cargo. Size of the (reek ships is
indicated by the fact that in 612 transit
they carried almost twice the amount
of cargo carried by 1,129 transit of
TIANSITS BY OCEAN-COING
VESSELS IN JUNE
CARGO (long tons)
S 5.193,872 5,757,86S
in1wnt 55,76 47,071
1 5.249,578 5,80-1,939
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
Nine commercial ships flying the flag
of the Soviet Union transited the Canal
during fiscal year 1961, compared with-
three the previous year. On. the other
hand, the number of Cuban ships
dropped from 17 in 1960 to 10 this year.
Although the German ships ranked
only fourth in number of transit during
1961, the increase since 1951 in the
number of vessels flying the German flag
is somewhat indicative of the postwar
resurgence cf the German economy. In
fiscal vear 1951, only 4 transits were
THROUGH PANAMA CANAL
made by German ships and the following
year there were 30. But the number
jumped to 230 in 1953 and continued to
climb to a peak of 1,296 during fiscal
year 1960. The drop of 167 transits this
year as compared to last is believed to be
only a temporary decline.
In pre-war 1938, when United States
ships transiting the Canal totaled 1,780
and those of the second-ranking British
totaled 1,281-both very comparable to
the 1961 levels-fourth-ranking German
shipping totaled only 357 vessels, less
than one-third the 1961 level. (Norwe-
gian shipping was third in 1938, with
o67 transits, slightly more than half
the 1961 total which earned it second
Of the 10,866 ocean-going commer-
cial ships using the Canal during fiscal
year 1961, 9,045 were classified as
general cargo ships, compared with 8,883
of this type during fiscal year 1960. The
number of passenger ships increased
from 286 to 295.
The number of tankers transiting the
Canal increased from 1,064 in 1960 to
1,116 in 1961, while the number of ore
carriers dropped from 489 to 345. The
number of superships with a beam of 80
feet or more increased from 457 to 508,
while a total of 1,538 vessels were given
clear-Cut handling, compared with 1,461
during fiscal year 1960.
- -- -- -- -- -800
24 AUGUST 4, 1961