Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00058
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: November 1970
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00058
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Matter
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries





I ;
6 '3

7711 -.9a :

W. P. Leber A Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer
Governor-President ,: ) Publicotions Editors
R. S. Hartline Louis R. Granger, Tom6s A. Cupas
Lieutenant Governor Writers
Frank A. Baldwin Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern-ndez,
Ponama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Jose T. Tufi6n, Willie K. Friar, and Luis C. Noli
Review articles may be reprinted without Further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each. Published quarterly.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heig'ts, C.Z. Drinted at the Printing Plant, La Boca C Z.




University of Panama 3
The Republic's main intel-
lectual pillar prepares for
the future.
Cement Yacht 7
Curing in a shed at Diablo
is a 50-foot ketch made of
chicken wire, steel rods and
Shipping Statistics 9
Demise of the White Suit 12
Once a part of the Isthmian
landscape, the white suit
has gone the way of the
dodo bird. Or has it?
Contadora Island 16
This once sleepy jewel in
Panama Bay may soon be
on every island hopping
tourist's itinerary.
Maritime Sketchpad 20
John Morton gives an art-
ist's-eye view of Panama
Canal scenes.
The Montuno Hat 22
In the dawn's early light
the deft fingers of mountain
women create real Panama
Culinary Capers 24
Exploring the adventures of
Italian cuisine aboard the
MV Donizetti.
Language Bank 27
The Translating Unit takes
care of the many language
requirements of the Canal.
Anniversaries 29
History 31


'~, \" ~-~4 e~k-i--
~.\ -"'-U
A ~ -.,-

University of Panama's Library and
Administration Building, the statue of
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the mas-
ter of Spanish literature, appears to be
the illuminating spirit guiding the future
of Panama's leading educational institu-
tion. It typifies the theme of the school,
"toward the light". A portion of the in-
scription at the base of the monument
is translated:
To Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
Beacon for all people united by the
Eternal bond of the Castilian language
Homage front Panama to the author of
Don Quixote de la Mancha. ...
The statue was sculptured in Spain
by Julio GonzAlez Pola and paid for by
a public subscription mostly from Pan-
amanian students. It was dedicated in
January 1923 and was first located at
Plaza Porras, formerly named Plaza
Cervantes, in front of the Spanish Em-
bassy. In October 1947 it was moved
to its present site as the cornerstone for
the new university.
On the left are Don Quixote on his
horse Rocinante, and Sancho Panza, the
leading figures in Cervantes' most pop-
ular literary accomplishment.
The back cover shows night classes
in progress at the busy law building
which was dedicated last month. The
structure is considered by many Isth-
mian residents as one of the most attrac-
tive modern buildings in Panama. The
architect, Jos6 C. Villamil of Panama
City, says the architecture was influ-
enced by the renaissance style while
the tall arched columns are of the
Byzantine period.
Both photographs were taken by
Kevin J. Jenkins, a photographer with
the Panama Canal Graphic Branch of
the Administrative Services Division.




By Luis C. Noli
AS A MICROCOSM of the nation it
serves, the University of Panama is
throbbing with the pains of growth. But
the campus atmosphere now is one of
orderly urgency instead of turmoil.
The urgency is more than justified.
Within a decade the university must be
ready to accommodate an estimated
25,000 students-more than 4 times its
present enrollment-if it is to fulfill its
part in full as the main forge for devel-
opment of the nation's human resources.
Its awareness of that mission is ex-
pressed in a recent official document
outlining the university's plans for the
"Panama is aware that the greatest
scarcity in the process of growth lies in
the skilled human resources needed to
analyze problems, to generate ideas
toward creative solutions and to imple-
ment efficiently the programs drawn up.
"The University of Panama is under-
going an intensive overall revision to
adapt it to the new requirements and to
correct the systems which have been
the source of the friction that has pre-
vented maximizing its academic out-
put and, hence, its contribution to the
development and the growth of the

At the present time, the Universit\
of Panama is fully capable of imple-
menting a program of institutional im-
provement as proposed and to increase
the production of the highly skilled
professionals that our times demand."
Campus Closed
The "intensive overall revision" began
in December 1968 when the campus
was closed by the Provisional Govern-
ment Junta. In an official communique,
the Junta said its action was taken be-
cause of ". a constant succession of
strikes over the most trifling reasons; an
abundance of political meetings which
result in the frequent suspension of
classes; the existence of antagonistic
student groups which maintain a per-
manent climate of disturbance; the use
of the walls of costly buildings for rude
insults and disrespect to authorities; the
lack of a true cultural concern; gross
and aggressively disorderly acts devoid
of academic loftiness; the pressures
exerted by students upon faculty mem-
bers through a campaign of affronts,
threats and accusations; the large num-
ber of 'professional students' who for
years have moved from one department
to another without deciding to take up
a career seriously . ."

A board of regents named by the
Junta prepared a new set of campus
rules-many of them based on student
and faculty recommendations of long
standing. Among them: the fencing in
of the entire campus and the creation
of a 60-man security corps charged with
protecting university property, looking
after order and providing transport,
traffic, and guidance services to students
and visitors.
Campus Regulation
The university reopened July 14,
1969. The radical change in the atmos-
phere was reflected immediately in the
enrollment. From approximately 11,000
students in attendance prior to the
closing, enrollment dropped to half that
figure. The main reason: Enforcement
of a campus regulation barring students
with an academic index below 1.00
(C average).
Besides fostering a climate of dedi-
cation to study, the new regulations also
did away with a large measure of the
control that students had exercised over
campus affairs. Students, however, con-
tinue to participate in the Advisory,
Academic and University Councils and
on the Faculty Boards.
The university reopened under a



Rector Edwin Fabrega of the University of Panama.

new team of administrators-Architect
Edwin Fabrega (Master of City Plan-
ning, University of California), Rector;
Dr. Jer6nimo 6. Averza (Doctor of In-
dustrial Pharmacy, Central University v
of Madrid), Academic Vice Rector;
Ram6n I. Ramirez, Jr. (Business Admin-
istration, Canal Zone College), Admin-
istrative Vice Rector; Mrs. Clara Cecilia
Navarro Riba (Master of Social Service,
Howard University), Director of Student
Nine Faculties
Since its reopening 16 months ago,
the university has graduated 781 stu-
dents. Its nine faculties are: Public Ad-
ministration and Commerce, Agronomy,
Architecture, Natural Sciences and
Pharmacy, Odontology, Philosophy,
Letters and Education, Engineering,
Medicine, and Law.
Speaking at the first commencement
exercise held since the reopening of the
campus, Rector Fabrega said:
"We have completed 1 year of work.
One year replete with problems and
satisfactions. In the course of it, the
efforts, the aspirations, the failures, and
the successes of the university family
have been seen and lived in the light of
the national expectation over the fate
of the country's biggest hope: the Uni-
versitv of Panama. Six months to get it
going and six months to undertake the
fundamental reforms which will assure
better times for students and for the
country. Already what this house of
learning will be in the future is taking
shape in giant strides in the light of the

The University of Panama Chorus, composed of 75 students, performs under the direction of Prof. Luis Vergara. The repertory consists
of classical and popular music including works by Panamanian composers.



* ***"

Cultural activities at the university include
interesting and varied programs presented
bN the Department of the Performing Arts
directed by Profesora Aurea Torrijos de
Horta. Above: a scene from "Tartufo" by
Moliere, is presented in the university's
Mini-Theater which has a capacity of 65
persons. Director of the Drama Depart-
ment is Prof. Roberto McKay. At right:
Students perform in the ballet "West" in
the Central Auditorium under the direc-
tion of Armando Villamil. The University
Ballet has a repertory of 25 ballets.



.. ..... ....

"mi. I

role it must fulfill as a higher center of
learning and formation of the citizens
to whom we are to hand down a
more experienced and more mature
nation . "
What is this shape of the future?
Planning For 1980
The university has just announced a
$13 million program of expansion and
improvements geared to the year 1980.
It has applied to the Inter-American
Development Bank for a $7.6 million
loan for the program, the balance to be
provided by the Panama Government.
"In coordination with the Presidential
Office of Planning and Administration,"
the loan application document sets
forth, "There has been structured an
Investment Program for the University
of Panama to be carried out during the
next 5 years (1970-75). This program
. includes the improvement of the
academic and administrative systems,
the formation and perfecting of faculty
and research personnel, equipment, and
educational construction.
"This project is all the more impor-
tant because the United Nations has
issued a resolution proclaiming the 70's
as the decade of education. If this pro-
ject is approved, the University of Pan-
ama will be able to carry forward
dynamically its institutional improve-
ment so that it will be prepared and
equipped to meet the demand for its
services in the next 10 earss"
The program is based on a detailed
study by the university's Planning De-
partment that encompasses all aspects
of the university's expected growth.
Some of the predictions:
Demand For Graduates
--Between 1971 and 1980, there
will be a demand in the country for
approximately 22,000 university-trained
professionals such as architects and en-
gineers, chemists and pharmacists,
agronomists and veterinarians, physi-
cians and dentists, nurses, teachers,
managers and administrators, auditors
and accountants, and executive secre-
--The University of Panama will
graduate about 14,000 of the profes-
sionals needed in the next decade; with
graduates of the privately endowed
University of Santa Maria La Antigua
(the only other university in the coun-
try) and of foreign universities, the
number will increase to 17,000.
--The present 80-acre main campus
-University City-in El Cangrejo sec-
tion of Panama City is expected to
suffice until 1980. Beyond that year, the
1,555-acre campus at Tocumen, near

the International Airport, where only
an Agricultural Research Center is in
operation now, will have to be devel-
oped to handle future enrollment.
--By 1980, the university will have
a student population of 23,280 at its
main campus and at the Tocumen site
and an additional 2,400 at regional uni-
versity centers in David, Chiriqui Pro-
vince, and Santiago, Veraguas Province.
--The expected increase in enroll-
ment will require a faculty of 1,438
members and 1,007 administrative per-
sonnel (as compared with 581 and 454
respectively, at present).
The major projects in the expansion
program include:
--Improvement of the academic and
administrative systems through a revi-
sion by consultants, at a cost of
--Scholarships for post-graduate
training of faculty members and re-
searchers, $850,000.
--Acquisition of scientific labora-
tory equipment and bibliographic mate-
rial, $1.2 million.
--New buildings and facilities for
the faculty of Agronomy (at the Tocu-
men site), the faculties of Engineering
and of Natural Sciences and Pharmacy,
Architecture, Public Administration and
Commerce, a new Central Library, a
Student Center, and a Cultural and
Audiovisual Center, $8.5 million.
--Improvement of grounds and util-
ities at both the University City and
the Tocumen site, $1.8 million.
The figures on the present size of
the University of Panama provide a
dramatic commentary on its growth





Dr. Arturo Morgan Morales, secretary gen-
eral of the University of Panama, left, and
Rector Fibrega discuss university affairs
outside the Library and Administration

during the 35 years since it was founded
during the presidential administration
of the late Dr. Harmodio Arias. For the
first 15 years, the university had no
campus of its own-it operated in the
National Institute buildings. When it
moved to its present campus in 1950,
it had four buildings and an enrollment
of exactly 1,688 students. Today, 15
buildings stand on the campus and total
enrollment reached a peak of 11,000 in
the 1968-69 academic vear. Since 1935,
it has graduated 6,677 professionals.
In the words of Rector Fabrega, the
University of Panama remains the
nation's "main moral and intellectual

Students in the School of Medicine at the university listen attentively to a lecture.


F' -F--I-i-'-Raft '

To Sea




Chicken IWire

"There is nothing-absolutely
nothing-half so much worth
doing as simply messing about
in boats. . In or out of 'em,
it doesn't matter."


"The Wind in the Willows"

Clyde Jennings and his son Dale, upper
right photo, work on the cockpit
of the 50-foot cement boat in a shed
near the Diablo Spinning Club. Above,
Jennings gives special attention to
the cement work near the rudder.
He is framed in the area where
the propeller will be located.

By Eunice Richard
MAN HAS sailed the seven seas in
everything from reed boats and balsa
rafts to huge steel-hulled tankers. But
tell a novice in the boating world that
you have a cement boat and he might
say you're the type to buy the Brooklyn
Bridge. Or at least he would refuse a
ride in a cement craft "certain" to head
like a cement block to Davev Jones'
Curing in a shed near the Diablo
Spinning Club, however, is the hull of
a 50-foot ketch constructed with a com-
bination of chicken wire, reinforcing
rods and-cement.
Clyde Jennings, a machinist employed
in the Panama Canal Locks Division, is
building-with lots of help from his
family and friends-a two-masted,
cement-hulled ketch that he expects to
carry him and his wife to those faraway
places everyone wants to visit.
The method he is using is not new
but has caught on only recently in
the United States after being used suc-
cessfully in most of Europe, including
Russia, and as far away as Australia and
New Zealand.
New Zealand
In fact, the boat being built by
Jennings and family was designed espe-
cially for him by a New Zealand naval
While at present the ketch resembles
a large boat with a cement overcoat,
looks are deceiving. The hull, composed
of tight layers of chicken wire through
which the wet cement was squeezed,
is flexible and well built. The method
produced a thin shell-like skin which

will become stronger as the ketch takes
to the water. Cement keeps curing in
water, Jennings pointed out. And used
in this manner on this size boat, it is
lighter than either steel or wood.
The cement job was done in one day
by a group of 13 Panamanians who
worked without stopping for 8 hours
until the job was completed. The men
labored side by side with Jennings and
his friends and relatives.
The No. 2 cement for the hull was
furnished free of charge by Cemento
Panama. S.A. which shut down its nor-
mal cement manufacturing operation
during the time it took to produce the
special fine grade cement. The sand
used to mix with the cement was No. 4
blast, so fine it's almost a powder.
Work on the hull of the ketch began
about 3 years ago and it took Jennings
and his family most of that time lacing
together 13/4 tons of reinforcing rod and
14 miles of 3-foot-wide chicken wire
which forms the skeleton of the boat.
Dozens of visitors, ranging from dip-
lomats to sailors who just didn't believe
in a cement boat, have come by to
inspect the work being done by Jen-
nings and his family. There have been
so many, in fact, that the guest book
set up 2 years ago is almost full.
While the hull is curing, Jennings
and his wife work on the interior of
the the ketch which will have room to
sleep nine persons, have wall-to-wall
carpeting, air conditioning and other
comforts. In deference to Mrs. Jen-
ning's preference for hot baths, her
husband has converted the gunwale


Expert Panamanian plastermen work with
ballet precision applying cement to the hull
of the ketch.

pipe into a storage tank that will pro-
duce hot water through solar energy.
The Jennings' family predict that the
boat will be launched, from in front of
the shed where it is being built, in about
2 months. It will then be taken to the
Pedro Miguel Boat Club where work
will continue on fitting out the interior

The most tedious and painstaking part of
the job is tying the thousands of wires into
the mesh base.

and installing a 43-horsepower engine.
The cement boat idea has been
kicked around for a long time-ever
since the 1840's. One skiff, built in
Holland in 1887, still is afloat and sea-
worthy. Big ships were built of concrete
during both world wars but they were
clumsy and not very successful.

The method being used by Jennings
and which is popular in Europe was
devised by Pier Luigi Nervi, an Italian
architect who began experimenting in
the 1940's on sandwiching multiple lay-
ers of fine steel mesh compressed into a
mat in a thin shell of dense waterproof
cement. He built some boats to prove it
could be done. The new material is
unlike traditional reinforced concrete,
because it is flexible, incredibly strong
and comes in a thin sheet that can be
formed into complex curves. Nervi
called the process ferrocemento.
Nervi said, "The material created did
not behave like regular concrete but
presented all the mechanical character-
istics of a homogenous material. Exper-
iments proved it would withstand
great strains without formation of
cracks in the cement mortar as a result
of subdivision of the reinforcement."
Nervi went on to make impact tests
which showed that the cement hull was
not only tough and durable, but lighter
than a wooden hull of the same size,
and cost approximately 40 percent less.
Many refinements have been made
in the ferrocement boat construction,
but Nervi had kindled the flame and
the cement boat was on its way.

A'R "

The family dog appears worried over the
prospects of sailing around in a cement
boat as Dale and Mr. and Mrs. Jennings
look over the plans.

Boatbuilder Jennings, in the background on the ladder, works with his friends and
Panamanian plastermen on the day the cement was spread over the hull. It took approx-
imately 3 years of lacing together reinforcing rod and chicken wire to get to this part of
the job which took a mere 8 hours with the help of 13 workmen.




British ______--
Chilean _-----__
Chinese (Nat'l.)_
Colombian --
Cypriot __----_-
Danish_ ------
Ecuadorean ---
Finnish --------
German -------
Greek --
Honduran ---
Indian ------
Japanese -----
Liberian .-_-_-
Mexican_ ----
Netherlands --.
Nicaraguan ---
Norwegian ----
Peruvian -----.
Philippine _----
Singaporean ----
South Korean --
Soviet-- --_
Spanish ----.-
Swedish ------
United States--
Yugoslavian -__
All Others ---
Total __

No. of

Tons of

First Quarter, Fiscal Year

No. of

First Quarter, Fiscal Year

Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)

Transits 'Tolls (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1971 1970 Transits 1971 1970 Tolls
1961-65 1961-65
July -------- 1,174 1,137 960 8,118 7,787 4,929
August----------- 1,176 1,186 949 8,221 8,135 4,920
September--_------ 1,108 1,133 908 7,979 7,870 4,697
October __._... 1,089 946 7,771 4,838
November------ 1,060 922 7,401 4,748
December ------ 1,155 946 8,058 4,955
January ------- 1,088 903 7,503 4,635
February ---- 1,080 868 7,479 4,506
March------------ 1,223 1,014 8,350 5,325
April -------- 1,179 966 8,229 5,067
May--------- 1,170 999 7,963 5,232
June------------ 1,158 954 8,108 5,013
Totals for
fiscal year .-_ 13,658 11,335 1 94,654 58,865
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Trade Routes-(Large commercial vessels, Avg. No.
300 net tons or over) 1971 1970 Transits
United States Intercoastal _______-------------77 126 116
East coast United States and South America ---------- 284 336 590
East coast United States and Central America --- 169 140 124
East coast United States and Far East_ --------- 883 861 566
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia ---.. 111 120 87
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada _---------- 228 252 215
Europe and South America _--- ---- 330 325 303
Europe and Australasia---- ------------------------ 122 87 85
All other routes ------------ ------------- 1,254 1,209 731
Total traffic _------- 3,458 3,456 2,817



1970 I 1961-65
Tons of Avg. No.! Avg. tons
cargo transits of cargo
96,577 12 37,985
3,164,552 310 2,047,775
185,105 31 212,446
204,307 20 141,456
137,161 64 107,839
153,243 1 3,747
433,310 78 359,386
23,537 12 14,195
116,344 6 21,478
235,373 35 198,935
1,125,141 278 849,505
1,758,401 164 1,612,077
19,315 49 37,823
193,329 -- ----
124,613 14 60,334
413,585 51 300,464
2,588,664 221 1,266,483
6,504,273 225 2,186,987
227,048 7 16,402
740,686 147 701,987
17,028 15 25,293
3,796,419 347 2,520,866
1,052,139 112 468,194
280,477 30 145,532
169,279 15 58,712
14,705 N.A. N.A.
131,804 1 9,315
279,942 2 16,602
81,287 3 17,148
794,287 91 529,290
2,105,116 439 2,623,810
142,393 3 19,379
355,303 34 158,614
27,827,413 2,817 16,770,059


IN THE rush rush world of jumbo jets
and space exploration, the luxury cruise
ship carrying a load of happy passengers
sailing at a leisurely pace through sun
drenched southern seas, could be a
scene from an old movie.
But as an indication of continued
affluence, especially on the part of the
senior citizen, winter cruises are becom-
ing more popular than ever and winter
travelers apparently are becoming in-
creasingly aware of the joys of living at
sea under luxurious conditions at not
much more expense than staying at a
southern resort.
Several thousand of these travelers
will be visiting the Panama Canal during
the 1970-71 winter cruise months. In
fact, about 1,300 of them took a good
look at Panama and the Panama Canal
in September as passengers aboard the
P & O Orient Line ship Canberra, one of
the world's largest passenger liners and
the largest to transit the Panama Canal.
While the Canberra makes cruises all
vear around, her arrival in September
could be said to mark the beginning of
the annual cruise season for which
schedules have been issued by the
various shipping agents.
San Bias Islands
The list, which is always tentative,
includes a number of cruise vessels
familiar to the Panama Canal and a few
new ships which will visit only Cristo-
bal and the San Bias Islands on Carib-
bean cruises out of New York or pass
through the Canal on more extended
voyages. Most of them come here from
New York and stop on the way at Port
Everglades, Fla. Some of them are from
the U.S. West Coast.
December, January, and February are
the big months of the winter cruise sea-
son but several ships arrived in October.
They included the Kungsholm of the
Swedish Line, the Bergensfjord of the
Norwegian America Line and the

Statendam of the Holland America Line.
All three passed southbound through the
Canal. The first two were on South
American cruises and the Statendam
was on her way to the U.S. West Coast
and the Pacific.
The Italian Line Galileo Galilei also
went through the Canal in October on
her way around the world, followed by
the Marconi of the same line making a
similar cruise.
The 15-day pre-Christmas shopping
cruises offered by Princess Cruises from
the West Coast will be made by the
Princess Carla late in November and
early in December. It will include visits
to Mexico and South and Central Amer-
ica before going through the Canal to
Florida. Her return trip to Los Angeles
will take her into Mazatlan in Mexico.

In December
Other ships due in Canal waters dur-
ing December are the Meteor, enroute
from Acapulco, Mexico to Cartagena,
Colombia, the Bergensfford returning
from South America, and the Sagafjord
and Federico C on Caribbean Cruises
stopping at Cristobal. The German
Atlantic liner Hanseatic visits Cristobal
on a West Indies cruise 2 days before
The Sagafjord and the Gripsholm are
scheduled to transit the Canal in Jan-
uary, the former enroute to Los Angeles
and the latter to South America. Also
during January the Hanseatic, Kungs-
holm, Oceanic, and Federico C are on
Caribbean cruises stopping at Cristobal.
The Paquet Lines flagship Renais-
sance will make a 44-day cruise around
South America from Port Everglades
and is scheduled to transit the Canal for
the first time January 19. This will be
the first time that the 4-year-old luxury
liner has ever been slated for a long
cruise. The French Line will handle it.
The France, the world's largest ocean
liner, will make a cruise to the West
Indies and South America but will not
visit Cristobal this year.
Cruise liners in February are the
German Atlantic Line Hamburg on two
Caribbean cruises, the Stella Oceanis on
her third cruise to the West Indies,
which stops at the San Bias Islands; the
Bergensfjord, Federico C, the Oceanic,
and the Empress of Canada.

Cruise Customers
P & O line ships which use the Canal
frequently are listed among the cruise
customers this winter with the Oriana
scheduled for a 2-week cruise in Decem-
ber from San Francisco to Puerto
Vallarta. Acapulco and Panama. Two

(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic


Ores, various__________ _______-------------
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils__ _____ _________
Boards and planks -----------___-__-
Petroleum and products -______________
Metals, various ________________
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)______ _______
Petroleum coke__________________________
Bananas ________________________________
Plywood and veneers___________ __________
Iron and steel manufactures,
Canned food products ______. ______________
Iron and steel wire, bars and rods _____________
All others_________
Total____ _________ _________

First Quarter, Fiscal Year

1 1971 1970









Atlantic to Pacific

5-Yr. Avg.


First Quarter, Fisca
Commodity 1971 1970
1971 1970
Coal and coke _ __-____________-_ 6,196,084 4,837,780
Petroleum and products___________ 3,278,060 3,826,069
Corn------------------------------------ 1,403,203 1,199,726
Metal, scrap----------------------------- 1,071,096 932,041
Soybeans__---_______-_---__--_______ 980,282 548,990
Phosphates ---------------- ___------- 935,160 963,716
Sorghum ------___--___--__---- ____-- __ 799,917 653,914
Sugar__---------------------------------- 735,502 506,271
Ores, various---------__-___- -----____ 701,474 517,309
Wheat -- _- ____________--- ------. 315,007 122,496
Fertilizers, unclassified--__________________-- 268,579 163,660
Chemicals, unclassified-__________ 260,488 227,763
Paper and paper products..-------------------_____________ 237,077 225,808
Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous..-- 170,612 128,736
Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts----------- 145,675 155,868
All others --------------------_----------- 2,841,631 3,092,139
Total ---_ __ _--________- - ____- 20,339,847 18,102,286

l Year
5-Yr. Avg.


First Quarter, Fiscal Year

Atlantic Pacific
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic



Avg. No.


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing __- ______ __ 1,767 1,691 3,458 3,456 2,817
Small I __--________________.. ---63 57 120 118 146
Total Commercial -_ __- _______ 1,830 1,748 3,578 3,574 2,963
U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing _------------------- 95 81 176 374 57
Small _____________________--------------------------- 11 19 30 17 38
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment ____ ___ ___ _1 1,936 1,848 3,784 3,965 3,058

1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951,
transited free.

Government-operated ships


3-week cruises follow, adding four
Caribbean ports to the other three stops
in January and February.
Also offered by P & 0 between now
and the fall of 1971 are several round-
the-world cruises, four Pacific cruises
and a number to the Caribbean through
the Panama Canal.
Matson Lines will enter the Mediter-
ranean for the first time next spring
when the luxury ship SS Monterey em-
barks on a 56-day voyage from the U.S.
West Coast. The 20,000-ton liner will
sail April 16 from San Francisco on a
cruise from the Pacific through the
Panama Canal to the Aegean, the
Caribbean, the Atlantic and the Medi-
terranean and back.
Popular passenger ships running
through the Canal all year on a regular
basis are the Shaw Savil liners operating
between the United Kingdom and Aus-
tralia and the Prudential Grace ships
from New York to the West Coast of
South America and the ever popular
Italian Line vessels that travel between
Genoa in Italy to Valparaiso in Chile,
passing through the Canal at least once
a month.
Another round-the-world service to
become popular in recent years is oper-
ated by the Chandres Lines that pur-
chased the SS President Roosevelt and
the Matson Navigation Co. vessel
Lurline. A. J. Chandres announced that
the Lurline would be renamed the Bri-
tanis and will operate on the round-the-
world service via Australia and New
Zealand joining the Australis and Ellinis
which come through the Canal reg-
ularlv. Chandres said that the Lurline
would be taken to Greece to be com-
pletely renovated before being returned
to service. The Lurline is the fourth ship
in the Matson Line fleet to bear that
name. It will be given to another ship of
the Matson line after she is sold.-E.R.

New Container Service
TWO European ship operators whose
ships now use the Panama Canal on a
regular basis have started a new joint
service between the North American
west coast and Europe. The service is
to become an all-containership operation
within a year.
The companies involved are the
London-based Blue Star Line Ltd.,
represented at the Panama Canal bv
Payne and Wardlaw. and the East Asia-
tic Co. Ltd., of Copenhagen, whose
agent at the Canal is C. B. Fenton
& Co.
The new joint operation, to be
known as Scanstar, involves six vessels

each from the two companies. The
conventional cargo liners are to be
replaced beginning next June with four
big cellular containerships now under
The four new ships ordered to replace
the conventional tonnage now in oper-
ation will be 22-knot ships, each with a
capacity of 900, 20-foot boxes. Nakskov
Skibsvacrt of Denmark is building two
of the vessels and Bremer Vulkan yard
in West Germany is building the other
two. They are to be delivered next June.
Port of call for the initial operation
will include Vancouver, Seattle, Port-
land, San Francisco, and Los Angeles
on the west coast and Dublin, Glas-

TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1971 1970
Commercial 3,458 3,456
U.S. Government 176 374
Free 27 26
TotaL 3,661 3,856

Commercial $24,326,354
U.S. Government 1,105,536
Total $25,431,890
Commercial- 30,830,271
U.S. Government 847,480
Free 43,067
Total 31,720,818



gow, Liverpool, London, Rotterdam,
Le Havre, Goteborg, and Copenhagen
in Europe.
The Blue Star presently operates a
service between Australia through the
Panama Canal and the United States
east coast and is a member of the Asso-
ciated Container Transport consortium
which engages in containership oper-
ations between Australia and Europe.
East Asiatic has long been a major
carrier in the West Coast-European
Announcement of the new operation
is the latest development in a drastic
shakeup of the traditional west coast-
European cargo liner services, the
Recently, Fred Olsen Interocean
Line, a carrier on the route for 56 years,
announced it would quit the route in
October. Johnson Line, a Swedish
company and a long-time general
cargo operator on the route, is currently
changing over its fleet to containerships
and is placing six big, fast cellular
vessels in the trade.
The United States Lines also an-
nounced the beginning of a container-
ship service from the east coast to the
U.S. west coast and the Far East using
eight containerships of the Lancer Class
previously on the North Atlantic run.
This is a departure for the United
States Line, which abandoned govern-
ment subsidies to be able to start the
new service.

*Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
0 Cargo figures are in long tons.














Where Have All

By Willie K. Friar
THE INMMACULATE white suit, which
was as much a part of the tropical land-
scape during the Construction Days of
the Panama Canal as the pith helmet,
the slow-moving ceiling fan, and wicker
furniture, has gone the way of the
dodo bird.
The only white outfits seen around
the Canal Zone these days are the mod-
stvle bell-bottom types being worn by
a few of the younger men, but until early
1960, every well dressed man in the
Canal Zone had at least one white suit
in his closet ready for special occasions.
For many it was everyday wear.
With the advent of air conditioning
and the handsome tropical weight ma-
terials in all varieties of color, the vener-
able white suit disappeared from the

I-i:.al scene. Tropical weight suits could
I,,it have been welcomed more any place
Ih in in the warm, humid climate of the
C-mal Zone. The new materials won im-
nIiliate popularity with the sweltering
ni.n, but some turned out to be so thin
Illi.t the men discovered, to their dismay,
hll.t when they wore light colored tro-
pl,..ils, the length of their underwear
'..I becoming a topic of discussion.
Sack Suits
This was not a problem with the fab-
Si,._. used in the early clays of the Canal
\-. I.en duck, linen, and flour sacks were
rth- main materials used. Flour sack
smils generally were only for everyday
v.. ir and were not a laughing matter
.*\,ept occasionally when the sacks
...ere not bleached well enough and
the Cold Medal Flour label was leg-
ible. A retired employee reported that
a Governor of that period appeared
at his office one morning with traces
of the label clearly visible across
the seat of his trousers. The Gold
i Medal motto, which was printed
ir, the sacks, was "Eventually, why
li.-.t now\."
Many of the men had two or three of
thi.se flour sack suits for work and
several who wore them described them
as "practical and attractive." There were
clothes trees and hangers in all the offi-
ces of the Administration Building and,
usually because of the heat, the men
removed their coats and hung them up.
With this careful treatment they could
wear the coats several days without
laundering, but since the trousers were
washed more often, it was not uncom-
mon to see a man wearing very white
bleached trousers and a jacket that
appeared slightly "tattletale grey" in
Stand Alone
The flour sacking was very sturdy and
stood up well under many bleachings.
Laundresses applying for work were
selected on the basis of how well they
"could do a white suit." This meant
much boiling, bleaching and starching.

With all the emphasis on starch it was
small wonder that men frequently found
that their underwear and handkerchiefs
had been starched also. Often the trou-
sers were stiff enough to literally stand
alone and some maintained that they
acted as a sort of flue which allowed
the air to circulate and produce a
cooling effect.
Others of the Construction Day era
reported that the suits were actually
very hot, and prickly heat, especially
around the neck, made them so mis-
erable that the minute they got home,
they ripped off the detachable starched
collar followed immediately by the vest
and coat. Strange as it seems, men of
the era often wore vests even in the
tropical heat.
In the 1920's most of the flour sack
suits were made in the mattress factory
of the old Quartermaster Department
near the Balboa Railroad Station.
The factory made not only mattresses
but all kinds of items. The tailors there \
apparently were wizards at turning
flour sacks into, not only suits, but bunk
bottoms, waiter's coats, butcher's aprons,
pajamas for the patients at Ancon Hos-
pital, golf knickers, covers for chairs,
and even hats and caps.
Just In Case
The 100-pound sacks, which they
used, arrived on the Isthmus filled with
flour for the bakery. They were sold,
after being washed and bleached by the
Ancon Laundry, for 25 cents each and
three sacks were usually enough for a
white suit. The total cost of a tailored
suit was around $12. Tailors were in-
structed to put the label side of the sack
inside the garment just in case the
bleaching had not been well done.
Styles in suits varied. There were
double breasted and single breasted,
both with wide lapels, and then there
was the type, worn by Col. George \V.
Goethals and a few others, which fea-
tured a high stiff collar of the mandarin
or military uniform type. Goethals' suits
were of linen and reported to be made
by a tailor in the Construction Day town


The White Suits Gone?

of Culebra. He never wore his Army uni-
form, only the white suit, which was
immaculate at all times. A number of
men insisted that to stay spotless and
unwrinkled in the tropical heat one
had to change suits at least three times
a day.
Government officials from the United
States often brought along white suits
for wear on the Isthmus. On his visit in
1906, President Theodore Roosevelt was
photographed wearing a white suit as he
took a train ride through the muddy
construction area and climbed aboard a
steam shovel.
President William Howard Taft, also
bowing to the local fashion, decided to
forego wearing the frock coat for which
he was so well known and appeared
resplendent in a voluminous white suit.
All In White
Society reports of the olden days told
of dances at the Tivoli and Washington
hotels where both men and women were
dressed in white. One man, writing in
1922 said. "The Tivoli Club held its
regular dance last night. I hung around
the sidelines a half hour or so, met a fe\\
people I knew and watched the per-
formance. To me there is no dance so

pretty as this, so clean and fresh-look-
ing-an impression due I suppose to
the white clothing worn by men and
The white suit gradually replaced the
striped trousers and the cutaway coat
for the most formal occasions, and in
1934 Gov. J. L. Schley in a memoran-
dum on protocol reiterated that, "The
white suit is the official full dress for the
Canal Zone and has been so recognized
in Panama for 20 years or more and that,
consequently when the officials of the
Canal Zone attend formal functions in
Panama for which full dress is pre-
scribed, the proper dress for them to
wear is the white suit."
In 1936, when Panama's President
Elect Dem6stenes Arosemena, after a
lengthy conference, okayed white linen
suits with black ties as the "official dress
for members of the National Assembly
at the inauguration," one man was so
grateful that he wrote a letter to the
editor of a local newspaper.
He said, "Dr. Arosemena, you have
endeared yourself to countless officials
who had, I know, been dreading the
day when they should have been obliged
to appear in morning coat, heavy striped
trousers. shiny black shoes. Ascot tie,

high collar, and top hat to stand for no
short space of time."
Over the years, the white suit became
something of a status symbol. In many
offices on the Isthmus, "the boss" wore
a white suit. One young man,
seeking a job, noted this. When
he was asked what he could
do, file, type, or operate other
office equipment, he smiled,
and said proudly, "I can do
none of those things but I
can wear a white suit."
The suits were often re-
ferred to as "come-to-
Jesus suits" because they
were the standard cos-
tume for baptism at
many of the local
In 1929, the firs:
ready-made suits ap-
peared in the Canal
Zone commissaries.
At that time, one

A LOOK AT OLD PHOTOGRAPH ALBUMS shows the popularity of the white suit from Construction
Days until 1960 when the fashion began to disappear from the tropical scene. At left from top to bottom:
Ceremonial occasions usually meant the wearing of white suits as evidenced by the large number at the
dedication of the plaque at the foot of the stairs at Gorgas Hospital. The suits came in a variety of styles
including knickers worn here by Gov. M. L. Walker. The Duke and Duchess of York (later Queen Eliza-
beth and King George VI) visit the Lock Control House at Gatun Locks escorted by Governor Walker in
white pith helmet. The pith helmet was often worn with white suits as well as with white uniforms by
the military. Immaculately dressed in white, Gov. Harry Burgess goes on an inspection trip on a railroad
motor car. At right, top to bottom: Pres. Theodore Roosevelt climbs aboard a steam shovel to view Canal
work during Construction Days. White was as popular with the ladies as with the men and Col. and
Mrs. D. D. Gaillard present a lovely scene as they have tea at their home in the old Construction
Day town of Culebra. Another tranquil Canal Zone scene shows Col. and Mrs. J. F. Stevens oul
for a carriage ride. Gov. Jay Morrow, left, poses with AFL Pres. Samuel Gompers and party on the
steps of the Administration Building during Gompers' visit to the Isthmus. Gov. W. E. Potter and
the former Gov. Glen E. Edgerton inspect work at bottom of Miraflorcs Locks during overhaul.
Governor Potter was the last Canal Zone governor to wear the white suit regularly.


-. -. .a .
.at '' . ,

.* .

just slightly more than what he had to
pay for a bathing suit which cost him
$5.35 for "a good quality wool" shoulder
to knee style.
He could finish out his outfit with a
$2.75 white broadcloth shirt with or
without collar; white cotton "drawers"
and undershirt at 85 cents each; white
leather belt for $1.20 or if he preferred,
white suspenders for 75 cents; and four-
in-hand tie from $1 to $2. Some wore
black and some wore white shoes with
this outfit, topping it off with a white
pith helmet.
By 1933, ready-made suits were being
produced in the Republic of Panama
and the problem of shrinkage was being
solved. One establishment published the
following advertisement which bears
the marks of a rather laborious transla-
tion from the Spanish.
"One of the guarantees of the work
being done by our shop is that the cloth-
ings will not shrink. When the goods are
received from the exterior to be manu-
factured into clothes they are put

through a trying process which consists
in leaving them 24 hours in a deposit of
boiling water.
"Afterwards the clothing are put in
the washing machine; then are sent to
the drying department and finally ironed
and polished.
"There are three large tables provided
with electrical cutting machines. At once
the clothing are measured and modeled
according to size and styles. There are
machines that cut 500 suits of three
different sizes at one time. Afterwards
the materials are carried to the confec-
tioning shops where a swarm of workers
are busy laboring. This new section is
furnished with the most modern mate-
rials that can be found anywhere.
Fierce Stitch
"The highest efficiency is found in the
machines designed to make special
work. Machines to make buttonholes,
machines to make hems, machines to
make pants pockets, machines to sew
on buttons, etc. Even a machine called
Maiquina de Puntada Fiera or the ma-
chine of a 'fierce' stitch which executes
a very delicate stitch whose mark cannot
be seen on the other side of the cloth."
The factory reported that they were
able to produce from 100 to 200 suits
a day.
By 1960, the white suit had almost
disappeared from the local scene. Gov.
William E. Potter was the last Canal
Zone Governor to wear the white suit
regularly. They were phased out of the

commissary in the early 1960's with the
leftovers going on sale for $2.95.
The tradition of the white suit in the
tropics has ended. Perhaps the man re-
sponsible for it is the most influential of
all fashion molders today-the scientist.
Fashions are often the result of
work in the laboratory where modern
fabrics with special new qualities are
For many \years, the search was on for
a fabric to be worn in the tropics which
would be cool, lightweight, not easy to
wrinkle (as fabrics usually do in hot,
humid weather) and which would hold
a crease.
The Old Days
Now with the synthetic fabrics, the
blends of acetates and cotton and cotton
treated to be wrinkle resistant, the prob-
lems have been solved and the days of
the boiling, bleaching, starching, and
ironing are over.
Still, hanging in many Canal Zone
closets, among the flashy, brightly col-
ored new garments, one is apt to spot
an old white suit, carefully preserved
just in case the style should make a
So far, the only step in that direction
has been a smattering of white suits
with bell-bottom trousers, but who can
say, with all the radical changes in men's
fashions and the return of sideburns and
styles of by-gone days, the old white
suit may try a comeback to the tropical

A 100-pound flour sack of the type used in making white
suits in years gone by is displayed by Canal Zone College
Queen Darlene Daly. The sack is a part of the Canal Zone
Museum's collection of Construction Day memorabilia.




Presidents Wore

Pres. Theodore Roosevelt inspecting Canal work from train.

Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt with Panama Pres. Harmodio Arias.




Pres. William Howard Taft with Col. George \V. Goethals.

Pres. Nixon (while Vice President) with Mrs. Nixon.

Will They Return?

,, .
. .. -, ,-
*K, ~ ~ ~ .., -- ^ """" _^ ^- 'Bf r -" \

With one of the few ceiling
fans remaining on the
Isthmus turning slowly
overhead, John Hibben,
wearing white bell-
bottomed trousers and
double-breasted jacket,
looks over a picture of
President Taft and
Col. Goethals dressed
in the style of
Construction Days. John
is a student at the
Canal Zone College.
At right: A well preserved
white suit hangs in the
closet among the
vari-colored ones just
in case the style should
make a comeback to the
Isthmian scene.


...~dC J6-~


-. I

c4 jewel A omong the

MWr- .

"J9landJ o( Pearls"



L.zr -

I. -~~*


~ ---


A". &

By Louis R. Granger
LUSTERED OFF the south
coast of Panama lie a group
I of more than 100 islands that
during the next decade are ex-
pected to give a bit of com-
petition to the sun and fun
islands of the Caribbean.
Well-known to the boating and fish-
ing crowd of Panama and the Canal
Zone, the Pearl Island Archipelago in
the Gulf of Panama is stepping into the
limelight thanks to a group of Panama
businessmen and the Panama Govern-
ment, all bent on putting the island
jewels on every island hopping tourist's
Gabriel Lewis, president of the Pearl
Island Development Corp., is the lead-
ing force behind the project and this
month will officially open Contadora
Island to tourism.
Already more than S1 million has been
spent to develop the island into a luxury
resort, and approximately $800,000
more will go into the construction of a
50-room modern hotel and 16 two-bed-
room cottages to be ready in January
1972. Now available are 10, two-bed-
room, centrally air-conditioned trailers;
a restaurant and cocktail lounge: and a
small rental store for sporting goods and
the usual beach and water necessities.
13 Beaches
Although the island is only 2 miles
long and % of a mile wide, it has 13
beaches and plenty of room for privacy.
An airfield nearly 3,000 feet long serves
the island, and the corporation owns
three twin-engine planes for shuttle
service from Paitilla Airport. The fee is
$10 per person round trip, but property
owners are given a discount.
It's a 15-minute trip by air and
approximately 1 to 2 hours by power-
boat. The island lies at the northern end
of the archipelago approximately 35
miles from Panama City. There are nu-
merous anchorages for deep-draft vessels
and the island has a gas diesel fueling
Once the island gets into full swing,
Contadora will be a paradise for the out-
door types, as well as for the naturalist.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Peterson who
operated a sailing school at Fort Lauder-
dale, Fla., are resident managers of the
operation and offer skindiving and sail-
ing classes. Natives from the surround-
ing islands will conduct pearl diving
expeditions for the more adventuresome
visitors. Pearling was a lucrative busi-
ness around the Pearl Islands until the

With many tropical beaches
and jungle trails, Contadora
Island officially opens for
tourism this month. On
opposite page pretty Karen
Hughes, a visitor from
Iowa, writes her favorite
island's name in the sand,
and strolls along the beach
in the photo below.
In left photo, Gabriel Lewis,
right, developer, chats
with Frank Morrice whose
company holds the
exclusive sales rights
to island property.
Below is a trail leading
through untouched jungle.


- 1 -K ?

A paradise for beachcombers and skindivers, the Pearl Island Archipelago gives up
treasures from its past to sharp-eyed visitors. Here Mr. and Mrs. Lewis display some of
the items found among the islands. Clustered in the foreground and in photo helow are
pearls found just off Contadora this year.

1930's when apparently a combination
of over-fishing and disease decimated
the beds.
But pearl oysters may be making a
comeback. Lewis has collected nearly
100 pearls of various sizes off Contadora
in 10 feet of water at low tide. (Pacific
tides average approximately 14 feet.)
Golf Course
Tennis courts, a 9-hole golf course,
and volleyball courts will be added to
round out the sporting activities.
Lewis has preserved much of the
island forest of guayacan trees, thorn)
cedars, oaks, and typical island growth.
and has let it he known that a good way
not to be invited back to the island is to
kill one of the black iguanas that inhabit
the island. This species grows to about
5 feet and like the rest of the family are
harmless to humans.
Indian pottery and 19th Century
bottles have been found on Contadora
during the construction and clearing.
And on a nearby island Lewis found two
large diving helmets abandoned or lost
by pearl divers.
Lewis plans to retain the natural
beauty of the island and not crowd any
of the residents or visitors. Actually'
there is no need to pack Contadora with
people. He owns seven other islands in
the archipelago which he plans even-

tually to develop. "It all depends on hoxw
well the public accepts Contadora,"
he said.
Part of the island has been subdivided
for homesites and additional building
sites will be set aside after the hotel is
completed. "The reaction has been fan-
tastic," said Lewis. "Already the entire
subdivided section has been sold."
If Lewis' own reaction to Contadora
when he first saw it is any indication of
how others will feel, then the island is
bound to be a favorite.
Like a Dream
Just 2 years ago in November Lewis
was fishing alone in a small boat when
he had engine trouble. He put into Con-
tadora for help. "I found the island to
be like a dream," he said. After repairing
the engine, Lewis returned to Panama
City. "Immediately I started asking
questions and found that it was owned
by the Pinel family who had been in
the pearl business years before." For-
tunately, the owners were willing to sell.
Lewis set-up a 5-year program and in
February 1969 the first bulldozer started
to clear an area for the airstrip. Since
then a work force of about 70 men has
been kept busy. The Panama National
Guard provided some heavv equipment
to widen the runway.
During the next dry season the airfield

and all the roads including one that
circles the island will be blacktopped.
That project is expected to be finished
in February 1971 along with a water
system supplied by three artesian wells.
and an electrical plant with three gen-
erators supplying 1,000 kw. Comunica-
ciones, S.A., will install SO telephone
lines for island communications and 6
lines to Panama City by March 1971,
Lewis said.
No Crazy Ideas
Original building sites sold for $6 a
square meter for waterfront lots and $4
for inland property. The only building
restriction is that plans be approved by
the management and that the houses
"fit in" with the community. "No crazy
ideas," Lewis said. Lot owners, he ex-
plained, can purchase two-bedroom, air-
conditioned mobile homes from the Pan-
ama Tourist Bureau for nothing down
and $128 a month for 8 years. Trailer
lots, however, must be landscaped.
To Lewis, the archipelago will be-
come the next major tourist area. "These
islands will be booming soon. The Gov-
ernment is backing their development
and is giving a lot of cooperation.
There's a great potential here.
"Panama has an excellent opportunity
to develop a strong tourist industry. \e
have what everybody wants-sun, good
beaches, some of the best fishing in the
world, and clean, clear water," he said.
Sales Rights
Lewis is not alone in this venture.
Frank Morrice 1II, a partner of Ford,
Sosa, Morrice, S.A., insurance and real
estate, has the exclusive sales rights to
island property. And like Lewis, Mor-
rice first went to Contadora for a reason
other than business.
"I heard about the island and went
there to see about buying a lot. 1 fell in
love with it right away," he said. Lewis
and Morrice became good friends and
Lewis offered him the sales part of the
Lewis is a family man, the father of
five boys and one daughter, and has a
close relationship with his business
associates. He is general manager of the
successful family-owned enterprise of
Corrugado Panama, S.A., which manu-
factures banana packing boxes.
He has the easygoing manner of a
man who is sure of himself and knows
exactly where he is going.
Morrice feels much the same \way
about the future of the Pearl Islands as
Lewis, but admits that it takes someone
like Lewis to make it work. "Gabriel is
the pioneer; he's the Robinson Crusoe
of the Pearl Islands."


LITTLE IS KNOWN and less is re-
corded of the Pearl Islands except that
they were once the center of important
and lucrative pearl fishing, an industry
which to various degrees continued for
more than 400 years.
The first known written reference to
the islands occurs in a letter to the King
of Spain from Vasco Nifiez de Balboa,
dated January 20, 1513. Balboa had not
discovered the Pacific Ocean-that was
to be in September-but had heard many
stories from the Indians about the great
"South Sea" that stretched to the horizon
from across the Isthmus of Panama.
He told the King: "The Indians state
there is another ocean 3 days journey
from here . they' say the other ocean
is very suitable for canoe traveling as it
is always calm . I believe there are
many islands in that sea . they tell me
that there are pearls in abundance of
great size, and that the native chiefs
possess baskets filled with them, as do
even common Indian men and women."
Since then these islands with their
graceful white sand beaches, craggy
cliffs, good natural harbors, and a wide
and abundant variety of wildlife have
led unruffled lives while their tropical
cousins in the Caribbean were groomed
for the tourist trade.
Sun and Rum
As the Caribbean islands boomed with
pleasure seekers by the hundreds of
thousands soaking up the sun and rum,
the "Islands of Pearls," as Balboa called
them, patiently waited for the limelight.
From 1901 until 1968, when Gabriel
Lewis, president of the Pearl Island
Development Corp., bought Contadora
Island, it was owned by the Pinel family
who used the island for its pearl fishing
fleet. The Pinel's bought it from great-
grandchildren of Felix Moreno who took
title to the island and several others in
the late 18th Century. Moreno's daugh-
ter inherited it on his death in 1836
when the island was called San Fran-
cisco de Asis de Contadora.
Jose Pinel of Panama City, who is en-
gaged in the real estate business, was
a child during the pearl fishing days of
his family. He said Contadora and
several other islands had fresh water
necessary for the fleet. Pinel believes
that Contadora may have been the
island that was used as the counting-
house for pearls and mother-of-pearl
shell during the Spanish occupation. The
Spanish word contador means counter;
accountant; or auditor, and contadu-
ria is translated as accountant's office,
accountancy, and auditorship.
The Pinel family remained in the
pearling business-both for mother-of-

pearl and pearls-until 1931 when the
demand for mother-of-pearl diminished.
Most of it was sent to Germany while the
pearls were sold mainly in Paris, Lon-
don, and a few other European capitals.
Only a few pearls were ever sold in the
United States, Pinel said.
Pearl Fishing
Although the Colombian Government
had established conservation practices
on pearl fishing prior to the turn of the
century (Panama became independent
from Colombia in 1903), the production
of pearl oysters diminished markedly in
the 1930's.
According to Dr. Paul S. Galtsoff of
the U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish and Wildlife Service, who con-
ducted a survey of the pearl oyster
resources of Panama in 1950, the years
of forced inactivity from 1939 through
1943 had no beneficial effect on the
oyster population.
"In 1944-45, when the fishery was
officially resumed, the divers found the
pearl oysters extremely scarce. They) also
reported seeing, on several formerly
productive grounds, many dead or dying
ovsters," said Dr. Galtsoff.
There are no records available of the
number of pearls and their value taken
irom Panama Bay during the Spanish
occupation, but it probably was con-
siderable. Modern-day records on pearls
and mother-of-pearl shells were not
maintained until 1908, and even then
the records were only sketchy.
According to the Panama Bureau of
Statistics and Census, the best year was
1924 when pearls and shell valued at
857,524 were taken from the bay. The
last year of record keeping was 1938
when it was reported that only 3 carats
of pearls valued at $275 were collected.
But the year before, 339 carats with a
value of $10,818 were taken.


I",- 7 ;.
S. J

At top of page is an aerial photograph of'
I ''

o ctt s will be cn-

**st d ne t-e b h at rt cn...' ter. Th
' " 1 :1e

U.S. Navy Hydrographic Ofice chart

At top of page is an aerial photograph of
Contadora Island taken earlier this wear
It shows the runway, half a dozen beaches
and some of the roads. A 50-room hotel
and 16 modern cottages will be con-
structed near the beach at right center. The
U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office chart shows
some of the northern islands in the archi-
pelago including Isla Contadora, below
Isla Pacheca and to the right of Isla Sabo-
ga. The islands are approximately 35 miles
from Panama City.





In the mind's eye of people tcho love ships and their ways,
all vessels, whether they be ancient rust buckets or elegant
luxury liners, create scenes of far away places and a longing to
stand at the rail of a stout ship. Visitors to the Panama Canal
are no different as they watch vessels head to the four corners of the
earth. Amateur artist John B. Morton, an auditor with the
General Audit Division, has recorded with pen and ink some
scenes along the waterway. Sketch "A" (below) shows the
Swedish American Line cruise ship MS Kungsholm tied up
at Balboa. On the opposite page, sketch "B" is
of a merchant ship moving through Gaillard Cut during widening
operations. A "mule" which guides the vessels through the
locks by means of heavy steel cables is shown in sketch "C"
and the tug Gulf Raider when she was leading ships into
Canal waters is "D." The mighty aircraft carrier
U.S.S. Constellation, sketch "E," completes the Panama Canal
Sketchpad. The Constellation is too large to transit the
Canal and even had to wait for low tide before she could sail
under the Thatcher Ferry Bridge to moor at Balboa.


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By Jose T. Tufi6n
RICH OR poor, young or old, no man
or woman of Panama's interior is ever
caught without a "montuno" hat-well,
hardly ever. For the distinctive native
hat is as much a part of the national
attire as the well-known "montuno" out-
fit is for men and the now internationally
famous "pollera" is for women.
Except that sex makes no difference
in the use of the hat.
At first glance, there is nothing out of
the ordinary in the appearance of Pan-
ama's "montuno" hat. The crown is of
normal size, about 6 inches high, and

Nimble fingers at work, Victoria Domin-
guez of La Pintada prepares the fibers for
the miniature montuno hats which are given
as souvenirs in Panama City.

raised or flat depending on the locality
where it is made. The wide brim is
But the fiber and the weaving are
The raw material is the shoot of a
palm tree that grows wild in the high
mountains of Cocld and Veraguas Pro-
vinces, in an area some 100 miles west
of Panama City. In Panama it is known
as "bellota," elsewhere in Latin Amcr-
ica as "bombonaje" or "jipijapa." Inci-
dentally, it is the same fiber that is used
in Ecuador to make the once-famous
"Panama" hats.
In the Cocle and Veraguas mountains
of central Panama live the "cholos"-
descendants of the fiery Indians and the
proud Spaniards. It is their women who
have preserved the art of hat weaving
from generation to generation.

A farmer at the San Sebastian Fair at
Oe6 proudly wears his "Sunday best" mon-
tuno hat which is woven of white fiber.
For everyday he wears a montuno hat of
rougher fiber.

A traveler hiking the winding moun-
tain trails of El Cope and El Harino,
above Penonom6, is apt to come upon
the glow of rustic lanterns burning in
the homes of the "cholos" before day-
break. The women are weaving the finer
"montuno" hats. For the work must be
done between 4 and 8 in the morn-
ing-when the moisture in the air is
highest to render the fiber softer and
more pliable. The rest of the day, the
materials have to be kept wrapped in
damp cloth.
The painstaking weaving takes many
early morning hours, but when the hat
is finished, it is a real piece of native art.
The strands are obtained by splicing
the "bellota" shoot with a needle. Then
the fibers are left out in the damp morn-
ing air to acquire the required consis-
tency before being wrapped in damp
cloth for storing. Using head shaped
wooden blocks, the women patiently
interweave as manv as 15 strands of
fiber to fashion a hat.
Two Styles
There are two distinct styles of "mon-
tuno" hats. One is the "ocuefo," named
for the region of Oc6 where it is most
popular. The "ocuefio" hat is woven
of white fiber, except for a 1-centi-
meter wide black strip around the edge
of the brim The other is the "pin-
tao" (a corruption of "pintado" or spot-
ted) hat, its name deriving from the
"pintas" or designs obtained from inter-
weaving white and black fiber strands.
Each design is up to the weaver's
imagination; hence, the variety is almost
limitless. Look at a collection of "pintao"
hats and vou will wonder at the artistic

22 NOVEMBER 1970

touch of these women from the moun-
tains of Panama. The designs-some in
concentric circles, others in spirals,
in squares, cross-shaped or simply in
dots-evidence a sense of refinement and
exquisite care. The crown of the "pin-
tao" hat is flat instead of raised as in the
"ocuefio" style.
Regardless of the color, all the fiber
that goes into a "montuno" hat comes
from the same ballott" palm. The
black strands have been dyed with a
special clay that is a zealously guarded
secret of the "cholos." The jet black
color imparted to the fiber is indelible.
Hat Bands
No matter its style, the "montuno"
hat is usually adorned with a delicately
woven cord of black or multi-colored
thread or wood that serves as a band.
The weaving of the cord is another home
craft transmitted from generation to
generation among the women of Pan-
ama's countryside, particularly in the
area of Ocii. It involves an ingenious
technique: pins are stuck around the
hole at one end of an ordinary spool of
sewing thread-one pin for each of the
colors in the finished cord. The colored
strands then are interwoven around the
pins and the finished cord emerges
through the other end of the spool. In
Oc6 the weaving of cords for use as
"montuno" hatbands is a pastime for
most women-from the richest matron to
the humblest girl.
When should one wear an "ocueio"
or a "pintao" hat?
Mrs. Dora P6rez de Zirate, an author-
ity on Panamanian folklore, explains
the difference, from a woman's stand-
"The 'campesina' in Oc6 or Veraguas
prefers her hat plain, rounded, with no
special adornment or particular shape
to the brim. She wears this hat with her
daily attire and also, when she pleases,
with her lace 'pollera'. . The people
of Herrera Province . the Province of
Los Santos and of the rest of the coun-
try . wear the 'pintao' hat only with
their 'pollera montuna' (the common
'pollera'); the headdress is different
when a lace 'pollera' is worn . ."
The Important Thing
And what about the men? They have
an everyday, working hat of a rougher
nature, and for holidays and festive
occasions wear similar hats but these
are better made. Regardless of the style,
the important thing is to wear a "mon-
tuno" hat. Why?
Writer Roman B. Reyes put it this


"The 'montuno' hat is indispensable
to dance the 'tamborito.' It is an emblem
of masculine enthusiasm and of court-
ing, a prerequisite for his gestures of
tribute and admiration to the woman
who shares with him the pleasure of
native dancing."
Panama's "montuno" hat industry is
very old. No one really knows when it
began. Knowledgeable persons such as
Elias Vega, an expert hatter in Peno-
nome, say it goes back to pre-Columbian
A distinguished American educator
played an important part in an interest-
ing chapter of the history of the native
hat industry in Panama. He was Fede-
rico E. Libby, who was employed by
the Panama government in 1914 as
Inspector General of Education. He
spoke Spanish fluently, having worked
in Puerto Rico for a long time. Libby
was convinced that the rural school had
to be adapted to the environment of the
students in order to train them in useful
crafts. When Libby heard of the hat
industry in the Cocld highlands, at La
Pintada and Oc6, he brought an expert
hatter from Ecuador, Francisco Lara,
and established a school in Penonome to
teach the weaving of Panama hats.
Hatters School
Few persons realize it, but Panama
hats made in the Penonome Hatters
School were sold in the United States
and in Germany and were worn by
members of Panama's most prominent
Graduates from this school, which
operated for 20 years, spread through-
out central Panama, mainly in Cocl6 and
Herrera Provinces, resulting in a marked
growth of the native hat industry.

A Panamanian beauty wears a "pintao"
hat distinguished by the black fiber.

Thus, an American left the imprint
of his work on the "montuno" hat craft
of Panama.
In recent years, the Panama Govern-
ment and the United Nations, through
SENAPI (National Service of Crafts-
manship and Small Industries), have
boosted the industry. In La Pintada,
SENAPI has established small shops for
fiber weaving where expert instructors
teach residents the secrets of working
with materials from native plants. There
are many learners and both the quality
and the variety of the articles are
Still, the most authentic "montuno"
hats-and the finest-are those woven in
the glow of rustic lanterns by the skilled
fingers of "cholas" in the highlands,
between 4 and 8 every morning.

I 1 L.

A wedding in Ocui. All the guests and the bridegroom wear the "ocuefio" or white montuno
hats. The bride is attired in a white pollera wedding dress and wears gold combs in her
hair which are family heirlooms. The flags are used to add gayety to the occasion.



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By Fannie P. Hernandez

L w

A genial Neopolitan, chef Giuseppe Pana-
riello prepares gourmet fare in the galley
of the "Donizetti." Each dish becomes a
culinary masterpiece.

CULINARY CAPERS goes to sea to
explore adventures in Italian cuisine
aboard the Italian Line's MV Donizetti,
which with her two sister ships, the
Verdi and the Rossini, makes regular
calls at the Panama Canal on her Medi-
terranean to west coast of South America
Arriving at the Canal on June 26,
1963, the Donizetti was the first of three
vessels put into service to replace the
Marco Polo, the Americo Vespucci, and
the Antoniotto Usodimare, which for 15
years had called at the Canal. The Verdi
and the Rossini were put into service a
short time later, and the three vessels,
each making six voyages a year, are at
this time the only passenger ships on
the route. They transit the Canal 36
times a year. Italian Line ships have
been using the Canal since it opened
for business and there has been an
Italian Line office at Cristobal since
Originating their runs at Genoa, on
the west coast of Italy, the vessels
carry a myriad of manufactured goods
ranging from objects d'art, fine laces
and delicate Murano glas, to type-
writers, scooters, marble, wines, and
machinery for heavy industry. Unload-
ing their cargoes at South America's
ports, their emptied holds are filled
mainly with Chilean copper, Peruvian
cotton, Ecuadorean cacao, and Colom-
hian coffee, destined for Europe.

The gleaming white ships of modern
design are alike, except for minor differ-
ences in interior decor. With a capacity
of 550 passengers and a crew of 250,
they give special attention to the trav-
elers and also provide equipment for
carrying cargo, mail, and passengers
autos. Although not comparable with
the big luxury superliners such as the
Michelangelo and the Raffaello, which
the Italian Line operates on cruises to
the Caribbean and on the Europe to
New York route, the ships are com-
pletely air conditioned with comfortable
staterooms, swimming pools, lounges,
bars, libraries, and restaurants for the
150 first class and 400 tourist passen-
gers. They are especially popular with
South American travelers.
In keeping with the traditional excel-
lence of Italian cooking, the cuisine
aboard the sister ships combines the
wholesome simplicity of regional dishes
with superb international fare. The
menus include a seemingly endless num-
ber of Italian specialties, regional dishes,
and typical dishes of South America
and Europe.
Not France
Mealtime aboard the Donizetti is a
reminder that Italy is the mother of Con-
tinental European cooking, not France
whose fame came much later. (It was
Catherine de' Medici, the 14-year-old
bride of the young man who later


became Henry II, who in 1533 took to
France an entourage of Florentine chefs
and the refinements of cooking and din-
ing of 16th century Italy, introducing
good table manners, the elegance of fine
napery, and the use of the fork.)
Breakfast is not an important meal in
Italy and no great fuss is involved. The
day's first meal consists of juice, black
coffee, milk, eggs, sweet rolls, butter,
and marmalade.
Each a Masterpiece
But lunch and dinner are another
story. Each dish is a masterpiece. A
typical luncheon (colazione) and din-
ner (pranzo) aboard the Donizetti starts
with a choice of four juices, antipasto
(hors d'oeuvres) which mav include very
thin slices of proscuitto and salami, an-
chovies, marinated mushrooms, and arti-
choke hearts, both green and black
olives, fish, radishes, fennel, green and
red peppers, Bellevue eggs, chicken sal-
ad, and sardines, accompanied by a dry
white wine. Then comes a choice of
three soups. The antipasto and soup are
supposed to open the appetite for the
pasta dish that comes next. It may be
ravioli, spaghetti, or any pasta dish or
rice. Three varieties of eggs are followed
by two fish dishes. Then comes the
"piatto straniere," the foreign dish,
which may be a typical dish of South
America or Spain.
Next on the menu is the specialty of
the day, such as ham croquettes, spring
chicken, or roast beef, followed by three
meat specialties from the grill. Two
vegetables and four kinds of potatoes
also are offered. A cold buffet, consisting
of six choices of meat and fowl and an
equal number of salads and sauces, is
provided, and in the European tradition.
a wide selection of cheeses and fruit.
fresh, dried, or cooked. Various desserts,
ice creams and beverages put a final
note to a gastronomical experience not
easily forgotten.
Genial Neopolitan
Ciuseppe Panariello, the chef on the
Donizetti, is a genial Neopolitan, and
has contributed to Culinary Capers a
number of recipes for regional dishes
from the Ligurian region along the
northwest coast of Italy. For luncheon
he selected Lasagne alla Portofino, a
noodle dish with a green sauce of garlic
and basil called Pesto alla Genovesc:
Caciucco alla Ligure, a squid stew; and
for dessert, Sacripantina, layered cake
generously flavored with an Italian cor-
dial called Strega. The recipes are for
six persons.

Lasagne alla Portofino
2S cups flour
4 eggs
% teaspoon salt
Sift flour and salt into a large bowl.
Make a well in the center of the flour
and add one egg at a time, mixing well
after each addition. Turn out onto a
lightly floured board and knead until
smooth. Roll out into a thin sheet and
cut into 2 inch squares. Let set.

Pesto alla Genovese
2 cups fresh basil leaves
2 cloves garlic
1 cup pine nuts
1 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1 cup olive oil
Put all ingredients into a blender,
adding oil little by little until sauce has
the consistency of thick cream. Makes
about two cups.
While lasagne sets, cook I pound of
fresh, tender string beans and boil
1 pound of potatoes. Slice the potatoes
into 4-inch slices. Keep warm.
Cook lasagne by dropping into boil-
ing salted water (about 8 quarts). Cook
rapidly, uncovered for 10 to 15 minutes
or until tender. Add 1 tablespoon oil
to boiling water to prevent lasagne from
sticking together. Drain.
Place lasagne in a deep serving dish
and mix with string beans and potatoes
Pour pesto over all and serve.

Caciucco alla Ligure
(Squid stew Ligurian style)
1 lb. squid, cut up
2 onions, chopped
1 carrot
2 celery stalks
% cup olive oil
1 bay leaf
cup dry white wine
1 clove garlic
cup parsley
I lb. can cut up tomatoes
I lb. Swiss chard leaves
1 cup water
pepper to taste
Cut vegetables julienne style and fry
in olive oil with the onion and squid,
cooking until well blended. Add the
wine, and when it is absorbed, add gar-
lic and parsley which have been ground
in a mortar. Add the tomatoes and cook
about 10 minutes over medium heat.
Add water and Swiss chard leaves which
have been cut julienne style. Add pep-
per and cook approximately 40 minutes.


6 eggs
1 cup sugar
1 cup flour
teaspoon salt
1 lb. butter
2 cups powdered sugar
2 ounces chocolate
Beat eggs and add sugar, mix well.


Three of the "Donizetti's" stewards are obviously pleased with the display of deserts
served daily aboard the Italian Line's passenger ships.




otllhe of Co0litoe4al EiroPean 0ooKiig

Gradually add flour which has been
sifted with salt. Beat until smooth. Pour
into a buttered and lightly floured cake
or torte pan. Bake in a preheated mod-
erate oven (350) for 20 minutes or until
cake springs back to touch.
Make a butter cream with the butter
and sugar. Beat until fluffy and divide
the cream and add 2 ounces unsweet-
ened chocolate (melted) to half the
When cake cools, cut into three
layers. Place first layer in a 2 quart
bowl, sprinkle with Strega (a sweet,
perfumed, golden-yellow after-dinner
cordial made in Italy.) Then spread but-
ter cream filling over the cake. Place
second layer in the bowl and repeat,
sprinkling with Strega and the choco-
late cream. Add the third layer fitting
it into the bowl and sprinkle with more
Strega. Let set for several hours and
turn bowl into a serving dish.
For dinner the chef provided more
regional recipes from Genoa: Minestrone
alla Genovese, a hearty vegetable soup
always made with fresh vegetables;
(Minestrone comes from the Latin "to
hand out" and was a staple in the old
days when monks kept a pot always on
the fire, ready to feed a hungry traveler
who may be stopping by); a recipe for
Cima alla Genovese, veal and egg
stuffed veal loaf to be served cold;
and Crostata alla Genovese.

Minestrone alla Genovese

Make a good meat stock with beef
and cracked bones. One pound of bones
and two pounds of meat, plus 1% table-
spoons salt, first boiled and then sim-
mered in 2 quarts of water for about
2 hours, makes a substantial'base for
this soup. (Be sure to remove the scum
when making the stock).
lb. cabbage
3 lb. Swiss chard
l Ib. string beans
a lb. pens
9 lb. potatoes
% lb. zucchini (Italian squash)
2 tablespoons pesto

Cut up all vegetables the size of peas
(except one of two potatoes, depending
on size, which are mashed later to
thicken soup). Cook in stock about
% hour. Add pound macaroni which
has been parboiled in salted water. Cook
until all vegetables and macaroni are
tender. Add 2 tablespoons pesto, the
green sauce mentioned earlier, and cook
a few minutes longer. Serve with Italian

Cima alla Genovese

Have butcher bone a three pound veal
breast and make a pocket in it. Stuff
with the following:
1 lb. ham or mortadella, cubed
1 lb. veal, cubed
6 eggs, well beaten
cup grated Parmesan cheese
1 cup cooked peas
1 finely chopped onion
Is teaspoon nutmeg
pinch of marjoram
Fry onion in a little oil, add ham,
veal, and cook a few minutes. Add eggs
and other ingredients and fill pocket
with the mixture. Sew the edge with
strong doubled white thread. Place the
stuffed veal breast on a clean cloth and
roll tightly in the cloth. Tie the ends
with string and twice around like a
package. Put it in a pot of salted water
and boil for /4 hour. Remove from the
water and roll with the hands to remove
any water. Place a weight on the loaf
to press out any remaining water. When
cool, remove from the cloth. Cut in
slices and serve cold.

Cima alla Genovese
(Cold veal loaf)

Crostata alla Genovese
23 cups sifted flour
% cup butter
% cup sugar
Sift flour and sugar into a bowl. Cut
in butter and make a dough. Roll out
and line a torte mold leaving enough
pastry dough to make strips for top of
pie. Fill with a one pound of peach or
apricot marmalade. Make a lattice
design on top of crostata with the strips
of crust and brush with egg yolk. Bake
in a moderate oven for 30 minutes or
until golden in color.

ENTREMESES: Jam6n crudo de Parma, Salchich6n Hin-
garo, Jam6n cocido Emiliano, Alcachofas Romanas,
Mantequilla, Huevos rellenos Cardinal, Tomate a la
Nicoise, Niervos de ternera a la Veneciana, Jurel en
aceite, Aceitunas negras.
FARINACEOS: Spaghetti, salsa Napolitana, Arroz blanco.
HUEVDS: Tortilla con hongos, Revueltos a la Espaiiola,
Al plato "Rotomago".
PESCADOS: Ombrina al horno, Filetes de mostela a la
PLATO DEL DIA: Cotechino Negroni con lentsias, Cro-
quetas de jam6n con Madera.
A LA PARRILLA: Codornices de vina sobre tostada,
Entercosta a la Frances, Chuletas de cerdo con
LEGUMBRES: Broculis al natural, Macedonia de legum-
BUFFET FRIO: Costillas de cerdo con salsa manzanas,
Gelatina gastron6mica, Lomo de buey, Pichones en
escabeche, Pate de higado, Pecho de ternera relle-
no, Genovos.
ENSALADAS: Mixta, Lechuga, Tomate, Remolachas.
QUESOS: Brie, Emmenthal, Stracchino, Bel Paese, Cre-
mini, Caciotta.
POSTRES: Tarta Sublime, Embutidos Venecianos, Cube-
letti Genoveses, Pasteleria surtida.
HELADOS: Copa Fantasia, Crema vanilla, Sorbete de
FRUTAS EN COMPOTA: Ouraznos, Peras.
FRUTAS FRESCAS: Pifa, Peras, Naranjas, Papaya, San-
dia, Mel6n.
BEBIDAS: Caf6 Italiano, Leche fresca, Sanka, Nescafi,
Hag, Ti Ceyl6n, Manzanilla, Menta, Boldo, Tilo.

The menus of Italian Line ships would
make Henry the Eighth jump for joy.
Printed in both Italian and Spanish, this
luncheon includes all the usual items plus
ham croquettes in Madeira wine, grilled
quail on toast, fried marinated dove and
stuffed veal breast.

26 NOVEMBER 1970


A SMALL staff of multilingual experts
lO has the task of keeping the Panama
n Canal from becoming a "Tower of
Babel." Maintaining communications
between peoples of many lands with
different and often exotic languages is
the job of the Translating Unit of the
Administrative Services Division.
The responsibility is often monumen-
tal considering that the international
waterway draws ships and people from
virtually every maritime nation of the
world to the Isthmus of Panama.
A recent incident involving a Turkish
seaman who was near death is an ex-
ample of the type of language problem
that can occur. The seaman had suf-
fered a ruptured appendix and was
taken off his ship and moved to Gorgas
Hospital. Telling him of the gravity of
"'- his condition and that he needed an
operation was the job of the Transla-
ting Unit which provided the names of
five persons on the Pacific side of the
Isthmus who spoke Turkish.
Iages One by one, they were called and
messages left when none of them could
be reached directly. By the time the
last call was completed, however, sev-
eral had responded and within the hour
the others had shown up at Gorgas
Hospital, willing to come to the aid of
their countryman.
Uncommon Languages
One of the demands made of the unit
is to maintain a current list of persons
who speak uncommon or out-of-the-
way languages such as Russian, Polish,
Finnish, Yiddish, Turkish, Korean,
Japanese and Chinese, making it a
veritable language bank.
The importance and growth of the
unit has been closely related to the
new and increased requirements to meet
language differences in the normal oper-
ation and maintenance of the waterway.
S The personnel that staffs the office
could very well be referred to as walk-
ing foreign language encyclopedias. As
interpreters or translators of an endless
W. number of official documents, training
manuals, safety rules, legal papers and
routine correspondence, and as dispens-
ers of medical, scientific, mechanical and
engineering terminology, thev are ex-
pected to translate not only what is said
but what is meant, conveying the exact
idea and mood of the original writer.
Canal's official First Translator
years, Enrique The late Jos6 de Lavandeyra, who
years ago, still
he Translating came to the Canal during construction
illivan, present days as an accountant, was the Canal's
F. Courchaine, first translator. A Brazilian who became
a U.S. citizen, Lavandevra had lived in


France and was fluent in six languages.
When his linguistic talents were discov-
ered, he was assigned to the Corres-
pondence Bureau of the Executive
Department where he remained until
his death in 1916.
Lavandeyra was succeeded by Enri-
que A. Lapeira, a Colombian who had
been working for the Canal since 1904
as a file clerk for the Panama Railroad
at Cristobal. In 1915, when the Canal
offices were consolidated in the Ad-
ministration Building, Lapeira came
along with the Panama Railroad files.
Shortly after the move, the position of
translator was offered to him.
No Alternative
Lapeira, 82, recalls that when the
executive secretary called him to his
office and asked him if he would like to
be the Canal's official translator, he re-
plied, "Yes of course, thank you, sir,"
and in his nervous elation he barely
heard the secretary when he added that
he was also required to know French.
He was half-way to the door when sud-
denly he realized that he had accepted
-and did not know French. The full im-
pact of his predicament hit him a heavy
blow. What should he do? He closed
the door knowing that he had no alter-
native but to learn French. He did. In
3 months.
Within a few years he had not only
mastered French but also Italian and in
spite of his failing eyesight, he makes
it a point to read in the two languages
Lapeira later became a U.S. citizen
and was for more than 33 ears the
Canal's official translator. He occupied
a few square feet of space in the second
floor balcony of the Administration
Building in the rear of the General
Services Branch. His duties also in-
cluded direct contact, by telephone and
in person, with officials and diplomats
in the Republic of Panama as English
was not widely spoken in Panama at
that time nor was Spanish commonly
heard in the Canal Zone. Lapeira retired
in 1950 and lives with his wife in
Panama City. Before retiring, however.
he trained a young man who today
heads an expanded Panama Canal
Translating Unit.
Varied Volume
William O'Sullivan, fluent in seven
languages, and a staff of five multilin-
gual translators have the responsibility
of rendering from one language into
another a varied volume of written (and
oral) communications involved in the
everyday transactions of Canal business.

The LangL

Having been the Panama
translator for more than 33
A. Lapeira, who retired 20
enjoys an occasional visit to t
Unit. At left is William O'Su
head of the unit, and Aurora

Translators Olga J. Stanziola, left, Marcia B. de Ortega, (seated at desk), Aurora F. Cour-
chaine (standing) and Sofia de Magall6n, right, who take care of French, Italian, Portuguese
and Spanish, are also bilingual stenographers.

A typical day's workload of transla-
tions may include one or two legal doc-
uments, two or three letters for the
Canal Zone Governor, an official note
from the Panama Ministry of Foreign
Relations, various letters to Spanish
speaking employees, and work on the
Governor's special project "Putting Into
Spanish All That Is Needed To Know"
including specific chapters of the Per-
sonnel Manual and the Canal Zone
Code and other regulations.
Serving as an information bureau
on languages, the translators also
answer consultations over the tele-
phone. Among these are calls received
from the Ministry of Foreign Relations,
the Protocol Office, and Immigration
Office of Panama, U.S. Government
agencies in this area, and, of course,
other Canal units.
Inquiry Boards
From time to time they are called
upon to serve as interpreters at inquiry
boards of ship accidents, in court,
hospitals, police stations and also to
serve as bilingual reporters as well as
translators at special events requir-

ing bilingual exchange of information.
The four women translator-interpre-
ters, Marcia B. de Ortega (the unit's
administrator), Sofia de Magall6n, Olga
Stanziola, and Aurora Courchaine also
are bilingual stenographers and among
them they handle French, Italian, Por-
tuguese, and Spanish translations. Henry
Gornell translates Spanish and German
while O'Sullivan may take care of trans-
lating or interpreting in French, Span-
ish, Italian, Portuguese, Malayan, and
All Subjects
Working as a team they translate,
edit, type, and proofread the workload
distributed to each translator according
to his or her qualifications. Each mem-
ber of the staff is assigned a responsibil-
ity: one takes care of assignments
dealing with medicine and chemistry,
the other handles legal translations, an-
other's specialty is me6hanical-technical
terminology, and others handle the edit-
ing and final proofreading of all mate-
rials. This last task requires considerable
familiarity and knowledge with all
subject matters to enable them to

v "%


polish and improve on their translations.
As bilinguality is becoming more and
more a part of the Canal's policy, the
language experts must spend many
hours researching various subjects to
familiarize themselves with technical
terms and vocabulary of the different
workshops in the marine and mainten-
ance areas and other Canal units in
order to arrive at accurate translations
of such subjects as the plumbing code,
firefighting regulations, training man-
uals which are used in various jobs,
forms, publications and even signs.
They are required to read trade jour-
nals and texts, scientific papers and
magazines which are usually a more
reliable source of terminology than dic-
tionaries as terms may change with
newer techniques. As a result of this
constant research, translators are well
informed on many subjects.
Heading The List
To help them with difficult transla-
tions they have at their disposal a
number of selected dictionaries, ency-
clopedias, scientific guides and other
material, with the Real Academia Espa-
nola dictionary heading their list of
Among the references, the Medical
Dictionary in Spanish is one of their
prized possessions as this book is vir-
tually unobtainable. Their copy was
ordered from Argentina. And, since
legal terminology follows close behind
in difficulty insofar as interpretation
goes, the office has copies of Ballan-
tine's and Black's Law Dictionaries
which enable the translators to arrive
at accurate usage of legal words
and phrases.
As the requests for information range
from the most complicated to the most
outlandish, the translators make it a
point to have on hand material ranging
from the Catholic Version of the Holy
Bible, the King James Version, Dictio-
nary of Thoughts and Refranero Espa-
fiol, to books on Panamefiismos (slang),
etiquette, grammar, lexicons, a book on
the proper syllabication for poetry and
verse, a thesaurus, synonyms and anto-
nyms, a secretary's handbook, and of
course, the various technical diction-
aries in several languages of nautical,
mechanical, chemistry, engineering, and
business terms.
In the course of an 8-hour day, the
translators may use technical terms and
specialized language of doctors, law-
vers, seamen, mechanics, chemists, car-
penters, or firemen and collectively
average approximately 325 pages of
written translations a month.-F.P.H.

(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Cyril Fairclough
Leader Wire Cable Worker
Lincoln B. Boyce
Marine Traffic Clerk
Henry Clayton
Frank A. Brown
Edgar W. Best
Time and Leave Clerk
Solomon H. DaCsta
Warehouse n
Charles L. et
Edwin N.
Lab n
Adolfo Bedo
Randolph J. ryant
Chief Foreman (Harbor)
Harold E. Graham
Spectacle Lens Surfacer (Limited)
Clifton H. L6pez
Wilfred V. Bartley
Kenneth George
Juan B. Martinez
Time and Leave Clerk
Oscar A. Sealey
Surveying Aid

Thomas L. Edghill
Staffing Clerk
Bertram L. McLean
Leader Cylinder Pressman (Large)
Ruby A. Wynter
Bindery Worker
Frank Thompson
George I. Griffith
Mail Clerk
David S. Taylor
Deckhand Trainer
Jos6 D. Waitoto
Painter (Maintenance)
Evaristo Melendez
Painter (Maintenance)
Ardenon C. Franklin
Painter (Maintenance)
Joseph D. Powlett
Robert W. King
General Foreman (Lock Operations)

Woodrow W. Rowland
Lead Foreman (Locks Operations)
E. S. Reynolds, Jr.
Leader Lock Operator (Machinist)
Silvestre SAnchez B.
Lead Foreman (Operations-Lock Vall)
Victor Hardy
Crane Hookman (Heavy)
Noel S. Daly
Seaman (Launch)
Hernandez B. Corpus
Seaman (Launch)
Fitzhubert Rose
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
Arthur M. Hiland
Towing Locomotive Operator Locks)
Lino Herrera
Wilfred A. Campbell
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Lionel E. Mortimer
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
Andrew J. Gagliano
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Angel Pelicot
Boatman (Locks)
Fermin Alegria
Motor Launch Operator
Victorino Garcia
Helper Lock Operator
Lino Coco
Helper Lock Operator
Robert T. Tweedy
Lock Operator (Operating Engi r-
Hoisting Equipment)
Florentino Pedroza
Woodrow Spradlin
Marine Traffic Controller
Edward N. Belland
Supervisory Admeasurer
Sergio I. Pefialoza
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Wilfred A. Anderson
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Cecil Redman
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Ezra Cohen S.
Linehandler (Deckhand)
William E. Grant
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
Levi A. Lewis
Leader Linehandler
(Deckhand Boatswain)
George Daley
Leader Seaman
Joseph Carew
Ernest H. Webster
Motor Launch Operator
Charles E. Fowler
Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks)
G. de la Torre
Helper Lock Operator
Nicomedes Murillo
Helper Lock Operator
TomAs Correa

Reginald Foulen
Boilermaker (Maintenance)
Joseph Wallace
Machine Operator
William W. Fitzsimmons
Leader Machinist (Marine)
Joseph M. Hunt
Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller
George L. Holder
Clerk Typist
Cleveland A. King
File Clerk
George S. Ricketts
Alvin Hall
Leopold Lester
Supervisory Cargo Checker
Pascual A. Medrano
Cayetano Carrasco
Laborer (Heavy)
Arthur N. Smith
Jorge L. Espinosa
Cephas Daniels
s Driver
A .zelie
I Hevy)
FI mjn' Ca eron
choolb er
.ne T mas

S rudrer
Garfield Brown
Leader High Lift Truck Operator
David M. Wallen
Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman
Abraham H. Ambulo
Helper Welder
Adolphus L. Jordan
James S. Lewis
Cargo Checker
Marton C. Davis
Roy R. Wilferd
Road Conductor
Henry G. Ledgerwood
Materials Handling Equipment
Charles Simon
Freight Rate Assistant
Ignacio Rodriguez
Clerk (Checker)
Narciso OlAvvar
File Clerk
Lorenza Newton B.
Accounting Clerk
Ruth Rennie


Carmen L. Hassocks
Time and Leave Clerk
Kerner E. Frauenheim
Assistant Guesthouse Manager
Bart J. Elich
Merchandise Management Officer
Robert L. Austin
Supervisory Procurement Agent
Dorothy A. Bellamy
Sales Store Clerk
Mabel G. Farley
Sales Store Checker
Maria Mh. Headley
Sales Store Checker
Jeanne Modestin
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk
Miriam A. Riney
Marker and Sorter
Lawrence R. Baptiste
Leader Meat Cutter
Gwendolyn Goring
Icibel H. Forbes
C. S. Cadienhead
Food Service Worker
Alfredo Castillo
Meat Cutter
Gladston N. Lewis
Leader Marker and Sorter
Edith A. Thorne
Pedro L. Lara
Garbage Collector
Ivan K. Wade
Laborer (Cleaner)
Canute A. Rodney
Laborer (Cleaner)
Marcelino Maclao
Edna 1. Flemmings
Sales Store Checker
Mary K. Ferguson
Sales Store Clerk
Harold D. Spencer
Inventory Management Specialist
Ida E. Lynch
Supply Clerk
Louise A. Johnson
Supply Clerk
Edward B. Webster
Housing Project Manager
Marie L. Beresford
Service Center Supervisor
Carlos A. Smith
Supervisory Clerk-Typist
Avis B. Ramirez
T. E. Russell
Food Service Worker
Cecilia W. Brathwaite
Food Service Worker
Gertrude E. Cardona
Meat Cutter
Fitz H. Taite
Leader Cook
A. B. Castillero
Leader Baker
Maria C. Iturrado
Marker and Sorter
Iris E. King
Marker and Sorter
St. Marie L. LaFleur

Modesto Diaz
Scrap Materials Sorter
Huxley Drakes
Laborer (Cleaner)
Ezequiel Fernndez
Victor Morris
Laborer (Heavy)
Levi Smith
Laborer (Heavy)
Viola C. Lewis
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk
Iris M. Simmons
Sales Store Clerk
Joseph H. White
Supply Management Officer
Gladis H. Thorpe
Myrtle S. Anglin
Bervl G. George
John A. Buckley
Ambrose V. Foote
Helper Electrician
Sergio Salazar
Helper Plumber
Ralph C. Thornme
r c W'WAN&el Lan s

S r .Senn n

Able Seaman
Walter M. Trasavage
Shift Engineer (Mechanical)
Rogelio A. Pacheco
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Antonio A. Aguirre A.
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)
Theophilus L. Bowen
Leader Seaman
Jos6 L. Cedeiio
Louis Bryan
Laborer (Cleaner)
Delmas A. Swafford
General Foreman (Cablesplicing and
Electrical Distribution)
Lascelle F. Williams
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Camilo Rodriguez B.
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Catalino L6pez
Electrician (Lineman)
Braulio Perez
Electrician (Lineman)
Reginald A. Muir
Electrician (Lineman)
Lloyd K. Wheatley
Helper Central Office Repairman
Enrique Cruz
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Ruben D. Gibson
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)

George H. McFarlane
Motor Launch Operator
Victor De Le6n
Leader Rock Crushing Plant Operator
Felipe Ortiz
Harold A. Walker
Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Plant Operator
V. de la Cruz C.
Howard T. Tettenburn
Benito Sanchez C.
Zacarias Salazar
Laborer (Heavy)
Charles W. McClean
Arcadio Diaz
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Bertram G. Coley
Helper Electrician
Cuthbert L. Wharton
Helper Electrician
Russell T. Wise
Supervisory Safety Inspector
Rubelio D. Quintero
Supervisory Electrical Engineer
Emiliano Mufioz P.
Surveying Aid
Albert E. Goguen
Police Private
Reinaldo Archbold
Dorcas W. Gregory
Teacher (Elementary U.S. Schools)
Percival B. Scott
Robert J. Balcer
Assistant Foreman, Mailing Division
Richard J. Tomford
Police Private
Frederick A. Mohl
Fire Lieutenant
Elvina W. Lansiquot
Clerk-Dictating Machine Transcriber
Frank R. West
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)
Rhoda J. de Tully
Nursing Assistant
William H. Myrie
Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry)
Anita Guy
Medical Aid (Sterile Supplies)
Viola Blaizes
Wilhelmina G. Brown
Formula Room Attendant
Isabella L. Wright
Pantry Worker (Special Diets)
Emanuel Blaisdell
Food Service Worker (Heavy)
Joseph N. Reid
Leader Cook
Mildred Kopf
Supervisory Physical Therapist
Matthew M. Walcott
Hospital Food Service Worker
Adolphus Phillips
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)

30 NOVEMBER 1970


50 Years Ago
Cni JOHN .1 PE IRSHI\C. ienr.-rl ,_,f i ,. 2

ir.i....- it Cr(: ',,Lcd n-l die Arnm t[:,ni ,' "" ': -t- T
I1' u m W -I '\\',i 1.
. n, It,. ,d :Cmr d ir, Im ii r M ,.i nn I Hi, 2.
l ,t td-, tA '. It| I l-S I. ,.o l-,r ,-i .,[il I
i p,.-t it ,- nr lit.i. l Str ,i hl m ,ri t, but
h, i, ,rn,.c d t,, fill ,full ,:.,:,l s hJl, ; R ii"
H, tr:,. ],.-, ,r,n td e C:,n:,l fr,:,,, CG atur, '. ',1

L,_-,,. Pe.id ,, M.,,.,L .i Hittrn d r-. .y *.-'1
r'.ep ,:, b' i ,, t.i:,- :r, C.' en,-"'iI "'Y I
,,f th : A.r ,,r, :,I |sd,n,us,- ,,l,.are ,, ail. ,.I,,
,t,.- ,.,hilddrcr ,:, A n,.,:, :,ri,,] B :,lb, :..o : -
,.',_-,,_"l. rr. ..-.. _I i,,rle ,:._ the An. ^ 1 .
r,.,.-,,t .\ r.-o.L Or.lcr. ,,l,| ._-.' th.- M ,t,.. W_ J ^ ^ l,

r,,tr P:,r,:,rn:, City k i !ll ".

lin i dgr'din hi:4ie dh r c-ii-Thin~d S in ig

NIba A ther \\'inirn:in r.' l

lin. 4. 1 11 Lcricd rl. Eh il.n. l Ht
liie ..~.!~;n lt~ir\ .llj~. r .. iii tie C(rinii

ELINIIATrION OF THE m 25 rltrint
li i,.re rit I-n-,, n tie t i pc.riit. 4 r
.1 nt. r i i i r in I u unte .t ikn
dnh.b Id nu \ id\0 fiirw In rhe-h

NIr n G~*en 4 W i ci~in C Gc.ile.4 dt id

h'J. 4?ni.I P i.4 1 r ll lninc .ini] i. En ii, H

A anniversaries

l t' D Erl-tki
Ed iit n ti .i .11ii I t.

Central Avenue at J Street in Panama City is crowded with revelers during carnival in 1920.

Sales of sugar in the Canal Zone
commissaries were restricted to 1 pound
per person because of a sugar shortage
in Panama. Canal Zone residents, mean-
while, crowded the sales store to buy
fresh fruit and vegetables, the first to
arrive from the United States in several
months. It was announced that the
shortages of meat and other foods would
ease soon.

10 Years Ago
THE FIRST GENERAL revision since
1954 of the regulations governing the
assignment, occupancy, and rental of
employees' living quarters was approved
by the Governor of the Canal Zone in
May 1960. Housing regulations stated
for the first time that residence in the
Canal Zone was not mandatory for em-
ployees of the Canal organization except
for those who had been specifically di-
rected by the Governor to live within
the Zone.

Governor W. E. Potter left the Canal
Zone in May 1960 and was succeeded
b\ Governor William Arnold Carter,
who arrived in July. Governor Carter,
departing from past procedure, took the
oath of office as governor of the Canal
Zone in a simple ceremony administered
by U.S. District Judge Guthrie F. Crowe
at Balboa Heights.
0 0 *
One of the final phases in the instal-
lation of the Canal Zone modern micro-

wave communications system was being
completed in July I960, with the con-
struction of a 10-foot dish antenna on
top of the Balboa Heights Administra-
tion Building. Similar dish reflectors
were installed on top of the communi-
cations buildings at Gatun and Cristobal.

Two white gloved Canal Zone police-
men hoisted the flags of the United
States and Panama side by side in the
Zone on September 21, 1960, imple-
menting a decision announced by the
then President Dwight D. Eisenhower
at the White House 4 days earlier. The
flags were raised on twin, 40-foot flag-
poles at a special plaza in Shaler Tri-
angle near the Tivoli Guest House.

One Year Ago
THE SS CRISTOBAL went aground on
the banks of the Mississippi River last
August as a result of hurricane Camille
which struck New Orleans. The ship
returned to the Louisiana port and
remained there until repairs could
be made. None of the passengers was

The last blast of the Panama Canal
Gaillard Cut widening project was fired
on November 20, 1969, marking the end
of the Oman Construction Co. contract
for widening the 3-mile Bas Obispo-Las
Cascadas Reaches from 300 to 500 feet.

I'll E PA %N IN C %1 NL 11,F % IE I

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