Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00060
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: October 1980
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00060
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Back Matter
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Back Cover
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text


6Cno I

1979- 198 1





Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries




I' :


..................... ... .....
O P77 7 ... .. ...
'.. ........
.. ....



Deputy Administrator

Information Officer


OCTOBER 1, 1980

Assistant Editor


camper's bright red tent adds a spot of
color to the tranquil scene photographed
for the cover by Mel Kennedy who is also
responsible for most of the beach scenes
including the "Gold Coast "sunset at left.
On the following two pages a panoramic
view from atop Ancon Hill shows ships
moving through the Canal past the port
of Balboa which, along with Cristobal,
is operated by the Panama Port Au-
thority. Panama Canal Commission head-
quarters is in the right foreground. In-
side the back cover, a Norwegian dry
bulk carrier, followed by a U.S. oil
tanker, passes through Gaillard Cut on
a misty rainy season morning. Both
photos are by Don Goode. Kevin Jen-
kins visited Charco Azul to photograph
the new terminal for the update on the
North Slope oil story, page 28-33. The
sensitive portrayal of two small children
and their father on an outing, pages 42-
44 is by Arthur L. Pollack. The center-
fold, showing the "QE2" moving through
Gaillard Cut, is by Adrian Stallworth.
The "QE2", which holds the toll record,
paid $89,154.62 on her seventh transit
January 25, 1980.

In This Issue
operates the Panama Canal, is one year old this month. This edition of the
REVIEW is part of the observance of that anniversary and reflected in its pages are
some of the many changes resulting from implementation of the new Panama
Canal treaty which created the agency.
A close look reveals a change in the REVIEW itself. The logo, which appears on
the cover and above, has been slightly modified while a new insignia is being
created to replace the Canal Zone sea!, which had been included in the name
from the time the first issue appeared May 1, 1950.
The cover story is a special tribute to the Atlantic side employees. Written by
Susan Stabler, who lives on the Atlantic side, it emphasizes the great diverstiy of
outdoor life and the beauty of the unspoiled beaches on the "Gold Coast." A
nostalgic look at an Atlantic side landmark of yesterday is provided by Canal pilot
Norman Werner who writes of Colon's most famous saloon.
Graphic Branch photographers whose work appears in this edition are: Mel
Kennedy, Don Goode, Kevin Jenkins, Alberto Acevedo, Arthur L. Pollack, and
Bob Rogers. All artwork, unless otherwise credited, is by Carlos Mendez.

Panama Canal Commission Board of Directors ...................... 8
Organization Chart ................ ............................. 10
Canal Happenings .................. ............................. 11
The "Other Side" ............................................. 12
Remembering Bilgray's ................ .......................... 22
The QE2 Moves Through Gaillard Cut .................. ........... 26
A New Link in the Oil Line ..................................... 28
The Locomotive Component Repair Facility ........................ 34
The Changing Scene ................ ............................ 40
Exploring the Gentle Jungle ...................................... 42
The Canal's Underwater Work Force .............................. 45

REVIEW RECEIVES AWARD-Although the 30th anniversary of the
REVIEW passed quietly in May, there was cause for celebration a month later
when the October 1, 1979 edition won third place in the "house organ" category
of the Blue Pencil Awards for outstanding publications. The Blue Pencil
Publications Contest is sponsored by the National Association of Govern-
ment Communicators, a non-profit organization devoted to education and
professional development at the local, state and federal levels. This year there
were 525 entries and 73 received recognition. Credit for this noteworthy
achievement goes not only to the editorial staff, but also to personnel of the
Agency Press and Duplicating Center who were responsible for the typesetting
and composition.

Official Panama Canal Publication
All articles and illustrations in the PANAMA CANAL REVIEW may be reprinted in full or in part
without further permission by crediting the PANAMA CANAL REVIEW as the source. The REVIEW is
normally published twice a year. Yearly subscription is $3 for regular mail and $6 for airmail. The price
for back issues is $1.50 for regular and $3 when sent by airmail. For subscriptions, send check or
money order made payable to the Panama Canal Commission to PANAMA CANAL REVIEW, Panama
Canal Commission Public Information Office, A.P.O. Miami, Fla. 34011. The editorial office is
located in Room 100 Administration Building, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama.



The Administrator

and the
Deputy Administrator
of the

Panama Canal


T he year that has passed
since the last issue of the
REVIEW appeared has been a
time of change, but also a
time of continuity and
achievement. The enduring
mission of the Panama Canal,
of course, has not changed.
Now in its sixty-seventh year,
the waterway continues to
carry the ships of the world
safely and efficiently across
the Isthmus. Larger ships and
more tonnage are transiting
the Canal than ever before in
its history. Also unchanged is
the ceaseless effort which
goes into maintaining and
improving the Canal-the
multitude of tasks involved in
straightening and deepening
the channel, renewing and
overhauling the equipment,
protecting the banks, and
preserving the lakes and
watershed which sustain the
Canal. The uninterrupted
service which this immense

and complex enterprise has
continued to provide to the
world stands as a tribute to
the dedicated and skilled work
force of the Panama Canal
This past year has been
remarkable because of the
innumerable changes and
innovations we have been
challenged to carry out by
virtue of the new treaty with
Panama, while also sustaining
the operation of the Canal.
We have made good progress
in adjusting our management
and the entire operating
organization to the new
situation, as well as in
restoring stability to.our work
force. Our financial footing is
sound. Training of our
employees, which has always
been an important objective,
has received renewed
emphasis. It is the key to
fulfilling the treaty require-
ment to increase the number
of Panamanians at all levels

and in all areas of the
Panama has cooperated
with us and assisted fully in
carrying out the treaty's
provisions. The channels of
communication and coordina-
tion by which the new
partnership arrangements are
put into practice have been
established. The binational
Board of Directors has
assumed its responsibilities in
a spirit of cooperation and
practicality, and the other
binational bodies created to
deal with day-to-day problems
pertaining to the canal and
our work force are functioning
The Panama Canal
Commission is off to a good
start in the new treaty era.
Future prospects are bright.


OCTOBER 1, 1980

A 11 during the treaty
negotiations and even after
the signing of the Panama
Canal treaties of 1977, which
went into effect just a year
ago, there were many who
predicted that the very
concept of a partnership
between Panama and the
United States would not
work. They cited cultural,
political, economic differences
and memories of many past
incidents between the two
countries as their reasons.
After a year of operation
under the new pattern, it is
clear that those predictions
were unfounded. The Canal is
operating effectively and effi-
ciently and we have evolved

Above left: An Alaska oil tanker
transits south as Administrator
D. P. McAuliffe, left and
Deputy Administrator Fernando
Manfredo discuss operations
at Miraflores Locks. At right:
The Panamanian flag flies
in the place of honor in front of
the Administration Building
reflecting the new relationship
between Panama and the
United States.

during that period of time an
even stronger sense of
partnership, which is the most
crucial element of the
transition period for the next
20 years.
Nevertheless, we must
recognize that the risks were
there and it was only through
the good judgment, sense of
responsibility and maturity of
those involved that the
dangers were avoided. Credit
must go especially to the
officials concerned with
binational relations and to the
thousands of Panamanians
and U.S. workers, many of
whom have had to face a
number of sacrifices due to
the Treaty implementation.

i - , 'T i

We are living through a
particularly challenging time.
But the past year has proved
that the maritime nations of
the world can rely on the new
treaty-created agency
to operate the Panama Canal
in the same efficient manner
in the future as it has
operated for the past 66




Panama Canal Commission

Board of Directors Meets

By Fannie P. Hernandez

binational Board of Directors of
the Panama Canal Commission, the
United States agency that operates
the Panama Canal, met for the first
time on June 2 in the Administration
Building at Balboa Heights.
During the historic three-day
meeting the five U.S. and four
Panamanian board members, for the
first time, together assumed
responsibility for policy-making and
supervision of the affairs of the
Panama Canal Commission.
The U.S. members of the Board
are Assistant Secretary of the Army
Michael Blumenfeld and John A.
Bushnell of Connecticut; John Clark
of Louisiana; Clifford O'Hara of
Connecticut and William Sidell of
The Panamanian members are
Edwin Fabrega, Roberto Heurte-
matte, Ricardo A. Rodriguez and
Tombs Paredes.
Among the actions taken by the
Board at that first meeting were the
approval of regulations which
govern the functions and respon-
sibilities of the Board as specified in

the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977;
the election of Blumenfeld as
Chairman of the Board; and the
designation of Executive, Budget
and Finance, and Personnel
committees, and the Committee on
Long Range Canal Improvements.
Chairman of the Board
Blumenfeld was named Chairman of
the Executive Committee, whose
other members are Bushnell,
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State
for Inter-American Affairs; O'Hara,
Director of Port Commerce, New
York and New Jersey Port
Authority; Rodriguez, Panama's
Minister of Government and Justice;
and Paredes, Executive Director of
Panama's Treaty Affairs Office.
Members of the Executive
Committee, with the exception of
the Chairman, are elected each year
by the Board.
Fabrega, Director General of
Panama's Institute of Hydraulic
Resources and Electrification, was
named Chairman of the Budget and
Finance Committee. Members are J.
W. Clark, President of Clark
Maritime Associates, Inc. New

In safety garb, Assistant
Secretary of the Army for
Civil Works Michael
S Blumenfeld, Commission
l Administrator D. P.
McAuliffe, right, and
Locks Division Chief
Lawrence Barca, left, are
followed by Lt. Gen.
W. H. Nutting,
Lt. Gen. Welborn Dolvin,
a member of the
Consultative Committee,
during a tour of Canal

Orleans; O'Hara and Paredes.
These same four Directors
constitute the Committee on Long
Range Canal Improvements.
Clark was named Chairman of
the Personnel Committee and
members are Panama businessman
Heurtematte; Sidell, former General
President of the Carpenters and
Joiners Union; and Paredes.
The Board of Directors appointed
Michael Rhode Jr. as the Secretary
of the Panama Canal Commission,
the head of the Canal's Washington,
D.C. office.
President Carter appointed the
members of the Board of Directors
on April 11, following the Senate's
approval on April 2 of his choice of
candidates announced on January 7.
Assistant Secretary of the Army
for Civil Works since May 1977, and
former Deputy Undersecretary of
the Army, Blumenfeld served on the
board of directors of the former
Panama Canal Company and as
chairman of the Canal Zone Civilian
Personnel Policy Coordinating
Board. In his capacity as Assistant
Secretary of the Army for Civil
Works, he also oversees the water
resources development program for
the Army Corps of Engineers.
Bushnell, Deputy Assistant
Secretary of State for Inter-
American Affairs since January
1978, has been a Foreign Service
Officer since 1959 with experience
in several Latin American countries.
He also served as Deputy Assistant
Secretary of the Treasury for
Developing Nations, Finance.
Clark is president of Clark
Maritime Associates, a New Orleans
shipping firm, and a member of the
board of Commissioners of the Port
of New Orleans. He is a retired
captain of the U.S. Merchant
Marine and a 1940 graduate of the
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy.

OCTOBER 1, 1980

Clark was president and director of
the Delta Line from 1959 to 1979
and served as chairman of the
Committee of American Steamship
Lines. He also was president of the
New Orleans International Trade
Mart for five years and coordinated
the development of the New
Orleans international trade complex.
O'Hara has served as director of
Port Commerce for the Port
Authority of New York and New
Jersey since 1962, and as chief of
the Port Commerce Division from
1953 to 1962. He is president of the
American Association of Port
Authorities, past president of the
North Atlantic Ports Association,
president of the Containerization
Institute, and serves on the New
York Chamber of Commerce and
Industry's World Trade Committee,
and Harbor and Shipping
Sidell, who retired last year
as general president of the United
States Brotherhood of Carpenters
and Joiners of America, a position
he held since 1972, is a member of
the Executive Council of the AFL-
CIO and chairman of its Housing
and Urban Development Committee
and a member of the committees on
Civil Rights, Legislative and Political
Education. Sidell is also a member
of the Executive Council of the
Maritime Trades Department and
the Executive Council of the
Building and Construction Trades
Fabrega, an architect and former
Minister of Public Works, was a
member of Panama's negotiating
team regarding "Lands, Water and
Administration." He has served as
rector of the University of Panama
and was the principal member of the
firm De Diego and FAbrega, S.A.,
Consultants and Builders. He held
the position of Deputy Director

Board members from left, Tomds Paredes, Ricardo A. Rodriguez, Michael
Blumenfeld, John A. Bushnell; back row, Roberto Heurtematte, Edwin Fdbrega,
John Clark, Clifford O'Hara and William Sidell.

General of the Planning and
Administration Office of the
Presidencia and has served in a
number of other government posts.
Heurtematte served as am-
bassador to the United States and
was concurrently Panama's
ambassador-representative to the
OAS. He is a prominent
businessman with a long public
career and was a negotiator of the
1955 Rem6n-Eisenhower Treaty,
Controller-General of the Republic
and ex-officio board member of
Panama Government autonomous
institutions such as Social Security,
Economic Development Institute,
and the Highway and Waterworks
commissions. He served as United
Nations Commissioner for Technical
Assistance, as Associate Managing
Director of the U.N.'s Special Fund
for assistance to under-developed
countries, and as Associate
Administrator of the U.N.'s
Development Program. After retiring
in 1969, he returned to his business
activities and local affairs.
An attorney, Rodriguez is

currently serving as Panama's
Minister of Government and Justice.
A former member of the law firm of
De La Guardia, Arosemena and
Benedetti (1961-69), Rodriguez was
on two separate occasions a
member of the Legislative
Commission. He has served as
Presidential advisor, and legal
advisor to the University of Panama
and to the former Panama Canal
Authority. Rodriguez was also
Minister of Government and Justice
from 1974 to 1976.
Paredes, an engineer, was
appointed in February as Executive
Director of Panama's Treaty Affairs
in the Ministry of the Presidencia.
He was the director of the former
Panama Canal Authority and served
also as its deputy director and as
director of Planning and Develop-
ment. Paredes was previously
finance manager of Corporaci6n
Financiera Nacional (COFINA), and
taught engineering at the University
of Panama. He also has served on
the board of directors of several
business firms in Panama.


Shown above is the organization chart of the Panama Conal Commission, the U.S. Government agency, which operates the Canal.
The Commission has a binational supervisory board of nine members. The chief executive officer, the Administrator, is a U.S. citizen;
the Deputy Administrator is a Panamanian citizen. Beginning in 1990, the positions will be reversed with a Panamanian serving as
the Administrator and a U.S. citizen as the Deputy. The Commission has about 8,000 employees, the majority, Panamanian.
The Commission replaced the former Panama Canal Company on October 1, 1979; on that date also the Canal Zone and its
Government were disestablished.

Heavy traffic in Miraflores and Pedro Miguel locks shows that the Canal is "a highway of water"in this scene taken with a telephoto lens
from Ancon Hill. During the first six months of FY80, 7,192 vessels transited the Canal.

OCTOBER 1, 1980

Happenings at the Canal

its gates to many different kinds
of watercraft during the course of a
year-from sailboats to supertankers
-but 1980 was something special.
This year, two "princesses" and a
"beetle" made their way to the locks,
creating a stir of excitement for Canal
The Princess Line's Island Princess,
a regular Canal customer and now the
setting for the popular U.S. television
series "Love Boat," was filmed on
location at Miraflores Locks earlier
this year. The weekly TV show con-
cerns the lives and loves of passengers
aboard the cruise ship and features a
new cast of stars each week, in addi-
tion to the regulars who play the
captain and crew. Aboard the "Love
Boat" on this trip through the locks
were Debbie Reynolds, Peter Graves
and Ted Knight. Camera crews set up
their equipment at the side of the lock
wall at Miraflores to film the vessel
in transit.
Eight months out of the year the
Island Princess cruises the Caribbean,
carrying 670 passengers on a tour that
includes Acapulco, Aruba and San
Juan, Puerto Rico.
Another princess that cruises the
Caribbean took her maiden voyage
through the Canal this year. The
Cunard Princess, little sister to the
Queen Elizabeth 2, was on an odyssey
that started out in San Juan and cul-
minated with a first-time journey
northward to Alaska. Like the QE2,
the Cunard Princess is a floating
city, complete with elegant dining
facilities, a beauty shop, hospital and
even a night club, where passengers
can disco the night away.


It was "lights,
camera, action"
at Miroflores Locks
for the filming of
the "Love Boat,"
at left, and the
"love bug" Herbie,
at right; and below,
a star of the
Cunard fleet, the
"Cunard Princess,"
makes her Canal

I ** *** a

.? .j

The sleek, white vessel, about one-
third the size of the QE2, eased its
75-foot beam through the locks
effortlessly as passengers filled the
decks to get a look at one of the
man-made wonders of the world.
And speaking of man-made
wonders, the little Volkswagen beetle
"Herbie" motored through the miter
gates at Miraflores for a scene from
Walt Disney's latest movie about the
peripatetic little car that thinks and
acts on its own. This particular Herbie
(there have been several hundred
used in making the popular, G-rated
films) was an aquatic version con-
sisting of a VW body mounted on a
styrofoam float equipped with a small
motor and two propellers. Personnel

and equipment of the Locks, Dredg-
ing and Transit Operations divisions
and the Panama Canal Information
Office assisted the Disney Produc-
tions crew with the project, which
involved lowering Herbie into the
lower west chamber by crane during
a lull in ship traffic. Out of camera view
in the back of the car was Herbie's
keeper, special effects man Hans
Metz, who controlled the VW's move-
ments while sitting waist deep in the
half-submerged vehicle.
"Herbie Goes Bananas" was re-
leased in the United States during the
summer and featured some Isthmian
residents in its cast, including a couple
of Panama Canal control house

The "Other Side":

the way it is

Bk. ~,ujan L Slablr

"the other side"-that is, around
the Atlantic end of the Panama
Canal-are reputed to suffer from
something called the Atlantic side
syndrome, brought on by the isolation
of living there.
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: rr,: i .rIr I : : .-.ll,, : .- j
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N.:. rl-.. ,Al,$ih.r: :ld- :,,.d'.d':'.r: ..-;.'1

6It is a measure of
Gold Coast unique-
ness to look out
across the lake and
see solid and striped
sails of yellow,
orange, blue,
green and purple
frolicking around
the ships at the
entrance to Gatun

a health problem; but perhaps one
could call it a problem of "perception."
For its primary symptom is the
perception among residents there that
planning and provisioning are done by
Pacific siders with the Pacific side in
mind and with Atlantic side needs and
concerns attended to only as an
afterthought. Although they recog-
nize that the Atlantic side commu-
nities taken together have a tiny
population compared to the Pacific
side, they interpret the by-the-book
dollars and cents approach to the
provision of health care, schools and
comriissary services as lacking the
empathy extended to the Pacific side.
It is this perception shared by
Atlantic siders that tends to dis-
tinguish them from their cousins on
the Pacific side in relationship to how
they view day-to-day occurrences in
the community or on the job.
To deal with this problem, to keep
the avenues of communication open,
the Canal organization has tradi-
tionally assigned a top official to act as
unofficial "mayor" of the Atlantic side
community to try to add the needed
personal touch. The Administrator's
representatives push for greater rec-
ognition of Atlantic side concerns, but
many of the drawbacks of Atlantic
side life are not amenable to change.
The Canal administration can't do
anything about the overabundant
rainfall that makes getting around on
the Atlantic side a matter of keeping
one eye on the clouds, and it would
take an Act of Congress to get a
bridge built to span Gatun Locks so
that we wouldn't have to sit in our cars
and wait for the lock gate bridge to
clear when we are on our way to
Shimmy Beach or Fort San Lorenzo.
But this brings us to another aspect
of the Atlantic side syndrome, the
positive aspect that Pacific siders are
prone to overlook. In having to
accept, or at least tolerate, what
cannot be changed, whether it's too
much rain or too little attention from
Pacific side planners, Atlantic siders
are bound together in a close-knit,
caring community, sharing each
other's concerns and meeting each
other's needs.
Oddly, when comparing the two
sides of the Isthmus, the fundamental
similarities are very striking. Housing
on both sides is comparable. Both
have their share of vintage housing
interspersed with newer, more mo-

dern dwellings. Playgrounds abound
in all areas and most communities
have ready access to swimming pools.
Streets are wide and well lit at night,
whether you're in Gatun or Los Rios.
So where do the differences lie?
On the Atlantic side, one is struck
immediately by the wide open spaces,
an abundance of and proximity to
both fresh and salt water, miles
between communities, small popula-
tion and minimal traffic. Although
comprised of several civilian town-
sites Gatun, Mindi, Margarita,
France Field and Coco Solo-and
various military areas, the total
population size on the Atlantic side is
so limited that the entire area seems
rather to be one amiable, sprawling
small town. It is this small-town
atmosphere, coupled with distance
from officialdom, limited access to city
life and an easy closeness to the
outdoors, which makes the Atlantic
side unique.

6. . miles and miles of
natural and easily

accessible beaches,
untamed jungles,
gorgeous reefs and
unparalleled beauty.9

All Commission employees know
that collectively they have an un-
disputed task-that of putting ships
through the Panama Canal. Atlantic
siders are particularly focused on this
responsibility because by occupation
most have a direct association with
locks, ships, tugs, launches and
channels. The grass roots loyalty they
feel to the mission of the Canal is
echoed in their attitudes toward each
other as well.
As a result, it is more myth than fact
to say that Atlantic siders long for life
on the more largely populated Pacific
side. Bob Lessiack, retired assistant
financial vice president of the erst-
while Panama Canal Company, tells a
story of his then 7-year-old grand-
daughter, who, with him, engaged in a
conversation one day with former
Governor H. R. Parfitt. The Governor
asked Leslie, an Atlantic sider, whether
she would like to live on the Pacific
side where her grandparents lived.

Leslie displayed her amazement at the
suggestion and replied, rather cryp-
tically, that she and her mother did not
want to move across the Isthmus.
When asked why not, she said simply,
"Our side is much more peaceful ..."
Adult impressions of the Atlantic
side do not vary greatly from the
youthful observations of the 7-year-
old. Slow, easy, peaceful, friendly, and
unharried are apt descriptions of life
on the other side. There is but one
traffic light on the Atlantic side,
located at the transisthmian entrance
to all points. One expects and finds
uncrowded commissaries, small
schools, and people who almost all
know each other's first names. Nearly
always, a relaxed, small-town at-
mosphere prevails.
This atmosphere isn't generated; it
plainly just exists, and distance from
Panama Canal Commission hierarchy
is, at least, a partial contribution,. It is
the nature of life around the Panama
Canal that a surface distance of only
50 miles, or an air distance of only 36
miles, can so isolate one end of the
Canal from the other. Gatun boasts
the most dramatic set of locks, and, at
one time, the Atlantic side was
intended to be the Canal head-
quarters, yet somehow along the way,
the hierarchy established itself on the
Pacific side. In fact, only one division,
the Industrial Division, has its head-
quarters on the Atlantic side.
Headquarters for all other facets of
Commission living are far removed
from the everyday life of Atlantic
siders; and although this aspect of
Atlantic area living contributes to the
syndrome, it also contributes to a
surprising esprit de corps. The
absence of administration breeds an
atmosphere of unstrained indepen-
dence and a deep dedication to the
The very distance from the central
hubbub, however, also dictates a need
for Atlantic siders to travel frequently
between the two sides of the Isthmus.
Consequently, it is a private joke
among Atlantic siders that the reach
from Cristobal to Balboa is shorter
than that from Balboa to Cristobal.
Residents of the Atlantic side must
more frequently travel far from home
to attend meetings on the Pacific side
than is true in reverse. It is a way of life
and, oddly, contributes still further to
the unity that exists.
If the absence of main offices gives

16 OCTOBER 1, 1980


6A spirit hovers that
is understood, appreci-
ated and treasured by
native Atlantic siders. 9

- @

rise to a closeness among employees
on the Atlantic side, the mere size of
the population magnifies it. Num-
bering only about 1,356 employees as
compared to an approximate 7,230
employees on the Pacific side, Atlantic
siders as a group are closely knit. Any
Atlantic area celebration can easily
accommodate a maximum crowd in a
setting about half the size of a football
field. One is reminded in particular of
the annual Holy Family Catholic
Church Carnival. Here Atlantic siders
join hands to put on and patronize a
charity event. Always the same faces
abound on either side of the counter,
and always patrons and workers alike
are eager that the charity be a
success. It is ever thus, year after year,
and no one expects it to ever be any
Something else Atlantic siders
never expect to be different is their
Christmas Eve celebration, replete
with a truck-drawn sleigh carrying
Santa, his elf, his helpers and piles of
gifts. The Cristobal High School stage
band and many truckloads of caroling
youngsters follow the sleigh, while a
police car leads the entourage from
townsite to townsite delivering gifts to
eager children.

Celebrations and tragedies, too,
bring together more than just friends.
A spirit hovers that is understood,
appreciated and treasured by native
Atlantic siders. They embrace and
support one another in a way
reminiscent of Canal construction
days and earlier, nearly forgotten
times in American life.
One of the most cherished aspects
of Atlantic side living is its schools.
Parents personally know teachers,
and teachers personally know the
students in their classes. Cristobal
High School usually graduates a class
of one hundred seniors or less. The
students are fiercely loyal to each
other, and the teachers look on their
graduates with pride. It is interesting
to note that on the Atlantic side there
is a combined Junior-Senior High
School comprised of students in
grades seven through twelve, with a
total of approximately 630 pupils. On
the Pacific side, on the other hand,
one finds Curundu Junior High
School (grades 7 through 9) with a
student load of 1,350 and Balboa High
School (grades 10 through 12) with
students numbering 1,300. With such
a striking difference in the total
enrollment picture, it is easy to see

OCTOBER 1, 1980

why Atlantic side schools have a
special aura.
Although there are more and larger
schools on the Pacific side than on the
Atlantic, their curriculums are essen-
tially equal. Cristobal Junior-Senior
High School, however, because of a
diminishing number of students, is
finding it increasingly difficult to offer
as many course selections as are
offered on the Pacific side. But quality
education remains, and, perhaps
because the teachers are concerned
about equal education on both sides of
the Isthmus, one finds a great deal of
teacher sharing in ideas and method-
ology. Students are students every-
where, and Atlantic side kids behave
like any other as they travel that
bumpy path of school, athletics,
romance and friendship that we call
adolescence. In a small community,
however, they are ever under the
watchful eye of their teachers and
their parents and their parents'
friends. Little goes unnoticed.
Not only is there a significantly
smaller Commission population on
the Atlantic side, but also poignantly
different are the Panamanian cities of
Panama and Colon. On the Pacific
side, Panama City has a tremendous

offering of recreational activities.
There are abundant theaters, in-
numerable restaurants, entertaining
shows, ample hotels, and frequent
cultural offerings. Colon on the
Atlantic side, conversely, has been
hampered for decades by an inability
to spread out and develop. Con-
sequently there is little in that city of an
entertainment or dining nature. Res-
taurants can be numbered on one
hand and there is but one inviting
theater. The Hotel Washington is
lovely, but has nothing of the allure of
the night spots in Panama City.
All this means that Atlantic siders
either have to do without the bright
lights and city people or they have to
travel further to enjoy them. Some-
times they travel, but as a rule they do
without, and instead provide their own
On the Atlantic side, everyone
listens for word-of-mouth notice that
there is going to be a fish fry at the
Tarpon Club, a play, talent show or
concert at the high school, steak
night, sailboat races, or a St. Patrick's
Day celebration at the Gatun Yacht
Club, a dance at the Elks Club, or a
kite-flying contest in Coco Solo. And
not only do they listen for the notice,

but the turnout is always good. Any
gathering draws a substantial crowd,
and conversations are picked up
where they left off the last time.
Atlantic siders often feel that they
have the best of both worlds. Whereas
they zealously enjoy their life styles,
they know always that the Pacific side
is there for an evening out, a shopping
spree or a change of pace. Pacific
siders seldom make a trip to the
Atlantic side for like purposes. But ah
. .what they are missing.
It's not by accident that the Atlantic
side is fondly called the "Gold Coast."
The fisherman, the sailor, the bota-
nist, the biologist, the birdwatcher, the
diver, the beachcomber, the water
skier, and the surfer, exist on the
Atlantic side in an abundance equalled
but few places in the world. A mere
half hour at most from any front door
there are Gatun Lake, Limon Bay, the
Chagres River, the Atlantic Ocean,
miles and miles of natural and easily
accessible beaches, untamed jungles,
gorgeous reefs and unparalleled
No one lives on the Atlantic side for
long without becoming something of
an outdoor person. Where else in the
world could one fish for bass early in


(Moving slowly through
the waters of the Chagres,

the dense jungle of the

river banks on either

side, one feels a one-
ness with nature that
thrills the soul. 9

the morning, go sailing before lunch,
motor down the Chagres River in the
afternoon and have a cookout at Piia
Beach in the evening? Better still,
because of their nearness to nature,
Atlantic siders can do any of these
things in the time they have after work
in an afternoon.
Venture out to the Gatun Yacht
Club on any afternoon and you will
undoubtedly encounter some spirited
windsurfers, riders of what is essen-
tially a surfboard with a sail. Wind-
surfing, fast becoming one of the most
popular sailing sports in the world,
was introduced into Panama at the
Gatun Yacht Club. The first rig was
brought to the club by Gary Smith,
senior control house operator at
Gatun Locks. In less than a year a sort
of windsurfing club has grown, and
there are now about eleven boards
and fifteen proficient windsurfers. It is
a measure of Gold Coast uniqueness
to look out across the lake and see
solid and striped sails of yellow,
orange, blue, green and purple
frolicking around the ships at the
entrance to Gatun Locks. Not too
long ago, a visitor went so far as to
windsurf from the Gatun Yacht Club
to Pedro Miguel.
Dry season and heavy winds are
especially appreciated on the Atlantic
side. Laser sailboat races are held
every other Sunday at the Gatun
Yacht Club. There is a fleet of about
fifteen boats, crewed by people of all
ages, sizes and both sexes. They
compete in rigorous but enjoyable
races out across the channel to Navy
Island and back. At the club a
youngster can learn to sail under the
tutelage of able adults, and club
members act as lifeguards for each
other and for their young people.

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Nowhere on the Ailant,,: ad.- d'o i-
two great beauties of jungle and water
come together more exquisitely than
on the Chagres River. Motorboating
down the river during the daylight or
moonlight hours is a favorite pastime
of many Atlantic siders. Moving slowly
through the waters of the Chagres the
dense jungle of the river banks on
either side, one feels a oneness with
nature that thrills the soul. And yet
getting to the Chagres River is no
more complicated or time-consuming
than getting to a little league baseball
And that's how it is on the Atlantic
side-in the absence of bright lights
and city people, Atlantic siders
provide their own entertainment;
because of their virtual isolation from
the powers-that-be, they rely greatly
on their own ingenuity; due in large
part to their small population size,
Atlantic siders draw together in a spirit
of loyalty and supportiveness; and,
with their townsites nestled so deli-
ciously close to the ocean, the lake,
the river and the jungle, they embrace
the tropical outdoors.

'": I' '~' 11 i 7 ', ,

rilj Ir I



by Norman A. Werner

Sketches by
John B. Morton

Street and Bottle Alley in the
Panama Canal terminal city of
Colon stands an aged two-story
building of European design. The
upper story houses living quarters
open to balconies cluttered with
laundry drying in the warm
Caribbean breeze. The ground level
is occupied by a commercial
enterprise advertising Asian-made
electronic equipment. Passersby
seem unaware that the building was
for fifty years the Gold Coast de
facto civic center and gathering spot
for the famous and powerful who
had occasion to visit the Isthmus of
Panama. From 1924 to 1974 the
antiquated building housed the
world renowned Bilgray's Tropic Bar
and Restaurant, an oasis alongside a
major ocean trade route.
Bilgray's Tropic Bar was a saloon
in the finest tradition of the term.
Like similar establishments located
where shipping lanes constrict, such
as the Cabo de Hornos Hotel on
the Magellan Straits, it welcomed
travelers and local patrons alike, as
there were few other reputable
places in town.
SThe Tropic Bar shunned juke
boxes, bright lights, and flashy ladies
at a time when across the Isthmus
in Panama City, Kelly's Ritz, the
most well-known cabaret during
Panama's boisterous era, packed
them in to hear "a thousand pounds
of harmony," four pleasingly plump
girls who could really sing.
Bilgray's Tropic featured a fifteen-
foot long, stand-up bar of heavy
dark mahogany, paralleled by a
brass foot rail, where a thirsty
customer could perch and be sure
of getting his money's worth. Below
slowly revolving ceiling fans were
circular mahogany tables twenty-six,
inches in diameter standing on the
tile floor. Bartenders and waiters in
white shirts, black ties, and black
trousers attended the customers at
the tables, scurrying in with food
from the adjacent restaurant. The
restaurant was operated by a
Chinese concessionaire who had
remained in Panama after his people
had finished their contribution to the
creation of the Panama Canal.
The walls of Bilgray's Tropic were
hung with autographed photos of
the great and near great who had

OCTOBER 1, 1980

passed through the doorless
entrance. Among them were stars of
the silver screen, such as Dick
Powell, Joan Blondell, and the
swashbuckling Errol Flynn. There
were also photos of two of the
Pentagon's greatest stars: Admiral
"Bull" Halsey and General Dwight
Eisenhower. Ike cashed his
paycheck at Bilgray's when he was a
junior officer stationed at a nearby
base. Later he visited the Tropic as
a full general on an official tour of
the Isthmus.
Most first-time customers to
Bilgray's, the ocean-weary seamen,
yachtsmen, or passengers from
ocean liners in port, crowded in to
have a tall, cool drink at a fair price.
Local customers, who ranged from
Latin American politicians and U.S.
servicemen and businessmen to
beachcombers, were drawn to the
Tropic to pass the time of day with
its proprietor, saloonkeeper extra-
ordinarie Max Bilgray.
Bilgray was an expatriate in
Panama by way of Chicago and
California. He was a remarkable
human being. Beloved by the people
of Colon for his generous

philanthropic contributions, he was
considered a living legend by his
many friends. He could frequently
be found sitting at his corner table,
always attired in white clothes and
white shoes, entertaining Latin
American heads of state, past,
present or exiled (Argentina's Juan
Per6n cooled his heels at the nearby
Washington Hotel during the 50's)
or Panama Canal Company
employees whom he termed
collectively "canal diggers." Often
this klatch would attract so many
friends that a second or third table
had to be brought to his corner.
Max Bilgray's name became
synonymous with the port of Colon.
Renowned as a good samaritan, he
welcomed all to the Tropic Bar.
During the war years his tenet was
to give the serviceman an even

break, while other cantinas were
bent on detaching the GI from his
modest paycheck as quickly as
possible. Servicemen, in turn, made
a point of telling their comrades
throughout the world to patronize
Bilgray's when in Panama. And
many a Canal worker stranded in
the U.S. could depend on Max
Bilgray to cable funds for the return
passage to the Isthmus.
One of his favorite charities was
the Nursing Sisters of Mercy, a
semi-cloistered order in Colon.
When one of the sisters would come
to the Tropic seeking a charitable
donation, tenderhearted but tough-
talking Bilgray would cajole his
cronies to ante up, with a stream of
profanity that would leave the sister
His friends like to recall Bilgray's

6 Many a Canal worker stranded in
the U.S. could depend on Max Bilgray to
cable funds for the return passage.9

pungent aphorisms. Once, when he
spied a bejeweled patron trying
vainly to fit an ashtray from his bar
into her purse, he quipped,
"Alfonso, get the lady a proper bag
for her ashtray." When an old friend
neglected his bar bill for several
months he received a lyrical note
from Bilgray, "Hi Mo, how about
some dough." A Latin American
chief of state, experiencing
administrative difficulties, asked
Bilgray for his opinion. The retort
was brief and to the point: squinting
one eye, Bilgray said, "Kid, you're
trying to play in the major leagues
with sandlot ball players.
During the construction of the
Panama Canal, Colon was a
frontier-style boom town. To North
Americans, Panama was the
western hemisphere equivalent of
East of Suez to the British-a place
where one could disregard the
regulations and restrictions of
conventional society. One incognito
visitor to Bilgray's during the 30's
who let her hair down was well.
known evangelist and temperance
leader Aimee Semple McPherson.
Bilgray's impish imagination was up
to the occasion. To mark the event
he concocted a special drink in her
honor and dubbed it the "Hallelujah

Babylonian grope brandy
Ice from the crest of Mount Sinai
Lemon from the desert of sin
Gomorrho and Sodom vermouth
Rum aged in Noah's ark
Add Coin's syrup from the Garden
of Eden
You then give it the Hebrew shake,
say "Halleluoah" after drinking

Almee's husband at the time,
David Hutton, sued Max Bilgray for
slightly less than a million dollars.
The suit was subsequently dropped
after generating sufficient publicity.
Those were the days when a
horse-drawn buggy on the streets of
Colon was more common than an
automobile. Carriages, driven by
blacks of West Indian origin known
as "cocheros," would regularly
discharge their fares at the Tropic.
One evening as enormous sheets of
tropical rain were slanting down, a
buggy pulled up to the saloon with
the laughing "cochero" sitting like a

6 Songbird and Alfonso had to wrap the
horse's hooves with burlap.9

potentate in the back. Driving the or hair cut at the outdoor enterprise
rig through the deep puddles was set up against one wall of the
famous, bushy-browed corfiic building. Occasionally, a free-for-all
Groucho Marx, would break out among the hard
During the years of World War II drinking servicemen. After the
Colon had the dubious distinction of military police had returned the
being one of the most boisterous, revelers to their ships, Bilgray,
freewheeling, wide-open seaports in surveying the damage and gesturing
the world Ships of war, troop and toward the cash register, would say,
supply ships had to wait at anchor "I don't mind as long as that
for their turn to traverse the 'typewriter' keeps clicking." The
elevated belt of water called the "big Tropic "typewriter" made a wealthy
ditch." The Tropic, which was open man out of Max Bilgray.
twenty-four hours a day, enjoyed a Longtime Tropic bartender
heyday of activity. Soldiers and Alfonso once recalled a night when
sailors emptied glass after glass in the bar was dead as a tomb. A jovial
the saloon or had their shoes shined black man whose face seemed

poised to explode into hearty
laughter at the least provocation,
Alfonso was checking his receipts
when he heard some customers
come clopping in from Bottle Alley
behind him. He turned and was
greeted by Canal employee


"Songbird" Palmer, who said, "Let's
have a couple of drinks." Songbird
had brought his horse into the bar.
Startled, Alfonso threw up his
hands, spooking the horse, whose
legs flew out from under him on the
slick tile floor. Songbird and Alfonso
had to wrap the horse's hooves with
burlap so that the animal could
regain his footing.
Following the war years Colon's
growth was tied to standard Canal
commerce. Shipping agents kept
funds in the Tropic's safe so ships
could be serviced twenty-four hours
a day. Atlantic-side residents
continued to consider Bilgray's the
community center, even holding
wedding receptions in the saloon.
Since the Tropic was located
midway between the U.S. residential
district of New Cristobal and the
commissary, which stood across
from the present Colon train
station, it was a favorite place for
Canal employees to stop off after a
shopping trip.
In Colon, the Free Zone was
created and expanded rapidly.
Saloonkeeper Max Bilgray, who was
recognized as an astute business-
man, was appointed chairman of the
Board of Directors of the Free
Zone, where he served until he was
incapacitated by failing health.
In 1955 the governments of the
United States and Panama signed
the Remon-Eisenhower treaty. One
proviso of the treaty turned over
New Cristobal, including the huge
commissary, to the Republic of
Panama. The document also
eliminated the restrictions on the

sale of alcoholic beverages in the
Canal Zone, which had allowed only
3.2 percent beer. This change made
fraternal and military clubs in the
Canal Zone popular with the U.S.
community, and Bilgray's business
declined accordingly.
When Max Bilgray suffered a
stroke he decided it was time to
close out his ownership of the
renowned old Tropic Bar and
Restaurant. He sold out to Archie
Leon, a restaurant concessionaire,
and cancelled over $40,000 in
yellowed IOU's left by customers
during his more than thirty years of
Cherished as one of Colon's
leading and most illustrious citizens,
many honors were conferred upon
the barkeeper from Chicago.
President Ricardo (Dickie) Arias
awarded Max Bilgray Panama's
highest decoration for civic
contribution, the Order of Vasco
Nifiez de Balboa-doubtless a
unique honor for a saloonkeeper.
The Tropic continued to operate
under several different managers
until 1974, and a parched seaman
could still slack his thirst or order
an incomparable shrimp curry and
rice while listening to a selection on
the recently installed juke box. But
when Max Bilgray left the Tropic,
the spirit went out of the place.
Many Atlantic side residents of
Panama, however, still remember
Colon's famous saloon and grow
nostalgic at the mention of Bilgray's
name. One Colon old-timer said,
"Sure, I remember Bilgray's. It was
the very best."

Teminal At Charco
Azul on Panama's
Pacific Coast Provides

A New Link in the Oil Line

B. \illi.- K. Friar

Ir n:rt Ir d l,: I
.Ir.*,"' P*,,,, p,.,
I.':l F, T ,,iO II

)n W.

mile journey from the Arctic
snows of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil
comes ashore briefly among the
tropical palms of Panama before
resuming its voyage through the
Panama Canal to the East Coast and
Gulf ports of the United States.
The oil, transported in super-
tankers down the west coast of the
United States from the pipeline
terminal at Valdez, is pumped ashore
at Charco Azul near Puerto Armuelles
where a new terminal facility has been

built. The new terminal, Petroterminal
de Panama, which cost $60 million, is a
cooperative venture of Northville In-
dustries Corp., and Corp. Financiera
Nacional, the economic development
agency of Panama. Completed in 15
months by a construction workforce
of 1,000 Panamanians, it opened April
11, 1979. Prior to that time, the oil was
handled by two British supertankers
anchored in Parita Bay to serve as
offshore terminals.
Petroterminal de Panama, S.A. is
located about 20 hours by ship from

Supertankers from
Alaska and smaller
vessels able to
transit the Panama
Canal anchor in the
tranquil waters af
Charco Azul to
discharge ar take an
oil at the transshipment
facility operated by
Petraterminal de
Panam6, while a lug
with special
equipment cleans up
a small ail spill.

the Canal. Storage facilities consist of
three tanks of 833,000 barrels capacity
each for handling oil and three smaller
tanks with a capacity of 120,000
barrels each for receiving and treating
ballast water. The ballast water is
processed through a series of sepa-
rators which remove the oil and then
discharge the water into the sea after
careful monitoring to make sure it
meets the pollution control regular.
tions of the petroleum industry. In the
past, ballast water had to be returned
to Valdez for processing.
There are berthing facilities de-
signed to handle very large crude
carriers and smaller vessels. Pier No. 1
can service supertankers of 270,000
DWT tons, Pier No. 2, vessels of
120,000 DWT tons, and Pier No. 3
ships of 60,000 DWT tons.
Floating equipment used in the
operation includes three very power-
ful tugs, three launches and an oil
The terminal has its own water
treatment and electrical generation
plants and an access road suitable for
use by buses and taxis. The latter
makes it possible for the crews to
come ashore and travel to nearby
towns for recreation or shopping while
the ships are discharging or taking on
Careful attention is given to the
prevention of oil spills and quick clean-
up is begun immediately with the

slightest spillage. The tugs have
special equipment for handling spills
and as a backup, assistance is
available from United Brands which
has facilities in the area and has
equipment that can be used for
spraying chemicals.
Jose Arosemena II, General Man-
ager of Petroterminal de Panama,
S.A., considers the on-shore opera-
tion a safer way to handle the oil and
points out that it also makes a greater

contribution to the economy f
Panama than the off-shore operatic i
since it provides more than 40 dire t
jobs and about 300 indirect or ancilla
ones. Of the workforce, all a
Panamanian except for three Ami
ican engineers and three British pilot
Since opening last year, the t(
minal has handled more than 5
The transportation of oil throu'
the Panama Canal involves two flee

30 OCTOBER 1, 19

U.S. flag ships. About 30 ships are
gaged in transit cycles of laden and
last voyages between Charco Azul
I the East and Gulf coasts ports of
United States, Puerto Rico and the
gin Islands. Supertankers too large
,ransit the Canal bring the oil down
m Valdez to Charco Azul. There it
lumped into the storage tanks of
F roterminal de PanamB for transfer
t smaller tankers able to fit into the
I by 1,000 feet Panama Canal locks.


3FI~ ~~~
r I ~Y?~" r
'I r


:.L;JP .




The "Overseas New York," which
set a new Canal cargo record
April 28, 1978, when she transited
with 64,603 long tons of Alaska oil,
moves through Miraflores Locks
on a northbound voyage.

Because of the draft restrictions of
the Canal, tankers larger than 50,000
deadweight tons normally cannot
transit the waterway when fully loaded
and most vessels over 90,000 dead-
weight tons cannot transit even when
only partially loaded.
North Slope oil is the largest single
commodity moving through the Canal.
From August 31, 1977, when the
Washington Trader transported the
first North Slope oil through the
Canal, to May of this year, 2,023
Alaska oil tankers have transited
carrying 46.1 million long tons of oil
and paying $63.8 million in tolls.
The average toll paid by these
tankers for the first eight months of
FY 80 was $42,267 laden and $33,592
in ballast.

o r' -.. ""..... ...".................... ........ .. : ................
l iiii,,............. ............ :: .iiiiiiii"... .... ... .



6 One feels that here exists an easy companionship between human and machine. 9

The LCRF-where

Canal 'mules' get TLC

Transiting vessels depend on Commission towing locomotives
to guide them safely through the locks chambers. The towing
locomotives, in turn, depend on the Locomotive Component
Repair Facility to keep them running at peak efficiency.

Top left, o windless unit shot is lifted to the shop
mezzanine under the wotchful eyes oj foreman Joe
Carlisle, right, and David Costillo; top right, Costillo
hos o "close encounter" with a windless unit
component; obove, the crone boot "Atlos" transfers a
locomotive from one side of the locks to the other;
and right, working locomotives finish the task of
guiding the "Dock Express" through Pedro Miguel Locks.

?W ~

By Janet Len-Rios

rolls up and a flatcar trundles in
carrying a huge, gray hunk of
machine. As workmen cluster about,
an enormous crane whispers across
the room on ceiling-high rails to pause
above the flatcar. A large, shiny metal
hook slides down to deliver a harness
that will be fastened to the machine for
lifting. When all is ready the workmen
stand clear. At the press of a button
the crane lifts, giving a slight shudder
as it connects with its load and flexes
its mechanical muscles. White-gloved
hands and strong arms turn and
steady the machine as it is hoisted to
its assigned location and lowered into
position. The crane, once delivered of
its load, murmurs back across the
ceiling, the flatcar rattles out, and the
door slides shut.
The activity just described takes
place regularly in the Locomotive
Component Repair Facility (LCRF) at
Pedro Miguel. The LCRF overhauls,
reconditions and/or modifies various
component parts of the electric
locomotives or "mules" that run along
the rails on both sides of the locks
chambers to control the ships as they
pass through, and is one of the many
indispensable ingredients that go into
the operation of the Panama Canal.
Delays caused by malfunctioning lo-
comotives can seriously affect ship
traffic, so the work performed by the
LCRF is a vital part of the whole
maintenance program that is so
essential to the efficient functioning of
the waterway.
Six craftsmen, one leader and one
foreman are currently employed in the
facility. The crew also regularly
includes several apprentices.
The idea for the repair facility took
root in the early 1960's coincidental
with awarding of the contract for
construction of the new locomotives.
The building itself encloses a 6,000
square foot space which includes a
work area, office, storeroom, sanitary
facilities and a mezzanine for storage.
An outside covered area provides
additional storage and a disassembly
area as well as a location for steam-
cleaning parts.
The building contains a 10-ton
bridge crane, which runs on tracks the
length of the building and bridges it
from side to side. This crane is used
for lifting the heavy components,

some of which weigh over eight tons.
There are also seven two-ton cranes
with projecting arms that are used to
transfer lighter loads from place to
place within the shop. Railroad tracks
lead into the building to facilitate
transportation by rail of the locomo-
tive component parts.
Anyone anticipating a hot, noisy,
dirty, offensive place will be agreeably
surprised to find that it is none of
these. In addition to being air-
conditioned, the building has special
acoustical insulation to mute sounds
so that under normal conditions there
is no need for the workers to wear
hearing protection. And, although
there are oil spots staining the floor,
the facility is very clean considering its

6 Delays caused
by malfunctioning
can seriously
affect ship

The locks locomotives were made
in Japan with the manufacture and
assembly of the component parts
taking place in various Japanese
cities. Robert D. Donaldson, now
assistant chief of the Panama Canal
Commission's Engineering Division,
and his family spent a total of five years
living in Japan while he was the
resident inspector overseeing the
manufacture and assembly of the
locomotives. Fifty-seven of the new
locomotives were acquired by the
Panama Canal Company between
1959 and 1965 and eight more have
been received since that time. These
locomotives replaced the original ones
that had been in service since the
opening of the Canal in 1914. The new
locomotives, which are both faster
and more powerful than those they
replaced, have been a major factor in
making it possible to transit a greater
number of ships, as well as larger
ships, through the Canal.
The locomotives are designed so
that the large component parts are

"plug-in" units, that is, they are- self-
contained so that an entire unit can be
removed and brought in for repair.
This feature of the locomotives greatly
facilitates their repair since the work
can be more efficiently sent to one
specialized central shop rather than
sending the workers and the neces-
sary equipment to each of the locks.
Should anything go wrong with
either a traction unit (the part that
allows the locomotive to maneuver
along the rails or track) or a windlass
unit (the part that controls the cables
to the ships), of any of the sixty-five
locomotives presently deployed at the
three Panama Canal locks, the unit is
removed and brought by truck or rail
to the Pedro Miguel repair facility.
When a unit arrives at the shop, it is
drained of oil, steam-cleaned, and
inspected to find the cause of its
The massiveness of the machinery
is impressive. A windlass unit weighs
over eight tons and a traction unit over
six tons. When it comes into the
facility, the unit is lifted by crane onto a
stand where it remains during the
overhaul while the smaller parts are
removed and taken to other locations
in the shop for individual disassembly,
cleaning and repair. When the in-
dividual parts have been repaired or
replaced, the unit is reassembled,
shafts are realigned, and the unit is
painted. The process is not complete,
however, until the unit has been
bolted down to the test stand and
tested to assure that it will, indeed,
function properly in the field.
For testing the windlasses, the
cables that would be attached to the
ships as they pass through the locks
are anchored in place to a large
"double bitt" where the unit can be
subjected mechanically to the same
stresses endured under actual work-
ing conditions. While the shop has no
facility to subject the traction unit to
loading, the unit is connected to a
motor and run to insure that it is
operating properly. When a unit has
passed final testing it becomes a spare
and will be placed back into service
when it is needed as a replacement
unit in another locomotive. Records
are kept on each job to provide
information that may help in future
improvements, repairs or modifica-
The facility is equipped to repair or

OCTOBER 1, 1980

Left, Wilford Smith
discusses a modification
to the traction units
with Japanese engineer
Katsuro Fukumoto of
Mitsubishi Heavy
Industries, builders of
the locomotives. Below,
Elmer Anderson
operates the controls of
the bridge crane to lift
and move on
overhauled traction


rehabilitate about three traction units
and one and a half windlass units per
month. Some of the units have been in
the field for many years without major
repair, a fact that attests to the
reliability of their complicated design.
At the present time the facility is just
keeping up with work on a demand
basis. However, plans are under way
to place the locomotives on a regular
overhaul program which will mean
that at the scheduled time the traction
unit and the windlass units will be
removed from the locomotive for
reconditioning at the repair facility. At
the same time the frame, together with
the electrical and pneumatic systems
it contains, will be overhauled in the
field. In effect, each locomotive will be
completely rebuilt from the rails up. It
is expected that through this program
twelve locomotives will be rebuilt each
The traction units are currently
being modified to what is called "dry
sump" operation. In the original
design, the machine's oil was stored in
a reservoir below the gears with the
lubricant pumped up and fed down
over them. In the modified design,
while the oil is still fed down over the
gears for lubrication, it is immediately
pumped back up and stored above the
gears. The new system eliminates
most of the current leakage and will
cut down considerably on the $50,000
in man hours and materials consumed
per year to clean up the oil from the
locks walls, in addition to the cost of
the oil itself. The first dry sump was
installed in November 1978.
The average cost of overhauling a
traction unit is $30,000 and $40,000 for
a windlass unit, including parts and
labor. That may seem like a lot of
money, but the figure is under-
standable when you consider that the
last locomotives purchased cost
$588,000 each and a single replace-
ment gear can cost up to $2,500.
Both new and reconditioned re-
placement parts are used at the
facility. While a complete supply of
spare parts is maintained by the
Division of Storehouses at Balboa, a
large number are stocked at the
facility in what is known as the "back
room." On rare occasions it may be
necessary to have a part made locally.
Safety is a prime concern at the
repair facility, a place where, ac-
cording to foreman Joe Carlisle,
"everything is dangerous," and safety

meetings are held regularly. The
movement of heavy equipment is
routine in the shop, and everyone
watches out not only for himself, but
also for his co-workers. It's "heads up"
as a huge crane glides overhead
carrying a part that may weigh from a
couple of hundred to several thousand
pounds. A notice reads, "work safely,
you are a valuable person." With such
a positive attitude toward safety, it is
no wonder that the shop has never
had a disabling injury or that there has
not been a lost-time injury among the
craftsmen now employed.
For anyone who appreciates ma-
chines, the shop is a fascinating place
to visit with its clean, well-run
atmosphere and its storeroom stocked
with shelves and bins full of various

sized bolts and washers, warm
colored brass cylinders, gleaming
bearings in shiny races, and with fresh
new gaskets hanging on the wall. The
cranes are painted bright sunshine
yellow, and interesting-looking tools
are seen everywhere. One feels that
here exists an easy companionship
between human and machine. There
is an aura of awareness among the
craftsmen about the value and impor-
tance of what they do and their pride
in their work is obvious. A quotation
that Carlisle has placed above the
office door in both Spanish and
English typifies the attitude of the
facility's employees, it reads, "the
priceless ingredient of every product
is the honor and integrity of him who
makes it."

OCTOBER 1, 1980

Working in what is no longer
exclusively a man's sphere,
machinist apprentice Myrna del
Cid, at left, checks the hydraulic
system of a windlass unit;
above, Helio Alves and Josd
Gonzdlez take a look at
drawings depicting a windlass
unit's inner workings; while,
above right, machinist
apprentices Ethelbert Mapp,
Alvin Lim and Marcos Gutidrrez
listen attentively as Enrique
Cumberbatch explains the unit's
operation. At right, a traction
unit is checked by machinist
apprentice Jarge Moreno and
machinist leader Jerzy Bressel
during final testing before it is
put back into service.



./ I '* & '' I*
^-**.' -~ '^B

The Changing Scene

Commission police officers and members of the Panama National Guard
share responsibility for protecting the lives of citizens in Canal townsites.
The movie marquee at the Balboa Theater, the signs above the entrances
to the piers and the logo on the sides of railroad cors appear in Spanish,
an indication of new management. Panama Canal official vehicles sport
the name of the Canal entity, the Panama Canal Commission, on their doors.
The last Canal Zone stamps are pulverized. These and other scenes below
reflect some major changes that have taken place over the past year
following the disestablishment of the Canal Zone and are evidence of the
new relationship between Panama and the United States.


m E U : I8


L IkTr-t~

b -"


the world through eager eyes
and with a mind innocent enough to
believe what it sees but inquiring
enough to ask why. Nature teases
the child's curiosity with a world of
delightful colors and shapes. In the
tropical climes, there is no end to
the array of remarkable plants and
trees which invite closer observation
and admiration. An outing to look at
these wonders of nature can appro-
priately be called child's play.

Father and sons

explore the

gentle jungle of the

Canal area

By Jan 1 ri ei her

Ak ,',<

Ted Arias is no:i, ch~,r bui ,he
enjoys sharing his ':.. ..n. J ., e r ,:. .1.J
of tropical plants with his two sons
Trey, age 6 and Donovan, age 4 Ted
is a competent guide because his
Work leads him to spend more time in
the jungle and on the rivers than
behind a desk. As a hydrological tech
nician for the Meteorological and
Hydrographic Branch of the En-
gineering Division, Ted is out in the
field a great deal of the time, working
S on such projects as watershed con-
S servation, river gauging and rainfall
measurement. After a lifetime in
S. Panama, Ted can tell you the names
of tropical plants, which ones are
edible and how to prepare them.
A nice thing about knowledge is that
it can be shared, and Trey and
Donovan learn a lot on outings with
their father. Of course, the learning
Is just a happy consequence of having
a good time together.
Picking canned fruits and nuts off
shelves in a grocery store may be
convenient, but it is not nearly as
interesting or as much fun as going to
the source and taking the prize with
your own two hands. Growing up in
Panama, Trey and Donovan have
learned that almonds and pineapples
do not have tin can shells; and
cannonballs are not always made of
iron, but can also grow on trees. Like
most Isthmian children they know
that a cashew nut is attached to the
end of a reddish, pear-shaped fruit and
is safe to eat only after being roasted.
And they have observed that bananas
start as tiered rows of tiny flowers
inside a pinkish bud and that the plant
dies after it has fruited. While people
living in colder climates might find
mangos, papaya and breadfruit
strange and exotic, to Trey and
Donovan they are as familiar a sight
and a taste as apples or peaches.

,Fa.- w..' -) bunch of bananas con be a whole
,-.,,a-, ,r rF.. (Top row, from left) The breadfruit is
..:. :r...l once you know what to look for. A
s,m. Irc,r al curiosities such as the land crab
S ,F.. thand look. A closer examination of the
t.e:,.m: :,.r the cannonball tree can be a prickly
r,..-.ne ` w.cond row, from left) Donovan and Trey
r 1,,r [I.. 'ovelty of almonds fresh off the tree
To jL. -' avocado from a sea of green Is well
I ,rri h,- ,: .mb. A sprawling cashew tree provides a
com- ,rli,.f. perch as well as delicious cashew nuts
P,8ii :,,r, .. I A calabash in the hand Is worth two on
Sh.. I,.... ., ss you have a taller brother to help out

Homeward bound

Perhaps the best part of the day i4
the end, when Ted and the boys
return home to show off their
delicious finds and to enjoy the fruits
of their labors with Ginny, the woma-i
in their lives.

Below left:
works against
a t',.:A rlJr p .-V
Bu...h jr.p,. -i

BInlu.- ri9h-

~JP,-ul.'J u.,h,:h
rh, I*, ..'i ol.jf r
,. pr o i.jl.jf
jn Jill rnorn
u.,eli ipnl

Commission Divers

Canal's underwater work force

Hidden away
on the shores of Gatun Lake
on the Atlantic side of the
Isthmus is one of the lesser
known aspects of Canal
operations, the Industrial Di-
vision's Diving and Salvage
Depot. Numbering among its
responsibilities the under-
water inspection and repair of
all Panama Canal Commis-
sion floating equipment and
the underwater assessing of
damage done to and by
transiting vessels, the 33-man
unit is a vital part of the Canal

Above, a diver climbs from the water after completing his underwater work; below,
divers balance on a bobbing pontoon, one of several used to raise the sunken vessel
"Tairona" from the Cristobal Harbor entrance.

THE P4N,4rMl,4 C.4rj.4L RE'UIEV'.

While the repair of damaged
commercial vessels is normally done
by commercial enterprises, Com-
mission divers, may, under special
circumstances, be asked to assist.
They are also involved in the task of
controlling erosion under the locks
and in keeping the waterway clear of
sunken debris.
The job performed most often by
the divers is the routine support given
to other divisions in maintaining the
Canal's floating equipment. Addi-
tionally, the divers clean a lot of "sea
strainers," the screens over the water
cooling systems of ships' engines. The
job the divers like least, and which
fortunately occurs infrequently, is the
search for bodies after an accident.
The Industrial Division operates a
diving school to supply personnel for
the division's various underwater
projects. Though the diving course is
not regularly scheduled, the school is
called into session on the average of
once a year as it becomes necessary
to replenish the diving staff due to
attrition, promotion and retirement.
The school is under the direction of

Kenneth H. Willis, supervisor of
salvage and diving.
Candidates for the school are
selected from among craftsmen em-
ployed by the Industrial and Locks
divisions and are drawn from such
skills as machinist, welder, electrician
and pipefitter. The Locks Division and
the Industrial Division like to maintain
a minimum force of about ten active
divers each. Willis and Elbert T.
Chappel, assistant supervisor of sal-
vage and diving, are the only two
assigned full time to the diving unit.
The other divers,who must apply and
be accepted for training at the school,
work at their regularjobs until they are
needed for a diving assignment. Diving
is an "additional pay assignment," that
is, during the time that a person is
assigned to diving duty he receives a
higher rate of pay.
Students at the diving school learn
basic salvage theory, diving physics,
underwater physiology, first aid and
cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
They also learn how to prevent,
recognize and treat air or gas
embolism and decompression sick-
ness. Above all, they learn to respect
their limitations as land-dwelling, air-
breathing mammals.
The diving facility is housed in a
wooden structure most of which is a
big open storage area for equipment
and supplies. Large tables hold
seemingly miles of hoses laid out in
neat array, while on shelves in a small
room toward the back of the building
stand a variety of masks and helmets
in orderly file. The room is heated to
keep it dry and to prevent the growth
of mold and mildew. All equipment is
kept in top condition at all times so
that when heading out on a job divers
need only grab what they need and go
to work, having no worry as to
whether or not equipment will func-
tion properly.
The school's office and classroom
are located to one side of the building,
where nameplates salvaged from
sunken ships decorate the outside
The Industrial Division currently
has seventeen active divers, including
the two diver supervisors; ten are
Panamanian, seven are U.S. citizens.
There are also sixteen diver tenders,
those who help dress the divers, run
the compressors and generally handle
the above-water equipment. Diver

Far left, a diver tender waits and
watches topside while a diver performs
an underwater inspection on the "Lloyd
Liuerpool"; above left, a diver gets an
assist as he suits up far a dive; bottom,
the red and white flag signifying
"use extreme caution, divers in the
water" flies from the diving barge as
divers prepare to descend

tenders are recruited from the ranks
of the craftsman helpers.
The diving course consists of six,
40-hour weeks and begins with a
rigorous physical examination which
includes an oxygen tolerance test.
During this test students are seated in
the recompression chamber and are
"taken down" to a depth of sixty feet
where they breathe 100 percent pure
oxygen for thirty minutes. "Taking
down" means that the air pressure
within the chamber is altered to
simulate the pressure encountered
when diving to a particular depth.
Ninety-nine percent of the candidates
pass the test, but the one percent who
cannot would encounter serious
trouble as divers and are not per-
mitted to enter the program.
While it sometimes happens that an
applicant is an ex-Navy diver, for
example, and after the physical
examination needs only to take a
qualifying dive to become a member of
the team, most candidates are novices
and start the training from the very
beginning. Divers, are trained to use
all types of diving equipment from
deep sea to light gear. Most Com-
mission diving is done with air supplied
by surface air compressors located on
Actual diving begins in a special 10-
foot deep, 10-foot in diameter tank
which is equipped to allow com-
munication between student and
instructor and also observation through
glass portholes. It is in this tank that
the divers, already skilled craftsmen,
learn to use the tools of their trade
underwater. After becoming pro-
ficient in the tank, student divers are
graduated to practice in Gatun Lake,
where training takes place at depths
between 10 and 65 feet. Actual diving
depths range from very shallow to
about 160 feet, while the average is
around 40 feet.


OCTOBER 1, 198'

At left, divers examine the barnacle-
S--. encrusted "Tairona" after it is raised
from the sea; left below, the Diving and
Salvage Depot on the shores of Gatun
Lake; below, the recompression

One of the reasons why this
particular site on Gatun Lake was
selected for the diving school is the
availability of a sunken ship, the "M. V.
Brion," for making practice dives. The
ship sank in January of 1934 about
thirty feet off shore. Due to the slope
of the bank, the ship, which is lying on
its port side, has its bow in 12 feet of
water and its stern in 65 feet. This
gives students the opportunity to test
their skills in an authentic situation
and to become aware of the problems
they will face.
It would be difficult to overestimate
the importance of the practical
training the divers receive. Since
diving is, in and of itself, a dangerous
operation, adding a variety of hand
and power tools can only increase the
danger. Although most of the tools are
pneumatic, both electric arc and flame
welding equipment are used under-
water by the divers.
Besides using tools with which they
are already familiar, students must
also learn to use the various types' of

^ Qb / V

OCTOBER 1, 1980


6 Months FY 1980

B elgian ..............................
British .............................
C hilean ..............................
Colom bian ...........................
C ypriot ..............................
Chinese, Nationalist ...................
D anish ..............................
Ecuadorian ...........................
French ..............................
Greek ...........................
German, W est ........................
Honduran ...........................
Italian ...............................
Japanese ...........................
Liberian .................. ..... ....
N etherlands ..........................
Norwegian ................... .......
Panamanian ................... .......
Peruvian .............................
Philippine ............................
Singaporean................... ......
South Korean ........................
Spanish ..............................
Swedish .............................
United States .........................
U.S.S.R ..............................
Yugoslavian ..........................
All other .............................
Total ..........................

No of


6 Months FY 1979
No of Tons
Tronslts Corgo
48 963,208
513 5,638,581
84 839,428
85 588,867
22 39,883
60 665,140
162 2,983,865
133 1,285,861
50 472,153
658 10,817,253
218 1,720,694
51 81,063
104 692,154
505 4,686,440
962 17,588,995
100 552,427
215 3,508,931
529 4,561,344
104 982,689
36 506,157
96 1,371,854
77 1,020,390
57 172,455
97 822,423
865 13,400,876
236 1,104,734
50 547,959
370 1,989,618
6,487 79,605,442


Trode route
East Coast United States-Asia ............................
East Coast United States-West Coast South America ...........
Europe-West Coast South America ..........................
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America..........
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada ....................
West Indies-West Coast South America ......................
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania....................
United States Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) .........
South America Intercoastal ...................................
East Coast Canada-Asia ................... .................
Europe-Oceania .........................................
All other ...... ...............................
Total .............. .................... .............




October................................. .
Novem ber ................................
December ...............................
January ..................................
February ................................
March ...................................
T otal ............... .............

FY1980 FY1979
1,122 1,115
1,036 1,089
1,079 1,087
1,120 1,072
1,048 949
1,164 1,175
6,569 6,487

Tolls (In thousands
of dollars)
FY 1980 FY 1979
$23,813 $18,279
22,007 17,611
23,266 18,232
23,719 16,849
22,613 15,162
24,809 19,443
$140,227 $105,576

Before deduction of any operating expenses
Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff

specialized salvage equipment. Ac-
cording to Willis, one of the tools that
he has the most trouble getting
beginners to respect is the underwater
jetting or trenching device. This
consists of a 21/2-inch fire hose with a
brass nozzle through which water,
under 125 pounds of pressure per
square inch, is passed. The jetting
device is used, for example, to wash
out a trench to pass a cable or chain
under a sunken vessel or to clear out
eroded material that has settled in the
locks chambers. Novice divers find it
difficult to comprehend, until they
have experienced it, just how awk-
ward it is to handle a hose under
pressure, especially considering their
own underwater weightlessness. Willis
knows that he must be ready to turn
off the water pressure quickly when
divers begin to be tossed about.
While Locks Division employees
trained as divers at the school do any
underwater work required on locks
maintenance and overhauls, the In-
dustrial Division is involved with
erosion protection of the locks. The
first phase of any job is to find out what
the problem is and to report the
findings. Then it is up to the
Engineering Division to design
methods of control. The divers are
called in again when actual construc-
tion begins and will very likely do the
job of setting and building the forms, of
guiding the hoses for pouring con-
crete, and of inspecting of the work as
it progresses. Any transit damage to
the locks is usually "topside," above
the water level, and can be handled by
the Maintenance Division.
One of the larger and more
interesting jobs performed by Indus-
trial Division divers was putting a 40 x
30 foot patch on the "M.V. Tarpon
Sealane." The vessel had torn a hole
in its side when it hit another ship while
leaving Cristobal harbor. Divers went
down and took the measurements of
the hole to use in making a template
that would fit the curvature of the ship
and serve as a pattern for a steel
patch. Industrial Division personnel
were able to build a patch that
conformed exactly to the ship's
contours. Weighing in excess of 40
tons, the finished patch was lowered
into position, where divers fitted it into
place, bolted and sealed it.
The object of any repair or patching
work done to transiting vessels is to
keep them afloat until drydocking


6 Months
1980 1979
TRANSITS (Oceangoing)
Commercial....... .. 6,569 6.487
US Government.............. 40 47
Free ........................... 4 7
Total.. .................. 6.613 6,541
Commercial ........ $140.269.644 $105.617,016
US Government ... 619.490 452,425
Total ....... $140.889.134 $106.069.441
CARGO2 (Ocean-
Commercial.. 78,722,167 79.605.442
US Government .. 189,486 92,992
Free............... ....................
Total ........ 78.911.653 79.698.434
SIncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small.
2Cargo figures are in long tons
Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff

facilities can be reached. Since
drydocking is very expensive, the
ability to perform maintenance work
underwater with as little interruption
in service as possible results in
considerable savings. This is true not
only for transiting vessels, but also for
Commission floating equipment such
as barges, tugs, cranes, launches and
dredges on which routine underwater
inspection and maintenance are reg-
ularly scheduled.
Most diving is done with very little
visibility, usually a foot or two, and
often it must be done by feel alone
when there is no visibility whatsoever.
About 25 percent of diving work is
done at night, sometimes due to its
emergency nature and sometimes
because of scheduling convenience.
Willis enjoys the fact that a
Commission diver's work is con-
stantly changing, that even jobs
appearing to be routine never really
are because they are seldom done
twice under the same conditions.
A very special feature of being part
of the diving crew is the close
camaraderie, the esprit de corps, that
develops among members of the
group. Theirs is a special, shared
elation when a difficult task is
successfully accomplished, for they
are perhaps the only ones who fully
comprehend the difficulties involved
in the job, its dangers, the cooperative
effort needed for its completion, and
the sensation of having to depend on
and to trust, in a very personal and
immediate way, the skill and concern
of others, for your very life.


(in long tons)

Atlantic to Pacific

Corn ...............................................
Petroleum and products ...............................
Coal and coke .....................................
Phosphates ..........................................
Sorghum ................... ..... .................
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals ....................
M etal, scrap .................... .....................
W heat ...................... ......................
Manufactures of iron and steel ........................
Fertilizers, unclassified ................................
Ores, various ........................................
Caustic soda ................ ........................
Sugar .........................................
Paper and products ...................................
All other ............................................
Total ..........................................

6 Months
FY 1980

1.4 I) tt

.i .-3i~ I

2t. 1 421l
4 Q.371 71 3 3

21Q ..I1.

Pacific to Atlantic

Petroleum and products ...............................
Ores, various...................................
Manufactures of iron and steel .........................
Lumber and products ................................
Coal and coke .....................................
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) ................
Sugar .........................................
Sulfur ..............................................
Pulpwood .........................................
Metals, various ......................................
Wheat .............................................
Autos, trucks and accessories .................. .......
Bananas ...........................................
Molasses ............................................
Salt ................ ................................
All other ................ .........................
Total ... .................. ..................

6 Months
FY 1980

FI A I-..I

It, 1. 1

k, 3 3 .3


3 3k,2


Oceangoing .. ..............................
Sm alI ..................................
Total .............. ... ...............

U.S. Government:
O ceangoing ..............................
Small .................................
Total .................................
G rand Total ............................

6 Months FY 1980
Atlontic Pociic
to to
Pocific Atlontic Totol
3,463 3,106 6,5r,',
291 122 413
3,754 3,228 6,982

21 19
126 44
147 63
3,901 3,291

7 1c,


(.4 '

'Vessels under 300 net tons. Panama Canal measurement. or under 500 displacement tons Statistic ": rr.c 1 n.
Office of Executive Planning

50 OCTrIBER i. lcQR:o

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