Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1969
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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m PANAMA EAV CANAL

OCTOBER 979
OCTOBER 1, 1979


d ILI,














From


The Governor

of the

Canal Zone


At left: A ship moves through Gatun
Locks on a nightime transit of the
Panoma Canal.

On pages 4 and 5: A view of the Pacific
side of the Canal Zone as seen from
Sosa Hill.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


This year, the Panama Canal
celebrated its 65th anniversary.
Since the SS Ancon made the
first official transit of the
waterway, August 1, 1914, more
than half a million ships have
moved through the Canal
transporting a wide variety of
commodities to all parts of the
world.
The Panama Canal treaties,
which go into effect today, mark
another significant milestone in
the history of this important
world utility. They mark the
beginning of a new era bringing
changes that challenge all
associated with the waterway.
For Canal employees, the
passing of jurisdiction over the
Canal Zone to the Republic of
Panama and the creation of the
new and smaller Panama Canal
Commission call for major
adjustments in lives and
livelihoods.
The Canal Zone has passed
into history. It has been unique
in American political history and
a showcase of American
organization. All who have
worked and lived here can take
pride in the standard of
excellence set during construc-
tion days and maintained
throughout the years.


We must now turn our
attention to the future. Much has
been done in that regard. The
initial changes taking place have
been anticipated and carefully
planned to avoid any major
disruption in the operation of the
Canal. But the best of plans will
fail without the enthusiastic
efforts of those who must carry
them out. In this regard I am
confident that the keen sense of
responsibility and devotion to
duty which have prevailed will
continue to be reflected in the
efficient operation of this world
utility.
To those who are leaving the
Canal, I wish you Godspeed and
good luck. For those who are
staying on with the Commission,
other U.S. Government agen-
cies, or the Republic of Panama,
the days ahead will demand the
best that you have to offer in
terms of continued commitment
to your duties and willingness to
adapt to new situations. Judging
from the dedication you have
shown during these last
uncertain years, I know that you
are equal to the task.


J



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1979pana






'H
HAROLD R. PARFITT PANAMA .," CANAL WILLIE K. FRIAR
Governor-President Editor

JAMES H. TORMEY RE~ I ,
Lieutenant Governor

VICTOR G. CANEL writers
FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ, DOLORES E. SUISMAN,
Acting Informotion Officer Official Panama Canal Publication VICKI M. BOATWRIGHT
All articles and illustrations in the PANAMA CANAL REVIEW may be reprinted in full or in part without further permission by crediting the PANAMA CANAL
REVIEW as the source. The REVIEW is normally published twice a year. Yearly subscription is $3 for regular mail and $6 for airmail. The price for back issues
is $1.50 for regular and $3 when sent by airmail. For subscriptions, send check or money order made payable to the Panama Canal Commission to PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW, Panama Canal Commission Public Information Office, A.P.O. Miami, Fla. 34011. The editorial office is located in Room 100
Administration Building, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama.


.'--I T IS EDITION OF THE REVIEW MARKS AN END AND A BEGINNING.
I It takes a nostalgic look at the past-at the buildings, the symbols, the living
.- and working environment of the Canal Zone-and an optimistic view of the
r. challenge of change facing the Canal organization.
". Taking the place of both the summer and winter editions, this special edition of
."... the REVIEW is being published to mark the day of the implementation of the new
Panama Canal treaties.
The October 1 edition will be the last time the REVIEW will appear as an official
publication of the Panama Canal Company/Government. With the formation of
Sthe Panama Canal Commission, it will become an official publication of that U.S.
": ..Government agency, which will be responsible for the operation of the Canal.
With the Summer 1980 edition will come the first major change in the REVIEW'S
.'._ ..logo since it began publication May 5, 1950. The retiring of the Canal Zone seal
will leave a hole in our logo but for the next edition there will be a Panama Canal
Commission seal to take its place.
Special thanks go to our guest writers who include Pandora Aleman, formerly
an Information Office writer but now with Records Management Branch; Janet
Len-Rios, free lance writer; Robert Burgess, retired Curator of Publications for
the Mariners Museum in Newport News, Va., and Veterinarian Nathan B. Gale
who collaborated on the wildlife story with Dolores Suisman, recently retired
editor of the Spillway, the Canal's weekly newspaper. The new Spillway editor,
Vicki M. Boatwright, assisted in the layout and design of this edition.
Photographers whose work is included in this edition are: Mel Kennedy, who
.designed the cover and served as art and photo director, Arthur L. Pollack, Don
Goode, Kevin Jenkins, Alberto Acevedo, Gerry Laatz, and Bob Rogers, all of the
Graphic Branch, and Vic Brown and Fred Robinson, of the Canal Zone Police,
who provided most of the wildlife photos. Artwork is by Carlos Mendez of the
Graphic Branch and Dante Fiori of the Division of Schools.

Contents
Buildings .................................................... 7-24
Symbols ..................................................... 25-35
The Panama Railroad ........................................ 36-37
Flora and Fauna ............................................ 38-49
The Canal Today ............. ......... ............ 50-53
The Canal Yesterday ........................................ 54-58
Looking Backward ......................................... 59-63
The Canal Zone at Night ...................................... 64-67

On The Cover
Lights from the many new highrise buildings of the Panama City skyline are a
dramatic backdrop to the classic lines of the Canal's Aoministration Building in
this night photograph by Mel Kennedy, who went to the top of Sosa Hill to get this
view. Back in 1915, "Red" Hallen chose the same site for a night photograph of
brand new building and the Prado. It appears on page 65. A comparison of the
two photos makes clear the dramatic changes that have taken place over the
past 64 years.


OCTOBER 1, 1979







L -- I-~.--~~I- ~;;llli- a-i


Administration


Building Unites Past,

Present and Future


By Vicki N1. Boatwriuht
T HE POWERFUL SCENES OF
Canal construction that doinriat
the walls of the Rotunda of the Ealbod
Heights Administration Building hold
employees and 'isilors alike in their
thrall. For the murals depict in bold
brushsirokes oi pale archer, brighr
orange and brick red the moinmental
labor that w.vent into building the
Canal. The'.. iell us oli what used it be.
But the 'ery'. quiet ol the rotunda and
the air conditioned coolness distance
us from the realities ol construction
days The!.. seeir lar a,'a.,a. in time
and space
But lace north in the rotunda and
,walk ior',ard a le... steps All o( a
sudden the gap beit een past and
present is bridged In the central
staircase, laid down in pink Tennessee
marble in 1914. the steps are groo\ ed
frotm the treading oi thousands ol
pairs of feet thai ha\e passed ihiis w.ay
since the building w..as completed. As
i.ou take hold oi the mahogan'.'
banister and begin to climb, .:.ou
become part ol that throng hurrying
to .,.'ork on a breez'., dr'.. season
morning in 1915; carrying blueprints
up to Engineering in 1923; worrying
about war news in 1942; or trudging
back to work in 1957 after a 5Z cup of
coffee in the cafeteria.The steps, the
banister, the building, all link us in an
unbroken chain with those who
walked this way before.
In 1912, about the same time that
the finishing touches were being made
to Gatun Locks and Gatun Lake was
filling up, Chief Engineer George
Goethals, who by this time was also
Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission, turned his attention to the
construction of a permanent building
that would centralize the administra-
tion of the waterway. The engineering
department had moved to Culebra
in 1906, the disbursing and accounts
offices were in Empire, and most of
the offices concerned with material
and supplies had been relocated at
Cristobal.
Unaware, surely, that he would be
the first Governor to occupy its
executive office, Goethals named a


The arched window at the third story
landing of the central staircase is typical
of Italian Renaissance architecture.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







high-powered committee boasting such
notables as colonels Gorgas, Hodges
and DeVol to find a suitable loca-
tion on the Pacific side for a building
that would be "well fitted to the pur-
pose and character of an edifice which
is to guard and direct the interests and
operation of the Canal, overlooking
. .. what will be the first permanent
town of the Zone."
They considered five locations,
four on or near Sosa Hill and one on a
knoll of Ancon Hill west of the quarry
that gave Quarry Heights its present
name. When the committee decided
on the latter site, which they described
more precisely as "30 feet back of the
former triangulation station on Lone
Tree Hill," Goethals approved the
choice with the stipulation that not a
spoonful of earth was to be moved
until a competent architect had gone
over the ground.
Goethals' idea of a "competent
architect" was Austin W. Lord, head
of the department of architecture at
Columbia University and a senior
member of the firm of Lord, Hewlett
and Tallant of New York. But theirs
was to be a difficult association.
Lord spent the month of July 1912
on the Isthmus studying the topog-
raphy of the land and local conditions
that would affect the design of the
buildings. The agreement was that he
would return to New York to work out
a general scheme in which all of the
buildings "from Toro Point to Taboga
Island would be of a prevailing
style." He was to visit the Isthmus
every couple of months during the
construction period.
The arrangement never suited
Goethals. The Chairman wanted the
architect to leave his 5th Avenue
offices and come to the Isthmus until
the job was completed. Their cor-
respondence reflected the basic con-
flict-the hard-driving Goethals sent
curt memorandums demanding to
know what the hold-up was and com-
plaining of delays caused by having to
do business by mail; Lord wrote long
letters back, explaining that the Com-
mission hadn't authorized him enough
draftsmen, and more importantly,
Canal officials had made no decisionE
as to how the offices would be played
out.
The Canal Record was later to com-
ment, "The entire building was
planned without any definite knowl-
edge of what offices were to occupy it,


At I.jr, in January 191-4 he e\error o1 rhe .-jdrrini slra0lorr Bulding rnearej
completion, but Albrook Field was still a swamp and the Ancon Cemetery
had yet to be moved to what is now Corozal to make way for new houses.
Miraflores Locks is visible in the distance. Above: It's 1916 and a payday at the
building, where employees line up at the pay windows located at the
west wing to receive their wages in gold. Down the hill the First Baptist Church
is under construction. Below: Males were still in the majority at the
building in 1929, judging from this scene in the Record Bureau. The group
seemed to be divided right down the middle on the bow tie versus the
four-in-hand. The Record Bureau handled the Canal organization's general files
and was situated on the second floor in the space now occupied by
the Personnel Bureau.
r-- ~ -


how much space they would require
or how they would be correlated ...."
Goethals had been very firm on one
issue, however. He informed the
architect that the Administration
Building was to cost, when completed,
"$375,000 and not one cent more, as
we have no more and are going to ask
for no more." No final costs are
recorded in the detailed story on the


building that appeared in The Canal
Record on December 30, 1914, but
memoranda indicate that the final
figures far exceeded the estimates.
At $25 per square foot, the rotunda's
Van Ingen murals alone would run
nearly $25,000.
Lord's direct involvement with the
Isthmian Canal Commission appar-
ently terminated in 1913, but not


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1 _*L


- ~b~ ~ I B I I I ~I 1








before he had developed the plans for
the Administration Building, the lay-
out and design for the Prado-type
quarters and terminals buildings of the
town of Balboa, and the plans for the
hydro-electric station at Gatun, as
well as the three locks control houses.
He had decided on the "E" shape
for the building to keep it narrow
enough to maximize the efficient use
of natural light and because, had it run
end to end in a line, the amount of
floor space required would have made
the building too long. The style he
chose is Italian Renaissance.
With Lord out of the picture, his
assistant at Culebra, Mario J. Schia-
voni, was given the title of architect.
With it came the responsibility of
carrying out the plans of his pred-
ecessor and all the headaches as-
sociated with the undertaking.
Schiavoni had an artist's imagina-
tion, a quality not altogether ap-
preciated by either Goethals or the
resident engineer in charge of con-
struction, Frank Holmes. With the
latter, Schiavoni became engaged in
a feud carried on by memorandum,
centering mainly around the archi-
tect's tardiness in getting final drawings
for the building completed. At one
point, apparently fed up by Holmes'
habit of sending a copy of every


The overpowering beauty of the high,
domed ceiling, the dramatic murals and
the marble columns and floor make
the rotunda the main attraction
of the Administration Building.
The murals, executed by artist W. B.
Van Ingen at the request of
Col. George W. Goethols, depict,
below from left, the digging of Gaillard
(Culebro) Cut at Gold Hill; the erection
of a lock gate; the construction of
Miroflores Locks; and the construction
of the spillway at Gatun Dam.







memorandum to Goethals, Schiavoni
let fly this memo to Holmes: "I beg to
state that I consider your attitude in
making repeated written statements
about my work very unco-operative
and uncalled for."
Among the suggestions made by
Schiavoni was that a decorative title
panel in honor of the Canal builders be
placed above the main entrance to the
Administration Building. It would be
sculpted to show an American con-
struction worker flanked on either
side by a Negro, a Spaniard, a French-
man and a "Hindoo," with a steam
shovel at one end of the panel and a
dredge at the other.
The Chairman turned down the
proposal with one sentence: ". I am
of the opinion that all that will be
necessary will be a plain inscription
with letters, V-shaped inset, reading
'Administration Building, Panama
Canal, 1914'."
The architect's recommendation
that the Seal of the Canal Zone be laid
in marble mosaic tile in the center of
the rotunda floor met with a similar
fate at the hands of Holmes, who
declared it to be too costly and time
consuming.
But despite personality clashes and
delays for which each blamed the
other, the construction work pro-
gressed steadily. Notwithstanding his
caution about spending, Goethals
applied the same imagination and fore-
sight to the construction of the Admin-
istration Building that he had to the
Canal itself. He brought Albert
Pauley, the developer of a new
process for making concrete tile
blocks, to the Isthmus to oversee the
erection of a plant to manufacture the
blocks for all the permanent buildings
in Balboa. Artist W. B. Van Ingen of
New York, famous for his work in the


Library of Congress and the Philadel-
phia Mint, was hired to paint murals
for the rotunda that would preserve in
art form something of the monumen-
tal labor involved in building the
Canal.
At Schiavoni's request, each week's
progress on the Administration Build-
ing was recorded by Commission
photographer Red Hallen, whose
work on the Isthmus using bulky glass
plate negatives was to later become
invaluable in visualizing the history of
the construction era.
On July 15, 1914, a little more than a
year from the day the first steel beam
was erected, the Administration Build-
ing had its first occupants. The time-
keepers' offices at Culebra, Balboa
and Cristobal were assigned one large
room extending from the rotunda to
the west end of the building on the first
floor. All the heavy construction work
had been completed at that point, but
the 50 employees who were paid in
gold and the complement of clerks
and messengers who received their
wages in silver moved in amidst the
sawing, hammering, mortaring and
painting that accompanied the laying
of the pine flooring, the red tile in the
corridors, and the mosaic tile in the
rotunda, and the finishing up of the
carpentry work and electrical wiring.
No landscaping would be done until
the following December, so out-
side the building the grounds were a
gigantic mudhole. Temporary wooden
steps led downhill to the Prado level,
where by June of 1915, the houses
had been completed and construction
on Barnebey Street begun.
As with any construction project,
not every detail had gone according to
plan. The Administration Building's
third and final architect, Samuel M.
Hitt, wryly pointed out that fact in a


memorandum concerning payment
due on the eight marble columns in
the rotunda. Commenting that the
columns were a first class job of
marble work, he added that the
supplier was not to blame for the fact
that construction workers had set the
top member of the column bases in
upside down. Visitors to the rotunda
today will notice that with the excep-
tion of one column, the outer edge of
the round marble disc upon which
each of the columns rest is ridged,
indicating that side should be facing
downward against the octagonal
lower base.
Between July and September of
1914, the offices at Culebra, Empire
and the administration building at
Ancon were moved into the new build-
ing. By June of the following year, the
building housed 424 employees, 49 of
them women.
Both the location of offices and the
daily routine of the employees that
occupied them were, in most cases,
quite different in 1914 from what they
are today. In regard to the offices,
only a few have remained in their
original locations. When Governor
Goethals, his Lieutenant Governor
(formerly called the Engineer of Main-
tenance) and their secretaries moved
into the second floor north front
corner overlooking Balboa and the
Canal, they set a precedent for the
location of those offices that has
continued to today.
The Chief Health Officer and Chief
Quarantine Officer moved out of the
old administration building at Ancon
into the Health Department, on the
second floor, which has since become
the Health Bureau. Its offices have
been enlarged, but like the Balboa
Heights Post Office, the Health
Bureau is where it has always been.









After winding his way up the spiral
staircase located off the central
stairway, Panama Canal photographer
Kevin Jenkins examines the remains
of a safelight in what was once
the darkroom of the Canal's first
Official Photagrapher.
Below: The building's "E" shape is
apparent in this aerial view.


Office hours were from 8 to 12 a.m.
and 2 to 5 p.m. the first two years after
the building was opened, and most
employees walked to work. Judging
from a circular from Governor Goe-
thals issued to all Administration
Building employees, at least one temp-
tation of office life has not changed at
all. Goethals reproved employees for
the practice of leaving work early at
noon and in the afternoon "in order to
secure an advantage in being served in
the lunch room or securing seats on
the motor buses."
While the opportunity to leave
during the two-hour lunch break was
obviously available, it would appear
that many employees chose to stay in
the building during the heat of the day.
Offices were locked during the
noon hour; but with commissary
coupons employees could buy a light
lunch consisting of sandwiches, coffee,
and pie from the basement restaurant
that ran the length of what is now the
Graphic Branch. Pool and billiard
tables were set up in the basement for
the men. The female contingent at the
building must have complained about
wanting equal consideration, for a


short time later two rooms on the third
floor now occupied by the Office of
the General Counsel were set up as
reading and sitting rooms for the
women.
Employees could find plenty to read
in the library located on the third floor
in what is now the office of the director
of the Engineering and Construction
Bureau; but there was no room to sit
down. The Canal Record reported
that "The Canal library is so filled with
reading matter as to leave little room
for readers." Not long afterward, it
was moved to the first floor area now
occupied by the Press and Informa-
tion offices.
Kathleen McGuigan, retired ad-
ministrative assistant to the Comp-
troller of the Panama Canal Com-
pany, recalls that when she went to
work at the building in 1934, the coffee
break, now a mainstay of Administra-
tion Building life, was non-existent;
but an employee could buy cigars and
candy from a stand that had been in
existence in the small room on the
landing between the first and second
floors since the building opened.
As a matter of fact, very little about
the Administration Building's offices
or routine had changed when the
20-year-old daughter of two Roosevelt


medal holders got her first job with
the Canal as a clerk in the Claims
Bureau, which took up the area now
assigned to the Budget Branch.
The Paymaster's Office with its two
large vaults occupied the end of the
west wing that now belongs to the
Office of Internal Security. When Miss
McGuigan received her monthly pay
receipt, she walked outside to the
porch to cash it at one of the barred
pay windows still visible today, just
as her parents had done since 1914.
Only back then, she remembers them
saying, the payroll was delivered by
horse-drawn wagon and their wages
were paid in gold.
As a child, she remembers climbing
the winding stairway to the photog-
rapher's studio located in the attic at
the center of the building directly
above the main staircase.
The photographer Hallen took her
portrait using the north light coming
through the paned skylight window
that since has been covered over with
the red tile of the roof.
Many years later the Graphic
Branch was to find several thousand
tiny glass plate negatives of employee
identification photos stored in the
wooden filing cabinets of what must
have been Hallen's office under the


OCTOBER 1, 1979







sloping eaves. To get to it he had to
walk around the top of the rotunda
dome, which rises out of the attic floor
like something from the science fiction
film "Close Encounters of the Third
Kind." The Graphic Branch was able
to distribute a few hundred of the
negatives to relatives still living on the
Isthmus.
Today the attic is a storage place for
old engineering plans, bound volumes
of Canal studies, civil defense sup-
plies, and the bulky air-conditioning
equipment that cools the building. But
the peeling black paint on the walls of
what was once a darkroom is a silent
witness to its original use.
C. A. Mclvaine, Executive Sec-
retary under Governor Goethals, still
held that position when Miss Mc-
Guigan came to work for the Com-
pany. To employees, she says, he
was "like God." Governors came and
went but C. A. Mclvaine endured,
carrying such broad responsibility as
to make him, in effect, the working
governor. His office was located in
what is now the Governor's Board
Room. The Correspondence Bureau,
much later to become Administrative
Services, took up the space on both
sides of the hall that now belongs to
the Office of the Executive Secretary.
Nearly all of the secretarial work for
the Administration Building and a


great deal of the writing was handled
by employees of that bureau.
Office supplies were kept in a
stationary storeroom, Miss McGuigan
recalls, just as they had always been.
Government forms and writing paper,
as well as the ubiquitous paperweight
to anchor them against the dry season
breezes that blew through open
windows, were among the items
requisitioned on a weekly basis.
The present Director of the Com-
pany's Office of Equal Opportunity
Bruce Quinn, who grew up on
Barnebey Street in Balboa, says his
most vivid memory of the Administra-
tion Building is when as children he
and his sister stood at the bottom of
the stairs each afternoon, starched
and pressed, waiting for their father to
get off work. At closing time, Quinn
recalls, great waves of people poured
out of the building and down the broad
expanse of stairs.
Indeed, the stairs played a signifi-
cant role in community life at one time.
On Memorial Day in years gone by
wreaths were placed against the
bronze plaque embedded in the base
of the original flagstaff to honor the
Canal's World War I dead. On the
Fourthof July refreshment booths
were set up on the concrete terrace
around the building, and the stairs
were alive with people watching the


marching band on the circle of grass
below.
Today, only a few hardy souls come
and go by way of the 113 stairs that
architect Lord had so carefully de-
signed to emphasize the majestic
sweep from the building to the Prado,
an effect now broken by the presence
of the Goethals Memorial.
The years have brought many
changes to the Administration Build-
ing. Offices have been moved from
one floor to another and in some cases
to other buildings. Windows have
been blocked with concrete, and
others have been created where no
windows existed. Billiard tables and
reading rooms are a thing of the past.
Paychecks are cashed at the base-
ment vault that once housed valuable
records. The scars in the concrete
retaining wall at the end of each wing
of the building are all that remain of
the hitching rings of the horse and
buggy era.
Governor Parfitt will walk down the
stairs one last time and the Office of
the Governor will become the Office
of the Administrator. But the grand-
father clock there that dates back to
the French canal effort will go on
ticking away the passage of time. And
the grooves in the pink Tennessee
marble stairs will keep getting deeper,
reminding us that past and present
are one.


Col. George W. Goethals was the first Governor of the Canal Zone to use this second-floor office overlooking
the town of Balboa, and Maj. Gen. H. R. Parfitt is the last.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13







SHE GOVERNOR'S HOUSE, THE
building most intimately linked
with the construction days of the
Panama Canal, will become the official
residence of the Administrator of the
Panama Canal Commission, with the
departure of Governor Harold R.
Parfitt, the last Canal Zone Governor.
The historic house, built as a
residence for the Chief Engineer of the
Isthmian Canal Commission, was
located in the construction-day town
of Culebra, overlooking what is now
Gaillard Cut. Its first resident, John F.
Stevens, canceled plans for an elab-
orate new residence for the chief
engineer which was being built in
Ancon because he wanted a simple
house close to the work site. The
building originally designed to be the
official residence is now the District
Court Building. It is featured in a story
on page 24.
Lt. Col. George W. Goethals
moved into the house in 1907 when he
succeeded John F. Stevens as Chief
Engineer. As Goethals was also
chairman of the Isthmian Canal
Commission House 159 became the
quarters of the Canal Zone's chief
executive.
It was in the house at Culebra that
most of the official visitors, coming
to see the Canal construction, were
entertained and many expressed
regret that the commodious house
was to be dismantled and that the
town, with its profusion of attractive
tropical shrubbery, would be aban-
doned following the opening of the
Canal.
The house and several other
buildings were taken down in 1914,
each section carefully numbered, and
moved by flatcars to new locations at
Balboa Heights. According to rec-
ords, the Governor's House cost
$19,773 to build in 1906. It cost almost
that much $16,300, to move it from
Culebra in 1914, and re-erect it at
Balboa Heights.
Though a number of changes have
been made during the tenure of each
Governor, the house on the side of
Ancon Hill, the official residence of
Canal Zone Governors for more than
60 years, remains basically the same
as when it was first constructed.
Col. Chester Harding, Governor
from 1917 to 1921, had a porte
cochere built at the front entrance
over the circular driveway. During the
administration of Col. Meriwether L.


A Link With

The Past


Walker, 1924-28, some general altera-
tions were made, the main one being
the doubling of the width of the side
veranda. Most of the original equip-
ment and furniture was replaced
during the administration of Col.
Harry Burgess, 1928-32. At this time,
the Governor's House acquired its
first official china and flat silver which
bears the Canal Zone seal. It was in
that era also that the Canal Zone seal
was woven into table and bed linen.
Major changes were made in 1959
and 1960, under the supervision of
Governor and Mrs. W. E. Potter, who
in the interest of history and tradition,
rejected plans for a completely new
official residence. Instead, they re-
tained the original style of the house,
with its wide-sweeping verandas, high
ceilings and large gracious rooms,
characteristic of Canal construction
days. Walls and foundations were
reinforced, and wooden flooring was
replaced with tile on the first floor. The
stairway was relocated, a modern
service section built in the basement,
and a small bedroom, bath, and library
on the first floor were converted into
a comfortable air-conditioned guest
suite. Whenever possible, materials,
including the polished tiles on the first
floor and the ornamental iron gates in
the garden, were obtained in Panama.
The handsome Chippendale dining
table, its 22 matching chairs, buffet,
and two serving tables were made of
native mahogany by the Maintenance
Division to replace the set dating back
to Goethals' day.
A fountain was added in the front of
the house, a fish pond and fountain
built on the patio, a retaining wall was
constructed to terrace the gardens
and considerable landscaping was
done.
During Governor Walter P. Leber's
term, the house was air-conditioned
throughout. A breakfast porch, in
keeping with the architecture of the
house, was added in 1971 during
Governor David S. Parker's term.
Items that enhance the historic
atmosphere of the house continue to
be added. A collection of oils and
watercolors of the Canal and Panama,


painted in 1913and 1914by E. J. Read,
that has been acquired by the Canal
Zone Library-Museum, is displayed on
loan in the house, along with oils by
Alwyn Sprague, well-known Canal
Zone artist. When the Tivoli Guest
House closed, some of the fur-
nishing, including one of the famous
wicker rocking chairs, were trans-
ferred to the Governor's House.
Entertaining at the Governor's
House includes formal dinners and
luncheons for 10 to 60 guests and
informal receptions, dinners, teas and
coffees accommodating up to 200 or
300 guests using the spacious recep-
tion areas inside as well as the patio
and garden. Because of sudden
showers during the rainy season, from
May to December, a large awning is
placed over the main part of the patio.
The second floor of the house is for
family living. It includes a large living
room; two large bedrooms with baths;
a study; a wing with a small bedroom
and bath; and utility room. Most of
the upstairs furniture is provided by
the family occupying the house.
Furniture in the downstairs area
belongs to the house but each family
adds a few additional personal pieces
of furniture as well as some decorative
objects.
Through the years, while it stood at
Culebra and after it was moved to
Balboa Heights, distinguished guests
from many countries including pres-
idents of the United States and
Panama have visited this historic
house.
Many on the long and impressive list
of visitors who have been entertained
at the house by Governor and Mrs.
Parfitt since his appointment March
24, 1975, came to the Isthmus in
connection with the negotiation and
ratification of the Panama Canal
treaties.
Included on the list, which reads like
a "Who's Who" of well-known United
States and international business,
civic, and political leaders, is a large
percentage of the members of the
Senate and House of Representatives.
Having a deep appreciation for the
history of the house, the Parfitts have
made a special effort to invite Canal
employees to come by for a visit and a
tour of the public rooms and the
garden. For their Christmas recep-
tions, the invitation was extended to
every member of the Canal work-
force.

14 OCTOBER 1, 1979














































The house as viewed from the garden and the veranda remain basically the same as in construction days except for
the screens which were replaced with glass when the house was air-conditioned. Right below: Governor and Mrs. Parfitt
take a walk in the garden.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Below left: A painting showing the
dredge "Cascadas" at work in the
Canal is displayed just inside the front
entrance. Below right: Some of the
wicker furniture from the Tivoii Guest
House and mola pillows add local color
ro a section of the porch.


Historic Plaque Lists Governors


Engraved on the plaque at left, which is on a wall in the house, is the following:
"Moved from its original location in Culebra, a now abandoned construction
town on the other side of the Canal, old 'No. 159' has housed Governors of the
Canal Zone since that time. In one way or another, its occupants have left an
imprint on the structure. There have been grounds changes and internal
modifications. But the house remains basically the same as built for its first
occupant, John F. Stevens, Chief Engineer, Isthmian Canal Commission
in 1906."
Also engraved on the plaque are the names of the former occupants, which
includes 16 Canal Zone governors: Gov. Harold R. Parfitt's name will be added
at the end of his term of office. The Goethals family lived in the house, while
it was at Culebra and after it was moved to Balboa Heights for a total of 10 years,
far longer than any other family. There are seven living former governors.
Past governors and their years of service are as follows:


George W. Goethals
(1914-1917)
Chester Harding
(1917-1921)
Jay J. Morrow
(1921-1924)
M. L. Walker
(1924-1928)
Harry Burgess
(1928-1932)
J. L. Schley
(1932-1936)
C. S. Ridley
(1936-1940)
Glen E. Edgerton
(1940-1944)


J. C. Mehaffey
(1944-1948)
F. K. Newcomer
(1948-1952)
John S. Seybold
(1952-1956)
William E. Potter
(1956-1960)
W. A. Carter
(1960-1962)
Robert J. Fleming Jr.
(1962-1967)
W. P. Leber
(1967-1971)
David S. Parker
(1971-1975)


Although they never ived in the Governor's House, other Governors of the Canal Zone or officials who were commonly given the
title of "Governor" during the construction period. May 4. 1904 to March 31. 1914, under the Isthmian Canal Commission were:
General George W Davis, Governor of the Canal Zone (Member of onginal Isthmion Canal Commission) May 14. 1904 to
May 24. 1905; Charles E Magoon. Governor of the Canal Zone (Head of Government ond Sonitation) Member of Commission.
May 25. 1905 to October 12. 1906. Richord R Rogers. Governor of the Canal Zone (Head of Department of Law & Government)
November 19. 1906 to March 31. 1907. JosephC S Blackburn. Head of Department of CavilAdminlstroaton (Member of Commisson)
Apnl 1. 1907 to December 4, 1909. Mounce H Thatcher. Head of Department of Cvil Administration (Member of Commission)
May 13. 1910 to August 8. 1913. Richard L Mercolfe. Head of Department of Civil Administration (Member of Commission)
August 9. 1913 to March 31. 1914


16 OCTOBER 1, 1979


Zdil














































On this page: The front entrance to the
house; dining room, the table set with
china imprinted with the Canal Zone
seal; a small breakfast porch; the living
room filled with fresh cut flowers;
and a sitting room that is part
of the guest suite.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW























By Fannie P. Hernandez
LEAVING THE CIVIL AFFAIRS
Building in Ancon, the 12-year-
old boy smiles as he admires the photo
on his brand new identification card.
For the card, or "ID" as everyone calls
it, is a sign that he is growing up, a
Canal Zone rite of passage into the
adult world.
His mother smiles, too, as she walks
to the car with her son. She is remem-
bering other happy occasions that
were marked by a visit to this building.
There was the thrill of her first driver's
license at 17, her husband's hard
earned ham radio operator's license
years later, and the recent purchase of
a plate for their new car.
Whether old timers or new arrivals,
Canal Zone families sooner or later
end up at the low white building off
Gaillard Highway that bears a striking
resemblance to an airport.
For the Canal Zone's old timers, the
removal of the control tower and the
addition of a neon sign spelling out
"Drive Inn" on one wing and the "Li-
cense Section" identified in big block
letters on the other hasn't changed
how they see the building. They still
remember the busy activity of a com-
mercial airport, which it was for
several years, and the propeller driven
planes taxiing down Albrook Field.


Above: The Civil Affairs Building today.
At left: Leaving the License Section,
Herbie Raybourn shares the thrill of
his first ID card with his mother
Jacqueline. His father, Herb Raybourn,
heads the Recreation Services Office
located on the second floor of
the building.


The first commercial flights to the
Isthmus landed at France Field on the
Atlantic side, where Pan American
Airways had a small wooden structure
that served as its terminal. In 1940,
when PAA established flights three
times a week from Miami to the Canal
Zone, operations were shifted to the
Pacific side because France Field was
inadequate for the new larger four-
engine planes.


Civil Affairs

Building Combines

Business, Pleasure


As commercial air traffic increased,
it interfered with emergency wartime
activities at the Albrook Air Field ter-
minal, and it was decided that a
terminal for all commercial service
should be built.
Following the allocation of $1,800,000
from the Emergency Fund of the Pres-
ident, the terminal was constructed,
along with a hangar, small utility build-
ing and other appurtenances. The
building and hangar were designed by
a group of architects and engineers
working under the direction of Lt. Col.
Norman J. Riebe, of what was then
called the Panama Engineer Division.
The contract was awarded to Tucker
McClure and Thompson-Markham
Company and work was to be com-
pleted in 100 days.


OCTOBER 1, 1979


~ ~II

























When it was inaugurated on June 19,
1943, and turned over to the Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone for operation,
it was one of the most beautiful,
modern and fully equipped air ter-
minals in this part of the world. The
firs plane to use the new terminal was
a Panagra airliner southbound for
Lima.
Reinforced concrete stucco on
cement block and glass block was
used in the construction of the two
main floors, topped by a glass obser-
vation room and control tower. Its low
flat construction exemplified a modern
design of the early '40's and offered the
least possible hazard to aircraft on
landing and taking off. The exterior
was painted olive drab to conform to
wartime regulations.
A stained glass medallion was set in
a window above the glass doors that
opened by means of photo electric
cells, believed to be the first in these
parts. The medallion, designed by
Colonel Riebe, combines a wing and
propeller motif with the flags of the
United States and Panama against
a sheaf of flags of all nations of the
Pan American Union.
Heavy wooden benches were cen-
tered in the spacious waiting room and
main lobby that extended up through
two floors. A monolith map of the
Western Hemisphere with Panama at
the center was inlaid in the terrazzo
floor in front of the information desk.
The map was to be the cause of a
formal complaint by a South Amer-
ican ambassador who claimed that a
border between his country and that
of a neighbor was not correct. To
avoid the possibility of other "border
disputes" the narrow metal bars
marking the borders were removed


and the map was reset in one solid
color.
A unique feature of the building was
the flat built-up tar and felt roof where
water remained during the rainy
season. The water was expected to
provide added insulation and because
its temperature was approximately
120 degrees, it was too hot to permit
the breeding of mosquitoes.
Since the greater part of the con-
struction was done after the United
States entered the war, there were
material shortages and priorities.
Where original plans called for steel, it
was necessary to substitute wood or
iron. Local materials were used
wherever possible. Stair railings were
made of Central American mahogany,
lockers were of wood instead of steel,
and refrigerator shelves of mahogany.
Terrazzo replaced marble on the
facade.
After the war, as air travel became
more popular and the terminal be-
came a busy international link be-
tween North and South America,
there was a constant stream of
diplomats and other dignitaries, busi-
nessmen, tourists and movie per-
sonalities. Local teenagers flocked to
the terminal when they heard of the
arrival of Clark Gable, Tyrone Power,
Cary Grant, Dolores Del Rio, Edward
G. Robinson, Vincent Price and many
other celebrities.
A rather "very important person" to
pass this way was an Indian maharaja
who an hour after his plane took off
realized that he had left his coat
behind in the terminal. The airliner
returned for the coat. Another in-
cident that caused quite a stir was a
shoot-out in the terminal between
a member of the Somoza family of
Nicaragua and a political enemy.


When it was announced just a few
years later, that a new international
airport was to open in Panama and the
commercial airlines would be moving
their operations there, a number of
requests and recommendations for
the utilization of the terminal building
were sent to the Governor. The
Caribbean Air Command offered to
transfer the Albrook grade school to
the Panama Canal if it would relin-
quish claim to the air terminal and its
facilities. As early as July 1945, a group
of employees suggested that it be con-
verted to a "modern and up-to-date
club for the exclusive use of Canal and
Railroad employees, with a first class
restaurant, bar, dance floor, tennis
courts and club rooms."
However, the Panama Canal ur-
gently needed the space to house
many of its activities that were
scattered in temporary wooden build-
ings and to eliminate the congestion in
the Administration Building.
When Tocumen Airport was opened
in September 1949, the terminal was
converted into office space for the
Public Affairs Office, as Civil Affairs
was then known, The Federal Avia-
tion Administration maintained its
offices there until 1962, when it moved
to its present location.





Above: A view of the newly opened
Canal Zone Air Terminal, painted olive
drab to conform with wartime
regulations, shows the hangar and
part of the airstrip. At far right,
two canvas topped touring cars,
taxis of the early 1940's
wait for passengers.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I -- ~ ----- 9~ L--~~ --~-- -


^







For the past 30 years, the building
has been the seat of the Civil Affairs
Bureau, the bureau of the Canal Zone
Government responsible for public
education, police and fire protection,
postal, customs and licensing serv-


ices, other government functions, and
home of the Canal Zone Library-
Museum.
The Library was the first to transfer
to its new location in the left wing of
the second floor which included the


former mezzanine, moving in Novem-
ber 1949 from the first floor of the
Administration Building. The Museum
moved in late 1950 to what had been
the first floor lobby and the area
looking out on the airfield.


w -ab


Pon American Airways' 4-engine "fat-bellied" Boeing takes on fuel at
the Ci nrl Zone Ar Termirr i bei:,re Ioainr ,-,fi
on ihc C.rlol Z-,rne l,) Ai.- IIrr i, ihi


msecl
mCA,


& ... .'."'. .
-;heile; ojre lidli n,,:, mn ,re c mirmlor.mIrcihe *rid ,:orrirri,:drlu qlu riert r n ihe
rid .i-, ihe I,-,rmer *ir ierniriol where ihe Lihronr
edir !Vt.:emher 1949


-- ... ..--. .-C- I


When the air terminal building was
turned over to the Civil Affairs
Bureau, it needed a new name.
Among the suggestions were Mc-
Ilvaine Building or Mcllvaine Hall, in
honor of C. A. Mcllvaine, who was
executive secretary of the Panama
Canal from 1914 to 1940; Goethals
Hall "with a bust of him in the con-
course"; and Civil Functions Building.
Canal Zone Governor F. K. New-
comer said he believed that Library
Building was "adequate and appro-
priate," and that is what it was called
until May 22, 1950, when it was
officially designated the Civil Affairs
Building.
That same year, the administrative
offices of the Division of Schools
moved from the Balboa Elementary
School to occupy the right wing of the
first floor.
The License office moved from the
Police Station opposite the Balboa
Elementary School to the area that
had been the airmail dispatch section
and bonded storage of Panama
Customs.
The Police and Fire divisions, which
until 1950 were one division, each es-
tablished headquarters in the building
in the mid '50's; the Fire Division took
over an area in the left wing of the first
floor that for a time had been used by a
branch of the Postal Division for the
sale of money orders and postal cer-
tificates; and the Police Division lo-
cated in the second floor area formerly
occupied by airline offices.
The Canal Zone Postal Service and
its Philatelic Agency moved to the
S third floor observation room where
employees have enjoyed a privileged
view. From their desks, they could
follow the top of ships transiting the
Canal, passing trains, and aircraft
landing and taking off at Albrook.
Since it was created in 1963, the
Recreation Services Office has been
located on the second floor, and when
the Canal Protection Division became
the fifth division of the Civil Affairs
Bureau, it took over space in the right
wing of the second floor. When Civil
Defense was a part of the Civil Affairs
S Bureau, it too had an office there.
The control tower operation was

20 OCTOBER 1, 1979







moved to Tocumen Airport when the
terminal closed. The former kitchen
became a Drive-Inn in January 1950
and the coffee shop was later con-
verted to a vending site.
The electric door device was
removed in 1952, perhaps because the
doors opened inward into the building
and Canal Zone fire regulations
require that doors in public buildings
open outward, The bar had been
transferred earlier to the Hotel
Washington.
Five directors have served as ad-
ministrators of the Civil Affairs
Bureau over a period of nearly
30 years. Col. Richardson Selee
(retired) was named the first director
when the first reorganization of the
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad
operating units was made in July 1950.
When Selee left the Canal in October
1953, Henry L. Donovan was ap-
pointed to succeed him and served
until his retirement in August 1961.
Bernhard I. (Emo) Everson was the
third Civil Affairs director and served
until October 1973, when he retired.
He was succeeded by Francis A.
Castles who retired in February 1977
and Fred A. Cotton was appointed
the fifth and last Civil Affairs director.
With the disappearance of the
Canal Zone Government upon entry
into force of the Panama Canal
Treaty, title of the Civil Affairs
Building has been transferred to the
Republic of Panama.

The Treaty, however, provides for
the Panama Canal Commission to use
certain office space within the building
during the period of transition for
activities related to the management,
operation or maintenance of the Pan-
ama Canal. The Treaty also allows the
Commission to operate and maintain
the public library-museum, enabling
the library to offer full scope library
services from the building.
In accordance with the Agreement,
the Police, Fire and Canal Protection
division headquarters will remain in
the building from 12 to 14 months,
until new headquarters are readied for
them in the former Balboa House-
wares Building. These divisions are
sharing the building with Panama
Government offices including Pan-
ama's main municipal traffic court and
Panama's licensing and registrations
offices.


The stained glass medallion signifies that the building was once an airport.



;' X~. r
A

=~i 1-
.I
''
TgI.I E


i ,
A,_


Civil Affairs Building "old-timers" listen attentively as Library-Curator
Beverly Williams (1951) tells her longtime coworkers the story
of the oil painting of the Half Way House that hangs on the second floor.
From left, Rhoda Fox (License Section, 1950), Peggy Zeimetz
(Director's Office, 1953), Billy Hultin, Director's Office, 1961),
Cecilia Vaz (Schools, 1951), and Doris Etchberger (Schools, 1949).
"Old-timer" Katherine Melanson (License Section, 1951) was not present
for the picture taking.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









T HE FIRST CiN-.L IJPPOFRT
h :j-pital .-.rin i., l -i ,r .u- .:,( Pjn
ama *,.-a L'Hi p.,al C.~.rral .du
Panarr.j h.iIt bt. F ;h Fr.[r.: C a al
Com r ar, ,r, I'r. ai An,:.:r, ,,. i f it-.
prescrr -.i, .:,l ih, l.,:,,,1ii .:'; Bu td.iny
The l i; r rn | h,,. -r ; al :1:,ri r .:il .:, r.
in the C ar, l ?:,rn a th. .:.-.rriFpl :,r
i n 1 9 o l 1l -: p .. l ,- 'r a d d ,1dj I .- l h ,
M ain Bu.ildir, .:il G.:, rgI H.-.' pt:al i,:
abso-h I| ,- ,J. ;lr ,:1 .', I:,r,:- .:.1
earthlqu al
T '- i:hT. ria.3 Ir.-rr- F r r, ,:V. 1.:i A rr.. r
ican :,jrr..ri.;ta t.-.r. -'r.-.u -hi ; .:ha.r ..
in narr.i to L'Hospital Cintral du
Panama in 1905 when it was, by
gubernatorial decree, renamed Ancon
Hospital.
Canal Zone medical facilities have,
since the beginning, been stalled by
outstanding medical personnel who
have become particularly well known
in the field of tropical medicine. The
hospital at Ancon has had its own
laboratory since 1905.
With the close of the Canal con-
struction period and the concomitant
decrease in workforce to operational
levels, many of the buildings in the
spawling complex at Ancon, by that
time rather run-down anyway, were
no longer needed; so a smaller, more
modern and more centralized facility
was planned. The "new" Ancon Hos-
pital was completed in April of 1919.
In March of 1928, by Joint Resolu-


History of C.Z. Hospitals


A Chronology of Change

22 OCTOBER 1, 1979


l,:,r ..i C ,:.n, r-:;; ( ir. :.:.nr H ,',: p ll a1 ,,
i.rin rr,.. J ir rr,..rr,:.r; .:,l1 I .1, G nr
l'.'ill .jr.i C ,ra.,.t.-,rd G".-- 'r .: ir ..' rir l

IZ.-.r,, l r I,, i ... :rl, in fnddinJ h

,ljii i -,. '...- :. :~t r I .:.l I1-, rr -_ ll. .v



to work on...h, the third locks project.bl
.1al, ,rs wuren albuiltuon, 3rte variosh
Jmuriry baseh rl. CM ernl ',rization has'r
,J t.:
Th j.j .. rni .:il .'.-,rld .V.'yar lI
t:robjh-l rn urg-ri rl.,j I.-.r .-
p a r d& d r r ,.: 1 -. r .. : ,: l a ,: ,l h- .
alr ;.J ., I a: .-d.::I ri .n.lr u *: l:p-[ .-.ri,'r l
to work on the third locks project.
Existing facilities were enlarged and
hospitals were also built on the various
military bases. Modernization has
continued and the present Main
Building of Gorgas Hospital was
completed in 1965.
In recent years needs have again
changed ad medical services have
been gradually consolidated at the
two main hospitals-Gorgas on the
Pacific and Coco Solo on the Atlantic.
Flexibility and change have been
bywords for medical services in the
Canal Zone. With this history, it
should come as no surprise that yet
another change is in store. On
October 1, with the implementation
of the treaty, jurisdiction over Canal
Zone medical facilities will transfer to
the United States Department of
Defense.


. Aerial vieu of Gorgas Hospital
on the Pacific side of the Isthmus and,
at right, Coco Solo Hospital on
the Atlantic side.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


Bk. Jan.i Lcn Rio.j






































ALTHOUGH ORIGINALLY
considered the "permanent
Administration Building," this con-
crete block building at the foot of
Ancon hill served that purpose less
than a decade, before becoming
headquarters of the U.S. District
Court for the Canal Zone.
The rambling three-story land-
mark with a striking view of Panama
was first intended as the permanent
residence for the Canal Zone
governor. The house, whose com-
pleted cost a report of the Isthmian
Canal Commission estimated at
around $200,000, was to have had
15 bedrooms, each with its own
bath, a roof garden and a 55 by 48
foot drawing room. Between 12 and
15 servants would have been
necessary to keep it up.
In late 1906, before anything but
its exterior was completed, Chief
Engineer Stevens ordered that it be
converted to an Administration
Building, and by January of 1908
it was ready for I.C.C. officials to
move in. The first occupants were
the chiefs of the Civil Administration
Department; the Division of Posts,
Customs and Revenues; and the
Secretary of the Commission.


By September of 1914, when the
transfer to the "new" Administration
Building at Balboa Heights was
completed, only the offices of the
Special Attorney, the legal depart-
ment and a branch pay office


Court Comes

To Order in

The Ballroom




remained. The following year the
headquarters of the United States
troops in the Canal Zone was
temporarily located on the second
floor.
Exactly when it was decided to
convert the building to its present
use is not clear. A memo to the
Governor from the Constructing
Quartermaster dated November 24,
1914, authorizing repairs and
alterations costing $29,000 bears


a handwritten note saying the lower
floor was to be used as a District
Court.
In December the Quartermaster
recommended that the former
Sanitary Office on the first floor
be used as a courtroom and that
the second and third floors be
converted into high class bachelor
quarters to "afford us some relief
for the congestion which has existed
for a long time at Ancon." In July
of 1915 he advised that no repairs
be made until it was decided what
was to be done with the building.
In any case extensive renovations
were carried out and the offices of
the U.S. District Court moved in
February of 1916. The courtroom
was the large room at the front of
the building that had originally been
intended as the ballroom of the
Governor's residence. The old
District courthouse in the rear
of the Ancon police station was
turned over to the Christian Science
organization.
Following implementation of
the new Panama Canal treaty the
U.S. District Court will continue
to hold session in this building
for a 30-month transition period.

24 OCTOBER 1, 1979





















By Pandora Gerard Aleman
M AJ. GEN. GEORGE W. DAVIS,
first Governor of the Canal
Zone, is said to have remarked in 1905
that the Seal of the Canal Zone would
be a fixture on the Isthmus "for all
time." His words have an ironic ring
today, as the Canal Zone is erased
from maps of the world and the seal
itself is eased into retirement.
Representations of the seal have
been a common sight on the Isthmus,
displayed on arm patches of the Canal
Zone Police, on some official cars, on a
pillar outside the rotunda in the
Administration Building, on the Gov-
ernor's flag, on stationery, forms, and
postage stamps, and even on "license
plates" created by the Panama Canal
Society of Florida to help identify to
each other Canal retirees living in the
United States. Hand-painted replicas
have been presented to such dis-
tinguished visitors as Congressmen,
the Panama Canal Board of Directors,
the Industrial War College, and
foreign diplomats.
Creation of the seal was, one might
say, a gesture of faith in the Canal
enterprise, for when it was conceived
the Panama Canal was still a mos-
quito-ridden, rain-drenched dream (or
nightmare!).
The Isthmian Canal Commission
declared in 1904 that "the Executive
Secretary ... shall be the custodian of
the seal of the Government of the
Canal Zone, and shall attest such acts
of the Governor as are required by law
to be done and performed under said
seal."
This has been the real job of the
official seal, the embossing device
whose home since 1906 has been the
Executive Secretary's office: to au-
thenticate official and legal docu-
ments, particularly those to be used in
jurisdictions other than the Canal
Zone. Together with the signature of

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 25


mal Zone Seal

tired But

plicas Abound


the Executive Secretary, the im-
pression of the seal has attested the
authenticity and validity of official
acts.
Through the years, the Executive
Secretary and his staff have had plenty
of opportunity to flex their muscles in
the exercise of this official function.
The seal and signature have been
affixed to as many as 5,000 documents
a year, from parole and pardon
documents to notary public com-
missions.
Having once decided to create a
seal, the Commission cast about for
an appropriate design. The origins of
the seal are somewhat cloudy, but it
appears that both Governor Davis
and Gaillard Hunt, a former State
Department official, had a hand in the
design, and that some characteristics
were inherited from the French canal
builders.
In 1905, Governor Davis wrote:
"The motif of my design was, first, to
comply with the law-second, to give
it an essential interoceanic canal
character, for the United States has
but one errand at Panama-to make a
canal, to join the seas for the benefit of
mankind-and I, therefore, adopted a
motto expressive of that idea."
"Of course," he continued, "it is well
known that M. DeLesseps adopted a
motto for his [French Canal] Com-
pany, the idea of which was that the
continents were divided for the benefit
of mankind."
In 1905, "Messrs. Tiffany and
Company," of New York City, sub-
mitted several designs for the seal to
the Department of State and the
Isthmian Canal Commission. On Mr.
Hunt's recommendation, one was
adopted the following year after the
Commission chairman changed the
original word "earth" to "land"and
made the sails of the Spanish galleon
smaller.


...... ...- .. ............... .


Replicas appear on Traci Cotton's
track medal, plate and bronze plaque
by Artist Alwyn Sprague; and on
retail store items displayed by Viola
Dixon, left, and Beverly Kinsey.


Tiffany's then made the outsized
device for embossing the seal on
official documents which has been
hard at work for the past 63 years.
But the Tiffany color design for the
seal, which is still on hand in the
Administration Building, is in many
ways markedly different from the one
so familiar to us. It consists only of a
shield with a ribbon below; there is no
border. The Spanish galleon shown
passing through the Canal in the lower
part of the shield is brown and flies an
orange-and-white flag. The banks of
the Canal are brown, with green grass,
and the water is blue, showing a
yellow-gold reflection from the slightly







orange sky. Below is a light-blue
ribbon bearing the motto "The Land
Divided; The World United" in
metallic-gold letters.
So the seal might have remained, if
President Woodrow Wilson had not in
1915 issued an executive order
establishing that the Governor of the
Panama Canal should have a distinc-
tive flag, bearing the seal, for use in his
official capacity. His executive order
gives the first officially published
description of the seal:
"The seal consists of a shield,
showing in base a Spanish galleon of
the Fifteenth Century under full sail
coming on between two high banks, all
purpure, the sky yellow with the glow
of sunset; in the chief are the colors of
the arms of the United States. Under
the shield is the motto: 'The land
divided; the world united!' "
There are obvious discrepancies
between President Wilson's descrip-
tion and Tiffany's execution of the
design. Hence, as the official Histor-
ical Description of the Seal of the


Dorothy Cogwell uses the Tiffany
embossing device to affix the seal
to an official document.


Canal Zone says, "for years, color
reproductions of the seal proved
troublesome with mistakes being
made in the arrangement of the white
and red colors in the bars of the chief
and in various shadings."
To make matters worse, as the
official description was reprinted over
the years an error crept in (it was
immortalized on the brass plaque
below the seal outside the rotunda).
Whereas President Wilson speaks of
"two high banks, all purpure" (pur-
pure being a heraldic term for purple),


the version with the typographic error
reads, "two high banks, all purpose."
(Imagine the quandary of an artist
confronted with the task of depicting
"all purpose" banks!)
Finally, in 1956, it was decided to
settle definitively the question of the
proper color scheme. Employees of
the Architectural Branch of the
Engineering Division painted designs
based on President Wilson's descrip-
tion. Of these, Acting Gov. Herman
W. Schull Jr., selected illustrator
Franklin Kwai Ben's rendition as the
most faithful execution of the official
description.
Searching for a bold, striking design
worthy of the seal, Kwai Ben had done
20 different color schemes. But one
remained his favorite throughout. It
was a simplified scheme, with the
ship's hull, the water, and the Canal
banks all purple. He gave the seal a
blue circular border bearing the words
"Seal of the Canal Zone Isthmus of
Panama" in golden-yellow letters. His
favorite turned out to be Acting
Governor Schull's as well.
Even though Kwai Ben's color
scheme was adopted 23 years ago,
and even though he for a time faithfully
reproduced those colors when paint-
ing replicas for VIP gifts, still not every
seal you see will conform to the official
color scheme.
A limited number of epoxy repro-
ductions of the seal were made from a
press designed by the Army Map
Service in Washington, D.C., and
hand-painted on the Isthmus in 1969
for use as VIP gifts. It was one of these
that found a place outside the
rotunda. Since that time, other blanks
have been painted by whoever could


be found with the time, energy, and
skill to do it.
Although most have guided them-
selves by Kwai Ben's design, the
careful eye will detect that each artist's
inventiveness and, perhaps, the colors
he happened to have on hand
influenced his rendition.
One will see blue banks and blue
water with white waves; sunsets
ranging from dull orange-and-yellow
to bright red; and flags of various
colors unfurled atop the galleon's
mast-in short, the range of variation
that distinguishes the hand-painted
artifact from the mass-produced.
If you're lucky enough to come into
the possession of one of these
reproductions, treasure it for the
"original" it is.
From the time the seal was adopted,
there have been hundreds of letters
from collectors of official seals, asking
for an impression, and from those who
want to reproduce the seal-in books,
on souvenirs, on handkerchiefs and
shirts, in needlework. With the
ratification of the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977, collectors intensified
their efforts to corner the market on
Canal Zone memorabilia-with spe-
cial emphasis on any item, from molas
to stamps, bearing a representation of
the seal.
Such activity accompanies the
passing of an era. The Seal of the
Canal Zone is obsolete. One cannot
but hope, though, that elements of the
seal may be reborn in some new
device to be adopted by the Panama
Canal Commission, just as the dream
symbolized by the seal lives on in the
reality of an interoceanic Canal that
parts the Americas and unites the
world.


AP The 29- Year-Old Panama Canal Co.

T z'Seal Becomes A Part of History

The Seal of the Panama Canal Company was created following the
reorganization of the Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company
operating units in July 1950. Designed by the Engineering Division, the Seal
depicts a lower locks chamber of the Canal with the bow of a ship of the
Panama Line in the upper chamber behind a closed gate. Inscribed on the
Seal is "The Panama Canal Company 1950." This Seal along with that
of the Canal Zone Government becomes part of Panama Canal history
following the establishment of the new U.S. Government Agency, the
Panama Canal Commission, which will operate the waterway following
implementation of the treaty.


OCTOBER 1, 1979







New Panama Canal Medal

A Symbol of Change



The passing of an era is commemorated in the bronze medal that has been
issued to all permanent employees of the Panama Canal Company and Canal
Zone Government who were on the rolls as of September 30, 1979, and have at
least one year of service. The medal is 11/4 inches in diameter to approximate
the size of the Roosevelt Medal and is suspended from a bar bearing the
aforementioned date. It features the seal of the Panama Canal Company on the
front and the seal of the Canal Zone Government on the reverse side. The medals
are serialized beginning with 00001. They have been distributed to employees
with an accompanying certificate bearing the same serial number. The Panama
Canal Company and Canal Zone Government Commemorative Medal was
struck by the Medallic Art Company of Danbury, Connecticut.


The scenes of Canal Zone life that appear on the certificates of appreciation are
engraved by Dante A. Fiari, an audiovisual specialist far the Division of Schools.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


_ ~












Medals





Chronicle




History of




Waterway


HUMAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS,
whether they be athletic en-
deavors such as the Olympic Games
of the Greeks or engineering feats
such as the building of a waterway to
join the Atlantic and Pacific oceans,
have always been recognized or com-
memorated by a symbol. In the era of
the Greeks and the Romans, the laurel
wreath was used to distinguish in-
dividuals of achievement. In our day,
the medal serves this purpose.
On at least five other occasions
in the 74 years that have elapsed since
the United States undertook to
succeed where the French had failed,
medals have been struck that had the
Panama Canal as their motif.
The Roosevelt Medal, 11/2 inches in
diameter, was issued beginning in
1909 to civilian U.S. citizens who had
completed at least two years of satis-
factory service with the Canal con-
struction forces or the Panama Rail-
road Company on the Isthmus
between May 4, 1904 and Decem-
ber 31, 1914.
Made of bronze and copper "French
junk," scrap metal from the equip-
ment that had been abandoned by the


French, the medal features a bust of
President Roosevelt on one side and
a bird's eye view of steamers passing
through Culebra Cut on the other.
The Panama Canal Completion
Medal commemorating the opening
of the waterway on August 15, 1914,
is struck in bronze and has a very
unusual design. On one side the medal
depicts a ship passing through the
Canal with Columbia, the female per-
sonification of the United States,
standing at the bow. Her arms are
outstretched with each hand resting
on globes of the eastern and western
hemispheres and a ribbon stretching
across her body is inscribed in Latin
"Columbia Unites the Oceans."
On the reverse is the seal of the
Canal Zone and a statement cer-
tifying that the medal was carried on
the vessel making the first transit of
the Panama Canal.
In 1962, the opening of the $20
million Thatcher Ferry Bridge which
spans the Pacific entrance to the
Canal was commemorated with a
medal. The 21/2 inch bronze and silver
medals feature the bridge on the front,
and the reverse is blank. The
aluminum medals are an inch smaller


and show a map of the Isthmus on the
reverse.
To celebrate the Canal's Golden
Anniversary in 1964, a medal was
struck in silver and bronze. On the
front the medal incorporates the four
points of the compass and a shield,
inside of which a ship sails through
Gaillard Cut. On the reverse is the
seal of the Canal Zone.
The National Commemorative So-
ciety struck a silver coin-medal in 1971
to commemorate once again the
opening of the Panama Canal and to
honor Chief Engineer George W.
Goethals. On one side is a bust of
Goethals and on the other side is a
ship in the Cut.
The medals of the Panama Canal
chronicle the highlights of human ac-
complishment on the Isthmus and
preserve them for posterity in the
beauty of metal. But the Canal itself
in all its concrete splendor is the living,
functioning monument to those first
visionaries who dared to dream of a
waterway to connect the oceans; to
the thousands more whose sweat and
blood brought the dream to comple-
tion; and to the men and women today
whose labor keeps it operating at peak
efficiency 65 years later.

28 OCTOBER 1, 1979







VISITORS DRIVING THROUGH
Balboa for the first time are
apt to slow down for a second look
when they first spot the Statue of
Liberty on Gorgona Road. Most are
surprised to find a replica of this
well known U.S. symbol so
far south.
The Canal Zone statue, which
faces the Balboa Fire Station, was
donated to the Canal Zone
Boy Scout Council in May 1951
by Morris Hoffman, a Kansas City,
Mo. contractor and scouting
enthusiast.
The original Statue of Liberty was
formally presented on May 21, 1884
to the American ambassador in
Paris by Ferdinand de Lesseps,
head of the Franco-American
Union, at that time at work on the
ill-fated French effort to build a
Canal in Panama.
The idea of a replica of the statue
originated with Jack Whitaker, a
Kansas City businessman and
Scouter of long standing, during the
1951 "Strengthen the Arm of
Freedom" crusade of the Boy
Scouts of America.
A number of the 71/2 foot high
copper and bronze statues were
made in a Chicago factory and
presented to Boy Scout councils
in 39 states. They are found gracing
the grounds of eight state capitols,
the lawns of 145 Court Houses,
and 206 of the statues are located
in Scout camps, school grounds
and public buildings. In addition to
the Canal Zone, the replicas also
are found in the Philippines, Guam,
Honolulu and Puerto Rico.
Although the Governor had
approved the installation site in the
triangle of land bound by La Boca
Road, Balboa Road and the parking
lot in front of the Balboa Police
Station, there were no funds for the
work and the statue was placed
on display at the Canal Zone
Library. When funds, mainly
donations from the Boy Scout com-
munity, were available, the statue
was installed at the selected site
and dedicated on May 30, 1953.
The widening of Balboa Road
made it necessary to move the statue
to another area. It was relocated in
May 1972 to its present site where
it is often photographed by tourists.


Celebrated Symbol

A Surprise to Sightseers


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








For A Quarter of A Century

A Balboa Landmark



HE GOETHALS MONUMENT
T which stands at the foot of the
.. 113 steps which lead up to the front of
the Administration Building was 25
years old this year. After a quarter of
a century as a Balboa landmark, it is
such an accepted part of the land-
scape that even old-timers have
trouble remembering when it was not
there.
Yet, there was much controversy
about the design and site for the
monument and it took more than 25
years of discussion, delays, indecision,
and planning before the memorial to
the "hero of the Panama Canal" was
erected in the Canal Zone. It was
finally dedicated March 31, 1954.
Efforts to build a monument to per-
petuate the memory of General
Goethals went on for years and formal
plans were presented in May 1928 at
the annual meetings of the various
Panama Canal societies in the United
States.
The many years that elapsed
'/, 1A -between the planning and fulfillment
of the project were not due to lack of
enthusiasm. World circumstances,
the depression of the early 1930s and
World War II were the main delaying
factors.
... poThrough the years, various pro-
posals for a suitable site and for the
memorial itself and other recognition
....... .... of Goethals were presented. Resolu-
tions were introduced in the House of
Representatives to change the name
of Gatun Lake, Dam, Spillway and
Locks to Goethals Lake, Dam,
Spillway and Locks. Another sugges-
tion was to change the name of
the town of Gamboa to Goethals.
A Goethals memorial library was sug-
gested as were memorial museums,
Symbolic in concept, the monument rising from a reflecting pool 65 feet buildings and statues including a
in diameter, represents the Continental Divide. The basins on each side statue for the rotunda in the Adminis-
represent the Panama Canal locks with water pouring from them to join tration Builig. All of these ideas
the waters of Gatun Lake with the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The shaft were discarded as unsuitable.
of marble is 56 feet high, 20 feet wide and 5 feet thick. It was designed On August 25, 1935, Congress
by Shaw, Metz and Dolio, an architectural firm of Chicago with the firm appropriated $160,000to build a mem-
of Mendez and Sander of Panama as associate architects and was orial and President Franklin D.
built by Constructora Martinz of Panama at a cost of $152,299. Roosevelt named General John J.
30 OCTOBER 1, 1979







Pershing to head the Goethals Mem-
orial Commission.
One suggestion given considerable
attention at that time was a memorial
at the Cristobal mole at the Atlantic
entrance of the Canal. Another was a
shaft or obelisk at one or both en-
trances to the Canal. President
Roosevelt favored the proposal of a
shaft with a beacon light to be placed
atop one of the two hills in the Canal
Zone.
The Cristobal site continued to be
reviewed and discussed until World
War II when the construction of the
memorial was postponed for the
duration.
Still, efforts to give recognition to
Goethals continued and in early 1943,
a group of Canal employees who had
served with him suggested a bronze
bust to be placed in the Governor's
office. A letter was written to Tiffany
and Company of New York asking if
a bust about 12 inches high could be
produced for $1,000 or less. Tiffany
replied that it lacked the capability and
called attention to a government
regulation prohibiting the use of
bronze as the metal was needed for
the war effort.
At about the same time, there was
another movement to erect a 2' by 3'
bronze memorial tablet "somewhere
in the Canal Zone." It was to be made
of "historic bronze," melted down old
machine tools, that were used in the
construction of the Canal. About 300
pounds were required for the pro-
posed tablet that was to weigh about
150 pounds and was to be cast by
Gorham of New York.
In 1945, the ultimate tribute was
suggested but Governor J. C. Mehaf-
fey was strongly opposed to changing
the name of the Panama Canal to
Goethals Canal.
After the war, the Goethals Mem-
orial Commission was reactivated and
interest was revived in the Cristobal
site proposal which had been ap-
proved by Presidents Roosevelt and
Truman. Balboa, Miraflores, Gatun
and the Fortified Islands were added
to the list of possible sites for the
memorial, but by this time costs had
risen markedly and efforts to have
funds increased by Congress were not
successful.
At a meeting of the Commission in
Washington on February 4, 1952,
Chairman Ralph Budd presented a
tentative design prepared by Alfred


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Shaw of a Chicago architectural firm
for a shaft of reinforced concrete with
an outside shell of precast concrete
which would be simpler and less costly
than the proposed Cristobal design
and could be built with available funds.
After further discussions, the Com-
mission authorized the chairman to
proceed with the Shaw design for a
monument in the circle in front of the


Balboa Elementary School. The Com-
mission approved it on April 4, 1952
and when President Truman was
presented the proposal a few days
later, he approved it wholeheartedly.
Because of the possible hazard to
low flying planes, the memorial site
was moved to the foot of the Adminis-
tration Building steps facing the
Prado.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


rA
;r0

U3d







Work progressed on schedule and revered the memory of General
was expected to be completed on Goethals.
August 1, 1953 with August 15, the Following the invocation by Rev.
Canal's 40th anniversary, tentatively Alexander Shaw of the Balboa Union
set as the date to hold the dedication Church and Governor Seybold's in-
ceremony. The date was postponed troductory remarks and the reading
however, until the dry season, and of the message sent by President
Governor J. S. Seybold appointed Eisenhower, who had designated that
a Goethals Memorial Dedication day a holiday for Canal employees, the
Program Committee. honorable Maurice Thatcher, pre-
A rendition of "Stars and Stripes sented $25 U.S. Savings bonds to the
Forever" by the joint Balboa-Cristobal winners of the Canal Zone schools
high school band opened the formal essay contest on Goethals' contribu-
dedication ceremony. A half-hour tions to the Panama Canal. Ms. Emily
concert by the band preceded the Butcher directed the La Boca Alumni
official ceremony as more than 2,000 Glee Club in a rendition of "American
* -- -- - -


k -



L


-.


Balboa Elenmentoir.' School students gaze in LL'onder at tie "sno, "
A Q156 Hollout'Cen prarik, it tL.'(s produced b.- addhin detergerit to tle
t.,oter Ilo.I'(ing ito (ItI, biins.


persons gathered for the dedication of
the monument honoring the man
whose remarkable leadership, ad-
ministrative ability and devotion to the
task contributed to the successful
completion of the waterway.
Among the official guests were old-
timers who forty years earlier had
worked on the Canal during the
Goethals era; members of the Goethals
Memorial Commission; members of
the legislative committee having juris-
diction over Canal affairs; former
Canal Zone governors; Goethals'
son; Maurice Thatcher, the only sur-
viving member of the Isthmian Canal
Commission; the President of Panama
and other distinguished guests; Canal
employees, and many others who


Ode." The Honorable Richard E.
Whitehead, author of the book "Our
Faith Moved Mountains," a member
of the Goethals Memorial Com-
mission, made the formal presentation
of the Memorial Monument as Dr.
Thomas R. Goethals stepped forward
and unveiled the memorial to his
famous father.
In addition to the formal dedication,
an elaborate program of events was
prepared for the old-timers, some in
their late 70's and early 80's, who came
from all parts of the United States to
honor their hero.
Although not a part of the official
dedication program, Mary Pickford
and her husband Buddy Rogers, who
were visiting the Isthmus, greeted the


old-timers at the Goethals Exhibit at
the Little Gallery in the Civil Affairs
Building. There were many activities
including teenage baseball games in
which grandsons of the old-timers
participated.
At the dedication, Governor Sey-
bold said, "The Canal itself is a great
and lasting memorial to him and to the
skill and perseverance of a great army
of men who shared in its construction.
this marble shaft is a visible mark of
the respect and honor we pay to him
and to his associates in the achieve-
ment of a task of herculean propor-
tions and of immeasurable benefit to
humanity .."
In the formal presentation of the
memorial, Dr. Whitehead spoke of
events that led to the construction of
the Panama Canal and after lauding
Goethals' life and work in Panama
as a model of inspirational leader-
ship, he said, "The Congress of the
United States authorized the erection
of this Memorial to General George
W. Goethals in commemoration of his
signally distinguished services in con-
nection with the construction and
operation of the Canal. By authority
vested in me by the Goethals Me-
morial Committee, under whose
direction the wishes of Congress have
been complied with, I hereby dedicate
this Memorial to all nations and to
all people."
In his message read by Governor
Seybold, President Eisenhower said,
in part, "it is indeed fortunate that a
man of the stature of General Goethals
was available to lead our construction
force in this great undertaking and to
set the pattern for its successful oper-
ation. It is only fitting that we should
attempt to perpetuate his memory by
erecting a memorial near the site of
the humanitarian enterprise to which
he was so selflessly dedicated."
In addition to commemorating the
outstanding contributions of General
Goethals to the commerce of the
world, the ceremony highlighted the
50th anniversary of the taking over of
the construction of the Canal by the
United States from the French canal
company. The year 1954 also marked
the 40th anniversary of the appoint-
ment of Goethals as the first Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone and 47th
anniversary of his appointment as
chairman and chief engineer of the
Isthmian Canal Commission.

32 OCTOBER 1, 1979







C.Z Stamp Book

A Collector's Item


T HE BOOK, "CANAL ZONE
Postage Stamps," which has
been out of print, is on sale again.
The Canal Zone Postal Service has
reprinted the book to meet the
demand which has developed with
the increasing interest in Canal
Zone stamps.


Always popular with collectors,
Canal Zone stamps have attracted
special attention lately following the
announcement that the Canal Zone
Postal Service is to be dissolved on
implementation of the treaty which
gives Panama jurisdiction in the
Canal Zone.
However, it is not just the stamp
collectors who are buying the book.
Customers include those who are
collecting all types of Canal Zone
memorabilia and others who find it a
handy reference book on the
construction of the Canal and the
development of the Canal Zone.
Reflecting on the book's historic
value, Gov. William E. Potter, who
served from 1956 to 1960, wrote in
the foreword: "The postal history
and stamps of the Canal Zone
Government vividly reflect the early
trials, heartbreaking failures and
glorious completion of the Panama
Canal. These bits of postage depict
the ingenious planners, scenes of
their work and the determined
'canal diggers' accomplishments."
"This book is an account of the
birth and growth of the Canal Zone
Government's postal system and its
stamps. I trust it will help us to
know and build upon our great
heritage."
The 452-page paperback volume,
which was prepared by the late
Judge Edward I. P. Tateman,
Magistrate of the Cristobal Court,
was issued in 1961. The reprint of
the book and a supplement, which
covers the period up to the present,
are now available through the
General Services Division.


At left: The book, "Canal Zone Postage
Stamps," is displayed along with three
of the early stamps honoring Canal
Zone construction day figures, President
Theodore Roosevelt. William C. Gorgas
and George W. Goethals; and the last
stamp to be issued by the Canal Zone
Government, the new 15-cent stamp,
which was made from a painting by
.. Alwyn Sprague, well-known local artist.
In the centerfold: An assortment of
items imprinted with the Canal Zone
and Panama Canal Company seals and
..2 other items that were issued by the
Company Government, all of which will
be discontinued on October I, are
displayed on the door of a Company
official car.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


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iI


.. j w
ililil


i


I

I~

















Nostalgia


Rides the


Rails as


An Era


Draws to


A Close


T HE PANAMA RAILROAD IS
one of a kind. For more than
70 years, it has been the only year-
round passenger and freight operation
of its kind run by the United States
Government. The Isthmus' most
effective means of mass transit, the
railroad has carried a good share of
the freight moving between Colon and
Panama-about evenly divided among
the Canal organization, U.S. military
installations in the Canal Zone, and
Panama-and has also handled most
of the container cargo between the
two ports. In fiscal year 1978, it trans-
ported 66,136 passengers and 184,162
tons of freight.


Long accustomed to adapting to the
vicissitudes of life, the Panama Rail-
road is now weathering yet another
change. Under the terms of the new
Panama Canal Treaty, the railroad
passes, along with its supporting
operations, to the Government of
Panama.
The Panama Railroad has seen a lot
of history. In fact, it has been one of
the chief actors in the drama of the
Isthmus of Panama.
It gave birth to a city. In 1847,
William Henry Aspinwall, a New York
merchant, raised eyebrows by setting
out to build a railroad across the
Isthmus and combine sea and land
routes into one great system that


would open up the whole Pacific. The
railroaders chose Manzanillo Island
-a square mile of virgin mangrove
swamp-as the Atlantic terminus, and
transformed it into what was to
become the city of Colon.
It killed thousands of men. The con-
struction workforce was drawn from
the four corners of the earth-
England, France, Ireland, Germany,
Austria, China, India, Jamaica, Co-
lombia. Of the perhaps 12,000of these
who died of malaria, yellow fever, or
other hardships of wilderness life and
work, 6,000 found their final resting
place at the railroad cemetery at
Mount Hope.
It played its part in the California

36 OCTOBER 1, 1979


Gold Rush. In 1851, after 20 months of
labor, the rails reached only 8 miles
into the jungle, to Gatun. In October
of that year, two steamers were beset
I by a hurricane that drove them from
the mouth of the Chagres (the usual
place of debarkation) to shelter in
Navy Bay. From their anchorage,
the gold-rabid passengers spied the
work train, and there was no keeping
then back. Since that day, the
Atlantic port of Panama has been
Colon.
It conquered the mighty Chagres
River. The river-300 feet wide and
sometimes rising 40 feet overnight-
swept away the first bridge at Barba-
coas. But by late 1853 it had been

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 37


spanned by a 625-foot, six-span bridge
of boiler iron. And on went the rail-
road, until in 1855 it went from coast
to coast, 47.51 miles over bottomless
swamps and through near impene-
trable jungle, till it neared Ancon Hill
and the sparkling cathedral towers of
the city of Panama.
It made the Canal possible. In 1881
the Panama Railroad was bought by
the French canal company, and when
that enterprise failed the railroad
faded away to "two streaks of rust and
a right of way." The U.S. Government
acquired it in 1904, and under the
Canal's chief engineer John F. Stevens
the railroad sprang to life again.
Rebuilt to handle an endless stream


of dirt trains and vastly increased com-
mercial traffic, it offered its passengers
an unparalleled view of one of the
wonders of the modern world in the
making. By 1912, the railroad line had
been relocated on higher ground and
the original line was abandoned to
make way for the waters of the Canal
it had helped create. Fittingly, the
inaugural transit on August 15, 1914,
as made by the Panama Railroad
steamship Ancon.
Since that day, as before it, the
Panama Railroad has carried on its
proud tradition of service to the
Canal, to Panama, and to the world.
An era draws to a close, now, but
the Panama Railroad goes on.












Canal Zone


Forests


. 0 0


By Dr. Nathan B. Gale and
Dolores E. Suisman
FEW URBAN DWELLERS SHARE
as much of their living space with
jungle animals as do those who live in
the Canal Zone. It is because we see
these wild creatures so frequently
that we take them so for granted.
When ecologists speak of endangered
species, we think-if we think at all-
that they are talking about exotic
creatures that inhabit forbidding jungles
we dare not enter.
The key to understanding is to
remember the animals we are in-
timately familiar with, the creatures of
the wild that come so timidly into
man's territory: deer that emerge at
the forest edge at dusk to search for
food, then flee back into jungle hiding
places at the approach of a car; a
family of fieques we pause to watch-
but too late, the mother has been
warned. She bristles, looks right and
left, and with her offspring, scampers
back into the forest; the armadillo we
come upon on an evening walk; an
iguana lazing in the sun on our door-
step; the hummingbird flitting from
flower to flower outside our office
window; birds of many colors and
kinds we toss bread to.
These animals and birds we know
and enjoy are some of the very ones
ecologists are worrying about when
they warn of the need for conservation
and preservation of Canal Zone forest
areas. For the Zone is a biological
island of vegetation, animals, birds
and insects that inhabit its un-
disturbed jungles and streams. In its
lush rain forests, millions of creatures
live and everything that lives in the
jungle dies, decays and becomes food
for new life.
It all began about 5.7 million years
ago, when a series of geographical
groans and tortuous twistings of the


m


newly emerged ocean floor created a
land bridge, the Isthmus of Panama.
This fortuitous geological event
created the narrow strip of land that
one day would attract explorers on
their way to the Orient, plunderers of
Incan treasures, travelers to Califor-
nia gold fields, engineers building a
railroad and a canal-and wildlife in
abundance. The land bridge heaved
up from the ocean floor came to be at
least as important to the birds,
mammals, and reptiles of the Amer-
icas as it has been to the commerce
of man.
Land dwelling animals used this
bridge to move into better grazing and
browsing areas, and to search for
more abundant or easier-to-catch
prey. Many found the route from tem-
perate to tropical climate to their
liking, settled here, and developed
diverse species.
Some of these-bats, marsupials
and sloths-are still here. Some are
already gone forever, like the giant
ground sloth which competed suc-
cessfully with the environment until
about a thousand years ago when it
became extinct.
With the Canal came the Canal


Zone that today is the last safe haven
for many endangered and threatened
species.
Because of restrictions on public
access to the Panama Canal water-
shed and defense areas, much of the
Canal Zone is an "island of forest" in
the midst of a generally cleared coun-
tryside. This has helped preserve an
astonishing variety of plants and
animals in what is probably the most
extensive readily accessible forest
area in Middle America.
The continued existence of these
forests is ecologically important. They
must be left unscathed if the birds
and animals that inhabit or seasonally
visit them are to survive. Many forest-
dwelling animals have special food
requirements and are dependent
upon unique habitats. It may be dif-
ficult-or impossible-for them to
relocate. Many birds also are limited
in their choice of habitat or migration
route by their poor long-range flying
ability.
It is rare in Latin America to find
areas set aside for biological reserves
or national parks. But the ecological
significance of the Zone's forests was
recognized within a decade of the


OCTOBER 1, 1979


I ~---- -- -*----i--rrr*n- -I -








Canal's opening, in 1923. Barro Colo.
rado was set aside as a biological re-
servation. Measuring about six square
miles in area, the island is the largest
in Gatun Lake
In 1930. the Canal Zone Forest and
Wildlife Preserve (Madden Forest)
was established, and hunting, injuring
or molesting wild life, and cutting
down, destroying or damaging timber
or plans was prohibited in its 3,500
acres.
More recently, hunting was pro
hibited on the land along the Pipeline
Road beyond Gamboa.
The importance of Barro Colorado
Island. the immediate area of the wesi
bank of the Canal, and the Pipeline
Road area is illustrated by ihe number
of species protected by law that live
there. Sixty three percent of the
animal species protected by Pan-
amanian game laws have been seen
there The U S Endangered Species
Act lists 157 species of mammals en-
dangered throughout theworld Forty
126 percent) live in North and South
America, and of these, eight are found
on Barro Colorado Island and in the
Pipeline Road area. Thus five percent
of all endangered mammals in the


The Isthmus of Panama offers food
and shelter to both North and South
Amencan bird migrants The concen-
trating effect of the narrow, to-
pography on migratory routes offers a
greater variety of avian life, when
added to the native birds, than any
other area of comparable size in the
world
Five hundred sixty two species of
birds have been recorded from Canal
Zone waters, shorelines, and forested
areas This is only 80 less than are
found in all of North America north of
Mexico The highest one-day bird
census recorded in the world was
reported last year from the Atlantic
side of the Canal Zone when 354
species were counted.
The continued undisturbed exis
tence of these areas could be justified
solely on the basis of their research
'alue A Smithsonian Tropical Re.
search Insit ute publication lists 2.071
books and papers (through 1976)
written in the most part by scientists
working on Barro Colorado Island, in
the Canal Zone or in the Republic of
Panama The significance of data pro-
vided by this enormous volume of
literature is extraordinary


The <
most re.
cent Smith-
sonian Tropical
Research Institute
publication, a nearly
,CO0O-page volume en .
titled Flora oj Barro Colo. ',
radio Island by Thomas Croat.
has been 10 years in the making
The author indicates that over 1,300
species of "vascular plants," which
have a specialized conducting system,
are known from the island A recent
collection of 200 plants from the forest
canopy included :hree species new to
the island and one new to Central
America
if this area is to remain a sale harbor
for plant, animal and bird life, their
jungle home must remain undis
turbed. If the jungles are disturbed,
the animals will be destroyed, for, on
a jungle "island," they have nowhere
else to go.
The bush dog and he giant anteater
may be neanng extinction in Panama
Jaguars, ocelots, margays and sloths,
monkeys, marmosets and coatimundi,
raccoons, squirrels and kinkajous,
crocodiles and caimans may face the
same fate.
The rich array of flora and fauna in
the Canal Zone is a legacy from a
passing era. One hopes they will
become a living testimonial to wise
men who, appreciating the legacy, will
work to resolve the conflict between
the pressure for rapid economic
development in the Canal area on the
one hand, and the need to preserve
the natural environment to ensure the
continued existence of this seren-
dipitous jungle on the other.


world and 20 percent of i hose in North
and Souih America occur in these
iwo areas
The land along the Pipeline Road is
an area ol relatively undisturbed iro
pical lowland wet forest which con
tains 240 species of birds which are
not found outside the American tro-
pic An additional 35 North Amer.
ican species use this area as a
migratory route to South America.

THE PANAMIA CANAL REVIEW 39


tonrderful
bird
is the
pelican


---
a --- -- I


I ---'a- -


--C -
c-- -. ---.
- --- --
c ---- -


I 111 -







a safe


haven for


animals ...


OCTOBER 1 979


40






The rare tiger heron, the long-tongued tamandua,
the golden frog, the exotic heliconia and Charlie the crocodile
are a few of the living things that thrive in the
Canal Zone's tropical forests.























S. ... ......


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






plants, birds and insects


OCTOBER 1, 1979






A delicate butterfly resting on a branch; multicolored macaws out for a stroll;
the hairy sloth whose face we rarely see; stately egrets fishing in the surf; creatures
great and small each have a niche in our tropical environment.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


~-~YSb4.












Flowering Trees


A.41 ir. r i lt r i, ,,., ji .:.r, H.- hts Rood
*:i:r::: lr-:~l ^ *- i r-rn..i r H .:.US e IS
*.. ..^ nlr. I-,h ,. .;.1I..:i .:- I F, G uoyo-
,:lr.;,.;.ri Buddlj Ithr.,,jh Ih. t- ranches
S oj he Fink Cossio is reminiscent of
Washington, D.C. ot cherry blossom
time, while the purple Bouginvillea ond
the Royal Poinciono bnng La Boco Rood
alive with color. At right. Flomboyont is
another and very fitting name for the
Royol Poinciano, seen through the
window of o Gorgos Aportment.


As soon as the first permanent Canal Zone towns were completed, plans for
planting trees to beautify the area began immediately. The Canol Record of
May 5, 1915 reported that the horticulturist in charge of the landscaping was
urging residents to join in the effort. He encouraged tasteful planting and proper
community care to relieve the "glistening newness of the new concrete town of
Balboa and eventually transform it into a beautiful dwelling place, delightful
to live in."
As a result of these plantings, there are always some trees that a,- .r. bl.:.:rr
in the Canal Zone; but it is during the dry season that the most "p..:ij.:uljr
exhibitions occur. The array of blossoms that suddenly appears :.r, 1,e I.:.:.;
trees at this time rivals the splendor of spring in the temperate zor-
On these pages are some of the many flowering trees that have "r nrr.:.r rr,d
modest Canal Zone homes into places "delightful to live in."


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


OCTOBER 1, 1979











a man
does not plant
a tree for himself,
he plants it for

posterity

Alexander Smtth


?o,-' ih-' Ac i. Gr. r CT ..'.; .;ri r rh.
tbr n.; h, ,.f th.' r ll.-- Fir,.,,r,,j ,I ,h:
,rlr ,j tIh ,jr ,: ,,:i,:r At. l [,:.p I;rl

t GU t.,-' 'Lll L.:. .: upu th.: rr f, i
JIducorond, o plrch ql purple In the
midst of green jungle. Below, the Royal
Poinciana offers its shade to a family
from the "fishbowl" area in Ancon.
At top right, a Flamboyant in Margarita
has become the resting place for a
boy's kite, but not for long. Below, the
center of town is also beautified by the
Pink Cassia.








Canal Zone's

Garden of

Eden







LUXURIOUS GREEN GROWTH
in myriad of shades and
textures, delicate tropical plants and
fascinating exotics are taken for
granted in the Canal Zone, where
they form a constant background
for life itself.
Nonetheless, at Summit Gardens,
life-long Zone residents are filled
with awe and curiosity to find
themselves in the midst of 300 acres
of nature's beauty gathered from
almost every tropical and
subtropical corner of the earth.
Since the establishment in 1923 of
the "Canal Zone Plant Introduction
Gardens" to test, establish and
distribute valuable plants, more than
15,000 plants of an endless
assortment, size and shape have
been introduced.
Today, the Gardens have about
200 varieties of palms, some five
acres of citrus trees, most of the
flora native to the Isthmus and
exotic fruit, flowering and economic
plants from as far away as India,
Sumatra, Malaya, Ceylon, China,
Burma and Borneo and as near as
Panama's neighbors in Central
America.
Not far inside the gardens is the
Tropical Walk, designed for walking
tours through the area where the
heaviest concentration of plants
compete for living space in a
tropical rain forest. The entrance is
lined with the fabulously beautiful
Night-Blooming Cereus and with
petrified wood formed when the
Isthmus was under the sea.
Scientists and industrialists have
visited the gardens to observe
experiments in the raising of
teakwood or rubber or medicinal
drugs and stayed to wonder at the
strange display of nature's curios
that man has gathered in this
tropical garden.


There are the Talibot, giant of
palms, with 15-foot fan leaves;
stands of bamboo that grow as
much as a foot in 24 hours; and the
"scramble eggs" tree, from which
natives make a dish they say tastes
just like scrambled eggs by boiling
and then frying the white meat of
the ripe fruit.
There are magosteens, a fruit
called the "queen of the tropics"
described as tasting like a combina-
tion of all one's favorite fruits; and
the "miraculous fruit" that


temporarily kills all sour taste buds
on the tongue so one can eat the
sourest of lemons without the
slightest puckering of the lips.
And there is a profusion of
orchids in almost limitless variety
with blooms that may last a single
day or for two months and whose
flower stalks may be a few inches
long or 20 feet long.
Above all there is Summit
Garden's gift of a recuperative lift to
the spirit for those who will pause to
contemplate the wondrous cycles of
the delights of nature.




Above: This orchid, which grows at
Summit, is found in Mexico and many
parts of South America. Below: The lily
pond, a favorite picnic spot. Bottom:
The sun shining through a bamboo
forest creates a distinctively tropical
aura.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




.......... ......... 1 2 1






...: .... . .












Era of the

"SuperCarrier"

Begins

By Willie K. Friar

T HE TRANSIT OF THE BARBER
Tobo in March of this year
signaled the arrival of the age of the
.. "SuperCarrier," the newest concept
in shipping.
The first of the Barber Blue Sea
Line's fleet of six, this extraordinarily
versatile vessel is capable of carrying
trailers, containers, and a great variety
of other cargo by utilizing the most
modern and sophiscated roll-on/roll-
off cargo handling equipment available.
The significant difference between
thi- .es el and earlier ,esin- is th,
hiri,_ [3ryr, 1-31 ," 3" f.,, 3: 3 ntio
lani liih .3.. II i Ihli r3m E 31 IhI
siirr -A h, :"h.p Ph)[ 31 :r3CI -d -,
rnTlCh 'ral i-l ,dljr,-rI Ih i3rl' r r ,g1I

,.,,' GI' 1 le T 3nr gr 3,'u3[ll,
Iric i3"rr, i : ': 2 le T t a T- -h hIr_~ rhe
hu i.r r m p 31It,-,,,- ur, ?e irie i t d
I L.Ytta. iraiiic ior ry... Car or.*:n
rnd. :11 Ih hr. l 'ih Ihi hk 3 1c bll.1,I,.r
e".r "3let arid more vlb:crlln,.
c r.lrlld rjll, rT :. rT, r I i
pei, lbl .lor ih, Borber Tob i..,

h:u r


T.5t..-. MOP.- mj,; Ihrj?



























Above: The "Barber Toba" uses her ramp, which is as wide as a two-lane highway,
to handle a variety of trailers and containers. At left: The gigantic hinged ramp is
folded against the stern of the vessel as she moves through Miraflores Locks.


Described by the ship's owners as
"the greatest cargo handling tool ever
invented," this ramp has a load
bearing capacity of 400 tons which is
equivalent to the weight of 50 sixty-
passenger schoolbuses.
Trailer cargo, known as roll-on/roll-
off or "ro-ro" in the shipping trade, has
become an increasingly popular way
of moving goods in many world ports
including those in the United States,
and Panama. The trailers are simply
driven on an off the ships.
However, it is not the trailer
carrying capability that is noteworthy
on the Barber Toba but the flexibility
of carrying and handling all types of
cargo and being able to be completely
self-sufficient in loading and dis-
charging. The Barber Toba carries its
own fleet of forklifts, trailers, and
gigantic crane, which can lift up to 40
tons.
This capability makes it a valuable
means of transport for developing
countries in South America, the Far
East and the Middle East, where often
only limited cargo handling facilities
are available. The fast loading and
unloading capability is a great asset
also in ports, such as Miami, where
crowded conditions make turnaround
time very important. It has been


estimated by its owners that it costs
about $25,000 a day in operating
expenses to keep a ship like the
Barber Toba in port. Depending on
the weather, this ship and its sisters
can move into a port, load or unload,
and leave in a matter of hours.
Another innovation on this ship is
its containerized office. All loading and
discharging operations are controlled
by crew members operating from this
special office. It is stored aboard
the ship and lifted into place at quayside
near the stern ramp at each port to
coordinate cargo handling activities.
Supervisors and other crew members
drive around the vessel in four-wheel
electric cars keeping in contact with
the portside operations office by
walkie-talkies.
The flexibility and versatility of
these SuperCarriers allows them to
transport all types of containers and
rolling stock. Cars and other wheeled
vehicles can be driven aboard and do
not have to be boxed.
The deck for carrying cars has a
special surface which prevents shifting
and eliminates damage during the
voyage. When cars are not being
carried, this deck is hoisted up to
make room for more containers on
the deck below.
It took nine months to build the
Barber Toba, which is 749 feet in
length and 105 feet in beam, at a cost
of $33 million. It cost more than a
million dollars just to equip the engine
room and bridge which have the most


modern instruments available today.
This includes computerized anti-
collision radar, a satellite navigation
receiver, gyro compass, echo sounder,
electromagnetic log, weather facsim-
ile, radio equipment and an alarm
system connected to 250 sensors for
safe operation of the engine room.
Although capable of carrying up to
1,800 20-foot containers, 400 auto-
mobiles and 2,150,000 cubic feet of
baled cargo, the ship requires a crew
of only 27. Facilities for the crew (both
men and women) include a swimming
pool, exercise room, recreation room,
library and private cabins with baths
for each member of the crew.
When the Barber Toba, a Norwe-
gian flag ship transited the Canal, she
was carrying mainly containerized
cargo from the Far East including
electronics, textiles, handicrafts, tile,
cars, and yachts, from Japan, Hong
Kong, Taiwan, and Korea, to be
transported to the United States.
After the ship leaves U.S. ports, it
will head for the Middle East, with a
different cargo which will be, for the
most part, rolling stock including
heavy machinery, and oil drilling
equipment.
A British, Norwegian, and Swedish
consortium, Barber Blue Sea is
investing nearly $200 million in a fleet
of six of these advanced multi-purpose
vessels, which are to be regular
customers of the Canal.
The agent for Barber Blue Sea at
the Canal is C. B. Fenton & Co.


OCTOBER 1, 1979


3% 1W_~p


cJI





























One of the largest dipper dredges in the world, the "Rialto M. Christensen" works in
Mamei Curve removing islands and widening the Canal to provide a safer passage
for the increasing number of large ships. Below: Telephoto lens captures heavy traffic
in Gaillard Cut and Pedro Miguel Locks. At right: A container ship in Gatun Locks
and ships moving under the fog shrouded bridge that spans the Canal at Balboa.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW











All That's Left

Is Her Whistle


By Robert H. Burgess
SHE WAS A GRAND LADY IN
her day. She had to be for selec-
tion in the role she was to play in the
opening of the Panama Canal. How-
ever, she wasn't all that glamorous.
Instead, she was just another of the
hundreds of pieces of equipment which
did the job thoroughly and helped
bring the entire project to completion.
She was a lowly tugboat which pulled
scows laden with mud and rock
dredged from the Canal site from 1906
to its opening in 1914. Then she re-
mained on the job in the Canal Zone
for 16 more years helping to clear
slides, dock ships, and numerous
other tasks assigned to a craft of all


',' ,. .-, .' 7
Nil ^^^
llm ^alB


Hejr brj-a 'trrrin highly' polshed .th-' GatunL -tearn- med hed h ".4n:on' on l th'e 'ljouuil Irur It cl theI Canal .4u.us't 15.
1914 .AbLe.. The GatLur" '.:a b-' s-''ri ,:frh lerli. in' the' L Ontrlr that a7p'jrpp -rs n tJ,'h dust io.''e l Io'. the -t booik aboul Iuthe
Canri. The Path Biut,'ern ih, Sec "

54 OCTOBER 1, 1979


....._..__ __ __~___I_ ___I~ _I I _iiriil~L_ _


. -f







trades. This was the steel tug Gatun
which was given the honor of being the
first vessel to transit any of the locks of
the Panama Canal.
Gatun started her career in 1902,
having been built that year by the
well-known shipbuilding firm of Neafie
& Levy of Philadelphia. Measuring
91 feet in length, she was originally
named H. B. Chamberlain and owned
by Boot, Dailey & Irving, with a home
port in New York. It is probable that
her job was to shunt scows and barges
around New York harbor and possibly
assist ships in docking-but not for
long. In 1906, as the United States was
gaining momentum in developing the
Canal, a search was made for floating
equipment to assist in the monumen-
tal task. The Chamberlain was pur-
chased by the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission, Atlantic Division, for $65,000
and renamed Gatun. She was based
at the Atlantic end and assigned the
mundane but important job of towing
mud barges and shifting other equip-
ment.
There were other tugs in the
Canal's fleet but somehow the Gatun
seemed to stand out in the limelight a
little more than these judging from


some of her other assignments.
Inspection parties would board her to
view the progress of the work. And
occasionally she was used to trans-
port and transfer prominent members
of the Canal's staff and government
officials. After Chief Engineer John
F. Stevens resigned his job on
March 31, 1907, he boarded the
Gatun at Pier 11 at Cristobal to be
taken to the liner Panama to return to
the States.
Gatun was just an ordinary tug,
nothing fancy about her makeup, but
her crew must have taken especial
pride in her appearance. Photos taken
of her during her early years at Pan-
ama reveal all her brass fittings
glistening in the sun, the rims of her
portholes, the searchlight and bin-
nacle atop her pilothouse, door knobs
and locks, running lights, and fire hose
nozzles. Around the topsides of her
hull and draped over her bow, were
large rope mats to protect her sides
when she was working with the heavy,
rugged scows and dredges.
Come the latter part of 1913, the
Canal was readied for operation. Just
how the selection was made is not
known but the tug Gatun was given


The Gatun 1\

led the way .

on opening day
the honor of being the first vessel to
pass through a set of the Canal locks.
She was cleaned up and for the
occasion bedecked with flags as she
departed from Colon for the Gatun
Locks. Additional lifejackets had been
placed around her main deck in an-
ticipation of the extra passengers she
was to carry on that trip. Folding
chairs were placed on her upper deck
under a permanent canvas awning to
accommodate the dignitaries. But her
rugged rope mats remained in position
overside indicating that she was a
working vessel taking a holiday for the
day. And a special one it was.


t


Bedecked with flags, the tug "Gotun" enters Gotun Locks, September 26, 1913 to become the first vessel to pass through the
newly completed lock chambers.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


------- ------ -----~------ ------- - - -a .. .. ....... .. .. ........ ...- ------


*"B""x
fl






















I'





















:
I''















.." t. .- .,, .--


On September 25, 1913, pre-
liminary tests and filling of the Gatun
Locks were made and all operated as
planned. The 26th had been selected
to lift the Gatun from the sea channel
to the Gatun Lake level, using the
west flight, because of the imminent
departure from the Isthmus of Maj.
James P. Jervey, who had charge of
the masonry construction of Gatun
Locks, and of Maj. George M. Hoff-
man, who had charge of the building of


Gatun Dam, as assistants to their
chief, Lt. Col. William L. Sibert.
At 11:20 a.m., water was admitted
to the upper end of the upper lock
from the west culvert through the
upper rising stem valves and the water
was brought up to lake level. The
upper rising stem valves were then
closed and this water was passed
down the flight of three locks as a pre-
liminary test of the valves and culverts
of the west wall. Water was then
locked down, step by step, from the
lake to the lower lock, which was also
being filled by the two 14-inch sea
valves in the lower guard gates.
On board the Gatun, in addition to
her regular crew, were Col. H. F.
Hodges, Lt. Col. and Mrs. William L.
Sibert and family, Maj. and Mrs.
James P. Jervey, Maj. George M.
Hoffman, Lt. and Mrs. George W.
Goethals (the Chief Engineer's son),
Mr. Henry Goldmark, Mrs. Edward
Schildhauer, Mrs. E. E. Lee, Capt.
B. Corning of the steamship Panama,
and Mr. Frank Thompson of the
Panama Railroad. Capt. F. F. Stewart
was master of the tug and Mr. W. G.
Comber was chief navigator.
The filling of the lower lock was
completed by 4:45 p.m. when the sea
gate was opened. The Gatun, with
whistle blowing and flags streaming in
the breeze, steamed up the approach
channel and past the entrance to the


The Ilerr. rL.q "Cheler.'" lormrrl.'
"Gturin," u.,ia lied up oQ Prao Slreeti,
Baliirrore. Mar.larid in ..lune 195S
!uis before being sold lor icrapprin
At lelt The slearrm u.hile Irom the
mi wi nzow' mourited on a woodni
block at the aih'or'- horre
The irriall u.'htle ao lower right.
used o assl son docA.ing thlps,
w'as added ltler the tug lell
the Canal Zonre


lower lock, cheers from the spectators
resounding within the lock. The lower
operating gates were then closed and
the tug came to a halt alongside the
center wall. Col. George W. Goethals
was on top of the lock wall watching
the proceedings.
The operation was repeated in the
middle lock and at 6:15 p.m. the
Gatun entered the upper lock of the
last lift. Half an hour later the two last
gates were swung open and the tug
passed out on to Gatun Lake, the
whole passage requiring 1 hour and
51 minutes. The next day the Gatun
returned to the Atlantic channel, the
lockage taking 1 hour and 37 minutes.
On October 9, 1913, three groups
of dredging vessels and a floating pile
driver, in tow of tugs, a total of 13
vessels, were lifted at one time from
the Atlantic entrance channel to the
surface of Gatun Lake, using the en-
tire 1,000 foot length of each chamber.
The second group consisted of the
Gatun with the suction dredge No. 86,
several pontoons, and a fuel oil barge
in tow.
More honors were bestowed upon
the Gatun when she was selected as
consort to the steamship Ancon on
the official opening of the Canal on
August 15, 1914. There is a photo of
her steaming just ahead of the Ancon,
approaching Cucaracha Slide, but she
probably dropped astern at the appro-


OCTOBER 1, 1979


1.~- ---- -- ----


AE;n----------~I~--~=













OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS BY NATIONALITY


Notronolity
Belgian ...... .................. .....
British ....................................... ...............
Chilean ................................... ................
Chinese, Nationalist .....................................
Colombian .................................... .........
Danish ...................................... .............
Ecuadorian.................................... .............
French ....................................... ..............
German, West...........................................
Greek ........................................................
Honduran..................................... ...........
Italian ............................... ................
Japanese ....................................... .............
Liberian ...................................... ...........
Mexican .................................. ..............
Netherlands ....................................................
Norway.................................... ...............
Panamanian ....................................... ..........
Peruvian .........................................................
Singaporean ................................. ...........
South Korean ...................................................
Spanish ...................... ...........................
Swedish .................................... .............
United States...........................
U.S.S.R. ................................... ..............
Yugoslavian ................................... ..........
All other .................................... ...............
Total .......................... .. ..........


6 Months FY 1979
Long
No of Tons
Tronsits Corgo
48 963,208
513 5,638,581
84 839,428
60 665,140
85 588,867
162 2,983,865
133 1,285,861
50 472,153
218 1,720,694
658 10,817,253
51 81,063
104 692,154
505 4,686,440
962 17,588,995
40 507,370
100 552,427
215 3,508,931
529 4,561,344
104 982,689
96 1,371,854
77 1,020,390
57 172,455
97 822,423
865 13,400,876
236 1,104,734
50 547,959
388 2,028,288
6,487 79,605,442


6 Months FY 1978
Long


No. of
Tronsits
29
514
88
49
89
125
94
60
273
650
36
126
459
925
40
90
249
491
101
79
43
53
131
643
111
67
439
6,054


Tons
Corgo
627,782
4,536,526
953,677
574,120
610,207
1,083,985
837,387
523,910
1,956,465
8,576,443
52,978
745,095
3,996,490
14,529,111
318,065
639,332
3,345,559
3,692,341
887,753
858,632
410,208
124,064
1,199,120
8,430,847
685,339
508,552
3,276,525
63,980,513


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS
OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES


Trode route
East Coast United States- Asia.................... ........ ..... .. ..
East Coast United States-West Coast South America .....................
Europe-West Coast South America ........................................... ...........
East Coast United States-West Coast Central America...................
Europe- West Coast United States/Canada ....... ............................
South American Intercoastal .............................. .........................
U.S. Intercoastal (including Alaska and Hawaii) .........................
East Coast United States/Canada-Oceania....................................
Europe- O ceania .................. ..... ....................................... ...
East C oast C anada- Asia .......................................................
All Other .................... .. .................................... ......................
Total ....... ..................................................


6
Months
FY
1979
1,531
765
573
608
452
179
191
185
112
166
1,725
6,487


6
Months
FY
1978
1,402
615
543
485
473
207
184
172
145
143
1,685
6,054


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY MONTHS


Months
O ctober.... ..... ...... ..................... ..........
November ................................. ...............
December ......................................................
January ...... .......... ... ... ..........................
February ......... .............................................
March .........................................................
T otal ...................................... .................
IBefore deduction of any operating expenses.
Statistic compiled by Executive Planning Staff


Tronsits
FY1979 FY1978
1,115 1.028
1,089 947
1,087 1,002
1,072 1,000
949 942
1,175 1,135
6,487 6,054


Tolls (In thousands
of dollars)
FY 1979 FY 1978
$18,279 $14,995
17,611 14.280
18,232 14,848
16,849 14,433
15,162 14,199
19,443 17,022
$105,576 $89,777


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
6 Monits
1979 1978
TRANSITS (Oceangoing)
Commercial. 6,487 6.054
U S. Government 47 45
Free 7 3
Total 6.541 6.102


TOLLS,
Commercial
U.S. Government
Total
CARGOz (Ocean-
going
Commerclai
U.S Government
Free
Total


$105.617,016 $89,799,541
452,425 421,735
$106.069.441 $90.221,276


79.605.442
92.992

79.698.434


63.980.513
131,771

64.112.284


Includes tolls on all vessels. oceangoing and small.
2Cargo figures are in long tons.
Statistics compiled by Executive Planning Staff.




private moment so as not to take away
any glory from the larger ship as the
first vessel to transit the Panama
Canal. That same scene appears in
color on the dust jacket of the new
book about the Canal, "The Path
Between the Seas," but the little tug is
never identified. With a magnifying
glass this writer has seen the Gatun's
name across the front of her pilot-
house in a photo.
For 16 more years the Gatun was to
remain in the Canal Zone carrying out
the chores of a tug. About 1930 she
returned to the United States and was
renamed H. B. Chamberlain. About
1931 she was renamed Point Breeze
and owned by the Donaldson Towing
and Lightering Co. of Philadelphia,
with the home port of Wilmington,
Del. Moving scows and barges, and
docking and undocking ships were her
chief duties on the Delaware River.
In the early 1930's the Point Breeze
shifted her operations to Baltimore
carrying out a regular harbor routine
of towing and assisting ships. While
sailing out of that port she en-
countered what may have been the
most harrowing experience of her
career. On August 21, 1933, the tug
left Baltimore for Gibson Island, Md.,
towing a barge filled with muck from a
dredging operation in Baltimore harbor.
When approaching the Seven-Foot
Knoll Lighthouse 30 miles from
Baltimore, she was wracked by
heavy winds and seas. Water seeped
below deck and the tug was in danger
of sinking. The captain sounded
4 rapid blasts on the steam whistle in
distress and awakened the keeper of


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 57


- -- -- ~----'-











PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL

(in long tons)

Atlantic to Pacific


Commodity
Corn.. ......................... .................. ... .. ............
Petroleum and products ..................................... ...........
C oal and coke ........................................................................
Soybeans.............. .....................
W heat ............................................ ........................... .........
Phosphate .............................................................. ............ .....
Metal, scrap ...............................................................................-------------------
Sorghum ...................................... .................----
Chemicals and petroleum chemicals .......................................
Manufactures of iron and steel .............................................
Sugar ..................................... .. ...----- --...... ---...........
O res, various .............................................. ................. ....... .........
Fertilizers, unclassified ..................................... ..............
Caustic soda..................................................... .............................
Ammonium compounds ............................................... ...............
All other ..................... ...................... ..............................
Total............ .........................................


6 Months
FY 1979
7,126,998
5,643,842
5,624,675
3,363,955
2,851,969
2,795,941
1,937,733
1,446,366
1,119,858
816,912
735,883
696,038
567,414
403,210
343,928
5,690 358
41,165,080


6 Months
FY 1978
4,479,041
5,098,725
4,129,163
2,883,453
1,332,006
2,219,164
751,867
1,490,771
899,075
997,099
554,090
759,013
716,011
272,937
319,537
4,602,976
31,504,928


Pacific to Atlantic


Commodity
Petroleum and products.................................. ............ .........
Manufactures of iron and steel .............................................
Lum ber and products ................................... ...... .............
Ores, various ....................................... ...............
Coal and coke ................................................................... .
Sugar ....................................................... ... ......................
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas)..............................
Pulpw ood .................................. ......... ........... ........ ..
Bananas................................... ...... ...............................
M etals, various......................................... .. ....... .........
Sulfur .. ........................................... ......................................
Autos, trucks, and accessories ..................................
Salt ........................................... ........................ .......
Fishm eal ........... ........................ ........................................
W heat ...........................................................
All other ......................... ....... .......... ...
T otal................................ ..... ......


6 Months
FY 1979
16,370,359
2,761,109
2,707,316
2,364,664
1,562,542
933,722
933,267
868,870
755,764
692,966
633,396
549,006
456,742
424,136
396,348
6,030,155
38,440,362


6 Months
FY 1978
10,102,124
4,108,626
2,432,983
2,478,799
630,473
1,469,290
873,976
768,143
843,718
704,462
464,671
579,526
314,613
240,485
554,930
5,908,766
32,475,585


CANAL TRANSITS-COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT


Commercial:
O ceangoing ........................................... .....................
Small .................................................................
Total...................................... ................

U.S. Government:
O ceangoing ... .......... ... ......... ..............
Small .............................. ............ .......
Total ................................... .........
G rand T otal........................................................


6 Months FY 1979
Atlontic Pacific
to to
Poclfic Atlontic Totol
3,391 3,096 6,487
317 168 485
3,708 3,264 6,972


22
72
94
3,802


25
76
101
3,365


47
148
195
7,167


6
Months
FY
1978
6,054
327
6,381

45
104
149
6,530


'Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons. Statistics compiled by the
Executive Planning Staff.


the light. Manning a small boat, the
keeper went to the aid of 4 men who
had jumped off the stricken vessel as
she settled beneath the waters of
Chesapeake Bay, and also recovered
the body of the engineer who had died
of a heart attack after he had jumped
from the tug.
The Point Breeze was later raised,
renamed Chester the next year, and
resumed her career around Baltimore
harbor. In 1957 the Curtis Bay Towing
Co., of Baltimore, was recorded as
her owner. Most of that firm's craft
were newer diesel tugs less historical
than the former Gatun but more
suited to the needs of modern
shipping. The Chester was laid up to
await a purchaser but the only offer
came from a scrapyard.

In late 1958 the Chester was
acquired by the salvage firm of Martin
G. Imbach, Inc. in Baltimore for
breaking up. This writer long knew of
the earlier career of the Chester, her
historic association with the Panama
Canal, and desired to preserve some
relic from the craft. As the tug was
being cut apart by torches, I was able
to secure her brass steam whistle,
4 feet in length including its release
valve, before it was shattered for
melting down. If anything on the tug
was original from her Canal days,
other than her rugged hull, I felt it was
the steam whistle which had blown so
vigorously as the Gatun made her
entry into the first of the Gatun Locks
that eventful day in September 1913
when the world was shown that a
vessel could be lifted from the Carib-
bean level to that of Gatun Lake.
A whistle is just about indestructible.
Only the valve, a separate unit, needs
occasional replacing. This whistle
compares favorably with the one
appearing in photos of the Gatun
taken at the time of the opening of the
Canal when its hoarse tones echoed
around the sides of the locks 65
years ago.
It is quite possible that this steam
whistle, now mounted on a wooden
block in the author's home, is the only
portion of that historic ship in
existence and serves as a reminder
of the beginning of a new era in world
shipping. And certainly the Gatun was
one of the most long-lived of any of the
numerous vessels which participated
in the construction of the Panama
Canal.


OCTOBER 1, 1979






















Mary and Herbert Knapp are
teachers in the Canal Zone schools.
They currently are at work on a book
about life in the Canal Zone entitled
An Ambiguous Utopia. It is a
retrospective view of the unique
community where those who built
and operated the Panama Canal lived
and worked for 75 years. The
following article is a digest of a
chapter from that book. The Knapps
are also the authors of One Potato,
Two Potato: The Secret Education
of American Children (Norton,
1976).

T HE AMERICAN CANAL ZONE
in Panama belongs squarely in the
American utopian tradition that runs
from the Puritan "City upon a Hill" in
seventeenth century Massachusetts
to the latest condo "paradise" in
Miami.
Not many of the blue-collar aristo-
crats or shirt-sleeved bureaucrats
who lived on the Zone ever thought of
it as a utopia, but when they came to
the Zone they became part of a small-
scale, managerial society designed
according to a fairly rigid plan. The
theory was that a pervasive pater-
nalism with a corresponding restric-
tion of certain liberties would result in
the happiness, well-being, and most
importantly, in the productiveness of
the people.
It wasn't a perfect society, but
utopias never are, except in books.
Real utopias are experiments. They
take place somewhat apart from the
real world, somewhere between euto-
pia, "a good place," and outopia, "no
place." That's right where the Canal
Zone used to be, along with Brook
Farm, the Oneida Community, Or-
derville, New Harmony, and hundreds
of other American social experiments.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 59


Bwookin




IackwAId



By Mary and Herbert Knapp
Of course, those in charge of the
canal project didn't plan the Zone as a
social experiment. When Charles
Magoon, second governor of the
Zone, proposed establishing a model
government, he was plainly told that
the Isthmian Canal Commission was
in Panama to build a canal, period.
Nevertheless, as the canal workers'
communities developed, the Zone
increasingly resembled the society
described by Edward Bellamy in his
futuristic utopian novel, Looking
Backward.
Few people know that book today,
but in the decade following its
publication in 1888, Looking Back-
ward outsold anything ever published
in America except Uncle Tom's
Cabin. It appealed to "brains" and
"roughnecks" alike; to wild-eyed
socialist agitators and dewy-eyed
social belles. Bellamy's admirers or-
ganized themselves and became a
political force. In 1935 three American
intellectuals called Looking Backward
the second most influential book of
the preceding half-century! According
to John Dewey, James Beard, and
Edward Weeks, only Dos Kapital had
more influence upon the world than
Looking Backward.
The resemblance of the Canal Zone


to Bellamy's imaginary society didn't
go unnoticed. A visitor reported in
1913, "The dream of the late Edward
Bellamy is given actuality on the
Zone"; about the same time Canal
Zone Policeman 88 testified, "It
strongly resembles what Bellamy
dreamed of years ago." And as late as
1928, a Zonian was still explaining to
tourists that her community was
frequently referred to as "resembling
Bellamy's Looking Backward." She
went on to say, "When Bellamy
journeyed across the Isthmus-in the
eighties-Panama certainly did not
present a possibility, even to the most
visionary, of eventually becoming the
nearest approach to... the ideal of the
Utopia that his remarkable book
pictures."
But it would be a mistake to
suppose Looking Backward provided
a blueprint for the Canal Zone. The
Zone resembled several nineteenth
century literary utopias, Etienne Ca-
bet's Voyage en Icarie (1840), for
instance. By the end of the nineteenth
century a lot of people had come to
similar conclusions about what a
better world would be like. It would be
very much like the Canal Zone.
In Cabet's utopia, everyone works
for the government, which owns the
factories, cultivates the land, and
provides clothing and household
furnishings-as was more or less the
case in the Canal Zone. But the
uncanny thing about Cabet's Icaria is
that it looks like the Zone.
The city of Icaria is divided by a river
that has been deepened and straight-
ened to accommodate large ships.
The river's banks have been fronted
by straight walls. On an island in the
middle of the river is a palace
surrounded by trees and gardens, and
on the terrace of the palace is a statue







of Icar, the founder, which overlooks
the city.
The Zone, too was divided by a
waterway, a canal, not a river, but the
Chagres River was deepened and
straightened to form the Canal, and at
the locks one even sees the banks of
the "river" enclosed in straight walls.
The Zone's equivalent of Icaria's
palace was the Administration Build-
ing-known on the Zone as "The
Building"-as if there were no other. It
is not on an island in the middle of the
Canal, but it sits on a hill that rises like
an island in the middle of the city of
Balboa, and it overlooks the Canal. It
is also surrounded by carefully ar-
ranged trees and plants. On the
Building's terrace, between the flags of
the United States and Panama, is a

Nw )ysa


.



". how resourceful they are at
devising methods to keep
the streets clean."

large rock taken from the Cut-not a
statue of the founder, but a monument
to the founders: "Dedicated to the
builders of the Panama Canal ."
The most outstanding feature of
Icaria is its cleanliness. The character
in Cabet's novel who describes the
Icarians breaks into excited italics
when he mentions how "resourceful
they are at devising methods to keep
the streets clean." He oh's and ah's
about "subterranean canals" that
drain water from the streets and about
the absence of dust and mud.
His paradise is more notable for
what it lacks than for what it contains.
He says that the eyes of the citizens of
Icaria are not offended by street-
corner hangouts, advertisements, graf-
fiti, "rich and pretty shops," or "those


paintings of nudes or voluptuous
scenes. ... Such pictures no husband
would want his wife and the mother of
his children to behold."
Anyone who ever lived on the Zone
will be struck by its similarities to
Icaria. The Zone, too, was remarkably
clean. Its grass was kept cut; its trash,
promptly removed. An admirable
system of subterranean canals, cre-
ated by Zone engineers, drained water
from the streets, sidewalks, and
airfields, mud was not something the
average Zonian worried about-ex-
cept mothers. Children often sought it
out for games of mud football and mud
sliding.
And like Icaria, the Zone was
notable for what it lacked-cabarets,
gaming houses, establishments of
culpable pleasures. No commercial
advertisements cluttered its land-
scape or airwaves. The Zone's televi-
sion station advertised only morality
and the military life. As for voluptuous
scenes, a Zonian who wished to
purchase Playboy at the Company
commissary had to wait while the
clerk took it from under the counter
and stapled it inside a paper bag. The
Zone, however, was never as pure as
Icaria. It never, for instance, reached
the point where it could do without
gendarmes.
Unlike Cabet, who emphasizes the
cleanliness and geometric order of his
utopia, Bellamy emphasizes the or-
ganization of labor and the distribu-
tion of wealth in his. Bellamy's utopia
doesn't have so much the look of the
Zone as the "feel"of it.
As a story, Looking Backward is
pretty corny. But Bellamy wasn't
trying to write a literary masterpiece.
He was a social reformer who wanted
to promote equality and brother-
hood-his "Religion of Solidarity"-
and to make men less materialistic.
The central institution of his dream
world is the Industrial Army. Every-
one from age twenty-one to forty-
five belongs. Related industries are
grouped into ten divisions. The
President of the United States, or
"the general-in-chief," is chosen from
among the retired division-chiefs.
Only retired workers can vote, but
everyone retires at forty-five. From
twenty-one to twenty-four, everyone
works as an apprentice or a laborer.
His performance is regularly evalu-
ated. Those with the highest scores
get first choice of occupational


specialities. There are three grades in
each industry and two classes in each
grade.
The Zone was never quite like this,
but it came close. Zonians were
certainly members of an Industrial
Army, one that included 1,754 dif-
ferent kinds of jobs. Only the
Department of Defense listed a
greater variety. And the Canal Army
was organized much like Bellamy's
Army. The Zone, too, had its
divisions-Electrical, Dredging, In-
dustrial, Railroad, Schools, and so on.
What's more, all Zone workers were
classified NM-9 or GS-10 or whatever,
much like those in Bellamy's world.
But Zonians weren't required to work
as laborers for two years in their
twenties, though the Zone did have a
flourishing apprentice program. Nor
did Zonians retire at forty-five and
vote for their governor.
Age entitles you to privileges in
Bellamy's paradise, and as a result, he
was accused of advocating geron-
tocracy. On the Zone, age alone didn't
entitle you to a thing, but length of
service-ah, that was another matter.
Length of service on the Zone could
get you what money couldn't buy-
assignment to the house of your
choice.
Bellamy wanted to eliminate osten-
tatious displays of wealth which he
thought were socially divisive, so
everyone in his utopia received
exactly the same pay-from generals
to the inhabitants of insane asylums.
Officers in the Industrial Army were
rewarded with prestige and power but
not cash. At the year's end, all unused
money reverted to the state, so you
couldn't get ahead of your neighbor by
saving.
To further discourage people from
buying things just to impress the
Joneses, Bellamy standardized all
products and eliminated competing
retail outlets. Everyone shopped at
the government store, where no
new product was introduced unless
customers petitioned for it.
People on the Zone were never
economically equal, but there was a
good deal more visible equality there
than in most places. The limited kinds
of housing available contributed to
this impression of a relatively narrow
range of inequality. And there was
simply not much scope for con-
spicuous consumption in a com-
munity where everyone lived in rented


OCTOBER 1, 1979







quarters and did most of his shopping
at the "commy."
Did the Zone's approximation of
Bellamy's vision work? Did it en-
courage brotherhood? There was
never any lack of squabbling on
the Zone-especially about housing.
Sometimes the smaller the difference
between two houses, the greater
difference if made to people-a point
planners of future utopias would do
well to consider. And visiting writers
often note that social divisions con-
tinued to exist, something no Zonian
would deny.
The problem was that the Zone was
a one company community. There
was no satisfactory way to achieve
prominence outside the Company
hierarchy. As a result, the social
prestige of the hierarchy went unchal-
lenged, though it was sometimes
resented.
On the other hand, in a book
published in 1928, a Zone resident
keeps referring to the "democratic
setting" of the Zone, and she praises
the governor for his "democratic
manner." Clearly she's not referring to
a political system but to an atmos-
phere of informality. If people did not
meet as equals on the Zone, they
nonetheless met. The smallness of the
Zone accounted for that. And usually
Zonians were spared the pomp
and circumstance of ostentatious in-
equality. Then, too, they shared a
connection with an historic enter-
prise. All this may help explain why
ex-Zonians who did not socialize on
the Zone tend to greet one another
like fraternity brothers when they
meet elsewhere.
Bellamy's second goal was to make
men less materialistic. He assumed
that given a margin of economic
security, people would lose their taste
for accumulating possessions. It never
quite worked that way on the Zone,
but for years the lack of air-
conditioning on the Isthmus dras-
tically limited the kinds of possessions
a Zonian could have. In those days the
sparseness and standardization of
household furnishings would have
pleased the most puritanical of
Bellamy's disciples.
Even after the introduction of the
air-conditioning in 1957-1958, the re-
strictions on private enterprise and
the simplicity of life on the Zone
encouraged Zonians to devote them-

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 61


selves to a remarkable range of non-
materialist avocations, ranging from
volunteer community work to chart-
ing butterfly refuge areas in Central
America.
The Zone never provided its
residents with the array of choices and
opportunities for personal develop-
ment one finds in the United States.
What it did provide was time. People
lived close to their jobs; no one spent
hours every day commuting to work.
Nor were people offered a great
variety of professional entertainment.
There was plenty of time to "do one's
own thing" on the Zone.
Those things included studying
shells, antique bottles, rocks, dialects,
and South American folk dances.
There were orchid men on the Zone,
and snake men, bug men, bird men.
Painters, potters, pathfinders: Ex-
perts on stage lighting, skin-diving,
molas and the music of Elgar.
And all of these avocations carried
Zonians beyond the boundary of the
Zone into Panamanian theatrical and
musical circles, Panamanian service
organizations, kennel clubs, motor-
cycle competitions, sports arenas,
and of course, into Panama's moun-
tains and jungles.
One of the drawbacks of the Zone
as a utopia is that is was too small. Few
could have remained happy on the
Zone for long had it not been for
Panama and United States "out there"
with their broader horizons. For all its
virtues, the Zone was a limited place.
But then so was Bellamy's utopia.
Just as life on the Zone revolved
around maintaining and operating the
Canal, so life in Bellamy's utopia
revolves around maintaining and
operating his system. One problem
with utopias is that once you're there,
there's no place to go.
For that reason neither the Zone
nor Bellamy's timeless dreamland
could fully accommodate American
ideals. Like the Zone, Bellamy's utopia
contains no political parties. There
were no political campaigns and no
campaign promises. And in the tiny
regulated world of the Zone, there was
no room for the impossible dream.
But one should not overlook the
Zone's considerable virtues. It was a
beguiling place-not a twentieth cen-
tury dream of kaleidoscopic change,
consumption, and magic, but a
nineteenth century dream of clean-


lines, preservation, and rationality.
And though the Zone was centrally
controlled from "The Building," in-
dividual communities had distinct
characteristics. Bellamy would have
approved of that. His utopia was
meant to combine the advantages of
diversity and unity.
For instance, in construction days a
workman described Ancon as on the
way up socially, but insecure com-
pared to Cristobal, "the most 'Statesy'
of all Canal villages." Gorgona was
unruly but hospitable; Empire, arty;
"Pedro Miguelites were given to card-
playing"; Paraiso was serious and
charitable. Some of these towns
disappeared long ago, and the atmos-
phere of others changed over the
years. But any ex-Zonian will have his


".. dedicated to the builders
of the Panama Canal ..."
own memories of the distinctive
atmosphere of his "Canal village."
Bellamy was one of the first
planners who wanted to balance
technology and nature. Perhaps in no
place did men come closer to doing
that than in the Canal Zone, where
the Canal was our machine; the Zone,
our garden.

Among the hundreds o 'nineteenth century utopian
experiments in the United States was an effort to found Icana.
led by Cabet himself At vonous times there were Icaano
settlements near The Red River in Texas: at Cheltenham.
Missouri Nauuoo. Illinois: Corning, lowa, and Claverdale,
California By 18S7 all had Jailed and the Icarians became
Amercans


On next page:
Aerial view of Balboa.









.... ii.... ..


Ii, ii ..


The lights an the Thatcher Ferry Bridge come an as the sun sets over the Canal an the Pacific side of the Isthmus. Below: Ancon
Hill is silhouetted and Gargas Hospital is clearly visible in the night phota taken from the Lottery Building in Panama City.


64 OCTOBER 1, 1979







The Canal Zone At Night

Like beacons in the night, the lights of
the Canal provide the illumination vital
to its 24-hour operation. Below:
Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks
stand out in the darkness. At right: A
1915 night photograph of the
Administration Building to compare with
our cover photograph. Inside the back
cover: The Fort Amador Causeway is
outlined by the lights of cars and in the
Canal a streak of light indicates the
movement of a ship.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




Full Text

PAGE 1

' ranamOL CqdqI R eujdar* 9S6.iO05 PIS7

PAGE 3

PANAMA .l*^ CANAL OCTOBER 1, 1979 5r*. \r .****• .. ._ •^'

PAGE 4

ll ?B?S*'^>.. ; <*&*'* 640 f ttt 11(1 10 ^•r ***' \r I yteM Ink

PAGE 5

From The Governor of the Canal Zone T. At left: A ship moves through Gatun Locks on a nightime transit of the Panama Canal. On pages 4 and 5: A view of the Pacific side of the Canal Zone as seen from Sosa Hill. his year, the Panama Canal celebrated its 65th anniversary. Since the SS Ancon made the first official transit of the waterway, August 1, 1914, more than half a million ships have moved through the Canal transporting a wide variety of commodities to all parts of the world. The Panama Canal treaties, which go into effect today, mark another significant milestone in the history of this important world utility. They mark the beginning of a new era bringing changes that challenge all associated with the waterway. For Canal employees, the passing of jurisdiction over the Canal Zone to the Republic of Panama and the creation of the new and smaller Panama Canal Commission call for major adjustments in lives and livelihoods. The Canal Zone has passed into history. It has been unique in American political history and a showcase of American organization. All who have worked and lived here can take pride in the standard of excellence set during construction days and maintained throughout the years. We must now turn our attention to the future. Much has been done in that regard. The initial changes taking place have been anticipated and carefully planned to avoid any major disruption in the operation of the Canal. But the best of plans will fail without the enthusiastic efforts of those who must carry them out. In this regard I am confident that the keen sense of responsibility and devotion to duty which have prevailed will continue to be reflected in the efficient operation of this world utility. To those who are leaving the Canal, I wish you Godspeed and good luck. For those who are staying on with the Commission, other U.S. Government agencies, or the Republic of Panama, the days ahead will demand the best that you have to offer in terms of continued commitment to your duties and willingness to adapt to new situations. Judging from the dedication you have shown during these last uncertain years, I know that you are equal to the task. $[ e 0
PAGE 6

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1979pana

PAGE 8

HAROLD R. PARFITT Governor-President JAMES H. TORMEY Lieutenant Governor ^ PANAMA ||g|| CANAL g WILLIE K. FRIAR Editor VICTOR G. CANEL „ „ Write J' s ... , ,. ~„. Fannie P. Hernandez, Dolores E. Suisman. Acting Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication VlCKJ M Boatwright All articles and illustrations in the Panama Canal Review may be reprinted in full or in part without further permission by crediting the PanamaCanal Review as the source. The Review is normally published twice a year. Yearly subscription is $3 for regular mail and $6 for airmail. The price for back issues is $1.50 for regular and $3 when sent by airmail. For subscriptions, send check or money order made payable to the Panama Canal Commission to Panama Canal Review, Panama Canal Commission Public Information Office, A.P.O. Miami, Fla. 34011. The editorial office is located in Room 100 Administration Building, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama. In This Issue -"THIS EDITION OF THE REVIEW MARKS AN END AND A BEGINNING. 1 It takes a nostalgic look at the past — at the buildings, the symbols, the living J ~ l *£&| anc > working environment of the Canal Zone — and an optimistic view of the challenge of change facing the Canal organization. ... ^ '-m 'n ^Sft&P — Taking the place of both the summer and winter editions, this special edition of ^*&&&%^m { he Review is being published to mark the day of the implementation of the new 8fetSJn,j.-*£fe^di Panama Canal treaties. The October 1 edition will be the last time the Review will appear as an official *^_ "^ *;" '""Wv -^-^SSSm tne P anama Canal Commission, it will become an official publication of that U.S. ''v.J&3t*i Government agency, which will be responsible for the operation of the Canal. With the Summer 1980 edition will come the first major change in the Review's logo since it began publication May 5, 1950. The retiring of the Canal Zone seal will leave a hole in our logo but for the next edition there will be a Panama Canal Commission seal to take its place. Special thanks go to our guest writers who include Pandora Aleman, formerly an Information Office writer but now with Records Management Branch; Janet Len-Rios, free lance writer; Robert Burgess, retired Curator of Publications for the Mariners Museum in Newport News, Va., and Veterinarian Nathan B. Gale who collaborated on the wildlife story with Dolores Suisman, recently retired editor of the Spillway, the Canal's weekly newspaper. The new Spillway editor, ^k Vicki M. Boatwright, assisted in the layout and design of this edition. a&^Sa'dd i I Photographers whose work is included in this edition are: Mel Kennedy, who ^&$Pt& M designed the cover and served as art and photo director, Arthur L. Pollack, Don Goode, Kevin Jenkins, Alberto Acevedo, Gerry Laatz, and Bob Rogers, all of the Graphic Branch, and Vic Brown and Fred Robinson, of the Canal Zone Police, who provided most of the wildlife photos. Artwork is by Carlos Mendez of the Graphic Branch and Dante Fiori of the Division of Schools. Contents Buildings 7-24 Symbols 25-35 The Panama Railroad 36-37 Flora and Fauna 38-49 The Canal Today 50-53 The Canal Yesterday 54-58 Looking Backward 59-63 The Canal Zone at Night 64-67 On The Cover Lights from the many new highrise buildings of the Panama City skyline are a dramatic backdrop to the classic lines of the Canal's Aaministration Building in this night photograph by Mel Kennedy, who went to the top of Sosa Hill to get this view. Back in 1915, "Red" Hallen chose the same site for a night photograph of brand new building and the Prado. It appears on page 65. A comparison of the two photos makes clear the dramatic changes that have taken place over the past 64 years. 6 October 1, 1979

PAGE 9

v Administration Building Unites Past, Present and Future By Vicki M. Boatwrighl THE POWERFUL SCENES OF Canal construction that dominate the walls of the Rotunda of the Balboa Heights Administration Building hold employees and visitors alike in their thrall. For the murals depict in bold brushstrokes of pale ocher, bright orange and brick red the monumental labor that went into building the Canal. They tell us of what used to be. But the very quiet of the rotunda and the air-conditioned coolness distance us from the realities of construction days. They seem far away in time and space. But face north in the rotunda and walk forward a few steps. All of a sudden the gap between past and present is bridged. In the central staircase, laid down in pink Tennessee marble in 1914, the steps are grooved from the treading of thousands of pairs of feet that have passed this way since the building was completed. As you take hold of the mahogany banister and begin to climb, you become part of that throng: hurrying to work on a breezy dry season morning in 1915; carrying blueprints up to Engineering in 1923; worrying about war news in 1942; or trudging back to work in 1957 after a 5
PAGE 10

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PAGE 11

high-powered committee boasting such notables as colonels Gorgas, Hodges and DeVol to find a suitable location on the Pacific side for a building that would be "well fitted to the purpose and character of an edifice which is to guard and direct the interests and operation of the Canal, overlooking . what will be the first permanent town of the Zone." They considered five locations, four on or near Sosa Hill and one on a knoll of Ancon Hill west of the quarry that gave Quarry Heights its present name. When the committee decided on the latter site, which they described more precisely as "30 feet back of the former triangulation station on Lone Tree Hill," Goethals approved the choice with the stipulation that not a spoonful of earth was to be moved until a competent architect had gone over the ground. Goethals' idea of a "competent architect" was Austin W. Lord, head of the department of architecture at Columbia University and a senior member of the firm of Lord, Hewlett and Tallant of New York. But theirs was to be a difficult association. Lord spent the month of July 1912 on the Isthmus studying the topography of the land and local conditions that would affect the design of the buildings. The agreement was that he would return to New York to work out a general scheme in which all of the buildings "from Toro Point to Taboga Island would be of a prevailing style." He was to visit the Isthmus every couple of months during the construction period. The arrangement never suited Goethals. The Chairman wanted the architect to leave his 5th Avenue offices and come to the Isthmus until the job was completed. Their correspondence reflected the basic conflict — the hard-driving Goethals sent curt memorandums demanding to know what the hold-up was and complaining of delays caused by having to do business by mail; Lord wrote long letters back, explaining that the Commission hadn't authorized him enough draftsmen, and more importantly, Canal officials had made no decisions as to how the offices would be layed out. The Canal Record was later to comment, "The entire building was planned without any definite knowledge of what offices were to occupy it, LumilllllllTlltf At left, in January 1914 the exterior of the Administration Building neared completion, but Albrook Field was still a swamp and the Ancon Cemetery had yet to be moved to what is now Corozal to make way for new houses. Miraflores Locks is visible in the distance. Above: It's 1916 and a payday at the building, where employees line up at the pay windows located at the west wing to receive their wages in gold. Down the hill the First Baptist Church is under construction. Below: Males were still in the majority at the building in 1929, judging from this scene in the Record Bureau. The group seemed to be divided right down the middle on the bow tie versus the four-in-hand. The Record Bureau handled the Canal organization's general files and was situated on the second floor in the space now occupied by the Personnel Bureau. how much space they would require or how they would be correlated. . ." Goethals had been very firm on one issue, however. He informed the architect that the Administration Building was to cost, when completed, "$375,000 and not one cent more, as we have no more and are going to ask for no more." No final costs are recorded in the detailed story on the building that appeared in The Canal Record on December 30, 1914, but memoranda indicate that the final figures far exceeded the estimates. At $25 per square foot, the rotunda's Van Ingen murals alone would run nearly $25,000. Lord's direct involvement with the Isthmian Canal Commission apparently terminated in 1913, but not The Panama Canal Review

PAGE 12

before he had developed the plans for the Administration Building, the layout and design for the Prado-type quarters and terminals buildings of the town of Balboa, and the plans for the hydro-electric station at Gatun, as well as the three locks control houses. He had decided on the "E" shape for the building to keep it narrow enough to maximize the efficient use of natural light and because, had it run end to end in a line, the amount of floor space required would have made the building too long. The style he chose is Italian Renaissance. With Lord out of the picture, his assistant at Culebra, Mario J. Schiavoni, was given the title of architect. With it came the responsibility of carrying out the plans of his predecessor and all the headaches associated with the undertaking. Schiavoni had an artist's imagination, a quality not altogether appreciated by either Goethals or the resident engineer in charge of construction, Frank Holmes. With the latter, Schiavoni became engaged in a feud carried on by memorandum, centering mainly around the architect's tardiness in getting final drawings for the building completed. At one point, apparently fed up by Holmes' habit of sending a copy of every The overpowering beauty of the high, domed ceiling, the dramatic murals and the marble columns and floor make the rotunda the main attraction of the Administration Building. The murals, executed by artist W. B. Van Ingen at the request of Col. George W. Goethals, depict, below from left, the digging of Gaillard (Culebra) Cut at Gold Hill; the erection of a lock gate; the construction of Miraflores Locks; and the construction of the spillway at Gatun Dam.

PAGE 13

memorandum to Goethals, Schiavoni let fly this memo to Holmes: "I beg to state that I consider your attitude in making repeated written statements about my work very unco-operative and uncalled for." Among the suggestions made by Schiavoni was that a decorative title panel in honor of the Canal builders be placed above the main entrance to the Administration Building. It would be sculpted to show an American construction worker flanked on either side by a Negro, a Spaniard, a Frenchman and a "Hindoo," with a steam shovel at one end of the panel and a dredge at the other. The Chairman turned down the proposal with one sentence: "... I am of the opinion that all that will be necessary will be a plain inscription with letters, V-shaped inset, reading 'Administration Building, Panama Canal, 1914'." The architect's recommendation that the Seal of the Canal Zone be laid in marble mosaic tile in the center of the rotunda floor met with a similar fate at the hands of Holmes, who declared it to be too costly and time consuming. But despite personality clashes and delays for which each blamed the other, the construction work progressed steadily. Notwithstanding his caution about spending, Goethals applied the same imagination and foresight to the construction of the Administration Building that he had to the Canal itself. He brought Albert Pauley, the developer of a new process for making concrete tile blocks, to the Isthmus to oversee the erection of a plant to manufacture the blocks for all the permanent buildings in Balboa. Artist W. B. Van Ingen of New York, famous for his work in the Library of Congress and the Philadelphia Mint, was hired to paint murals for the rotunda that would preserve in art form something of the monumental labor involved in building the Canal. At Schiavoni's request, each week's progress on the Administration Building was recorded by Commission photographer Red Hallen, whose work on the Isthmus using bulky glass plate negatives was to later become invaluable in visualizing the history of the construction era. On July 15, 1914, a little more than a year from the day the first steel beam was erected, the Administration Building had its first occupants. The timekeepers' offices at Culebra, Balboa and Cristobal were assigned one large room extending from the rotunda to the west end of the building on the first floor. All the heavy construction work had been completed at that point, but the 50 employees who were paid in gold and the complement of clerks and messengers who received their wages in silver moved in amidst the sawing, hammering, mortaring and painting that accompanied the laying of the pine flooring, the red tile in the corridors, and the mosaic tile in the rotunda, and the finishing up of the carpentry work and electrical wiring. No landscaping would be done until the following December, so outside the building the grounds were a gigantic mudhole. Temporary wooden steps led downhill to the Prado level, where by June of 1915, the houses had been completed and construction on Barnebey Street begun. As with any construction project, not every detail had gone according to plan. The Administration Building's third and final architect, Samuel M. Hitt, wryly pointed out that fact in a memorandum concerning payment due on the eight marble columns in the rotunda. Commenting that the columns were a first class job of marble work, he added that the supplier was not to blame for the fact that construction workers had set the top member of the column bases in upside down. Visitors to the rotunda today will notice that with the exception of one column, the outer edge of the round marble disc upon which each of the columns rest is ridged, indicating that side should be facing downward against the octagonal lower base. Between July and September of 1914, the offices at Culebra, Empire and the administration building at Ancon were moved into the new building. By June of the following year, the building housed 424 employees, 49 of them women. Both the location of offices and the daily routine of the employees that occupied them were, in most cases, quite different in 1914 from what they are today. In regard to the offices, only a few have remained in their original locations. When Governor Goethals, his Lieutenant Governor (formerly called the Engineer of Maintenance) and their secretaries moved into the second floor north front corner overlooking Balboa and the Canal, they set a precedent for the location of those offices that has continued to today. The Chief Health Officer and Chief Quarantine Officer moved out of the old administration building at Ancon into the Health Department, on the second floor, which has since become the Health Bureau. Its offices have been enlarged, but like the Balboa Heights Post Office, the Health Bureau is where it has always been.

PAGE 14

Office hours were from 8 to 12 a.m. and 2 to 5 p.m. the first two years after the building was opened, and most employees walked to work. Judging from a circular from Governor Goethals issued to all Administration Building employees, at least one temptation of office life has not changed at all. Goethals reproved employees for the practice of leaving work early at noon and in the afternoon "in order to secure an advantage in being served in the lunch room or securing seats on the motor buses." While the opportunity to leave during the two-hour lunch break was obviously available, it would appear that many employees chose to stay in the building during the heat of the day. Offices were locked during the noon hour; but with commissary coupons employees could buy a light lunch consisting of sandwiches, coffee, and pie from the basement restaurant that ran the length of what is now the Graphic Branch. Pool and billiard tables were set up in the basement for the men. The female contingent at the building must have complained about wanting equal consideration, for a After winding his way up the spiral staircase located off the central stairway, Panama Canal photographer Kevin Jenkins examines the remains of a safelight in what was once the darkroom of the Canal's first Official Photographer. Below: The building's "E" shape is apparent in this aerial view. short time later two rooms on the third floor now occupied by the Office of the General Counsel were set up as reading and sitting rooms for the women. Employees could find plenty to read in the library located on the third floor in what is now the office of the director of the Engineering and Construction Bureau; but there was no room to sit down. The Canal Record reported that "The Canal library is so filled with reading matter as to leave little room for readers." Not long afterward, it was moved to the first floor area now occupied by the Press and Information offices. Kathleen McGuigan, retired administrative assistant to the Comptroller of the Panama Canal Company, recalls that when she went to work at the building in 1934, the coffee break, now a mainstay of Administration Building life, was non-existent; but an employee could buy cigars and candy from a stand that had been in existence in the small room on the landing between the first and second floors since the building opened. As a matter of fact, very little about the Administration Building's offices or routine had changed when the 20-year-old daughter of two Roosevelt medal holders got her first job with the Canal as a clerk in the Claims Bureau, which took up the area now assigned to the Budget Branch. The Paymaster's Office with its two large vaults occupied the end of the west wing that now belongs to the Office of Internal Security. When Miss McGuigan received her monthly pay receipt, she walked outside to the porch to cash it at one of the barred pay windows still visible today, just as her parents had done since 1914. Only back then, she remembers them saying, the payroll was delivered by horse-drawn wagon and their wages were paid in gold. As a child, she remembers climbing the winding stairway to the photographer's studio located in the attic at the center of the building directly above the main staircase. The photographer Hallen took her portrait using the north light coming through the paned skylight window that since has been covered over with the red tile of the roof. Many years later the Graphic Branch was to find several thousand tiny glass plate negatives of employee identification photos stored in the wooden filing cabinets of what must have been Hallen's office under the 12 October 1, 1979

PAGE 15

sloping eaves. To get to it he had to walk around the top of the rotunda dome, which rises out of the attic floor like something from the science fiction film "Close Encounters of the Third Kind." The Graphic Branch was able to distribute a few hundred of the negatives to relatives still living on the Isthmus. Today the attic is a storage place for old engineering plans, bound volumes of Canal studies, civil defense supplies, and the bulky air-conditioning equipment that cools the building. But the peeling black paint on the walls of what was once a darkroom is a silent witness to its original use. C. A. Mclvaine, Executive Secretary under Governor Goethals, still held that position when Miss McGuigan came to work for the Company. To employees, she says, he was "like God." Governors came and went but C. A. Mclvaine endured, carrying such broad responsibility as to make him, in effect, the working governor. His office was located in what is now the Governor's Board Room. The Correspondence Bureau, much later to become Administrative Services, took up the space on both sides of the hall that now belongs to the Office of the Executive Secretary. Nearly all of the secretarial work for the Administration Building and a great deal of the writing was handled by employees of that bureau. Office supplies were kept in a stationary storeroom, Miss McGuigan recalls, just as they had always been. Government forms and writing paper, as well as the ubiquitous paperweight to anchor them against the dry season breezes that blew through open windows, were among the items requisitioned on a weekly basis. The present Director of the Company's Office of Equal Opportunity Bruce Quinn, who grew up on Barnebey Street in Balboa, says his most vivid memory of the Administration Building is when as children he and his sister stood at the bottom of the stairs each afternoon, starched and pressed, waiting for their father to get off work. At closing time, Quinn recalls, great waves of people poured out of the building and down the broad expanse of stairs. Indeed, the stairs played a significant role in community life at one time. On Memorial Day in years gone by wreaths were placed against the bronze plaque embedded in the base of the original flagstaff to honor the Canal's World War I dead. On the Fourth of July refreshment booths were set up on the concrete terrace around the building, and the stairs were alive with people watching the marching band on the circle of grass below. Today, only a few hardy souls come and go by way of the 113 stairs that architect Lord had so carefully designed to emphasize the majestic sweep from the building to the Prado, an effect now broken by the presence of the Goethals Memorial. The years have brought manychanges to the Administration Building. Offices have been moved from one floor to another and in some cases to other buildings. Windows have been blocked with concrete, and others have been created where no windows existed. Billiard tables and reading rooms are a thing of the past. Paychecks are cashed at the basement vault that once housed valuable records. The scars in the concrete retaining wall at the end of each wing of the building are all that remain of the hitching rings of the horse and buggy era. Governor Parfitt will walk down the stairs one last time and the Office of the Governor will become the Office of the Administrator. But the grandfather clock there that dates back to the French canal effort will go on ticking away the passage of time. And the grooves in the pink Tennessee marble stairs will keep getting deeper, reminding us that past and present are one. Col. George W. Goethals was the first Governor of the Canal Zone to use this second-floor office overlooking the town of Balboa, and Maj. Gen. H. R. Parfitt is the last. The Panama Canal Review 13

PAGE 16

THE GOVERNOR'S HOUSE, THE building most intimately linked with the construction days of the Panama Canal, will become the official residence of the Administrator of the Panama Canal Commission, with the departure of Governor Harold R. Parfitt, the last Canal Zone Governor. The historic house, built as a residence for the Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission, was located in the construction-day town of Culebra, overlooking what is now Gaillard Cut. Its first resident, John F. Stevens, canceled plans for an elaborate new residence for the chief engineer which was being built in Ancon because he wanted a simple house close to the work site. The building originally designed to be the official residence is now the District Court Building. It is featured in a story on page 24. Lt. Col. George W. Goethals moved into the house in 1907 when he succeeded John F. Stevens as Chief Engineer. As Goethals was also chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission House 159 became the quarters of the Canal Zone's chief executive. It was in the house at Culebra that most of the official visitors, coming to see the Canal construction, were entertained and many expressed regret that the commodious house was to be dismantled and that the town, with its profusion of attractive tropical shrubbery, would be abandoned following the opening of the Canal. The house and several other buildings were taken down in 1914, each section carefully numbered, and moved by flatcars to new locations at Balboa Heights. According to records, the Governor's House cost $19,773 to build in 1906. It cost almost that much $16,300, to move it from Culebra in 1914, and re-erect it at Balboa Heights. Though a number of changes have been made during the tenure of each Governor, the house on the side of Ancon Hill, the official residence of Canal Zone Governors for more than 60 years, remains basically the same as when it was first constructed. Col. Chester Harding, Governor from 1917 to 1921, had a porte cochere built at the front entrance over the circular driveway. During the administration of Col. Meriwether L. A Link With The Past Walker, 1924-28, some general alterations were made, the main one being the doubling of the width of the side veranda. Most of the original equipment and furniture was replaced during the administration of Col. Harry Burgess, 1928-32. At this time, the Governor's House acquired its first official china and flat silver which bears the Canal Zone seal. It was in that era also that the Canal Zone seal was woven into table and bed linen. Major changes were made in 1959 and 1960, under the supervision of Governor and Mrs. W. E. Potter, who in the interest of history and tradition, rejected plans for a completely new official residence. Instead, they retained the original style of the house, with its wide-sweeping verandas, high ceilings and large gracious rooms, characteristic of Canal construction days. Walls and foundations were reinforced, and wooden flooring was replaced with tile on the first floor. The stairway was relocated, a modern service section built in the basement, and a small bedroom, bath, and library on the first floor were converted into a comfortable air-conditioned guest suite. Whenever possible, materials, including the polished tiles on the first floor and the ornamental iron gates in the garden, were obtained in Panama. The handsome Chippendale dining table, its 22 matching chairs, buffet, and two serving tables were made of native mahogany by the Maintenance Division to replace the set dating back to Goethals' day. A fountain was added in the front of the house, a fish pond and fountain built on the patio, a retaining wall was constructed to terrace the gardens and considerable landscaping was done. During Governor Walter P. Leber's term, the house was air-conditioned throughout. A breakfast porch, in keeping with the architecture of the house, was added in 1971 during Governor David S. Parker's term. Items that enhance the historic atmosphere of the house continue to be added. A collection of oils and watercolors of the Canal and Panama, painted in 1913 and 1914 by E. J. Read, that has been acquired by the Canal Zone Library-Museum, is displayed on loan in the house, along with oils by Alwyn Sprague, well-known Canal Zone artist. When the Tivoli Guest House closed, some of the furnishing, including one of the famous wicker rocking chairs, were transferred to the Governor's House. Entertaining at the Governor's House includes formal dinners and luncheons for 10 to 60 guests and informal receptions, dinners, teas and coffees accommodating up to 200 or 300 guests using the spacious reception areas inside as well as the patio and garden. Because of sudden showers during the rainy season, from May to December, a large awning is placed over the main part of the patio. The second floor of the house is for family living. It includes a large living room; two large bedrooms with baths; a study; a wing with a small bedroom and bath; and utility room. Most of the upstairs furniture is provided by the family occupying the house. Furniture in the downstairs area belongs to the house but each family adds a few additional personal pieces of furniture as well as some decorative objects. Through the years, while it stood at Culebra and after it was moved to Balboa Heights, distinguished guests from many countries including presidents of the United States and Panama have visited this historic house. Many on the long and impressive list of visitors who have been entertained at the house by Governor and Mrs. Parfitt since his appointment March 24, 1975, came to the Isthmus in connection with the negotiation and ratification of the Panama Canal treaties. Included on the list, which reads like a "Who's Who" of well-known United States and international business, civic, and political leaders, is a large percentage of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives. Having a deep appreciation for the history of the house, the Parfitts have made a special effort to invite Canal employees to come by for a visit and a tour of the public rooms and the garden. For their Christmas receptions, the invitation was extended to every member of the Canal workforce. 14 October 1, 1979

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'• '.' I "H,} The house as viewed from the garden and the veranda remain basically the same as in construction days except for the screens which were replaced with glass when the house was air-conditioned. Right below: Governor and Mrs. Parfitt take a walk in the garden. The Panama Canal Review 15

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Below left: A painting showing the dredge "Cascadas" at work, in the Canal is displayed just inside the front entrance. Below right: Some of the wicker furniture from the Tivoli Guest House and mola pillows add local color to a section of the porch. Historic Plaque Lists Governors Engraved on the plaque at left, which is on a wall in the house, is the following: "Moved from its original location in Culebra, a now abandoned construction town on the other side of the Canal, old 'No. 159' has housed Governors of the Canal Zone since that time. In one way or another, its occupants have left an imprint on the structure. There have been grounds changes and internal modifications. But the house remains basically the same as built for its first occupant, John F. Stevens, Chief Engineer, Isthmian Canal Commission in 1906." Also engraved on the plaque are the names of the former occupants, which includes 16 Canal Zone governors: Gov. Harold R. Parfitt's name will be added at the end of his term of office. The Goethals family lived in the house, while it was at Culebra and after it was moved to Balboa Heights for a total of 10 years, far longer than any other family. There are seven living former governors. Past governors and their years of service are as follows: George W. Goethals (1914-1917) Chester Harding (1917-1921) Jay J. Morrow (1921-1924) M. L. Walker (1924-1928) Harry Burgess (1928-1932) J. L. Schley (1932-1936) C. S. Ridley (1936-1940) Glen E. Edgerton (1940-1944) J. C. Mehaffey (1944-1948) F. K. Newcomer (1948-1952) John S. Seybold (1952-1956) William E. Potter (1956-1960) W. A. Carter (1960-1962) Robert J. Fleming Jr. (1962-1967) W. P. Leber (1967-1971) David S. Parker (1971-1975) Although they never lived in the Governor's House, other Governors of the Canal Zone or officials who were commonly given the title of "Governor" during the construction period. May 4. 1904 to March 31, 1914, under the Isthmian Canal Commission were: General George W. Davis, Governor of the Canal Zone (Member of original isthmian Canal Commission) May If, 1904 to May 24, 1905; Charles E Magoon, Governor of the Canal Zone (Head of Government and Sanitation) Member of Commission, May 25. 1905 to October 12, 1906, Richard R Rogers, Governor of the Canal Zone (Head of Department of Law & GouernmenfJ November 19, 1906 to March 31, 1907,JosephC S Blackburn, Headof Department of Civil Administration (Member of Commission) April 1, 1907 to December 4. 1909, Maurice H Thatcher, Head of Department of Civil Administration (Member of Commission) May 13, 1910 to August 8, 1913; Richard L Metcalfe, Head of Department of Civil Administration (Member of Commission) August 9. 1913 to March 31, 1914. 16 October 1, 1979

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The Panama Canal Review 17

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By Fannie P. Hernandez LEAVING THE CIVIL AFFAIRS Building in Ancon, the 12-yearold boy smiles as he admires the photo on his brand new identification card. For the card, or "ID" as everyone calls it, is a sign that he is growing up, a Canal Zone rite of passage into the adult world. His mother smiles, too, as she walks to the car with her son. She is remembering other happy occasions that were marked by a visit to this building. There was the thrill of her first driver's license at 17, her husband's hard earned ham radio operator's license years later, and the recent purchase of a plate for their new car. Whether old timers or new arrivals, Canal Zone families sooner or later end up at the low white building off Gaillard Highway that bears a striking resemblance to an airport. For the Canal Zone's old timers, the removal of the control tower and the addition of a neon sign spelling out "Drive Inn" on one wing and the "License Section" identified in big block letters on the other hasn't changed how they see the building. They still remember the busy activity of a commercial airport, which it was for several years, and the propeller driven planes taxiing down Albrook Field. Above: The Civil Affairs Building today. At left: Leaving the License Section, Herbie Raybourn shares the thrill of his first ID card with his mother Jacqueline. His father, Herb Raybourn, heads the Recreation Services Office located on the second floor of the building. The first commercial flights to the Isthmus landed at France Field on the Atlantic side, where Pan American Airways had a small wooden structure that served as its terminal. In 1940, when PAA established flights three times a week from Miami to the Canal Zone, operations were shifted to the Pacific side because France Field was inadequate for the new larger fourengine planes. Civil Affairs Building Combines Business, Pleasure As commercial air traffic increased, it interfered with emergency wartime activities at the Albrook Air Field terminal, and it was decided that a terminal for all commercial service should be built. Following the allocation of $1,800,000 from the Emergency Fund of the President, the terminal was constructed, along with a hangar, small utility building and other appurtenances. The building and hangar were designed by a group of architects and engineers working under the direction of Lt. Col. Norman J. Riebe, of what was then called the Panama Engineer Division. The contract was awarded to Tucker McClure and Thompson-Markham Company and work was to be completed in 100 days. 18 October 1, 1979

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When it was inaugurated on June 19, 1943, and turned over to the Governor of the Canal Zone for operation, it was one of the most beautiful, modern and fully equipped air terminals in this part of the world. The firs plane to use the new terminal was a Panagra airliner southbound for Lima. Reinforced concrete stucco on cement block and glass block was used in the construction of the two main floors, topped by a glass observation room and control tower. Its low flat construction exemplified a modern design of the early '40's and offered the least possible hazard to aircraft on landing and taking off. The exterior was painted olive drab to conform to wartime regulations. A stained glass medallion was set in a window above the glass doors that opened by means of photo electric cells, believed to be the first in these parts. The medallion, designed by Colonel Riebe, combines a wing and propeller motif with the flags of the United States and Panama against a sheaf of flags of all nations of the Pan American Union. Heavy wooden benches were centered in the spacious waiting room and main lobby that extended up through two floors. A monolith map of the Western Hemisphere with Panama at the center was inlaid in the terrazzo floor in front of the information desk. The map was to be the cause of a formal complaint by a South American ambassador who claimed that a border between his country and that of a neighbor was not correct. To avoid the possibility of other "border disputes" the narrow metal bars marking the borders were removed and the map was reset in one solid color. A unique feature of the building was the flat built-up tar and felt roof where water remained during the rainy season. The water was expected to provide added insulation and because its temperature was approximately 120 degrees, it was too hot to permit the breeding of mosquitoes. Since the greater part of the construction was done after the United States entered the war, there were material shortages and priorities. Where original plans called for steel, it was necessary to substitute wood or iron. Local materials were used wherever possible. Stair railings were made of Central American mahogany, lockers were of wood instead of steel, and refrigerator shelves of mahogany. Terrazzo replaced marble on the facade. After the war, as air travel became more popular and the terminal became a busy international link between North and South America, there was a constant stream of diplomats and other dignitaries, businessmen, tourists and movie personalities. Local teenagers flocked to the terminal when they heard of the arrival of Clark Gable, Tyrone Power, Cary Grant, Dolores Del Rio, Edward G. Robinson, Vincent Price and many other celebrities. A rather "very important person" to pass this way was an Indian maharaja who an hour after his plane took off realized that he had left his coat behind in the terminal. The airliner returned for the coat. Another incident that caused quite a stir was a shoot-out in the terminal between a member of the Somoza family of Nicaragua and a political enemy. When it was announced just a few years later, that a new international airport was to open in Panama and the commercial airlines would be moving their operations there, a number of requests and recommendations for the utilization of the terminal building were sent to the Governor. The Caribbean Air Command offered to transfer the Albrook grade school to the Panama Canal if it would relinquish claim to the air terminal and its facilities. As early as July 1945, a group of employees suggested that it be converted to a "modern and up-to-date club for the exclusive use of Canal and Railroad employees, with a first class restaurant, bar, dance floor, tennis courts and club rooms." However, the Panama Canal urgently needed the space to house many of its activities that were scattered in temporary wooden buildings and to eliminate the congestion in the Administration Building. When Tocumen Airport was opened in September 1949, the terminal was converted into office space for the Public Affairs Office, as Civil Affairs was then known, The Federal Aviation Administration maintained its offices there until 1962, when it moved to its present location. Above: A view of the newly opened Canal Zone Air Terminal, painted olive drab to conform with wartime regulations, shows the hangar and part of the airstrip. At far right, two canvas topped touring cars, taxis of the early 1940's wait for passengers. The Panama Canal Review 19

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For the past 30 years, the building has been the seat of the Civil Affairs Bureau, the bureau of the Canal Zone Government responsible for public education, police and fire protection, postal, customs and licensing services, other government functions, and home of the Canal Zone LibraryMuseum. The Library was the first to transfer to its new location in the left wing of the second floor which included the Pan American Airways' 4-engine "fat-bellied" Boeing takes on fuel at the Canal Zone Air Terminal before taking off on the Canal Zone to Miami flight. BWMHBWMBMMBJMMMiWMBBMBHi Bookshelves are lifted into more comfortable and commodious quarters on the second floor of the former air terminal where the Library moved in November 1949. former mezzanine, moving in November 1949 from the first floor of the Administration Building. The Museum moved in late 1950 to what had been the first floor lobby and the area looking out on the airfield. When the air terminal building was turned over to the Civil Affairs Bureau, it needed a new name. Among the suggestions were McIlvaine Building or Mcllvaine Hall, in honor of C. A. Mcllvaine, who was executive secretary of the Panama Canal from 1914 to 1940; Goethals Hall "with a bust of him in the concourse"; and Civil Functions Building. Canal Zone Governor F. K. Newcomer said he believed that Library Building was "adequate and appropriate," and that is what it was called until May 22, 1950, when it was officially designated the Civil Affairs Building. That same year, the administrative offices of the Division of Schools moved from the Balboa Elementary School to occupy the right wing of the first floor. The License office moved from the Police Station opposite the Balboa Elementary School to the area that had been the airmail dispatch section and bonded storage of Panama Customs. The Police and Fire divisions, which until 1950 were one division, each established headquarters in the building in the mid '50's; the Fire Division took over an area in the left wing of the first floor that for a time had been used by a branch of the Postal Division for the sale of money orders and postal certificates; and the Police Division located in the second floor area formerly occupied by airline offices. The Canal Zone Postal Service and its Philatelic Agency moved to the third floor observation room where employees have enjoyed a privileged view. From their desks, they could follow the top of ships transiting the Canal, passing trains, and aircraft landing and taking off at Albrook. Since it was created in 1963, the Recreation Services Office has been located on the second floor, and when the Canal Protection Division became the fifth division of the Civil Affairs Bureau, it took over space in the right wing of the second floor. When Civil Defense was a part of the Civil Affairs Bureau, it too had an office there. The control tower operation was 20 October 1, 1979

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moved to Tocumen Airport when the terminal closed. The former kitchen became a Drive-Inn in January 1950 and the coffee shop was later converted to a vending site. The electric door device was removed in 1952, perhaps because the doors opened inward into the building and Canal Zone fire regulations require that doors in public buildings open outward, The bar had been transferred earlier to the Hotel Washington. Five directors have served as administrators of the Civil Affairs Bureau over a period of nearly 30 years. Col. Richardson Selee (retired) was named the first director when the first reorganization of the Panama Canal and Panama Railroad operating units was made in July 1950. When Selee left the Canal in October 1953, Henry L. Donovan was appointed to succeed him and served until his retirement in August 1961. Bernhard I. (Emo) Everson was the third Civil Affairs director and served until October 1973, when he retired. He was succeeded by Francis A. Castles who retired in February 1977 and Fred A. Cotton was appointed the fifth and last Civil Affairs director. With the disappearance of the Canal Zone Government upon entry into force of the Panama Canal Treaty, title of the Civil Affairs Building has been transferred to the Republic of Panama. The Treaty, however, provides for the Panama Canal Commission to use certain office space within the building during the period of transition for activities related to the management, operation or maintenance of the Panama Canal. The Treaty also allows the Commission to operate and maintain the public library-museum, enabling the library to offer full scope library services from the building. In accordance with the Agreement, the Police, Fire and Canal Protection division headquarters will remain in the building from 12 to 14 months, until new headquarters are readied for them in the former Balboa Housewares Building. These divisions are sharing the building with Panama Government offices including Panama's main municipal traffic court and Panama's licensing and registrations offices. The stained glass medallion signifies that the building was once an airport. Civil Affairs Building "old-timers" listen attentively as Library-Curator Beverly Williams (1951) tells her longtime coworkers the story of the oil painting of the Half Way House that hangs on the second floor. From left, Rhoda Fox (License Section, 1950), Peggy Zeimetz (Director's Office, 1953). Billy Hultin. Director's Office, 1961), Cecilia Vaz (Schools, 1951), and Doris Etchberger (Schools, 1949). "Old-timer" Katherine Melanson (License Section, 1951) was not present for the picture taking. The Panama Canal Review 21

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By Janet Len-Rios History of C.Z. Hospitals A Chronology of Change 22 October 1, 1979 Aerial view of Gorgas Hospital on the Pacific side of the Isthmus and, at right, Coco Solo Hospital on the Atlantic side. THE FIRST CANAL-SUPPORT hospital on the Isthmus of Panama was L'Hospital Central du Panama built by the French Canal Company in 1882 at Ancon near the present site of the Logistics Building. The latest major hospital construction in the Canal Zone was the completion in 1977 of the pylons added to the Main Building of Gorgas Hospital to absorb the destructive forces of earthquakes. The change from French to American administration brought a change in name to L'Hospital Central du Panama in 1905 when it was, by gubernatorial decree, renamed Ancon Hospital. Canal Zone medical facilities have, since the beginning, been staffed by outstanding medical personnel who have become particularly well known in the field of tropical medicine. The hospital at Ancon has had its own laboratory since 1905. With the close of the Canal construction period and the concomitant decrease in workforce to operational levels, many of the buildings in the spawling complex at Ancon, by that time rather run-down anyway, were no longer needed; so a smaller, more modern and more centralized facility was planned. The "new" Ancon Hospital was completed in April of 1919. In March of 1928, by Joint Resolution of Congress, Ancon Hospital was renamed in memory of Maj. Gen. William Crawford Gorgas, the first Chief Sanitary Officer of the Canal Zone, for his work in ridding the Isthmus of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector of the dread yellow fever which had taken such a terrible toll in human suffering and death during the early Canal construction days. The advent of World War II brought an urgent need for expanded medical services to facilities already taxed by an influx of personnel to work on the third locks project. Existing facilities were enlarged and hospitals were also built on the various military bases. Modernization has continued and the present Main Building of Gorgas Hospital was completed in 1965. In recent years needs have again changed and medical services have been gradually consolidated at the two main hospitals— Gorgas on the Pacific and Coco Solo on the Atlantic. Flexibility and change have been bywords for medical services in the Canal Zone. With this history, it should come as no surprise that yet another change is in store. On October 1, with the implementation of the treaty, jurisdiction over Canal Zone medical facilities will transfer to the United States Department of Defense. The Panama Canal Review 23 gi**^L

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ALTHOUGH ORIGINALLY considered the "permanent Administration Building," this concrete block building at the foot of Ancon hill served that purpose less than a decade, before becoming headquarters of the U.S. District Court for the Canal Zone. The rambling three-story landmark with a striking view of Panama was first intended as the permanent residence for the Canal Zone governor. The house, whose completed cost a report of the Isthmian Canal Commission estimated at around $200,000, was to have had 15 bedrooms, each with its own bath, a roof garden and a 55 by 48 foot drawing room. Between 12 and 15 servants would have been necessary to keep it up. In late 1906, before anything but its exterior was completed, Chief Engineer Stevens ordered that it be converted to an Administration Building, and by January of 1908 it was ready for l.C.C. officials to move in. The first occupants were the chiefs of the Civil Administration Department; the Division of Posts, Customs and Revenues; and the Secretary of the Commission. By September of 1914, when the transfer to the "new" Administration Building at Balboa Heights was completed, only the offices of the Special Attorney, the legal department and a branch pay office Court Comes To Order in The Ballroom remained. The following year the headquarters of the United States troops in the Canal Zone was temporarily located on the second floor. Exactly when it was decided to convert the building to its present use is not clear. A memo to the Governor from the Constructing Quartermaster dated November 24, 1914, authorizing repairs and alterations costing $29,000 bears a handwritten note saying the lower floor was to be used as a District Court. In December the Quartermaster recommended that the former Sanitary Office on the first floor be used as a courtroom and that the second and third floors be converted into high class bachelor quarters to "afford us some relief for the congestion which has existed for a long time at Ancon." In July of 1915 he advised that no repairs be made until it was decided what was to be done with the building. In any case extensive renovations were carried out and the offices of the U.S. District Court moved in February of 1916. The courtroom was the large room at the front of the building that had originally been intended as the ballroom of the Governor's residence. The old District courthouse in the rear of the Ancon police station was turned over to the Christian Science organization. Following implementation of the new Panama Canal treaty the U.S. District Court will continue to hold session in this building for a 30-month transition period. 24 October 1, 1979

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w r Canal Zone Seal Retired But Replicas Abound By Pandora Gerard Aleman MAJ. GEN. GEORGE W. DAVIS, first Governor of the Canal Zone, is said to have remarked in 1905 that the Seal of the Canal Zone would be a fixture on the Isthmus "for all time." His words have an ironic ring today, as the Canal Zone is erased from maps of the world and the seal itself is eased into retirement. Representations of the seal have been a common sight on the Isthmus, displayed on arm patches of the Canal Zone Police, on some official cars, on a pillar outside the rotunda in the Administration Building, on the Governor's flag, on stationery, forms, and postage stamps, and even on "license plates" created by the Panama Canal Society of Florida to help identify to each other Canal retirees living in the United States. Hand-painted replicas have been presented to such distinguished visitors as Congressmen, the Panama Canal Board of Directors, the Industrial War College, and foreign diplomats. Creation of the seal was, one might say, a gesture of faith in the Canal enterprise, for when it was conceived the Panama Canal was still a mosquito-ridden, rain-drenched dream (or nightmare!). The Isthmian Canal Commission declared in 1904 that "the Executive Secretary . shall be the custodian of the seal of the Government of the Canal Zone, and shall attest such acts of the Governor as are required by law to be done and performed under said seal." This has been the real job of the official seal, the embossing device whose home since 1906 has been the Executive Secretary's office: to authenticate official and legal documents, particularly those to be used in jurisdictions other than the Canal Zone. Together with the signature of the Executive Secretary, the impression of the seal has attested the authenticity and validity of official acts. Through the years, the Executive Secretary and his staff have had plenty of opportunity to flex their muscles in the exercise of this official function. The seal and signature have been affixed to as many as 5,000 documents a year, from parole and pardon documents to notary public commissions. Having once decided to create a seal, the Commission cast about for an appropriate design. The origins of the seal are somewhat cloudy, but it appears that both Governor Davis and Gaillard Hunt, a former State Department official, had a hand in the design, and that some characteristics were inherited from the French canal builders. In 1905, Governor Davis wrote: "The motif of my design was, first, to comply with the law — second, to give it an essential interoceanic canal character, for the United States has but one errand at Panama — to make a canal, to join the seas for the benefit of mankind — and I, therefore, adopted a motto expressive of that idea." "Of course," he continued, "it is well known that M. DeLesseps adopted a motto for his [French Canal] Company, the idea of which was that the continents were divided for the benefit of mankind." In 1905, "Messrs. Tiffany and Company," of New York City, submitted several designs for the seal to the Department of State and the Isthmian Canal Commission. On Mr. Hunt's recommendation, one was adopted the following year after the Commission chairman changed the original word "earth" to "land"and made the sails of the Spanish galleon smaller. Tiffany's then made the outsized device for embossing the seal on official documents which has been hard at work for the past 63 years. But the Tiffany color design for the seal, which is still on hand in the Administration Building, is in many ways markedly different from the one so familiar to us. It consists only of a shield with a ribbon below; there is no border. The Spanish galleon shown passing through the Canal in the lower part of the shield is brown and flies an orange-and-white flag. The banks of the Canal are brown, with green grass, and the water is blue, showing a yellow-gold reflection from the slightly Replicas appear on Traci Cotton's track medal, plate and bronze plaque by Artist Alwyn Sprague; and on retail store items displayed by Viola Dixon, left, and Beverly Kinsey. The Panama Canal Review 25

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orange sky. Below is a light-blue ribbon bearing the motto "The Land Divided; The World United" in metallic-gold letters. So the seal might have remained, if President Woodrow Wilson had not in 1915 issued an executive order establishing that the Governor of the Panama Canal should have a distinctive flag, bearing the seal, for use in his official capacity. His executive order gives the first officially published description of the seal: "The seal consists of a shield, showing in base a Spanish galleon of the Fifteenth Century under full sail coming on between two high banks, all purpure, the sky yellow with the glow of sunset; in the chief are the colors of the arms of the United States. Under the shield is the motto: 'The land divided; the world united!' There are obvious discrepancies between President Wilson's description and Tiffany's execution of the design. Hence, as the official Historical Description of the Seal of the Dorothy Cogwell uses the Tiffany embossing device to affix the seal to an official document. Canal Zone says, "for years, color reproductions of the seal proved troublesome with mistakes being made in the arrangement of the white and red colors in the bars of the chief and in various shadings." To make matters worse, as the official description was reprinted over the years an error crept in (it was immortalized on the brass plaque below the sea! outside the rotunda). Whereas President Wilson speaks of "two high banks, all purpure" {purpure being a heraldic term for purple), the version with the typographic error reads, "two high banks, all purpose." (Imagine the quandary of an artist confronted with the task of depicting "all purpose" banks!) Finally, in 1956, it was decided to settle definitively the question of the proper color scheme. Employees of the Architectural Branch of the Engineering Division painted designs based on President Wilson's description. Of these, Acting Gov. Herman W. Schull Jr., selected illustrator Franklin Kwai Ben's rendition as the most faithful execution of the official description. Searching for a bold, striking design worthy of the seal, Kwai Ben had done 20 different color schemes. But one remained his favorite throughout. It was a simplified scheme, with the ship's hull, the water, and the Canal banks all purple. He gave the seal a blue circular border bearing the words "Seal of the Canal Zone Isthmus of Panama" in golden-yellow letters. His favorite turned out to be Acting Governor Schull's as well. Even though Kwai Ben's color scheme was adopted 23 years ago, and even though he for a time faithfully reproduced those colors when painting replicas for VIP gifts, still not every seal you see will conform to the official color scheme. A limited number of epoxy reproductions of the seal were made from a press designed by the Army Map Service in Washington, D.C., and hand-painted on the Isthmus in 1969 for use as VIP gifts. It was one of these that found a place outside the rotunda. Since that time, other blanks have been painted by whoever could be found with the time, energy, and skill to do it. Although most have guided themselves by Kwai Ben's design, the careful eye will detect that each artist's inventiveness and, perhaps, the colors he happened to have on hand influenced his rendition. One will see blue banks and blue water with white waves; sunsets ranging from dull orange-and-yellow to bright red; and flags of various colors unfurled atop the galleon's mast — in short, the range of variation that distinguishes the hand-painted artifact from the mass-produced. If you're lucky enough to come into the possession of one of these reproductions, treasure it for the "original" it is. From the time the seal was adopted, there have been hundreds of letters from collectors of official seals, asking for an impression, and from those who want to reproduce the seal — in books, on souvenirs, on handkerchiefs and shirts, in needlework. With the ratification of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, collectors intensified their efforts to corner the market on Canal Zone memorabilia — with special emphasis on any item, from molas to stamps, bearing a representation of the seal. Such activity accompanies the passing of an era. The Seal of the Canal Zone is obsolete. One cannot but hope, though, that elements of the seal may be reborn in some new device to be adopted by the Panama Canal Commission, just as the dream symbolized by the seal lives on in the reality of an interoceanic Canal that parts the Americas and unites the world. The 29Year-Old Panama Canal Co. Seal Becomes A Part of History The Seal of the Panama Canal Company was created following the reorganization of the Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company operating units in July 1950. Designed by the Engineering Division, the Seal depicts a lower locks chamber of the Canal with the bow of a ship of the Panama Line in the upper chamber behind a closed gate. Inscribed on the Seal is "The Panama Canal Company 1950." This Seal along with that of the Canal Zone Government becomes part of Panama Canal history following the establishment of the new U.S. Government Agency, the Panama Canal Commission, which will operate the waterway following implementation of the treaty. 26 October 1, 1979

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New Panama Canal Medal A Symbol of Change The passing of an era is commemorated in the bronze medal that has been issued to all permanent employees of the Panama Canal Company and Canal Zone Government who were on the rolls as of September 30, 1979, and have at least one year of service. The medal is IV4 inches in diameter to approximate the size of the Roosevelt Medal and is suspended from a bar bearing the aforementioned date. It features the seal of the Panama Canal Company on the front and the seal of the Canal Zone Government on the reverse side. The medals are serialized beginning with 00001. They have been distributed to employees with an accompanying certificate bearing the same serial number. The Panama Canal Company and Canal Zone Government Commemorative Medal was struck by the Medallic Art Company of Danbury, Connecticut. The scenes of Canal Zone life that appear on the certificates of appreciation are engraved by Dante A. Fiori, an audiovisual specialist for the Division of Schools. The Panama Canal Review 27

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Medals Chronicle History of Waterway HUMAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS, whether they be athletic endeavors such as the Olympic Games of the Greeks or engineering feats such as the building of a waterway to join the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, have always been recognized or commemorated by a symbol. In the era of the Greeks and the Romans, the laurel wreath was used to distinguish individuals of achievement. In our day, the medal serves this purpose. On at least five other occasions in the 74 years that have elapsed since the United States undertook to succeed where the French had failed, medals have been struck that had the Panama Canal as their motif. The Roosevelt Medal, IV2 inches in diameter, was issued beginning in 1909 to civilian U.S. citizens who had completed at least two years of satisfactory service with the Canal construction forces or the Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus between May 4, 1904 and December 31, 1914. Made of bronze and copper "French junk," scrap metal from the equipment that had been abandoned by the French, the medal features a bust of President Roosevelt on one side and a bird's eye view of steamers passing through Culebra Cut on the other. The Panama Canal Completion Medal commemorating the opening of the waterway on August 15, 1914, is struck in bronze and has a very unusual design. On one side the medal depicts a ship passing through the Canal with Columbia, the female personification of the United States, standing at the bow. Her arms are outstretched with each hand resting on globes of the eastern and western hemispheres and a ribbon stretching across her body is inscribed in Latin "Columbia Unites the Oceans." On the reverse is the seal of the Canal Zone and a statement certifying that the medal was carried on the vessel making the first transit of the Panama Canal. In 1962, the opening of the $20 million Thatcher Ferry Bridge which spans the Pacific entrance to the Canal was commemorated with a medal. The 2 1 / 2 inch bronze and silver medals feature the bridge on the front, and the reverse is blank. The aluminum medals are an inch smaller and show a map of the Isthmus on the reverse. To celebrate the Canal's Golden Anniversary in 1964, a medal was struck in silver and bronze. On the front the medal incorporates the four points of the compass and a shield, inside of which a ship sails through Gaillard Cut. On the reverse is the seal of the Canal Zone. The National Commemorative Society struck a silver coin-medal in 1971 to commemorate once again the opening of the Panama Canal and to honor Chief Engineer George W. Goethals. On one side is a bust of Goethals and on the other side is a ship in the Cut. The medals of the Panama Canal chronicle the highlights of human accomplishment on the Isthmus and preserve them for posterity in the beauty of metal. But the Canal itself in all its concrete splendor is the living, functioning monument to those first visionaries who dared to dream of a waterway to connect the oceans; to the thousands more whose sweat and blood brought the dream to completion; and to the men and women today whose labor keeps it operating at peak efficiency 65 years later. 28 October 1, 1979

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VISITORS DRIVING THROUGH Balboa for the first time are apt to slow down for a second look when they first spot the Statue of Liberty on Gorgona Road. Most are surprised to find a replica of this well known U.S. symbol so far south. The Canal Zone statue, which faces the Balboa Fire Station, was donated to the Canal Zone Boy Scout Council in May 1951 by Morris Hoffman, a Kansas City, Mo. contractor and scouting enthusiast. The original Statue of Liberty was formally presented on May 21, 1884 to the American ambassador in Paris by Ferdinand de Lesseps, head of the Franco-American Union, at that time at work on the ill-fated French effort to build a Canal in Panama. The idea of a replica of the statue originated with Jack Whitaker, a Kansas City businessman and Scouter of long standing, during the 1951 "Strengthen the Arm of Freedom" crusade of the Boy Scouts of America. A number of the 7 l / 2 foot high copper and bronze statues were made in a Chicago factory and presented to Boy Scout councils in 39 states. They are found gracing the grounds of eight state capitols, the lawns of 145 Court Houses, and 206 of the statues are located in Scout camps, school grounds and public buildings. In addition to the Canal Zone, the replicas also are found in the Philippines, Guam, Honolulu and Puerto Rico. Although the Governor had approved the installation site in the triangle of land bound by La Boca Road, Balboa Road and the parking lot in front of the Balboa Police Station, there were no funds for the work and the statue was placed on display at the Canal Zone Library. When funds, mainly donations from the Boy Scout community, were available, the statue was installed at the selected site and dedicated on May 30, 1953. The widening of Balboa Road made it necessary to move the statue to another area. It was relocated in May 1972 to its present site where it is often photographed by tourists. Celebrated Symbol A Surprise to Sightseers The Panama Canal Review 29

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For A Quarter of A Century A Balboa Landmark Symbolic in concept, the monument rising from a reflecting pool 65 feet in diameter, represents the Continental Divide. The basins on each side represent the Panama Canal locks with water pouring from them to join the waters of Gatun Lake with the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The shaft of marble is 56 feet high, 20 feet wide and 5 feet thick. It was designed by Shaw, Metz and Dolio, an architectural firm of Chicago with the firm of Mendez and Sander of Panama as associate architects and was built by Constructora Martinz of Panama at a cost of $152,299. THE GOETHALS MONUMENT which stands at the foot of the 113 steps which lead up to the front of the Administration Building was 25 years old this year. After a quarter of a century as a Balboa landmark, it is such an accepted part of the landscape that even old-timers have trouble remembering when it was not there. Yet, there was much controversy about the design and site for the monument and it took more than 25 years of discussion, delays, indecision, and planning before the memorial to the "hero of the Panama Canal" was erected in the Canal Zone. It was finally dedicated March 31, 1954. Efforts to build a monument to perpetuate the memory of General Goethals went on for years and formal plans were presented in May 1928 at the annual meetings of the various Panama Canal societies in the United States. The many years that elapsed between the planning and fulfillment of the project were not due to lack of enthusiasm. World circumstances, the depression of the early 1930s and World War II were the main delaying factors. Through the years, various proposals for a suitable site and for the memorial itself and other recognitions of Goethals were presented. Resolutions were introduced in the House of Representatives to change the name of Gatun Lake, Dam, Spillway and Locks to Goethals Lake, Dam, Spillway and Locks. Another suggestion was to change the name of the town of Gamboa to Goethals. A Goethals memorial library was suggested as were memorial museums, buildings and statues including a statue for the rotunda in the Administration Builan'.g. All of these ideas were discarded as unsuitable. On August 25, 1935, Congress appropriated $160,000 to build a memorial and President Franklin D. Roosevelt named General John J. 30 October 1, 1979

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Pershing to head the Goethals Memorial Commission. One suggestion given considerable attention at that time was a memorial at the Cristobal mole at the Atlantic entrance of the Canal. Another was a shaft or obelisk at one or both entrances to the Canal. President Roosevelt favored the proposal of a shaft with a beacon light to be placed atop one of the two hills in the Canal Zone. The Cristobal site continued to be reviewed and discussed until World War II when the construction of the memorial was postponed for the duration. Still, efforts to give recognition to Goethals continued and in early 1943, a group of Canal employees who had served with him suggested a bronze bust to be placed in the Governor's office. A letter was written to Tiffany and Company of New York asking if a bust about 12 inches high could be produced for $1,000 or less. Tiffany replied that it lacked the capability and called attention to a government regulation prohibiting the use of bronze as the metal was needed for the war effort. At about the same time, there was another movement to erect a 2' by 3' bronze memorial tablet "somewhere in the Canal Zone." It was to be made of "historic bronze," melted down old machine tools, that were used in the construction of the Canal. About 300 pounds were required for the proposed tablet that was to weigh about 150 pounds and was to be cast by Gorham of New York. In 1945, the ultimate tribute was suggested but Governor J. C. Mehaffey was strongly opposed to changing the name of the Panama Canal to Goethals Canal. After the war, the Goethals Memorial Commission was reactivated and interest was revived in the Cristobal site proposal which had been approved by Presidents Roosevelt and Truman. Balboa, Miraflores, Gatun and the Fortified Islands were added to the list of possible sites for the memorial, but by this time costs had risen markedly and efforts to have funds increased by Congress were not successful. At a meeting of the Commission in Washington on February 4, 1952, Chairman Ralph Budd presented a tentative design prepared by Alfred At right: Workmen install steel reinforcement for the base of the memorial. Below right: Monument begins to take shape. Below: More than 2,000 persons gather for the dedication, many of them enjoying the comfort of the Tivoli Guest House wicker chairs. Shaw of a Chicago architectural firm for a shaft of reinforced concrete with an outside shell of precast concrete which would be simpler and less costly than the proposed Cristobal design and could be built with available funds. After further discussions, the Commission authorized the chairman to proceed with the Shaw design for a monument in the circle in front of the Balboa Elementary School. The Commission approved it on April 4, 1952 and when President Truman was presented the proposal a few days later, he approved it wholeheartedly. Because of the possible hazard to low flying planes, the memorial site was moved to the foot of the Administration Building steps facing the Prado. The Panama Canal Review 31

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Work progressed on schedule and was expected to be completed on August 1, 1953 with August 15, the Canal's 40th anniversary, tentatively set as the date to hold the dedication ceremony. The date was postponed however, until the dry season, and Governor J. S. Seybold appointed a Goethals Memorial Dedication Program Committee. A rendition of "Stars and Stripes Forever" by the joint Balboa-Cristobal high school band opened the formal dedication ceremony. A half-hour concert by the band preceded the official ceremony as more than 2,000 revered the memory of General Goethals. Following the invocation by Rev. Alexander Shaw of the Balboa Union Church and Governor Seybold's introductory remarks and the reading of the message sent by President Eisenhower, who had designated that day a holiday for Canal employees, the honorable Maurice Thatcher, presented $25 U.S. Savings bonds to the winners of the Canal Zone schools essay contest on Goethals' contributions to the Panama Canal. Ms. Emily Butcher directed the La Boca Alumni Glee Club in a rendition of "American ^r Balboa Elementary School students gaze in wonder at the "snow." A 1956 Halloween prank, it was produced by adding detergent to the water flowing into the basins. Ode." The Honorable Richard E. Whitehead, author of the book "Our Faith Moved Mountains," a member of the Goethals Memorial Commission, made the formal presentation of the Memorial Monument as Dr. Thomas R. Goethals stepped forward and unveiled the memorial to his famous father. In addition to the formal dedication, an elaborate program of events was prepared for the old-timers, some in their late 70's and early 80's, who came from all parts of the United States to honor their hero. Although not a part of the official dedication program, Mary Pickford and her husband Buddy Rogers, who were visiting the Isthmus, greeted the persons gathered for the dedication of the monument honoring the man whose remarkable leadership, administrative ability and devotion to the task contributed to the successful completion of the waterway. Among the official guests were oldtimers who forty years earlier had worked on the Canal during the Goethals era; members of the Goethals Memorial Commission; members of the legislative committee having jurisdiction over Canal affairs; former Canal Zone governors; Goethals' son; Maurice Thatcher, the only surviving member of the Isthmian Canal Commission; the President of Panama and other distinguished guests; Canal employees, and many others who old-timers at the Goethals Exhibit at the Little Gallery in the Civil Affairs Building. There were many activities including teenage baseball games in which grandsons of the old-timers participated. At the dedication, Governor Seybold said, "The Canal itself is a great and lasting memorial to him and to the skill and perseverance of a great army of men who shared in its construction, this marble shaft is a visible mark of the respect and honor we pay to him and to his associates in the achievement of a task of herculean proportions and of immeasurable benefit to humanity . ." In the formal presentation of the memorial, Dr. Whitehead spoke of events that led to the construction of the Panama Canal and after lauding Goethals' life and work in Panama as a model of inspirational leadership, he said, "The Congress of the United States authorized the erection of this Memorial to General George W. Goethals in commemoration of his signally distinguished services in connection with the construction and operation of the Canal. By authority vested in me by the Goethals Memorial Committee, under whose direction the wishes of Congress have been complied with, I hereby dedicate this Memorial to all nations and to all people." In his message read by Governor Seybold, President Eisenhower said, in part, "it is indeed fortunate that a man of the stature of General Goethals was available to lead our construction force in this great undertaking and to set the pattern for its successful operation. It is only fitting that we should attempt to perpetuate his memory by erecting a memorial near the site of the humanitarian enterprise to which he was so selflessly dedicated." In addition to commemorating the outstanding contributions of General Goethals to the commerce of the world, the ceremony highlighted the 50th anniversary of the taking over of the construction of the Canal by the United States from the French canal company. The year 1954 also marked the 40th anniversary of the appointment of Goethals as the first Governor of the Canal Zone and 47th anniversary of his appointment as chairman and chief engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission. 32 October 1, 1979

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C.Z. Stamp Book A Collector's Item THE BOOK, "CANAL ZONE Postage Stamps," which has been out of print, is on sale again. The Canal Zone Postal Service has reprinted the book to meet the demand which has developed with the increasing interest in Canal Zone stamps. V-. \\ ..'•"'11 £et:\ s The Panama Canal Review Always popular with collectors, Canal Zone stamps have attracted special attention lately following the announcement that the Canal Zone Postal Service is to be dissolved on implementation of the treaty which gives Panama jurisdiction in the Canal Zone. However, it is not just the stamp collectors who are buying the book. Customers include those who are collecting all types of Canal Zone memorabilia and others who find it a handy reference book on the construction of the Canal and the development of the Canal Zone. Reflecting on the book's historic value, Gov. William E. Potter, who served from 1956 to 1960, wrote in the foreword: "The postal history and stamps of the Canal Zone Government vividly reflect the earlytrials, heartbreaking failures and glorious completion of the Panama Canal. These bits of postage depict the ingenious planners, scenes of their work and the determined 'canal diggers' accomplishments." "This book is an account of the birth and growth of the Canal Zone Government's postal system and its stamps. I trust it will help us to know and build upon our great heritage." The 452-page paperback volume, which was prepared by the late Judge Edward I. P. Tateman, Magistrate of the Cristobal Court, was issued in 1961. The reprint of the book and a supplement, which covers the period up to the present, are now available through the General Services Division. At left: The book, "Canal Zone Postage Stamps, is displayed along with three of the early stamps honoring Canal Zone construction day figures. President Theodore Roosevelt, William C. Gorgas and George W. Goethals; and the last stamp to be issued by the Canal Zone Government, the new 15-cent stamp, which was made from a painting by Alwyn Sprague, well-known local artist. In the centerfold: An assortment of items imprinted with the Canal Zone and Panama Canal Company seals and other items that were issued by the Company Government, all of which will be discontinued on October 1, are displayed on the door of a Company official car 23

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THE PANAMA RAILROAD IS one of a kind. For more than 70 years, it has been the only yearround passenger and freight operation of its kind run by the United States Government. The Isthmus' most effective means of mass transit, the railroad has carried a good share of the freight moving between Colon and Panama — about evenly divided among the Canal organization, U.S. military installations in the Canal Zone, and Panama— and has also handled most of the container cargo between the two ports. In fiscal year 1978, it transported 66, 136 passengers and 184, 162 tons of freight. Long accustomed to adapting to the vicissitudes of life, the Panama Railroad is now weathering yet another change. Under the terms of the new Panama Canal Treaty, the railroad passes, along with its supporting operations, to the Government of Panama. The Panama Railroad has seen a lot of history. In fact, it has been one of the chief actors in the drama of the Isthmus of Panama. It gave birth to a city. In 1847, William Henry Aspinwall, a New York merchant, raised eyebrows by setting out to build a railroad across the Isthmus and combine sea and land routes into one great system that would open up the whole Pacific. The railroaders chose Manzanillo Island — a square mile of virgin mangrove swamp — as the Atlantic terminus, and transformed it into what was to become the city of Colon. It killed thousands of men. The construction workforce was drawn from the four corners of the earth — England, France. Ireland, Germany, Austria, China, India, Jamaica, Colombia. Of the perhaps 12,000 of these who died of malaria, yellow fever, or other hardships of wilderness life and work, 6,000 found their final resting place at the railroad cemetery at Mount Hope. It played its part in the California 36 October 1, 1979 Gold Rush. In 1851, after 20 months of labor, the rails reached only 8 miles into the jungle, to Gatun. In October of that year, two steamers were beset by a hurricane that drove them from the mouth of the Chagres (the usual place of debarkation) to shelter in Navy Bay. From their anchorage, the gold-rabid passengers spied the work train, and there was no keeping then back. Since that day, the Atlantic port of Panama has been Colon. It conquered the mighty Chagres River. The river— 300 feet wide and sometimes rising 40 feet overnightswept away the first bridge at Barbacoas. But by late 1853 it had been spanned by a 625-foot, six-span bridge of boiler iron. And on went the railroad, until in 1855 it went from coast to coast, 47.51 miles over bottomless swamps and through near impenetrable jungle, till it neared Ancon Hill and the sparkling cathedral towers of the city of Panama. It made the Canal possible. In 1881 the Panama Railroad was bought by the French canal company, and when that enterprise failed the railroad faded away to "two streaks of rust and a right of way." The U.S. Government acquired it in 1904, and under the Canal's chief engineer John F. Stevens the railroad sprang to life again. Rebuilt to handle an endless stream Nostalgia Rides the Rails as An Era Draws to A Close of dirt trains and vastly increased commercial traffic, it offered its passengers an unparalleled view of one of the wonders of the modern world in the making. By 1912, the railroad line had been relocated on higher ground and the original line was abandoned to make way for the waters of the Canal it had helped create. Fittingly, the inaugural transit on August 15, 1914, as made by the Panama Railroad steamship Ancon. Since that day, as before it, the Panama Railroad has carried on its proud tradition of service to the Canal, to Panama, and to the world. An era draws to a close, now, but the Panama Railroad goes on. The Panama Canal Review 37

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Canal Zone Forests . By Dr. Nathan B. Gale and Dolores E. Suisman FEW URBAN DWELLERS SHARE as much of their living space with jungle animals as do those who live in the Canal Zone. It is because we see these wild creatures so frequently that we take them so for granted. When ecologists speak of endangered species, we think — if we think at all — that they are talking about exotic creatures that inhabit forbidding jungles we dare not enter. The key to understanding is to remember the animals we are intimately familiar with, the creatures of the wild that come so timidly into man's territory: deer that emerge at the forest edge at dusk to search for food, then flee back into jungle hiding places at the approach of a car; a family of neques we pause to watch — but too late, the mother has been warned. She bristles, looks right and left, and with her offspring, scampers back into the forest; the armadillo we come upon on an evening walk; an iguana lazing in the sun on our doorstep; the hummingbird flitting from flower to flower outside our office window; birds of many colors and kinds we toss bread to. These animals and birds we know and enjoy are some of the very ones ecologists are worrying about when they warn of the need for conservation and preservation of Canal Zone forest areas. For the Zone is a biological island of vegetation, animals, birds and insects that inhabit its undisturbed jungles and streams. In its lush rain forests, millions of creatures live and everything that lives in the jungle dies, decays and becomes food for new life. It all began about 5.7 million years ago, when a series of geographical groans and tortuous twistings of the newly emerged ocean floor created a land bridge, the Isthmus of Panama. This fortuitous geological event created the narrow strip of land that one day would attract explorers on their way to the Orient, plunderers of Incan treasures, travelers to California gold fields, engineers building a railroad and a canal — and wildlife in abundance. The land bridge heaved up from the ocean floor came to be at least as important to the birds, mammals, and reptiles of the Americas as it has been to the commerce of man. Land dwelling animals used this bridge to move into better grazing and browsing areas, and to search for more abundant or easier-to-catch prey. Many found the route from temperate to tropical climate to their liking, settled here, and developed diverse species. Some of these — bats, marsupials and sloths — are still here. Some are already gone forever, like the giant ground sloth which competed successfully with the environment until about a thousand years ago when it became extinct. With the Canal came the Canal Zone that today is the last safe haven for many endangered and threatened species. Because of restrictions on public access to the Panama Canal watershed and defense areas, much of the Canal Zone is an "island of forest" in the midst of a generally cleared countryside. This has helped preserve an astonishing variety of plants and animals in what is probably the most extensive readily accessible forest area in Middle America. The continued existence of these forests is ecologically important. They must be left unscathed if the birds and animals that inhabit or seasonally visit them are to survive. Many forestdwelling animals have special food requirements and are dependent upon unique habitats. It may be difficult — or impossible — for them to relocate. Many birds also are limited in their choice of habitat or migration route by their poor long-range flying ability. It is rare in Latin America to find areas set aside for biological reserves or national parks. But the ecological significance of the Zone's forests was recognized within a decade of the 38 October 1, 1979

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Canal's opening; in 1923, Barro Colorado was set aside as a biological reservation. Measuring about six square miles in area, the island is the largest in Gatun Lake. In 1930, the Canal Zone Forest and Wildlife Preserve (Madden Forest) was established, and hunting, injuring or molesting wild life; and cutting down, destroying or damaging timber or plants was prohibited in its 3,500 acres. More recently, hunting was prohibited on the land along the Pipeline Road beyond Gamboa. The importance of Barro Colorado Island, the immediate area of the west bank of the Canal, and the Pipeline Road area is illustrated by the number of species protected by law that live there. Sixty-three percent of the animal species protected by Panamanian game laws have been seen there. The U.S. Endangered Species Act lists 157 species of mammals endangered throughout the world. Forty (26 percent) live in North and South America, and of these, eight are found on Barro Colorado Island and in the Pipeline Road area. Thus five percent of all endangered mammals in the The Isthmus of Panama offers food and shelter to both North and South American bird migrants. The concentrating effect of the narrow topography on migratory routes offers a greater variety of avian life, when added to the native birds, than any other area of comparable size in the world. Five hundred sixty-two species of birds have been recorded from Canal Zone waters, shorelines, and forested areas. This is only 80 less than are found in all of North America north of Mexico. The highest one-day bird census recorded in the world was reported last year from the Atlantic side of the Canal Zone when 354 species were counted. The continued undisturbed existence of these areas could be justified solely on the basis of their research value. A Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute publication lists 2,071 books and papers (through 1976) written in the most part by scientists working on Barro Colorado Island, in the Canal Zone or in the Republic of Panama. The significance of data provided by this enormous volume of literature is extraordinary. *fc * % OThe most recent Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute publication, a nearly ^^ 1,000-page volume entitled Flora of Barro Colorado Island by Thomas Croat, has been 10 years in the making The author indicates that over 1,300 species of "vascular plants," which have a specialized conducting system, are known from the island. A recent collection of 200 plants from the forest canopy included three species new to the island and one new to Central America. If this area is to remain a safe harbor for plant, animal and bird life, their jungle home must remain undisturbed. If the jungles are disturbed, the animals will be destroyed, for, on a jungle "island," they have nowhere else to go. The bush dog and the giant anteater may be nearing extinction in Panama. Jaguars, ocelots, margays and sloths, monkeys, marmosets and coatimundi, raccoons, squirrels and kinkajous, crocodiles and caimans may face the same fate. The rich array of flora and fauna in the Canal Zone is a legacy from a passing era. One hopes they will become a living testimonial to wise men who, appreciating the legacy, will work to resolve the conflict between the pressure for rapid economic development in the Canal area on the one hand, and the need to preserve the natural environment to ensure the continued existence of this serendipitous jungle on the other. world and 20 percent of those in North and South America occur in these two areas. The land along the Pipeline Road is an area of relatively undisturbed tropical lowland wet forest which contains 240 species of birds which are not found outside the American tropic An additional 35 North American species use this area as a migratory route to South America. The Panama Canal Review 39 wonderful bird is the pelican .

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a safe haven for animals . 40 October 1, 1979

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The rare tiger heron, the long-tongued tamandua, the golden frog, the exotic heliconia and Charlie the crocodile are a few of the living things that thrive in the Canal Zone's tropical forests. The Panama Canal Review 41

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plants, birds and insects 42 October 1, 1979

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A delicate butterfly resting on a branch; multicolored macaws out for a stroll; the hairy sloth whose face we rarely see; stately egrets fishing in the surf; creatures great and small each have a niche in our tropical environment. The Panama Canal Review 43

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Flowering Trees *n&&f$ •' r Af /ar /e/f. fhe sideu/a/k on Heights Road across from the Governor's House is awash with the blossoms of the Guayacan. Center, the view of the Administration Building through the branches of the Pink Cassia is reminiscent of Washington, D.C. at cherry blossom time, while the purple Bouginvillea and the Royal Poinciana bring La Boca Road alive with color. At right, Flamboyant is another and very fitting name for the Royal Poinciana, seen through the window of a Gorgas Apartment' I I 44 October 1, 1979 As soon as the first permanent Canal Zone towns were completed, plans for planting trees to beautify the area began immediately. The Canal Record of May 5, 1915 reported that the horticulturist in charge of the landscaping was urging residents to join in the effort. He encouraged tasteful planting and proper community care to relieve the "glistening newness of the new concrete town of Balboa and eventually transform it into a beautiful dwelling place, delightful to live in." As a result of these plantings, there are always some trees that are in bloom in the Canal Zone; but it is during the dry season that the most spectacular exhibitions occur. The array of blossoms that suddenly appears on the local trees at this time rivals the splendor of spring in the temperate zone. On these pages are some of the many flowering trees that have transformed modest Canal Zone homes into places "delightful to live in." The Panama Canal Review 45

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a man does not plant a tree for himself, he plants it for posterity — Alexander Smith Below, the dry season breezes stir the branches of the Yellow Poinciana at the foot of the Administration Building hill creating a blur of color. At top left, motorists traveling Gaillard Highway to Gamboa will come upon the native Jacaranda, a patch of purple in the midst of green jungle. Below, the Royal Poinciana offers its shade to a family from the "fishbowl" area in Ancon. At top right, a Flamboyant in Margarita has become the resting place for a boy's kite, but not for long. Below, the center of town is also beautified by the P\nk Cassia.

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-••. .3BFs' .'"• **" m: :yj & ti! .>k. MMfe fP>. f*"'*' ,.

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Canal Zone's Garden of Eden LUXURIOUS GREEN GROWTH in myriad of shades and textures, delicate tropical plants and fascinating exotics are taken for granted in the Canal Zone, where they form a constant background for life itself. Nonetheless, at Summit Gardens, life-long Zone residents are filled with awe and curiousity to find themselves in the midst of 300 acres of nature's beauty gathered from almost every tropical and subtropical corner of the earth. Since the establishment in 1923 of the "Canal Zone Plant Introduction Gardens" to test, establish and distribute valuable plants, more than 15,000 plants of an endless assortment, size and shape have been introduced. Today, the Gardens have about 200 varieties of palms, some five acres of citrus trees, most of the flora native to the Isthmus and exotic fruit, flowering and economic plants from as far away as India, Sumatra, Malaya, Ceylon, China, Burma and Borneo and as near as Panama's neighbors in Central America. Not far inside the gardens is the Tropical Walk, designed for walking tours through the area where the heaviest concentration of plants compete for living space in a tropical rain forest. The entrance is lined with the fabulously beautiful Night-Blooming Cereus and with petrified wood formed when the Isthmus was under the sea. Scientists and industrialists have visited the gardens to observe experiments in the raising of teakwood or rubber or medicinal drugs and stayed to wonder at the strange display of nature's curios that man has gathered in this tropical garden. There are the Talibot, giant of palms, with 15-foot fan leaves; stands of bamboo that grow as much as a foot in 24 hours; and the "scramble eggs" tree, from which natives make a dish they say tastes just like scrambled eggs by boiling and then frying the white meat of the ripe fruit. There are magosteens, a fruit called the "queen of the tropics" described as tasting like a combination of all one's favorite fruits; and the "miraculous fruit" that temporarily kills all sour taste buds on the tongue so one can eat the sourest of lemons without the slightest puckering of the lips. And there is a profusion of orchids in almost limitless variety with blooms that may last a single day or for two months and whose flower stalks may be a few inches long or 20 feet long. Above all there is Summit Garden's gift of a recuperative lift to the spirit for those who will pause to contemplate the wondrous cycles of the delights of nature. Above: This orchid, which grows at Summit, is found in Mexico and many parts of South America. Below: The lily pond, a favorite picnic spot. Bottom: The sun shining through a bamboo forest creates a distinctively tropical aura. The Panama Canal Review 49

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't Bartw Era of the "SuperCarrier" Begins By Willie K. Friar THE TRANSIT OF THE BARBER Toba in March of this year signaled the arrival of the age of the "SuperCarrier," the newest concept in shipping. The first of the Barber Blue Sea Line's fleet of six, this extraordinarily versatile vessel is capable of carrying trailers, containers, and a great variety of other cargo by utilizing the most modern and sophiscated roll-on/rolloff cargo handling equipment available. The significant difference between this vessel and earlier designs is the hinged ramp that is as wide as a twolane highway. It is this ramp at the stern of the ship that attracted so much interest during the transit of the Canal. Starting out with a minimum width of 40 feet and gradually increasing to 82 feet at the hinge, the huge, angled ramp allows unrestricted two-way traffic for moving cargo on and off the ship. With the capability for easier, safer and more efficiently controlled traffic movement, it is possible for the Barber Toba, to handle up to 800 tons of cargo an hour. The "Barber Toba" moves through Gaillard Cut on her maiden voyage.

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Described by the ship's owners as "the greatest cargo handling tool ever invented," this ramp has a load bearing capacity of 400 tons which is equivalent to the weight of 50 sixtypassenger schoolbuses. Trailer cargo, known as roll-on/rolloff or "ro-ro" in the shipping trade, has become an increasingly popular way of moving goods in many world ports including those in the United States, and Panama. The trailers are simply driven on an off the ships. However, it is not the trailer carrying capability that is noteworthy on the Barber Toba but the flexibility of carrying and handling all types of cargo and being able to be completely self-sufficient in loading and discharging. The Barber Toba carries its own fleet of forklifts, trailers, and gigantic crane, which can lift up to 40 tons. This capability makes it a valuable means of transport for developing countries in South America, the Far East and the Middle East, where often only limited cargo handling facilities are available. The fast loading and unloading capability is a great asset also in ports, such as Miami, where crowded conditions make turnaround time very important. It has been Above: The "Barber Toba" uses her ramp, which is as wide as a two-lane highway, to handle a variety of trailers and containers. At left: The gigantic hinged ramp is folded against the stern of the vessel as she moves through Miraflores Locks. estimated by its owners that it costs about $25,000 a day in operating expenses to keep a ship like the Barber Toba in port. Depending on the weather, this ship and its sisters can move into a port, load or unload, and leave in a matter of hours. Another innovation on this ship is its containerized office. All loading and discharging operations are controlled by crew members operating from this special office. It is stored aboard the ship and lifted into place at quayside near the stern ramp at each port to coordinate cargo handling activities. Supervisors and other crew members drive around the vessel in four-wheel electric cars keeping in contact with the portside operations office by walkie-talkies. The flexibility and versatility of these SuperCarriers allows them to transport all types of containers and rolling stock. Cars and other wheeled vehicles can be driven aboard and do not have to be boxed. The deck for carrying cars has a special surface which prevents shifting and eliminates damage during the voyage. When cars are not being carried, this deck is hoisted up to make room for more containers on the deck below. It took nine months to build the Barber Toba, which is 749 feet in length and 105 feet in beam, at a cost of $33 million. It cost more than a million dollars just to equip the engine room and bridge which have the most modern instruments available today. This includes computerized anticollision radar, a satellite navigation receiver, gyro compass, echo sounder, electromagnetic log, weather facsimile, radio equipment and an alarm system connected to 250 sensors for safe operation of the engine room. Although capable of carrying up to 1,800 20foot containers, 400 automobiles and 2,150,000 cubic feet of baled cargo, the ship requires a crew of only 27. Facilities for the crew (both men and women) include a swimming pool, exercise room, recreation room, library and private cabins with baths for each member of the crew. When the Barber Toba, a Norwegian flag ship transited the Canal, she was carrying mainly containerized cargo from the Far East including electronics, textiles, handicrafts, tile, cars, and yachts, from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Korea, to be transported to the United States. After the ship leaves U.S. ports, it will head for the Middle East, with a different cargo which will be, for the most part, rolling stock including heavy machinery, and oil drilling equipment. A British, Norwegian, and Swedish consortium, Barber Blue Sea is investing nearly $200 million in a fleet of six of these advanced multi-purpose vessels, which are to be regular customers of the Canal. The agent for Barber Blue Sea at the Canal is C. B. Fenton & Co. 52 October 1, 1979

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One of the largest dipper dredges in the world, the "Rialto M. Christensen" works in Mamei Curve removing islands and widening the Canal to provide a safer passage for the increasing number of large ships. Below: Telephoto lens captures heavv traffic in Gaillard Cut and Pedro Miguel Locks. At right: A container ship in Gatun Locks and ships moving under the fog shrouded bridge that spans the Canal at Balboa. The Panama Canal Review 53

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pru! MID McCULLOUGH THE PATH BETWEEN THE SEAS * * I |^"S | * THE CREATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL*1870'1914 m Hj All Thafs Left Is Her Whistle By Robert H. Burgess SHE WAS A GRAND LADY IN her day. She had to be for selection in the role she was to play in the opening of the Panama Canal. However, she wasn't all that glamorous. Instead, she was just another of the hundreds of pieces of equipment which did the job thoroughly and helped bring the entire project to completion. She was a lowly tugboat which pulled scows laden with mud and rock dredged from the Canal site from 1906 to its opening in 1914. Then she remained on the job in the Canal Zone for 16 more years helping to clear slides, dock ships, and numerous other tasks assigned to a craft of all Her brass fittings highly polished, the "Gatun" steamed ahead of the "Ancon" on the inaugural transit of the Canal August 15, 1914. Above: The "Gatun" can be seen clearly in the painting that appears on the dust jacket of the recent book about the Canal, "The Path Between the Seas." 54 October 1, 1979

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trades. This was the steel tug Gatun which was given the honor of being the first vessel to transit any of the locks of the Panama Canal. Gatun started her career in 1902, having been built that year by the well-known shipbuilding firm of Neafie & Levy of Philadelphia. Measuring 91 feet in length, she was originally named H. B. Chamberlain and owned by Boot, Dailey & Irving, with a home port in New York. It is probable that her job was to shunt scows and barges around New York harbor and possibly assist ships in docking — but not for long. In 1906, as the United States was gaining momentum in developing the Canal, a search was made for floating equipment to assist in the monumental task. The Chamberlain was purchased by the Isthmian Canal Commission, Atlantic Division, for $65,000 and renamed Gatun. She was based at the Atlantic end and assigned the mundane but important job of towing mud barges and shifting other equipment. There were other tugs in the Canal's fleet but somehow the Gatun seemed to stand out in the limelight a little more than these judging from some of her other assignments. Inspection parties would board her to view the progress of the work. And occasionally she was used to transport and transfer prominent members of the Canal's staff and government officials. After Chief Engineer John F. Stevens resigned his job on March 31, 1907, he boarded the Gatun at Pier 11 at Cristobal to be taken to the liner Panama to return to the States. Gatun was just an ordinary tug, nothing fancy about her makeup, but her crew must have taken especial pride in her appearance. Photos taken of her during her early years at Panama reveal all her brass fittings glistening in the sun, the rims of her portholes, the searchlight and binnacle atop her pilothouse, door knobs and locks, running lights, and fire hose nozzles. Around the topsides of her hull and draped over her bow, were large rope mats to protect her sides when she was working with the heavy, rugged scows and dredges. Come the latter part of 1913, the Canal was readied for operation. Just how the selection was made is not known but the tug Gatun was given The Gatun led the way on opening day the honor of being the first vessel to pass through a set of the Canal locks. She was cleaned up and for the occasion bedecked with flags as she departed from Colon for the Gatun Locks. Additional lifejackets had been placed around her main deck in anticipation of the extra passengers she was to carry on that trip. Folding chairs were placed on her upper deck under a permanent canvas awning to accommodate the dignitaries. But her rugged rope mats remained in position overside indicating that she was a working vessel taking a holiday for the day. And a special one it was. Bedecked with flags, the tug "Gatun" enters Gatun Locks, September 26, 1913 to become the first vessel to pass through the newly completed lock chambers. The Panama Canal Review 55

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On September 25, 1913, preliminary tests and filling of the Gatun Locks were made and all operated as planned. The 26th had been selected to lift the Gatun from the sea channel to the Gatun Lake level, using the west flight, because of the imminent departure from the Isthmus of Maj. James P. Jervey, who had charge of the masonry construction of Gatun Locks, and of Maj. George M. Hoffman, who had charge of the building of The steam tug "Chester," formerly "Gatun," was tied up at Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland, in June 1958 just before being sold for scrapping. At left: The steam whistle from the tug is now mounted on a wooden block at the author's home. The small whistle at lower right, used to assist in docking ships, was added after the tug left the Canal Zone. Gatun Dam, as assistants to their chief, Lt. Col. William L. Sibert. At 11:20 a.m., water was admitted to the upper end of the upper lock from the west culvert through the upper rising stem valves and the water was brought up to lake level. The upper rising stem valves were then closed and this water was passed down the flight of three locks as a preliminary test of the valves and culverts of the west wall. Water was then locked down, step by step, from the lake to the lower lock, which was also being filled by the two 14-inch sea valves in the lower guard gates. On board the Gatun, in addition to her regular crew, were Col. H. F. Hodges, Lt. Col. and Mrs. William L. Sibert and family, Maj. and Mrs. James P. Jervey, Maj. George M. Hoffman, Lt. and Mrs. George W. Goethals (the Chief Engineer's son), Mr. Henry Goldmark, Mrs. Edward Schildhauer, Mrs. E. E. Lee, Capt. B. Corning of the steamship Panama, and Mr. Frank Thompson of the Panama Railroad. Capt. F. F. Stewart was master of the tug and Mr. W. G. Comber was chief navigator. The filling of the lower lock was completed by 4:45 p.m. when the sea gate was opened. The Gatun, with whistle blowing and flags streaming in the breeze, steamed up the approach channel and past the entrance to the lower lock, cheers from the spectators resounding within the lock. The lower operating gates were then closed and the tug came to a halt alongside the center wall. Col. George W. Goethals was on top of the lock wall watching the proceedings. The operation was repeated in the middle lock and at 6:15 p.m. the Gafun entered the upper lock of the last lift. Half an hour later the two last gates were swung open and the tug passed out on to Gatun Lake, the whole passage requiring 1 hour and 51 minutes. The next day the Gatun returned to the Atlantic channel, the lockage taking 1 hour and 37 minutes. On October 9, 1913, three groups of dredging vessels and a floating pile driver, in tow of tugs, a total of 13 vessels, were lifted at one time from the Atlantic entrance channel to the surface of Gatun Lake, using the entire 1,000 foot length of each chamber. The second group consisted of the Gatun with the suction dredge No. 86, several pontoons, and a fuel oil barge in tow. More honors were bestowed upon the Gatun when she was selected as consort to the steamship Ancon on the official opening of the Canal on August 15, 1914. There is a photo of her steaming just ahead of the Ancon, approaching Cucaracha Slide, but she probably dropped astern at the appro56 October 1, 1979

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6 Months FY 1979

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Pacific to Atlantic 6 Months 6 Months Commodity FY 1979 FY 1978 Petroleum and products 16,370,359 10,102,124 Manufactures of iron and steel 2,761,109 4,108,626 Lumber and products 2,707,316 2,432,983 Ores, various 2,364,664 2,478,799 Coal and coke 1,562,542 630,473 Sugar 933,722 1,469,290 Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 933,267 873,976 Pulpwood 868,870 768, 143 Bananas 755,764 843,718 Metals, various 692,966 704,462 Sulfur 633,396 464,671 Autos, trucks, and accessories 549,006 579,526 Salt 456,742 314,613 Fishmeal 424, 136 240,485 Wheat 396,348 554,930 All other 6,030,155 5,908,766 Total 38,440,362 32,475,585 CANAL TRANSITS— COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT 6 Months FY 1979 Atlantic Pacific to to Commercial: Pacific Atlantic Total Oceangoing 3,391 3,096 6,487 Small 1 317 168 485 Total 3,708 3,264 6,972 U.S. Government: Oceangoing 22 25 47 Small 1 72 76 148 Total 94 101 195 Grand Total 3,802 3,365 7,167 6 Months FY 1978 6,054 327 6,381 45 104 149 6,530 PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (in long tons) Atlantic to Pacific 6 Months 6 Months Commodity FY 1979 FY 1978 Corn 7,126,998 4,479,041 Petroleum and products 5,643,842 5,098,725 Coal and coke 5,624,675 4,129,163 Soybeans 3,363,955 2,883,453 Wheat 2,851,969 1,332,006 Phosphate 2,795,941 2,219, 164 Metal, scrap 1,937,733 751,867 Sorghum 1,446,366 1,490,771 Chemicals and petroleum chemicals 1,119,858 899,075 Manufactures of iron and steel 816,912 997,099 Sugar 735,883 554,090 Ores, varios _... 696,038 759,013 Fertilizers, unclassified 567,414 716,011 Caustic soda 403,210 272,937 Ammonium compounds 343,928 319,537 All other 5,690,358 4,602,976 Total 41,165,080 31,504,928 'Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons. Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff. the light. Manning a small boat, the keeper went to the aid of 4 men who had jumped off the stricken vessel as she settled beneath the waters of Chesapeake Bay, and also recovered the body of the engineer who had died of a heart attack after he had jumped from the tug. The Point Breeze was later raised, renamed Chester the next year, and resumed her career around Baltimore harbor. In 1957 the Curtis Bay Towing Co., of Baltimore, was recorded as her owner. Most of that firm's craft were newer diesel tugs less historical than the former Gatun but more suited to the needs of modern shipping. The Chester was laid up to await a purchaser but the only offer came from a scrapyard. In late 1958 the Chester was acquired by the salvage firm of Martin G. Imbach, Inc. in Baltimore for breaking up. This writer long knew of the earlier career of the Chester, her historic association with the Panama Canal, and desired to preserve some relic from the craft. As the tug was being cut apart by torches, I was able to secure her brass steam whistle, 4 feet in length including its release valve, before it was shattered for melting down. If anything on the tug was original from her Canal days, other than her rugged hull, I felt it was the steam whistle which had blown so vigorously as the Gatun made her entry into the first of the Gatun Locks that eventful day in September 1913 when the world was shown that a vessel could be lifted from the Caribbean level to that of Gatun Lake. A whistle is just about indestructible. Only the valve, a separate unit, needs occasional replacing. This whistle compares favorably with the one appearing in photos of the Gatun taken at the time of the opening of the Canal when its hoarse tones echoed around the sides of the locks 65 years ago. It is quite possible that this steam whistle, now mounted on a wooden block in the author's home, is the only portion of that historic ship in existence and serves as a reminder of the beginning of a new era in world shipping. And certainly the Gatun was one of the most long-lived of any of the numerous vessels which participated in the construction of the Panama Canal. 58 October 1, 1979

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) \' ( 0^*' ML TOo -1 'y t i-sr / YGaweh &ULF OF PANAMA \ Mary and Herbert Knapp are teachers in the Canal Zone schools. They currently are at work on a book about life in the Canal Zone entitled An Ambiguous Utopia. It is a retrospective view of the unique community where those who built and operated the Panama Canal lived and worked for 75 years. The following article is a digest of a chapter from that book. The Knapps are also the authors of One Potato, Two Potato: The Secret Education of American Children (Norton, 1976). THE AMERICAN CANAL ZONE in Panama belongs squarely in the American Utopian tradition that runs from the Puritan "City upon a Hill" in seventeenth century Massachusetts to the latest condo "paradise" in Miami. Not many of the blue-collar aristocrats or shirt-sleeved bureaucrats who lived on the Zone ever thought of it as a utopia, but when they came to the Zone they became part of a smallscale, managerial society designed according to a fairly rigid plan. The theory was that a pervasive paternalism with a corresponding restriction of certain liberties would result in the happiness, well-being, and most importantly, in the productiveness of the people. It wasn't a perfect society, but Utopias never are, except in books. Real Utopias are experiments. They take place somewhat apart from the real world, somewhere between eutopia, "a good place," and outopia, "no place." That's right where the Canal Zone used to be, along with Brook Farm, the Oneida Community, Orderville, New Harmony, and hundreds of other American social experiments. By Mary and Herbert Knapp Of course, those in charge of the canal project didn't plan the Zone as a social experiment. When Charles Magoon, second governor of the Zone, proposed establishing a model government, he was plainly told that the Isthmian Canal Commission was in Panama to build a canal, period. Nevertheless, as the canal workers' communities developed, the Zone increasingly resembled the society described by Edward Bellamy in his futuristic Utopian novel, Looking Backward. Few people know that book today, but in the decade following its publication in 1888, Looking Backward outsold anything ever published in America except Uncle Tom's Cabin. It appealed to "brains" and "roughnecks" alike; to wild-eyed socialist agitators and dewy-eyed social belles. Bellamy's admirers organized themselves and became a political force. In 1935 three American intellectuals called Looking Backward the second most influential book of the preceding half-century! According to John Dewey, James Beard, and Edward Weeks, only Das Kapital had more influence upon the world than Looking Backward. The resemblance of the Canal Zone to Bellamy's imaginary society didn't go unnoticed. A visitor reported in 1913, "The dream of the late Edward Bellamy is given actuality on the Zone"; about the same time Canal Zone Policeman 88 testified, "It strongly resembles what Bellamy dreamed of years ago." And as late as 1928, a Zonian was still explaining to tourists that her community was frequently referred to as "resembling Bellamy's Looking Backward." She went on to say, "When Bellamy journeyed across the Isthmus — in the eighties — Panama certainly did not present a possibility, even to the most visionary, of eventually becoming the nearest approach to . the ideal of the Utopia that his remarkable book pictures." But it would be a mistake to suppose Looking Backward provided a blueprint for the Canal Zone. The Zone resembled several nineteenth century literary Utopias, Etienne Cabet's Voyage en Icarie (1840), for instance. By the end of the nineteenth century a lot of people had come to similar conclusions about what a better world would be like. It would be very much like the Canal Zone. In Cabet's utopia, everyone works for the government, which owns the factories, cultivates the land, and provides clothing and household furnishings — as was more or less the case in the Canal Zone. But the uncanny thing about Cabet's Icaria is that it looks like the Zone. The city of Icaria is divided by a river that has been deepened and straightened to accommodate large ships. The river's banks have been fronted by straight walls. On an island in the middle of the river is a palace surrounded by trees and gardens, and on the terrace of the palace is a statue The Panama Canal Review 59

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of Icar, the founder, which overlooks the city. The Zone, too was divided by a waterway, a canal, not a river, but the Chagres River was deepened and straightened to form the Canal, and at the locks one even sees the banks of the "river" enclosed in straight walls. The Zone's equivalent of Icaria's palace was the Administration Building—known on the Zone as "The Building" — as if there were no other. It is not on an island in the middle of the Canal, but it sits on a hill that rises like an island in the middle of the city of Balboa, and it overlooks the Canal. It is also surrounded by carefully arranged trees and plants. On the Building's terrace, between the flags of the United States and Panama, is a ". . how resourceful they are at devising methods to keep the streets clean." large rock taken from the Cut — not a statue of the founder, but a monument to the founders: "Dedicated to the builders of the Panama Canal . ." The most oustanding feature of Icaria is its cleanliness. The character in Cabet's novel who describes the Icarians breaks into excited italics when he mentions how "resourceful they are at devising methods to keep the streets clean." He oh's and ah's about "subterranean canals" that drain water from the streets and about the absence of dust and mud. His paradise is more notable for what it lacks than for what it contains. He says that the eyes of the citizens of Icaria are not offended by streetcorner hangouts, advertisements, graffiti, "rich and pretty shops," or "those paintings of nudes or voluptuous scenes. . Such pictures no husband would want his wife and the mother of his children to behold." Anyone who ever lived on the Zone will be struck by its similarities to Icaria. The Zone, too, was remarkably clean. Its grass was kept cut; its trash, promptly removed. An admirable system of subterranean canals, created by Zone engineers, drained water from the streets, sidewalks, and airfields, mud was not something the average Zonian worried about — except mothers. Children often sought it out for games of mud football and mud sliding. And like Icaria, the Zone was notable for what it lacked — cabarets, gaming houses, establishments of culpable pleasures. No commercial advertisements cluttered its landscape or airwaves. The Zone's television station advertized only morality and the military life. As for voluptuous scenes, a Zonian who wished to purchase Playboy at the Company commissary had to wait while the clerk took it from under the counter and stapled it inside a paper bag. The Zone, however, was never as pure as Icaria. It never, for instance, reached the point where it could do without gendarmes. Unlike Cabet, who emphasizes the cleanliness and geometric order of his Utopia, Bellamy emphasizes the organization of labor and the distribution of wealth in his. Bellamy's Utopia doesn't have so much the look of the Zone as the "feel"of it. As a story, Looking Backward is pretty corny. But Bellamy wasn't trying to write a literary masterpiece. He was a social reformer who wanted to promote equality and brotherhood — his "Religion of Solidarity" — and to make men less materialistic. The central institution of his dream world is the Industrial Army. Everyone from age twenty-one to fortyfive belongs. Related industries are grouped into ten divisions. The President of the United States, or "the general-in-chief," is chosen from among the retired division-chiefs. Only retired workers can vote, but everyone retires at forty-five. From twenty-one to twenty-four, everyone works as an apprentice or a laborer. His performance is regularly evaluated. Those with the highest scores get first choice of occupational specialities. There are three grades in each industry and two classes in each grade. The Zone was never quite like this, but it came close. Zonians were ^ certainly members of an Industrial Army, one that included 1,754 different kinds of jobs. Only the Department of Defense listed a greater variety. And the Canal Army was organized much like Bellamy's Army. The Zone, too, had its divisions — Electrical, Dredging, Industrial, Railroad, Schools, and so on. What's more, all Zone workers were classified NM-9 or GS10 or whatever, much like those in Bellamy's world. But Zonians weren't required to work as laborers for two years in their twenties, though the Zone did have a flourishing apprentice program. Nor did Zonians retire at forty-five and vote for their governor. Age entitles you to privileges in Bellamy's paradise, and as a result, he was accused of advocating gerontocracy. On the Zone, age alone didn't entitle you to a thing, but length of service — ah, that was another matter. Length of service on the Zone could get you what money couldn't buy — assignment to the house of your choice. Bellamy wanted to eliminate ostentatious displays of wealth which he thought were socially divisive, so everyone in his Utopia received exactly the same pay — from generals to the inhabitants of insane asylums. Officers in the Industrial Army were rewarded with prestige and power but not cash. At the year's end, all unused money reverted to the state, so you couldn't get ahead of your neighbor by saving. To further discourage people from buying things just to impress the Joneses, Bellamy standardized all products and eliminated competing retail outlets. Everyone shopped at the government store, where no new product was introduced unless customers petitioned for it. People on the Zone were never economically equal, but there was a good deal more visible equality there than in most places. The limited kinds ( of housing available contributed to this impression of a relatively narrow range of inequality. And there was simply not much scope for conspicuous consumption in a community where everyone lived in rented 60 October 1, 1979

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quarters and did most of his shopping at the "commy." Did the Zone's approximation of Bellamy's vision work? Did it encourage brotherhood? There was never any lack of squabbling on the Zone— especially about housing. Sometimes the smaller the difference between two houses, the greater difference it made to people— a point planners of future Utopias would do well to consider. And visiting writers often note that social divisions continued to exist, something no Zonian would deny. The problem was that the Zone was a one company community. There was no satisfactory way to achieve prominence outside the Company hierarchy. As a result, the social prestige of the hierarchy went unchallenged, though it was sometimes resented. On the other hand, in a book published in 1928, a Zone resident keeps referring to the "democratic setting" of the Zone, and she praises the governor for his "democratic manner." Clearly she's not referring to a political system but to an atmosphere of informality. If people did not meet as equals on the Zone, they nonetheless met. The smallness of the Zone accounted for that. And usually Zonians were spared the pomp and circumstance of ostentatious inequality. Then, too, they shared a connection with an historic enterprise. All this may help explain why ex-Zonians who did not socialize on the Zone tend to greet one another like fraternity brothers when they meet elsewhere. Bellamy's second goal was to make men less materialistic. He assumed that given a margin of economic security, people would lose their taste for accumulating possessions. It never quite worked that way on the Zone, but for years the lack of airconditioning on the Isthmus drastically limited the kinds of possessions a Zonian could have. In those days the sparseness and standardization of household furnishings would have pleased the most puritanical of Bellamy's disciples. Even after the introduction of the air-conditioning in 1957-1958, the restrictions on private enterprise and the simplicity of life on the Zone encouraged Zonians to devote themselves to a remarkable range of nonmaterialist avocations, ranging from volunteer community work to charting butterfly refuge areas in Central America. The Zone never provided its residents with the array of choices and opportunities for personal development one finds in the United States. What it did provide was time. People lived close to their jobs; no one spent hours every day commuting to work. Nor were people offered a great variety of professional entertainment. There was plenty of time to "do one's own thing" on the Zone. Those things included studying shells, antique bottles, rocks, dialects, and South American folk dances. There were orchid men on the Zone, and snake men, bug men, bird men. Painters, potters, pathfinders.Experts on stage lighting, skin-diving, molas and the music of Elgar. And all of these avocations carried Zonians beyond the boundary of the Zone into Panamanian theatrical and musical circles, Panamanian service organizations, kennel clubs, motorcycle competitions, sports arenas, and of course, into Panama's mountains and jungles. One of the drawbacks of the Zone as a Utopia is that is was too small. Few could have remained happy on the Zone for long had it not been for Panama and United States "out there" with their broader horizons. For all its virtues, the Zone was a limited place. But then so was Bellamy's utopia. Just as life on the Zone revolved around maintaining and operating the Canal, so life in Bellamy's utopia revolves around maintaining and operating his system. One problem with Utopias is that once you're there, there's no place to go. For that reason neither the Zone nor Bellamy's timeless dreamland could fully accommodate American ideals. Like the Zone, Bellamy's utopia contains no political parties. There were no political campaigns and no campaign promises. And in the tiny regulated world of the Zone, there was no room for the impossible dream. But one should not overlook the Zone's considerable virtues. It was a beguiling place — not a twentieth century dream of kaleidoscopic change, consumption, and magic, but a nineteenth century dream of cleanliness, preservation, and rationality. And though the Zone was centrally controlled from "The Building," individual communities had distinct characteristics. Bellamy would have approved of that. His utopia was meant to combine the advantages of diversity and unity. For instance, in construction days a workman described Ancon as on the way up socially, but insecure compared to Cristobal, "the most 'Statesy' of all Canal villages." Gorgona was unruly but hospitable; Empire, arty; "Pedro Miguelites were given to cardplaying"; Paraiso was serious and charitable. Some of these towns disappeared long ago, and the atmosphere of others changed over the years. But any ex-Zonian will have his ". . dedicated to the builders of the Panama Canal ..." own memories of the distinctive atmosphere of his "Canal village." Bellamy was one of the first planners who wanted to balance technology and nature. Perhaps in no place did men come closer to doing that than in the Canal Zone, where the Canal was our machine; the Zone, our garden. Among the hundreds of 'nineteenth century Utopian experiments in the United States was an effort to found Icana. led by Cabet himself At various limes there were Icarian settlements near The Red River in Texas; at Cheltenham, Missouri; Nauvoo. Illinois; Corning. Iowa; and Cloverdale. California. By 1887 all had failed and the Icanans became Americans On next page: Aerial view of Balboa. The Panama Canal Review 61

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The lights on the Thatcher Ferry Bridge come on as the sun sets over the Canal on the Pacific side of the Isthmus. Below: Ancon Hill is silhouetted and Gorgas Hospital is clearly uisible in the night photo taken from the Lottery Building in Panama City. 64 October 1, 1979

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The Canal Zone At Night Like beacons in the night, the lights of the Canal provide the illumination vital to its 24-hour operation. Below: Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks stand out in the darkness. At right: A 1915 night photograph of the Administration Building to compare with our cover photograph. Inside the back cover: The Fort Amador Causeway is outlined by the lights of cars and in the Canal a streak of light indicates the movement of a ship.

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