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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00057
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: August 1970
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00057
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Matter
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text














UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalreaug1970pana




























































47





W. P. Leber
Governor-President
R. S. Hartline
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin
Ponomo Conol Information Officer


PANAMA ,, CANAL



Official Panama Canal Publication Jo


Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer
Publications Editors
Louis R. Granger, Tom6s A. Cupas
Writers
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez,
s4 T. Tui6n, Willie K. Friar, and Luis C. Noli


Review articles may be reprinted without Further clearance. Credit la the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail S2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each. Published quarterly.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Contents


Our


Cover


Maurice Thatcher 3
The only surviving member
of tie Isthmian Canal Corn-
mission turns 100 amid his
memorabilia.
Madden Forest Preserve 6
The jungle forest is an at-
traction to tourists and sci-
entists alike.
Morgan's Garden 10
A plant lover's delight, the
sprawling garden is open to
everybody.
Tocumen International Airport 12
Many changes are planned
for Panama's busy airport.
Shipping Notes 15
Panama Canal Medals 18
Four medals tell the story
of the Panama Canal.
Fastlich Teenage League 20
The founder of the base-
ball league wanted to help
youngsters.
Molas 22
These colorful cloth panels
made by Crna Indian iomrn-
en have become objets d'art.
Anniversaries 26
Culinary Capers 28
Cooking the ancient Clhi-
nese way with wok and
cleaver.
Chinese Pavilion 31
Panama's first classic-style
pavilion overlooks the city.


KQ OUTLINED AGAINST a vivid
tropical sunset, the graceful
Thatcher Ferry Bridge majestically,
6 spans the Panama Canal at the Pacific
entrance to the 56-year-old waterway.
.- Although the bridge is much photo-
S' graphed, few photographers will see this
.- ?scene in their cameras. It is actually a
t" composite of three exposures taken over
a period of approximately 1 hour by
Melvin D. Kennedy, Jr. of the Panama
S\ Canal Graphic Branch, Administrative
Services Division.
' He used a Mamiya camera with a
I' 100 mm lens and 120 Ektachrome film.
Kennedy first photographed the sunset.
The second exposure, taken after dark,
was for the lights on the bridge and the
north-bound ship which appears as yel-
SIlow and orange streaks on the back of
the magazine. The exposure lasted
nearly a minute. He achieved a "star"
effect of the lights by holding a window
Screen in front of the lens during the
exposure. The third shot of about 30
seconds was to get the south-bound
Vessel moving under the bridge.
Named after Maurice H. Thatcher, the
last surviving member of the Isthmian
oCanal Commission, who is 100 years old
it this August 15, the bridge rises 384 feet
I (in5 above the Canal and clears the water by
201 feet at mean high tide. The bridge
tI ItfljlII. .is 5,425 feet in length and the total
cost of construction was $20 million.
Before its construction, traffic crossed
the Canal either at the swinginS bridge
at Miraflores Locks or by the Thatcher
Ferry, which operated across the Canal
at La Boca.








2 AucUST 1970







MAURICE H. THATCHER




A man Of many Pa,, Turn 100


Sitting at his desk in his Washington apartment, Thatcher talks about his past.


MAURICE H. THATCHER, only sur-
viving member of the Isthmian Canal
Commission, a former U.S. Representa-
tive from Kentucky, and a prolific poet,
celebrates his 100th birthday August 15
-the same date as the 56th anniversary
of the opening of the Panama Canal
which he helped build.
A slender man with bushy white eye-
brows, Thatcher may be getting along
in years and may not move about as
quickly as he once did, but his mind
is as sharp as that of a man half his
age. Although he has given up his law
business in Washington, D.C., he con-
tinues to write poetry and is making a
collection of his memoirs.
He is a widower and lives alone in
a four-room apartment on busy 16th
Street in Northwest Washington. A maid
fixes breakfast and cleans the apartment,
but Thatcher makes his own dinner.
Last September he suffered a bad fall
which he says "weakened me consider-
ably-but not my mind." He sustained


a cut on the back of his head but was
able to call a taxi to take him to a doctor.
In an interview in Washington in July,
Thatcher said his health was still good,
and he rises about 7:30 a.m. and some-
times works on his memoirs until mid-
night. This is a continuing project, and
once he gets his papers and memorabilia
organized, the collection will be placed
on display at the Scottish Rite Temple
just across the street from where he
lives. He has an editorial assistant who
helps him index the papers,, photo-
graphs, and clippings. Already 80 scrap-
books have been sent to the temple.
Walking Sticks
Among other things he has an impres-
sive collection of walking sticks and
14 pens which were given to him by
U.S. Presidents from Coolidge to John-
son after having been used to sign bills
which Thatcher sponsored or had some
part in promoting.
He has no special plans to celebrate
his 100th birthday although the people


H E recalls that when

he first arrived in the

Canal Zone as the youngest

member of the Isthmian

Canal Commission,

he felt that he was part

and parcel of the

greatest enterprise of all

ages. Since then he

has been honored by three

Latin American nations.







in the office building where he had his
law office for a number of years usually
have a cake for him. "Ordinarily I
don't pay much attention to birthdays,"
he says.
Last year the Washington Post news-
paper printed a 99th birthday story
about Thatcher. And President Nixon
sent him a personal letter of congratu-
lations. At that time Thatcher told how
he got to be 99.
Sound Life
"I don't eat meat. I eat vegetables,
eggs, and milk. I don't drink: I don't
smoke; and I don't drink tea or coffee.
. . It's not a religious thing," he said.
"I just wanted to live what I considered
a sound biological life. I noticed that
the smokers and chewers and drinkers
had a hard time quitting when they
wanted to. I just quit early. I'm a good
sleeper, always was, and I still get about
8 hours' sleep a night."
A few months ago Thatcher appeared
(Please see p. 4)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




























"I have always had great faith in the future of the Canal and in the future of aviation"-Thatcher.


(Continued from p. 3)
on the television show "Thev Said It
Couldn't Be Done" when the subject
was on the Panama Canal.
He prefers listening to his shortwave
radio than watching TV although he has
a large color set. "There are too many
commercials on TV. I would rather
listen to music while I'm working," he
says. He likes to try to get Panama on
his radio and often has been successful.
Thatcher came to the Canal with his
late wife in 1910, a time when the
Canal construction was moving along at
a quick pace. There were 4 more years
of work ahead, but most of the major
construction problems had been solved.
Appointed By Taft
The question of organizing the Canal
Zone Government was being discussed
in 1910 and Thatcher wvas appointed as
a member of the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission (ICC) by President Taft to
concentrate on that project.
He was named to head the De-
partment of Civil Administration and
because of his duties he was given the
unofficial title of Governor of the Canal
Zone. His offices were in the present
District Court building, then called the
Administration Building.
In a book compiled and edited in
1911 by F. E. Jackson entitled "Makers
of the Panama Canal," Thatcher was
said to be "a man who is splendidly
equipped for the exacting position he
fills. It is no light task to be Governor
of the Canal Zone and to have in hand
the civil administration of its widely
varied interests. Not only does he have
supervision and oversight of the divi-


sions of police and prisons, fire pro-
tection, customs and taxes, roads and
streets, water supply and plumbing,
postal affairs and schools, but he has
supervision also over the street, water,
and sewer systems of the Panamanian
cities of Colon and Panama; and he is
the official channel through which must
flow all communication with the Re-
public of Panama for, or on behalf of,
the Isthmian Canal Commission or the
Canal Zone Government."
Greatest Enterprise
Thatcher, whose memory is prodigi-
ous, said that when he arrived in the
Canal Zone he felt like many other men
working on the Canal in that he was
part and parcel of the greatest enterprise
of all ages.
"1 have always had great faith in the
future of the Canal and in the future of
aviation," he said. He recalled that back
in 1912 there was a man named Fowler
who made several unsuccessful attempts
to cross the Isthmus by plane.
"I knew that he would try again when
the wind died down, so 1 looked out the
window and sure enough, I saw the
plane take off toward the Atlantic side."
Fifty-eight minutes later Thatcher got
a call from the Cristobal police who re-
ported, "Governor, Fowler just landed."
That short flight across the Isthmus
got Thatcher thinking about aviation
and its possibilities. While in Congress
some years later he worked hard con-
vincing businessmen and Government
leaders that it was feasible to carry mail
by air over long distances.
He recalls that on two occasions he
flew over Washington, D.C. with Charles


Lindbergh. The flyer had just com-
pleted his famous solo flight to Paris.
When he went to Washington, Lind-
bergh offered rides to senators and con-
gressmen and their wives. The first day ,
he took up Mr. and Mrs. Thatcher. Two
days later Thatcher went up with a lady
from Panama named Mrs. Lola Conger
who begged him to get her a ride with
Lindbergh.
Thatcher persuaded Lindbergh to do
it so he made his second flight in the
same week to accompany Mrs. Conger.
This, however, was not his first experi-
ence in the air. His first was a ride in
a balloon at what was then Camp Knox,
now Fort Knox, Ky.
Thoroughly Drenched
The late Mrs. Anne Bell Thatcher,
who accompanied her husband to the
Isthmus as a bride, was more concerned
with the social amenities of life in the
Canal Zone. In an interview during the
Roosevelt Centennial in 1958, she re-
membered a reception being nearly
ruined by spoiled chicken salad and a
dinner party during which the ladies got
thoroughly drenched by a heavy rain.
The only thing that she said she did not
quite like about Panama was the diffi-
culty they had on account of dampness.
She had a house in the construction town
of Culebra which she decorated in the
style of the day and displayed her
famous orchid collection on the porch.
Mrs. Thatcher died in Washington on
October 10, 1960.
Thatcher was the youngest member
of the Isthmian Canal Commission and
has long outlived all the others. He
looked back over his 100 years and ad-


AUGUST 1970





emitted that he had an interesting life.
He was born in Chicago, 111., on Au-
gust 15, 1870, the son of John C. and
Mary T. Thatcher, but was reared in
Butler County, Ky., and educated in
public and private schools.
Most people in the Canal Zone have
heard of Thatcher but few are wholly
aware that his career in the Canal
Zone was only a small part of a career
which included law practices in Ken-
tucky, 10 years as a member of Con-
gress, followed by another law practice
in Washington.
Licensed In 1898
He took up the study of law while
he was clerk of the Circuit Court of
Butler County and was licensed to prac-
tice in 1898. He began his law practice
in Louisville, and was named assistant
U.S. district attorney for western Ken-
tucky in 1901. He served in that capa-
city until 1906 when he returned to
Louisville. From 1908 to 1910, when
he was appointed to the Canal Com-
mission, he was state inspector and
examiner for Kentucky.
During the time that he was serving
in Congress, he returned to the Isthmus
three times as a guest of the Canal Zone
Government. He took the welfare of
Panama Canal employees much to heart,
and during the time he was in Congress,
prepared a number of measures that
benefited Canal workers.
Since World War II he has made
several more visits to the Canal Zone,
each time as a guest of the Canal orga-
nization. One of these was in 1962 when
he came for the dedication of the bridge
that bears his name. He cut the ribbon
that opened the bridge.
His last visit was in 1964 at the 50th
anniversary celebration of the opening
of the Panama Canal.
Children's Park
Thatcher's name still is very big in
Panama. He is a household word in the
town of Arraijan where he was given
a parcel of land as a token of gratitude
for creating the Thatcher Highway. He
later gave the land back to the town
for a children's park. Every year a
school child in Arraijan gets a Thatcher
medal for proficiency in English.
He introduced legislation that created
the Thatcher Ferry which operated toll
free for more than 30 years and was
followed by the Thatcher Ferry Bridge
which spans the Canal at Balboa. The
highway from the bridge to Arraijan is
named Thatcher Highway. He also was
the author of legislation for the estab-
lishment, maintenance, and operation
of Gorgas Memorial Laboratory in Pan-
ama for research in tropical diseases


which has grown to be the outstanding
institution of its type in the world.
He has long served as vice president
and general counsel of the Gorgas Me-
morial Institute of Tropical and Preven-
tive Medicine which supervises the work
of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory.
Recently he was made an honorary
president of the institute.
In fairly recent years, Thatcher en-
couraged action by Congress which pro-
vided retirement pay for non-U.S.-citizen
employees of the Canal organization.
For his work he was given a certificate
making him an honorary president of
the Canal Zone Retired Workers As-
sociation, an Isthmian organization of
non-U.S.-citizen employees.
Honored
He has been honored by the Govern-
ment of Panama which gave him the
medal and plaque of the Order of Vasco
Nufiez de Balboa. Venezuela and Ecua-
dor also have honored him for his
services to tropical America.
President Kennedy gave him, as a
personal memento, the pen with which
he signed the bill naming the bridge
over the Canal in his honor.
Last year, on his 99th birthday, That-


cher told newsmen that he was thinking
of quitting his law practice and going
into poetry. At the time he was not too
active in law, but busy collecting his
files, press clippings, and writing poetry.
He said he had written about 1,000
quatrains in FitzGerald-Omar Khayyim
style and a large number of sonnets in
the Italian and Shakespearean styles.
None of his friends doubts he has been
a prolific writer of poetry since few
letters-and he wrote many-ever arrived
from him that did not contain a poem.


Thatcher as the youngest member of the
Isthmian Canal Commission.


I;j i I _11 XI
During one of their visits to the Canal Zone, Thatcher and the late Mrs. Thatcher pose
at Miraflores Locks.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










A MONG THE scenes which

are deeply impressed on

my mind, none exceed in
sublimity the primeval

forests undefaced by the
hand of man. No one can

stand in these solitudes

unmoved, and not feel that
there is more in man than

-* 4the mere breath of his body."


CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN-
,f -Journal during the Voyage
~. . . ., .!~ of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836)






Madden Forest Preserve

A Jewel Of A Jungle


By Willie K. Friar
"WHERE CAN we see the real jungle?"
Canal Zone visitors often ask as they
speed along the Transisthmian Highway.
Then suddenly they round a curve
and there it is-a dense tropical forest
stretching out on both sides of the high-
way, looking just like the jungle in which
Tarzan had his great adventures.
It is the Madden Forest Preserve, one
of the few areas of tropical mainland
forest under the protection of the United
States. It covers nearly 6 square miles
of the Canal Zone, about 10 miles north
of Balboa, and is under the jurisdiction
of the Panama Canal organization.
Here giant cuipo and espave trees
tower up tens of feet where their
branches stretch out and interlace with
those of other trees to form a canopy.
Many of the trees have branches cov-
ered with gardens of ferns, orchids and
bromeliads.
Seeing these giant trees in the forest


provides an illusion of exploration. Walk-
ing along the historic Las Cruces Trail,
which passes through the preserve, one
can easily visualize the Spaniards laden
with their treasures of gold crossing from
the Pacific to the Atlantic side of the
Isthmus. This trail was used also by the
Forty-niners to avoid the long overland
trek to California during the Gold Rush.
Hiking Trail
Part of the trail no longer exists having
been inundated at the time of the cre-
ation of Gatun Lake. But the remaining
section is a favorite hiking trail for Isth-
mian Boy Scouts and other groups of
nature and adventure lovers, including
the Canal Zone bottle collectors who
search along the trail for bottles dis-
carded by travelers of times long past.
The access roads, leading to the
World War II gun emplacements located
in the forest, provide other interesting
trails for exploring.


Much of Panama's irreplaceable
jungles have disappeared. But thanks
to the foresight of the late Dr. Thomas
Barbour, well known naturalist, who
proposed the establishment of the Mad-
den Forest Preserve, and to the late
Canal Zone Cov. Harry Burgess, this
valuable piece of tropical forest has been
saved almost intact.
The preserve was created by order of
Governor Burgess on May 27, 1930.
The original order designated the area
as "natural timber preserve," but on
April 29, 1931, Governor Burgess issued
a new order designating it as a "forest
preserve" and stipulated that "the cut-
ting of timber, the trimming, injuring,
or tarrying out of any of the trees, palms,
or other plants in this area is prohibited."
Naturalists
Dr. Barbour, who also had a great
deal to do with having Barro Colorado
Island declared a wildlife and forest pre-


AUcUST 1970






serve with laboratory facilities so that
naturalists from all over the world could
study there, discussed his part in the
establishment of Madden Forest in the
December 1936 edition of the Bulletin
of the Pan American Union.
He wrote: "A few years ago it was
decided to build a dam at Alajuela, up
on the Chagres River. This is to pro-
vide more power and more water for
Gatun Lake during years of exceptional
drought. The first step in the project
was to build a road from the main Ca-
nal Zone highway near Summit to the
dam site, and when this came to be
built, lo and behold!, it passed through
several miles of real first-rate wild for-
est. Not, to be sure, in an absolutely
primeval state, for there are a few clear-
ings and a little timber had been re-
moved, but still here were several thou-
sand acres of good typical woods in a
zone with enough annual rainfall to keep
a good many streams running and plenty
of moisture in the ground so that a beau-
tiful luxuriant vegetation was to be seen;
a typical picturesque forest, easily ac-
cessible to the amateur naturalist.
Wood Cutting
"I was in Panama in the spring of
1930 and took the liberty of suggesting
to Col. Harry Burgess, Governor of the
Panama Canal, and a warmly apprecia-
tive lover of nature, that it would be
splendid if this area was set aside as a
forest reserve. This was no sooner said
than done, and in June 1930, Governor
Burgess wrote me that the order had
been issued setting the reserve aside.
Police were instructed to protect the
area and signs were put up forbidding
woodcutting and trespassing.
"This forest reserve abuts on country
with a considerable rural population as
you cross the boundary of the Canal
Zone, to which the reserve extends, and
passes into the territory of the Republic
of Panama. The area is not sufficiently
extensive to support many of the large
native animals, but many of the small
species are abundant and will increase
with protection, and the birds are very
satisfying indeed and are to be seen in
numbers and great variety. There are
several fine colonies of the hang-nests,
or oropendulas, and some most note-
worthy colonies of leaf-cutting ants. One
hill of these near the picnic site where
the "Old Gold Road" crosses the mod-
ern highway is the largest I have ever
seen.
Ant Armies
The leaf-cutting ant armies, which
Dr. Barbour mentioned, continue to
fascinate visitors to the forest who like
to watch them carrying bits of leaves
appearing like green sails, and the giant


blue Morpho butterflies, some with a
wingspread of 6 inches, flitting unmo-
lested through the green jungle foliage,
are an unforgettable sight. These butter-
flies are so numerous when the forest
is viewed from the air they appear as
large bright splotches of blue on a green
carpet.
The Canal Zone police keep a reg-
ular patrol and watchful eye on the
forest preserve but poachers still slip
in occasionally as they did in Dr. Bar-
bour's day. In those times, poachers
felled trees for charcoal as well as for
lumber. Governor Burgess always kept
a paternal interest in the forest and
took action immediately when reports
came in that anything was being taken
from the forest without permission.
Typical was a memorandum sent to
the chief of police by Governor Burgess
in which he said, "Dr. Barbour says that
mules and other animals are picketed
along the right-of-way of the road and
are eating the small shrubbery which
makes a nice foreground for the main
forest. Can you have this practice stop-
ped by your police patrol?"
Grubbed Out
No detail was too small for Dr. Bar-
bour and Governor Burgess to notice
if it had to do with making sure the
forest was kept intact. When passers-by
began to damage shrubbery as they took
bananas from trees along the road, the
word went out to have the banana trees
"grubbed out by prisoners."
At another time mango trees were
planted along the roadway and these
were ordered removed "trunk, branch,
and root" as "the artificial creation of
rows of trees through such an area is
as contrary to the underlying principle
of the preserve as would be the cutting
and removal of what naturally grows
there." (Please see p. 8)


ABOVE: A forest visitor strolls along Las
Cruces Trail near where it meets the
Transisthmian Highway. BELOW: The
dense tropical forest seems ready to swallow
passing motorists.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



















Flowering plants bloom along the trails in
the preserve. Dr. Edwin Tyson, biologist
at Florida State University, Canal Zone
Branch, admires a Costus uniflorus, known
in Spanish as the Caila de Mico.

(Continued from p. 7)
One man, who protested the restric-
tion on cutting trees for charcoal, wrote
a letter asking that an exception be
made in his case. He said, "I buy cows'
feet from the slaughterhouse in Panama
City and prepare them for sale by first
boiling them in hot water, and wood
is used to heat the boiler. Mangler wood
is used for this purpose because it makes
a very hot fire." He added a promise
that he would not otherwise damage the
forest. His request, like many others,
was turned down.
The forest is always available to
scientists and men from all over the
world have conducted a variety of stud-
ies there. Madden Forest Preserve is
often listed in scientific journals as the
location where studies of tropical flora
and fauna took place for specific reports.
Members of the Smithsonian Institute
use it often and consider it a "must"
stop for visiting scientists.
Untouched Jungle
Dr. Horace Loftin and Dr. Edwin
Tyson, biologists at the Canal Zone
Branch of Florida State University, take
their classes into the forest where thev
band birds in order to study their mi-
gratory habits; collect insect and plant
specimens; and give the students a
chance to see what an untouched jungle
is like. Both have a very strong interest
in conservation and often refer to Barro
Colorado, an island in Gatun Lake;
Ancon Hill, adjacent to Balboa Heights;
and the national Park and Biological
Preserve, Campafia Heights, the land
set aside in 1966 by the Republic of
Panama for a national park, as examples
of doing things right.
Panama's park, located in an extinct
volcano about 35 miles west of Pan-
ama City, has vegetation typical of the
higher areas in Panama. It covers about
5,000 acres.


Dr. David A. Harcharik of Duke
University in Durham, N.C., writing of
Madden Forest in the Association for
Tropical Biology, Inc. Newsletter, said,
"The area should be an objective of
study by biologists of many kinds. The
old antiaircraft sites, now obsolete in
terms of Canal defense, provide fine
vantage spots for viewing the Canal
and are, in many respects, feature
attractions of the area.
Unexplored
"Its ready access from Panama City
and the Canal Zone, the potential co-
operation of local scientists, its unique
location, and the challenge of the unex-
plored should make the preserve a target
for intensive exploration by biologists."
Dr. Harcharik also pointed out that
Panama is the biological crossroads of
North and South America containing
plants and animals from both continents.
It may be the most biologically diverse
country in the world for its size and he
considers the forest preserve an ideal
spot to study the flora and fauna of
this area.
After Balboa discovered the Pacific
Ocean and claimed the land for Spain,
a part of his ritual was to cut down a
tree. Today, it is still almost a ritual to
attack the trees as soon as people move
into an area. This continuous destruc-
tion of the forests in Panama continues
today just as it did in the United States
as the land was settled.
Constant burnings during the dry
season have decimated many of the for-
ests. Fires actually have little effect on
the untouched tropical forest where
there has been no cutting. However,
the edges are vulnerable to repeated
burnings which degrade them a little
every time and make them slowly re-
treat until only sawgrass and other un-
desirable grasses continue to grow. This
process can be observed as one leaves
the limits of Madden Preserve.
The destruction of the forest causes
erosion, stream silting, and floods. The
tropical soils which support such giant
trees quickly dry out from exposure to
the intense sun and become barren
deserts.
Primitive Vegetation
In our present state of overpopula-
tion, the forest and the various natural
vegetation types, which give the tropi-
cal landscape its originality, have a
chance to survive only in carefully
guarded reserves like Madden where,
fortunately, remnants of primitive veg-
etation have been preserved and some
rare species protected.
Some ask, "Why save the forest?"
"What real use is it?" Scientists have
said that it is true that perhaps many


of the plants and trees have no known
uses today, but it is impossible to say
what value they may have in 100 years
time. The tropical forest is a great res-
ervoir of species and should not be
allowed to be destroyed in one single
generation.
One might well be reminded of Co-
lumbus, who in 1502, loaded aboard his
ship baskets of strange red bean-like
seeds because he had noticed that the
Indians valued them very highly. He
wondered of what possible use thev
could be. He never discovered that thev,
were cocoa beans which one day would
be the basis for a great industry, prob-
ably of much more value than the gold
he sought.
Medical researchers now know that
many of the medicinal roots, plants, oils,
and saps or resins first used by the na-
tives of America hundreds of years ago,
have great value in the treating and pre-
venting of diseases. Who can say what
lifesaving drugs may be there in the
plants of the jungle waiting to be dis-
covered as was quinine in the Peruvian
forests?
Famous Letter
But the true value of a forest cannot
be measured for it goes far beyond ma-
terial resources. In 1961, while Secre-
tary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall
was speaking before a group, he read
a now famous letter from the novelist,
Wallace Stegner.
The letter said in part: "Wilderness
is useful for spiritual renewal, the rec-
ognition of identity, the birth of awe.
These are some of the things wilderness
can do for us. This is the reason we need
to put into effect, for its preservation,
some other principle than the principles
of exploitation or usefulness or even
recreation.
"We simply need that wild country
available to us, even if we never do
more than drive to its edge and look
in. For it can be a means of reassuring
ourselves of our sanity, as creatures, a
part of the geography of hope."


I .





This leaf-cutting ant is ready to bite into
a leaf. They can be seen carrying bits of
leaves to their nests.


AUGUST 1970



















Cecropia

Three Interesting Trees

THERE ARE 10 times as many kinds of trees growing in
the tropics as grow in temperate zones. And due to the
extreme conditions of heat, drought, and moisture which pre-
vail at different times during the year in Panama, they are
strikingly different from those found outside the tropics.
One of the most common trees in Madden Forest as well
as throughout Panama is the Cecropia; it is also one of the
most unusual. Its leaves are being shipped all over the world
for use in dried flower arrangements. But one would have to
shake the tree to discover that it is a vast apartment house
for fierce Azteca ants which rush out of the tree and attack
anything that might disturb it. The ants live inside the hollow
stems of the branches and guard the tree from the leaf-cutter
ants which would quickly denude the tree of its shapely leaves.
Indian Blowguns
The branches of the Cecropia are also hollow and are
fashioned by certain South American Indians into blowguns.
Another tree common in Madden Forest Preserve is the
Balsa, the weight of which is only 7 pounds per cubic foot,
about half the weight of cork, making it one of the lightest
woods in the world. Nearly everyone at one time or another
has put together a model plane made of balsa or remembers
it as the wood used by Thor Heyerdahl in the construction
of the Kon-Tiki.
Balsa is the Spanish word for raft which has been one of
the main uses of the wood since ancient times. The green
wood is very heavy and spongy and will decay in a day or
two if left on the ground after being cut. When the wood is
dried, either by standing on end or placing in a kiln, it is very
light but tough and is of great value where strength is needed
without much extra weight.
Ship Construction
It is often used in steamship construction as it provides
excellent insulation due to its cellular nature, and saves hun-
dreds of tons in a ship's gross weight.
Another tree in the forest is the Panamd, unofficially the
national tree of the Republic of Panama. Some persons believe
that the country derived its name from this tree. Sometimes
growing to a height of 120 feet, the Panamd has large leaves.
The flowers appear in clusters but have no petals. Instead,
there is a wooly outside and dark red and greenish color within.
The fruit is a cluster of five pods 4 inches long containing
large brown chestnut-like seeds.
The beginning root system at the base of the Panama tree
makes it one of the most unusual looking trees in the tropics.
Flat, wall-like extensions snake out from the trunk forming
cubicles between the roots.


Balsa


~iiih~i,
1 r~j .~ E


-C. *'CI. -
-~Ir f


Panama


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







MORGAN'S GARDEN





Tie Isthmian community' has accepted the garden
as its own and manv church and community
functions are held there. By Jose T. Tuif6n
ONE OF the most beautiful and best
known flower gardens on the Isthmus
was started in 1930-with a bang.
It was a whole series of bangs in fact.
When U.S. Army engineers at the near-
by post of Corozal rushed to investigate
the noise, they found that Charles P.
Morgan and his wife Pat were prepar-
ing the land to plant flowers for the
Ancon Greenhouse.
In order to do the job properly, they
had to get rid of the hardy leaf-cutting
or arm" ants. This was done by filling
the ant holes with carbon bisulphide
which was then ignited. The resulting
explosions went off in series through the
ants' nests. It is an old fashioned, but
effective method of killing ants.
The site which is now Morgan's
Garden is located 5 miles north of Bal-
boa in the vicinity of Corozal. It was
leased to Mr. and Mrs. Morgan to re-
place their Santa Cruz flower farm, near
where the Ancon Freighthouse is now
located. The property was needed by
the Canal Zone Government. On this
farm, Mr. Morgan's mother, Mary, had
A .grown flowers for the greenhouse retail
store in Ancon.
.--, Morgan and his mother had come to
..the Canal Zone during construction days
and while she got interested in flower
growing, he was employed by the Pan-
ama Railroad and later bv Grounds
_Maintenance on the Pacific side. Mrs.
Pat Morgan was an operating room
nurse at Gorgas, then Ancon Hospital.
She too became devoted to flower grow-
ing after marrying Morgan in the 1920's.
Pigeon Hill
The hill on which the Morgan family
built their home and garden in 1930 was
called Pigeon Hill in the pre-Canal
times. And during the early 'ears, the
aMorgan family often had to dodge shots
from pigeon hunters.
.i- Mrs. Morgan now operates the gar-
den alone since the death of her
husband and mother-in-law. The first
thing they did after killing the ants
was to build a road into the property.
It took 2 ears since the rock had to be
Framed by palm fronds, Mrs. Morgan waters her lawn next to her Spanish style home, blasted from the side of the hill. At the


AUGUST 1970






same time they planted the stately royal
palms on one side and coconut palms
on the other. Mrs. Morgan went against
her husband's wishes and put in ban-
van trees which now completely sur-
round the 4-heetare plot of land.
For most of the success of the garden,
Mrs. Morgan gives credit to William
White, a native of Barbados, who started
working with the elder Mrs. Morgan
in 1919.
Shrubs, Plants
She says that White taught her nearly
everything she now knows about gar-
dening, which was plenty. He planted
nearly all the various shrubs and plants
at the garden and retired only 2 years
ago because of his age-then 84.
Like nearly everyone else on the Isth-
mus, Pat had trouble with her first batch
of rose bushes which were brought here
from Florida. They grew very well but
insects ate the leaves and ruined the
plants. She devised a method of putting
lighted candles placed in dishes filled
with water nearby. Believe it or not, the
bugs were attracted by the light, and
burned in the candle flame or were
drowned. She says she later learned that
a similar method has been used in the
Philippines for hundreds of years.
The Secrets
She also had good luck with gladio-
las. She planted a great variety of them
and had orders from as far away as
Holland. One of the best is a variety
imported from Africa called gloriouss
rotschildiana." She didn't have much
luck with anturium, an exotic plant
difficult to cultivate, until an official
from the Trinidad Government came by
one day and explained the secrets of its
cultivation.
Pat Morgan, however, takes most
pride in making her garden beautiful
and then sharing it with members of
the community. In addition to the flora,
the compound contains a main house,
designed by a prominent Panamanian
architect; a chapel; a swimming pool;
and a guest house. Everyone is welcome
to visit any day and Pat Morgan is
delighted when she sees men with their
families, mothers with children, and
teachers with pupils visiting the garden
and examining the variety of plants.
Community Functions
The Isthmian community has ac-
cepted Morgan's Garden as its own
and many of the church and community
festivals and affairs are held there.


During her many years spent with
plants, she has had a number of exper-
iences but none so hair raising as the
time recently when she put her hand
under a plant and was bitten by a
poisonous snake. She promptly fainted,
fell on a water pipe, fractured her wrist
and broke the pipe. The resulting spray
of water called her plight to the atten-
tion of White who called an ambulance.
Shares Knowledge
In addition to gardening, Pat took up
flower arranging and received her first
lessons from an expert-a Japanese who
came to Panama on a goodwill tour. She
became so interested that she decided
to share her knowledge with her friends
and neighbors on the Isthmus and held
her own classes. At one session she had
about 300 students.
Pat says with pride that most of the
garden clubs in Panama were started b\
students in her classes. A colonel in the
U.S. Army told her that her classes
helped him know Panama, its flowers.
and the people more than any other
activity during the time he was stationed
here.


her a gold medal in appreciation of her
cooperation in designing the gardens
around the university and her gift of
250 ornamental plants.
Pat has traveled extensively through
the Republic of Panama and has helped
hundreds of Panamanian farmers to
obtain better results with their flowers
and plants. In 1962, the Republic of
Panama recognized her work by pre-
senting her with the Order of Vasco
Nufiez de Balboa in the grade of
Commander.
* i "


Distinguished Members
Her Cardenas River Garden Club,
founded nearly 30 years ago, has had
such distinguished members as the wives .
of presidents of Panama, former Panama- .
President Tombs Gabriel Duque, and
Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway (USA Ret.) At the entrance to the garden, Mrs. Morgan
and his wife. and two companions, Alice and Jimmy,
The University of Panama, through stroll among royal and coconut palms
Dean Dr. Octavio Mendez Pereira, gave planted in 1930.

,C'IY_. j~~~~~t- rrI


Banyan trees form a leafy cover over a walkway at the garden.


THE PANArMA CANAL REVIEW






TOCUMEN SETS COURSE



FOR SUPERJET ERA


I 1W,0


N


,(


;I
I.',$


An artist's drawing of how Tocumen Airport will look in 1980 is displayed by Miss Tatiana Men6ndez, secretary to the legal advisor
for the Panama Civil Aeronautics Agency. Approximately 2.3 million passengers are expected to use Tocumen in 1980.


By Luis C. Noli
TOCUMEN AIRPORT, which first put
Panama on the map of international
aviation nearly a quarter century ago
and then turned it into a crossroads
for air routes between the Americas,
is looking ahead for its place in the
superjet era.
Its present facilities are already over-
taxed. Tocumen handles close to 600,000
arriving and departing passengers a year.
By 1980, when the jumbo jets will have
been operating 8 years in Panama, ac-
cording to present estimates, the figure
is expected to be threefold-1.8 million
passengers. And in-transit passengers,
estimated at 485,000 by 1980, will bring
the total to 2.3 million annual travellers.
The projections for growth of cargo


operations through Tocumen are even
more impressive. From a current 35 mil-
lion kilos (38,500 tons), the volume of
aircargo is expected to reach 100 million
kilos (110,000 tons) 10 years from now.
All the bustle estimated for Tocumen
in a decade will mean nearly double the
commercial aircraft operations at the
airport-from 25,500 in 1970 to 49,200
in 1980.
Ranks Eighth
What present figures mean is that in
terms of international passenger traffic,
Tocumen ranks eighth among the air-
ports of Latin America after San Juan,
Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Montevideo,
Montego Bay, Kingston, and Rio de
Janeiro-and third in terms of total air-


cargo tonnage. Argentina is first followed
by Chile.
Since Panama ranks 19th in popula-
tion among the Latin American nations,
its place in international aviation is
remarkable indeed.
Master Plan
To enhance that position during the
next decade, the Panama Civil Aero-
nautics Agency had a $27.5 million mas-
ter plan drawn up by Parsons Corpora-
tion of Los Angeles and New York in
association with George L. Dahl Inc.
of Dallas.
The plan is based on Panama's avia-
tion growth potential, which the con-
sultants have summarized as follows:
"Panama's geographic position places
(Please see p. 14)


AUGUST 1970


-"fill

..~,;;;;;;;.~~~


.Nor
,M-- --C7^Bf^


go ..
now,


'7,
,


---YG~bi21
1





These sketches show
much of the passenger
terminal complex.
At top, the modern
terminal rises in the
background. The main
lobby is shown in
the center with
airline ticket counters,
restaurant, bar, and
waiting lobby.
This section will also
contain a casino,
television lounge, bank
offices, and passenger
gates. Below is a
sectional sketch of
the terminal.
The 36-month, $27.5
million project will
be completed in
three phases.


CD \


,AHi H


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




(Continued from p. 12)
it in a very advantageous spot for travel
and commerce. It has long been a bridge
for world commerce and travel-in Span-
ish days as a land-bridge and more re-
cently as a marine crossroad with the
Panama Canal.
"The location of Panama is ideal for
transboarding international air travellers
from the northern and southern conti-
nents of the Western Hemisphere. The
same advantage of location applies to
aircargo movement. The existence of the
Canal and good port facilities makes
Panama an excellent place from which
to distribute goods by air to other coun-
tries, with the added advantage of the
economies of marine transport for large
volumes and the convenience of air
transport for prompt delivery to the
(sometimes remote) demand point.
Focal Point
"Commercial and passenger traffic
has grown at a faster rate at Tocumen
than at other Latin American airports.
Reasons for this are varied. Panama's
physical position acting as a focal point,
Panama's stable currency, the success at
the Colon Free Zone, have all contri-
buted to the increase in both passenger
and cargo traffic at Tocumen. Tourism is
a big business and has begun to flourish
in Panama. Public relations campaigns
to advertise Panama's even climate,
sunshine, and other varied attractions
have already had a good effect on the
economy.
"Continuing these trends and fore-
casting Tocumen's growth in the next
10-year period, activity will increase
more than three times. It is also evident
that, economically, the existing terminal
and runway facilities will be unable to
stand this expansion."
Main Features
On the basis of detailed technical
studies, the consultants have recom-
mended construction of an entirely new
terminal facility adjacent to the present
airport. These are the main features of
the proposal:
-A new runway and parallel taxiway.
-A new passenger building.
-Parking areas for 971 passenger ve-
hicles and taxis.
-Improvement of Tocumen Highway,
including partial relocation and
construction of an access road
from the main road to the terminal
building.
-Improved aids to navigation and
in the airfield lighting.
-Improved power, water, drainage,
and air conditioning systems.
-Conversion of the present passenger
terminal into a cargo terminal.


A suggested design provides for a
two-level passenger terminal building.
On the ground floor are baggage claim
areas, holding rooms, passenger arrival
and departure lobbies, offices, kitchens
and storage, snack bar, cocktail lounges.
first aid, quarantine, immigration and
customs; on the mezzanine are diploma-
tic salons and airline hospitality rooms,
the viewing gallery, and an international
duty-free zone; on the second floor:
ticket lobby, terminal waiting lobbies,
main restaurant, coffee shop, kitchens,
bars, restrooms, telephone and cable
offices, a television lounge, specialty
shops, casino, news stand, barbershop,
insurance counters, bank offices, and
passenger gates.
Direct Access
The ramp layout provides for "in-
ternational satellites" using all-weather
bridges connecting to the aircraft, so
that passengers arriving or departing
will have direct access to or from the
terminal building.
The master plan also makes provision
for new functional areas including duty-
free commercial activities, further devel-
opment of the hotel and motel industry
close to the airport, a convention hall or
exposition building suitable for indus-
trial displays, and recreational areas.
The consultants have proposed a
phased 36-month schedule to carry ont
the recommended alterations, improve-






I. !


Maj. Patricio Janson, Direetor of Civil Aero-
nautics of Panama, explains aviation trends
and growth in Latin America. In the next
decade commercial flights at Tocumen will
nearly double. International travelers are
expected to triple by 1980.


ments, and new construction. Phase I,
covering about 10 months, involves the
rehabilitation of the existing terminal
area-improvements needed urgently to
meet demands of present passenger and
aircraft traffic such as extension of air-
craft parking ramps and installation of
a baggage conveyor that would be
moved later into the new building.
Phase II, a 3,2-vear project, involves the
design and construction of the entire
new terminal including runway, taxi-
ways, and passenger building. Comple-
tion of the new building will require
additional freight buildings. The paving
of truck parking lots will be the last
phase.
World Bank
Maj. Patricio Janson, Director of
Civil Aeronautics of Panama, says fi-
nancing arrangements with the World
Bank are well underway. Construction
of the main projects-lengthening and
improving the runway and construction
of the new terminal-is scheduled to
start in early 1971.
Expansion of Panama's international
aviation facilities comes at a critical
time, according to Major Janson.
"Our economy," he explains, "is based
on service to trade. For centuries, Pan-
ama has been a center of maritime nav-
igation. Now we are also becoming a
center of air navigation."
What about the future?
"I believe our aviation future lies not
so much between North and South
America as between east and west. By
that I mean the major volume of traffic
won't be so much between the Americas
as between Europe and the Orient.
Mass Tourism
"And that future is promising. The jet
airplane made possible mass tourism-it
placed exotic places within the reach
of the average man or woman in terms
of both time and money. Thus the tour-
ist boom in the Mediterranean. But the
Mediterranean is fast reaching the sat-
uration point and now the seventies loom
as the decade of the Caribbean. Panama,
as the anchor point for the area, stands
to benefit the most because we offer all
the things tourists want, plus year-round
sunshine."
What about the supersonic transport
age?
Major Janson's reply is laconic, but
meaningful.
"The only limiting factor for us has
been the length of the runway. And
we're already taking care of that."


AucvsT 1970






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
Fiscal Year 1970
1970 1969 1961-65
nationality No. of Tons of No. of Tons of Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
Belgian _--___ 131 433,121 109 162,939 46 168,966
British _____.. 1,591 13,478,056 1,460 11,907,943 1,294 8,292,285
Chilean __ __ 118 762,241 98 685,999 120 849,621
Chinese (Nat'l. ) 147 1,226,237 127 899,702 81 594,921
Colombian 214 610,739 180 552,330 256 408,588
Cuban _____ _- 75 687,944 43 437,459 3 14,596
Cypriot __ -_ 74 630,259 41 395,688
Danish __--__ 1 434 2,152,529 393 2,036,969 307 1,548,545
Ecuadorean 66 99,477 66 84,268 42 49,491
Finnish ____ 66 454,388 51 357,976 24 107,205
French __ 247 852,5193 247 1,130,240 144 771,293
German, West 1,108 4,992,218 1,162 4,369,229 1,122 3,391,774
Greek ______ 568 7,178,925 564 6,442,482 632 6,180,888
Honduran __ 166 100,151 202 127,178 197 153,814
Israeli _-_ 82 467,822 92 655,530 65 253,130
Italian _ 266 1,425,909 273 1,699,982 190 1,126,250
Japanese 1,178 11,072,736 1,072 9,230,388 S35 4,871,840
Liberian 1,601 25,811,218 1,569 24,347,790 951 9,348.8-46
Mexican_-_ 69 450,071 115 516,629 25 77,779
Netherlands 493 2,820,010 479 2,560,612 621 2,793,040
Nicaraguan __ 34 73,953 51 92,681 52 80,143
Norwegian -..-- 1,324 16,540,983 1,325 14,226,497 1,436 10,931,401
Panamanian 799 4,368,970 661 3,049,676 461 1,968,519
Peruvian._ I 80 957,763 171 807,836 119 547,814
Philippine 112 759,471 91 500,703 70 310,866
South Korean 77 771,836 40 302,444 10 44,398
Soviet _ 104 741,086 101 677,186 23 164,686
Spanish _ 66 201,392 38 233,560 13 52.250
Swedish 462 13,477,640 4S7 3,150,283 336 2,157,223
United States_. 1,519 7,942,683 1,549 7,735,182 1,708 10,191,486
Yugoslavian 42 659,644 33 468,890 13 106,870
All Others ___ 245 2,055,203 247 1,526,473 112 554,401
Total __ 13,658 114,257,260 i13,146 101,372,744 11,335 68,112,909

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)


Transits


Month
1970

July ------ 1,137
August -_. 1,186
September 1,133
October. -___- 1,089
November 1,060
December .. 1,155
January -- ___ 1,088
February 1,080
March ----- -- 1,223
April ------ -- 1,179
May ----- 1,170
June -- -- 1,158
Totals for
fiscal year .._ 13,658


I Tolls (In thousands of dollars)


Avg. No.
1969 Transits
1961-65
1,122 960
1,109 949
1,115 908
1,138 946
1,103 922
1,119 946
958 903
2874 868
21,134 1,014
21,166 966
1,200 999
1,108 954
213146 11 335


SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.


1970

7,787
8,135
7,870
7,771
7,401
8,059
7,503
7,479
8,350
8,228
7,963
8,108
94,654


1969

7,089
7,362
7,473
7,471
7,279
7,571
6,715
25,774
27,608
27,506
8,109
7,466
287,423


2 Revised.


Average
Tolls
1961-65
4,929
4,920
4,697
4,838
4,748
4,955
4,635
4,506
5,325
5,067
5,232
5,013


58,865


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:


Trade routes

United States Intercoastal-- ______________________
East coast United States and South America -- ____
East coast United States and Central America _________
East coast United States and Far East_ .-
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia _____
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada -_-----
Europe and South America __-______ ___________
Europe and Australasia -_ _________- ____
All other routes ________________________________
Total traffic __-__.___ -______


1970

35
1,26
60
3,36
3E
1,02
1,29
49
4,85
13,65


Fiscal Year 1970
Avg. No.
1969 Transits
1961-65
8 425 520
12 1,345 2,355
19 684 500
B3 3,054 2,220
96 395 321
!4 1,012 1,009
)8 1,285 1,236
0 447 397
i8 4,499 2,777
i8 13,146 11,335


SHIPPING




NOTES


Ship Lifts
OPERATORS OF Europe's vast system
of canals have put into use a revolution-
ary method of raising or lowering inland
vessels.
In Belgium, on the Charleroi-Brussels
canal, a ship-lifting device consisting of
two huge tanks on a funicular railway
has replaced a whole series of locks
which allowed ships to move over an
incline of approximately 225 feet. In
each of the tanks, one 1,350-ton vessel
or up to four 300-ton ships can be moved
uphill or downhill in about 25 minutes.
The tanks are some 300 feet long by
73 feet wide and rest on 236 sprung
wheels to assure a smooth ride.
On The Rhine-Marne Canal in eastern
France a smaller lift hauls ships on an
incline of nearly 150 feet. This distance
required 70 locks in the past and took
at least a day for a vessel to lock through
them. The French lift in Alsace moves
the ships in 20 minutes.
The inclined lift can take ships of up
to 350 tons in its water-filled tank. Fully
loaded the tank weighs 900 tons and
is moved on rails by means of massive
cables by two electric motors of 120 h.p.
each. The load is compensated for by
two 450-ton counterweights which also
run on rails.
The inland types of merchant ships
are much smaller than their oceangoing
cousins. Panama Canal locks, which
raise and lower the vessels 85 feet, are
110 feet wide and 1,000 feet long. In
March of this year there were more than
800 ships in the world too large to enter
the locks and an additional 117 of the
giant ships under construction.
The saving in time is not the only
advantage of the Belgium and French
ship lifts.
Each time a European lock is used,
a considerable amount of water is lost
from the higher section of the canal-
(Please see p. 16)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


.


2


I I






(Continued from p. 15)
water which is needed for shipping or
for manufacturing electricity.
The Panama Canal uses 52 million
gallons of fresh water for each vessel
that transits. The water is fed by a
gravity flow system through the locks
and spilled into the ocean.

Bulk Cargoes in
Slurry Form
IN APRIL of this year the world's
first ore-slurry-oil ship, the 51,046-dead-
weight-ton SS Marconaflo Merchant,
completed its maiden voyage success-
fully discharging in slurry form the first
entire shipload of bulk mineral concen-
trates from the Tasu, British Columbia,
iron mine to the Portland, Oreg. plant
of Oregon Steel Mills.
The unique ship, the former San Juan
Merchant, was converted at a cost of
$2.5 million from a conventional ore/oil
carrier to a ore-slurry-oil ship. She can
also carry crude oil or dry ore cargoes.
Although this ship has not used the
Canal since her conversion, she may do
so in the future, since she is still well
within Panama Canal maximum mea-
surements. Recently she took a cargo of
22,000 tons of slurry from Peru to Japan.
This ship is making use of a revolu-
tionary new method of transporting bulk
cargoes in slurry form called Marcona-
flo, a method developed by Mareona
Corp., one of the world's largest ocean
transportation firms owned primarily by
Cyprus Mines Corp. and Utah Construc-
tion and Mining Co. Marcona is repre-
sented in Panama by Cia. San Juan.
Marconaflo is considered one of the
major advancements in the history of
bulk commodity shipping. It makes pos.
sible the transportation of these mate-
rials in large high economy tankers
rather than in conventional bulk carriers.
The key element of the system is a de-
vice which efficiently reslurrifies granu-
lar materials that have been compacted
into a relatively dry, non-shifting mass
for ocean transport.
Charles W. Robinson, president of
Marcona, says the system can provide
shipping savings of such magnitude
that many of the world's once marginal
raw material deposits are now econo-
mically attractive. It will open to basic
steel all the advantages of transporting
petroleum.
Iron comes from Marcona's mine near
San Nicolas Bay, Peru. Before shipping,
the ore is ground down to a fine powder
and put into a 70 percent iron content
concentrated form. An ore slurry with
75 percent solids is pumped aboard the
ship. The natural settling action is has-
tened by the ship's vibration. The solids


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

Fiscal Year 1970


Commodity


Ores, various _______-__-_--__-_- ---
Boards and planks --. .__.- -- __---_-__
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils-______--_-_-_-- -
Sugar ------------------------------
Petroleum and products ----------
Fishmeal -------
Metals, various -------- -------___--
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas) ---------------
Pulpwood _--__ ____------
Bananas __-
Petroleum coke-------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous--
Plywood and veneers _______
Iron and steel wire, bars and rods ____
Canned food products- -----
All others---------- ______-
Total -------------------------


1970


5,573,085
3,516,050

3,390,818
2,625,819
2,109,215
1,574,375
1,421,659

1,371,543
1,230,977
1,157,123
1,062,104

1,060,191
913,862
642,762
590,558
12,355,454
40,595,595


1969


4,349,108
3,630,798

2,930,096
2,567,471
1,088,430
1,975,409
1,265,586

1,400,249
1,241,042
1,160,903
530,844

1,056,857
940,225
540,680
607,750
11,354,877
36,640,325


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
1,009,694
N.A.

N.A.
2,296,584
1,805,862
N.A.
1,187,362

898,880
517,629
1,161,381
N.A.

N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
957,472
20,859,716
30,694,580


Atlantic to Pacific

Fiscal Year 1970
Commodity 1970 1969 5-Yr. Avg.
1970 1969 1961-65
1961-65
Coal and coke _..-______________ 21,306,153 16,260,931 6,061,195
Petroleum and products--------------------. 14,302,937 15,796,516 11,384,781
Corn ._ ______________________________ 5,034,785 3,057,082 1,501,869
Metal, scrap--------- ----------------- 3,912,009 2,640,903 2,663,773
Phosphates----------- ----------_ 3,732,353 4,661,919 2,137,487
Soybeans --___ _.....--------________ -..- 3,291,540 2,500,502 1,449,114
Ores, various ----------------------------- 2,278,618 1,845,458 309,593
Sorghum .-- -----...-______._______ 1,777,524 1,345,244 N.A.
Sugar _______________________ 1,581,340 1,073,774 1,011,013
Metal, iron--------------------------__ 1,303,635 1,228,363 198,647
Chemicals, unclassified___________________ -968,629 816,738 657,500
Rice------------------------- ---_____ 850,092 552,232 14,248
Paper and paper products ----------------- 846,231 813,810 428,"42
Fertilizers, unclassified ________________781,167 626,176 388,00;
Autos, trucks, and accessories---______________ 659,911 594,647 333,328
All others ________ __ ________ 11,034,741 10,936,512 8,738,831
Total --______ ______ 73,661,665 64,750,807 37,418,328


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

Fiscal Year 1970
1 9 Avg. No.
1970 1969 rans
11961-65


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing __ -__________
Small 1--_ -_________
Total Commercial_ ________
U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing-----__________ _____
Small'_ ____-.__..- .............
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment __


Atlantic Pacific
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic


6,994
298
7,292

532
40


6,664
278
6,942

536
50


13,658
576
14,234

1,068
90


Total


13,146
583
13,729

1,376
119


Total


13,348
547
13,895

250
157


I _____- I I


1,158


15,224


14,302


i Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


AuGUST 1970


I Total





are compacted into a cake with less than
8 percent moisture. Surplus water is
drained off. The ore then is taken as a
solid to its destination. There Mareona
reconstitutes the slurry by means of
high-pressure water jets and the liquid
ore is pumped into a pond. From there
a conventional dredge feeds materials
into a plant which converts it to iron
ore pellets.

PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FISCAL YEAR
1970
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1970 1969
Commercial___ 13,658 13,146
U.S. Government _- 1,068 1,376
Free 103 80
Total 14,829 14,602


Commercial
U.S.


TOLLS*
$94,688,543 $87,458,100


Government 6,221,313 8,422,043
Total $100,909,856 $95,880,143
CARGO *
Commercial---. 114,257,260 101,372,744
U.S. Government_ 4,410,451 7,210.068
Free __ 234,689 204,065
Total _118,902,400 108,786,877
SIncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
Cargo figures are in long tons.


Coffee from Hawaii
THE LYKES LINE cargo ship Sheldon
Lykes came through the Canal recently
and delivered to New Orleans a ship-
ment of 806,000 pounds of Kona coffee
from Hawaii, the first such shipment
ever made to a U.S. gulf port in what
may be a continuing movement.


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

- A


According to the "New Orlean
letin," the 8,000 bags of Kona
were imported by the Superior Te
Coffee Co. of Chicago. Kona c
probably the only U.S. grown
comes from the lower mountain
of Mauna Loa, along Hawaii's w
shore. The unique quality of Kon
fee is a result of its being grown
rich volcanic soil on the Maun
slopes which receive ample rainfa
an unusual daily cloud cover.

Tug Sold
A LONG VOYAGE is in store f
former Panama Canal Dredging
sion tug Alhajuela which was so


s Bul-
coffee
a and
coffee,
coffee,
slopes
western
a cof-
in the
a Loa
11 and


or the
Divi-
ld re-

" S


7-7


The new self-propelled barge "Golden Owl" is launched at the Bethlehem Steel shipbuilding
yard at Beaumont, Tex. It is operating in Panama waters for marine bunkering.


DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
MONTHS

- .-


cently to the Malcolm Marine Co. of
Marine City, Mich. The Malcolm Ma-
rine Co. brought down its own erew and
the venerable old tug went up to Michi-
gan by way of the St. Lawrence Seaway.
The Alhajuela, built in 1936 by the Me-
chanical Division, spent all of her work-
ing days in the Canal Zone. She will
finish out her useful life operating in
Lake Huron and adjacent waterways.


New Bunkering Barge
A NEW 30,000-barrel, self-propelled
barge, the Golden Owl, constructed in
Beaumont, Tex., at a cost of $1.2 million,
was delivered recently to Panama to
join two others operated in Panama
waters for marine bunkering operations
for ships transiting the Canal. The
barges are operated by the Golden Eagle
Company.
The barges are designed to operate
at either end of the Canal and supply
fuels and fresh water to ships moving
through the waterway. When not busy
supplying ships, the barges are used for
transporting products from the Panama
refinery to terminals in the Canal Zone.
Golden Eagle began marine bunker-
ing operations in Panama in 1968, with
two self-propelled barges and mar-
keted approximately 3,813,000 barrels
of ship's fuels for an average of 10,447
barrels per day. The third barge will
help continue to provide the most mod-
ern bunkering service on both sides of
the Panama Canal.
(Please see p. 27)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1,300

1,200

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600


1970 1969












(AVERAGE 1951-1955)








MEDALS TELL THE STORY


MAN'S UNIQUE conquest of nature
on the Isthmus of Panama has found
expression in medals just as his other
proud feats have been symbolized in
metallic emblems, coveted as marks
of honor, since the days of athletic
contests among the early Greeks.
Four times in the 66 years that have
elapsed since Americans undertook the
colossal task of uniting the oceans have
medals been struck with the Panama
Canal as the motif. One was an award
of recognition; the three others com-
memorated milestones of progress in the
historic enterprise. One of the four hon-
ored only a chosen few thousand men
and women; one has faded with an aura
of mystery; the other two, because of


first time this information has been
consolidated and, as Captain Crigore
himself says, it's fascinating.
The story begins with President
Theodore Roosevelt's visit to the Isth-
mus in 1906. One result of that visit
was a presidential executive order of
June 23, 1907, authorizing the issuance
of a medal to recognize service by
American citizens on the Canal project.
The medal was awarded to all U.S.
citizens who completed at least 2 years
of satisfactory continuous service with
the Canal construction force, including
the Panama Railroad Company, be-
tween May 4, 1904, and December 31.
1914. For each additional 2 years of
service the holder was awarded a bar.
SS Titanic
Designed by artist F. D. Millet, who
perished in the sinking of the SS Tita-
nic, the Roosevelt Mledal was struck in


The U.S. Congress approved a special
appropriation to mint the Roosevelt
Medal.
Of the 7,423 emblems struck, 7,391
were issued. The others were kept in
reserve as replacements of originals lost
hy the holders.
"These medals became the highly
cherished possession of a dwindling
army of old timers or their descendants."
the Panama Star and Herald reported on
July 22, 1941. "Possession of the Roose-
velt Medal was an outward and visible
sign of the inward and spiritual fortitude
requisite to remaining the necessary
time in the work of building the Canal."
It was only natural that the actual
completion of the waterway should
have been commemorated by a medal.
This chapter in the story of the Panama
Canal medals opens with the transit on
August 3, 1914, of the SS Cristobal
which 12 days later was to make the


Completion Medal


Completion Medal-Reverse


Roosevelt Medal


their recent dates, are comparativelY
well known.
In chronological order, they are the
Roosevelt Medal, the Panama Canal
Completion Medal, the Thatcher Ferry
Bridge Dedication Medal, and the Pan-
ama Golden Anniversary Medal.
Extensive Research
Capt. Julius Grigore, Jr. (USNR),
supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion,
and Repair, 15th Naval District, and a
devoted numismatist, has recently com-
pleted extensive research into the his-
tory of the medals issued by the Pan-
ama Canal from 1904 to 1970. It is the


bronze at the United States Mint, Phila-
delphia, Pa., from dies prepared by
Victor D. Brenner of New York City.
An inch and a half in diameter, the
medal has on the obverse a reproduc-
tion of a three-quarter bust of President
Roosevelt, sculptured by Millet, with
the inscription around the border: "FOR
TWO YEARS CONTINUOUS SERV-
ICE ON THE PANAMA CANAL."
On the reverse there is a bird's-eye
view of Caillard Cut, steamers passing
between Gold Hill and Contractor's
Hill; the now familiar Canal Zone
motto "THE LAND DIVIDED. THE
WORLD UNITED" inscribed on the
horizon; the legend "PRESENTED BY
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
STATES" around the border, and on
the bottom, the coat of arms of the
Republic of Panama and under it the
name of the recipient.


first official passage of the waterway.
And although on that August 3 the Crzi-
tobal's transit was entirely unofficial,
aboard was the entire issue of 50,000
medals which had been struck to mark
the completion of the Canal. They were
to be distributed on the official transit
to heads of state and other dignitaries
of church, science, industry, and labor
throughout the world and to members of
the press covering the historic crossing.
Heraldic Symbol
This bronze medal, measuring 24 mil-
limeters in diameter, featured a design
suggested by Miss Elizabeth Rodman, a
relative of Capt. Hugh Rodman (USN ,
the then superintendent of marine trans-
portation for the Panama Canal. The
design depicted a ship passing through
the waterwavy with the heraldic symbol
of Columbia standing at the bow, long


AUGUST 1970




rays emanating from her head and
shoulders, and her outstretched arms
resting on globes of the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. On a horizontal
ribbon connecting the globes was in-
scribed the legend "OCEANI INTER
SE COLOMBIAD CONIUNGUNTER"
(Columbia Unites the Oceans). Another
ribbon was inscribed "PROSPERITY
TO ALL NATIONS." On the reverse,
the medal carried the seal of the Canal
Zone with the legend "COMMEM-
ORATING THE OPENING OF THE
PANAMA CANAL TO THE COM-
MERCE OF THE WORLD."
In addition, there was a certification
in the middle body of the medal: "This
medal copyrighted and bearing a serial
number is one of 50,000 carried on the
vessel making the first passage through
the Panama Canal as authenticated
in a certificate signed by George W.
Goethals, Chief Engineer and Chair-
man, Isthmian Canal Commission."
According to Captain Grigore:
"Today, this bronze medal is quite
scarce and it seldom appears in museum


i-~





Bridge Dedication


or numismatic circles. It is much sought
after by many types of collectors. The
whereabouts of the dies for this medal
remain unknown. Not all of the 50,000
medals struck were distributed, for on
March 24, 1920, J. F. Newman Co. of
New York wrote the Panama Canal
requesting disposition of residual me-
dals which were carried on the first ship
through the Canal. What disposition was
made is still a subject of great mystery."
Almost 50 years elapsed before the
next Panama Canal medal came into
being. The occasion was the dedication
of the majestic 5,425-foot bridge that
spans the Pacific entrance to the Canal.
The bridge replaced the Thatcher
Ferry which had operated on the site
since 1904.
Silver, bronze, and aluminum medals
were struck. Officials of the United
States and Panama-including the pres-


idents of the two countries-received the
silver and bronze medals. The alumi-
num emblems were distributed among
first-day users and local residents as
souvenirs.
Sculptured by John R. Terken and
struck by the Medallic Art Co. of New
York, the silver and bronze medals meas-
ure 21h inches in diameter and feature
the bridge in the obverse with the
legend "PANAMA CANAL 1962-
THATCHER FERRY BRIDGE/LINK-
ING THE AMERICAS. UNIENDO
LAS AMERICAS." The reverse is plain.
The aluminum medals are an inch
smaller and bear the same design, but
on the reverse have a map of the Isth-
mus and portions of Central and South
America with the legends "DEDICAT-
ED OCTOBER 12, 1962" and "DEDI-
CADO OCTUBRE 12, 1962."
The supply of 500 silver, 1,020
bronze, and 10,000 aluminum medals
for the bridge dedication was rapidly
depleted. The dies, now in the
Canal Zone Library/Museum in Bal-
boa, were defaced by a small engraved


Golden Anniversary


line to prevent unauthorized use.
The most recent of the Panama Canal
medals marked the 50th anniversary of
the waterway. It also was struck in
silver and bronze by the Medallic Art
Co. of New York. The 300 silver medals,
1% inches in diameter, were presented
to dignitaries of the United States and
Panama, including Presidents Lyndon B.
Johnson and Roberto F. Chiari, to Mau-
rice H. Thatcher, last surviving mem-
ber of the Isthmian Canal Commission,
and to each Panama Canal Society in
the United States, among others. The
2,000 bronze medals, 2% inches in di-
ameter, were put on sale in the Canal
Zone and were quickly bought out.
The design on the obverse of the
Golden Anniversary medal incorporates
the four points of the compass and
a shield inside of which a ship is
shown sailing through Gaillard Cut


between Contractor's Hill and Gold Hill.
"The ship is heading north because
Contractor's Hill is on its left," Captain
Grigore notes. "Actually, in relating the
ship's heading with the proper point of
the compass on the medal, it should be
heading south."
Across the top of the medal is the
inscription "THE PANAMA CANAL"
and below it "CROSSROADS OF
WORLD COMMERCE." The south
point of the compass separates the dates
1914 1916 beneath the shield, and
lower along the rim is the legend
"GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY." On the
reverse is the seal of the Canal
Zone with the motto "THE LAND
DIVIDED-THE WORLD UNITED"
inscribed in a ribbon below the shield;
inside the shield is a galleon sailing
between two points of land.
No additional anniversary medals
were struck and the dies were defaced
and stored in the vault of the Canal
Zone Library/Museum.
Captain Grigore's research has dis-
closed that the Golden Anniversary


Anniversary Medal-Reverse


medal almost became a United States
coin-a commemorative half dollar. The
suggestion that the U.S. Treasury mint
a commemorative coin for the Canal's
50th anniversary was made by Juan II.
Ehrman, a lifetime member of the Isth-
mian Numismatic Society. But official
policy of the U.S. Treasury already was
against the minting of commemorative
coins. When an alternative plan to strike
a national medal had been discussed,
time had run out to include it in the
U.S. Mint production schedule.
The Panama Canal medals have pre-
served for posterity, in the creative
beauty of metal, some highlights of the
history of one of man's greatest engi-
neering accomplishments. But the last-
ing monument to those who made that
feat possible is the Canal itself, still
passing ships from one ocean to the
other 56 years after its completion.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







[ASI[ICH BAS[BA[1 I[ACU[


- --= t T.


Mr. Fastlich knew little of baseball, including the proper
way to hold a bat, but he went on to sponsor the
Fastlich Baseball Teenage League in the Canal Zone.
During an opening ceremonies (above) he was honor batter.


AUGUST 1970


C1





By Tomis A. Cupas
HIS GAME was soccer. He didn't know
a thing about baseball. But he became
the sponsor of the first teenage baseball
league in the Canal Zone, and is remem-
bered as such every year when the
baseball league bearing his name begins
its season.
He was Adalbert Fastlich, a Panama
businessman who founded and re-
mained sponsor of the Fastlich Baseball
Teenage League from its organization
in 1954 until his death in 1961.
Sponsorship of the league is being
continued by his widow, Mrs. Dora K.
de Fastlich, who says she will continue
the sponsorship as long as she lives.
Mr. Fastlich was born in Austria
where he learned to play soccer. He
served in the Austrian army in World
War 1 and later came to Panama where
he established a jewelry and watch
business which still exists and bears
his name.
In his spare time he tried to help the
children in Panama by sponsoring sports
and organizing games in the poor areas
of the Republic.
Since soccer was his sport, he wanted
to sponsor a soccer league in the Canal
Zone. He soon found out, however, that
baseball was the U.S. national sport and
was followed closely in the Canal Zone.
In 1954 he organized the first Fastlich
Teenage Baseball League. He paid for
the uniforms, equipment, and provided
prizes for the winners. The teams have
such names as Conejos (Rabbits), Palo-
mas (Pigeons), Pericos (Parakeets), Pu-
mas, Ocelots, and Macaws.
The league is for boys from the ages
of 13 to 15. Since it was organized, more
than 1,000 baseball-minded youngsters
have participated in the games. The
league serves mainly as a bridge be-
tween the Little League and the high
school age teams.
The first president of the Fastlich
league was John Winklosky and the
present one is George I. Stanley, gen-
eral foreman, mechanic, in the U.S.
Army Maintenance Management. Team
directors are volunteers who devote
most of their afternoons after work to
the young baseball players.
Mrs. Fastlich, who sponsors other
leagues and various sports in Panama
especially in the poorer areas, was pre-
sent when the parents in the Canal Zone
and former players on the league teams
erected a plaque in memory of the late
Mr. Fastlich.
The plaque carries the inscription
"Dedicated to the Memory of Adalbert
Fastlich Benefactor of Canal Zone
Teenage Baseball."
There was an honor guard from the


The Conejos team was last season's winner of the Fastlich league. Standing from left are:
Richard Figueroa, Doug Nesbitt, coach Jimmy Givens, John Givens, Richie Alexander,
Armando Navarro, Chuck Ruth, Kevin O'Connor, Archie McDaniels, Frank Lee, Beady
Hendricks, and manager Sam Catlett. Kneeling from left: Mac Arroyo, Roger Rios, Leon
Catlett, and John Alexander.



p '. -4 r -








T3.Wqi
SKA/
,^Bi f


0E


91



4/~;-5_L2%


Mrs. Dora K. de Fastlich unveils the monument dedicated to her late husband Adalbert
Fastlich, during the opening of the 1962 baseball season. Former Governor W. A. Carter
is at right. From left are: Mickey Kiernan, then league president; and Mrs. Rosalinda F.
de Nfiiez, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Fastlich.


Balboa High School ROTC and among
the officials attending the ceremony was
then Governor W. A. Carter.
In December, the teams will meet for
the 16th season of the baseball league.
The Fastlich league has produced
many fine teams and many boys have
continued playing baseball in colleges
and professional leagues. Fastlich teams
have had outstanding success in win-
ning post-season games with champions
of other teenage leagues in the Canal
Zone. In fact, they have never lost a
post-season series.
Probably the highest honor ever
achieved by a local Canal Zone team
was in 1958, when a team composed
of Fastlich players won the Veterans of


Foreign Wars teenage baseball cham-
pionship in Hershey, Pa. This team was
managed by Mois6s de la Pefia, now
retired from the Postal Division.
While competition is always keen
among the teams, the league officials
have always endeavored to run the
league in accordance with the ideals
set down by Mr. and Mrs. Fastlich.
Boys are encouraged to play hard and
to the best of their ability, but good
sportsmanship and fairplay are always
uppermost. Louis Scigliani, a civilian
employee for the Army, has been official
umpire for the past 10 years.
Trophies are presented at the end of
each season at a dinner given by league
officials and parents.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








ALL ABOUT


THE mOLA


By Georgia Corin
FOR THE CUNA Indians of the San
Bias, 1970 may be the "Year of the
Mola."
The diminutive Cuna women, shy
when it comes to displaying themselves
in their colorful costumes, become ag-
gressive hawkers of their cloth molas,
which are the most sought after tourist
item in Panama.
The rectangular, intricately designed
panels are worn by the Indian women.
young and old alike, but the North
Americans who sometimes seem to over-
flow the small Cuna communities on
buying sprees have other ideas. They)
have taken to framing them for wall
hangings, for dressmaking, pillow cov-
ers, curtains, hats, head scarfs, bikinis,
place mats, clothing patches, and in the
Canal Zone the newest fad among teen-
agers is to put them on T-shirts and
jackets.
The market for molas has reached
fantastic proportions and the commer-
cial demand for them in the United
States cannot be met. Orders for thou-
sands are received by local wholesalers,
but only hundreds at a time can be sup-
plied. On the islands most visited by
tourists the Indian women spend all of
their spare time hand sewing the molas
although sewing machines have come
into use on a few islands.







\f; ii~ m ::-:

";mu 1\1r111~s


The design and workmanship of
the unique needlework panels have
changed from generation to generation
during their approximate 100-year his-
tory. Among the molas currently being
made, however, there is a tendency to
reproduce many of the styles and
techniques of the past.
Much Conjecture
Although there is no documented
evidence concerning the details of the
origin of the mola there is much conjec-
ture. The literature on the Cuna Indian
abounds with all phases of their culture
and frequently describes in general
terms what the Indians were wearing
throughout various stages in history.
It is known that the Cuna Indians
practiced the art of body painting dur-
ing the 16th and 17th centuries. The
women were in charge of the painting
so it follows that they were to become
the "artists" of the society. Using a
wooden stick gnawed at the end to the
softness of a brush and working with
pigments of brilliant colors made from
berries and clays, they covered their
entire bodies with designs. It is easy
to imagine that their abstractions of
plant and animal forms had much of
the same linear quality that we find in
the mola designs of today.
While the men of this period enjoyed



% %00


comparative nakedness, the women had
a tradition of modesty. Cotton was cul-
tivated and a homespun-type of cloth
was woven for clothing. The women of
the 17th century were described as
wearing skirt-like garments that were
tied behind, but no upper garments. The
skirts were made of handwoven cotton
or occasionally of old clothes obtained
through trading.
One explorer in the 1680's reported
the women as wearing cotton clothing
"curiously embroidered," but since this
period preceded the arrival of commer-
cial needles and thread, and the Cuna
Indians did not weave or inlay designs
in their cloth, one could theorize that
the garments were handpainted in a
technique somewhat related to body
painting.
Nakedness
There is little information available
on the Cuna dress for the years between
1700 and 1850. But a trend away from
nakedness had definitely begun by 1700,
and by 1850 the women were reported
as wearing handpainted, wraparound
skirts which were worn under knee-
length blouses, usually dark blue and
decorated with a band of red at the
bottom.
The women still engaged in weaving
at this time but they took much more


AUcUST 1970






delight in being able to secure pieces
of fabric or old clothes, usually of gaudy
colors, from passing traders and prefer-
red to use these since they represented
such prized articles.
Trading Ships
A generation or so prior to the close
of the 19th century the ingredients of
the mola which we know today were
the geometric designs and the different
colors of cloth. What remained was the
integration of these elements. In this
case, opportunity was the mother of in-
vention. With the coming of the high-
powered looms and the development of
color-fast chemical dyes in Europe, fac-
tory-woven cloth in a variety of bright
colors and prints soon found its way via
trading ships to the San Bias Islands.
As the traders brought in more color-
ful cloth the women began to decorate
the hems of their basic blue and red
tunics with simple applique. Needles,
thread, and scissors also were easily\
procured items from the trading ships
of the late 1800's. The particularly in-
tricate Cuna "applique" technique itself
appears to have been an indigenous
development. Actually, the term "ap-
plique" is not technically accurate in
this case. The term "cut work stitcherv"
would be more descriptive, for the Cuna
method began by cutting slots and out-
lines of figures in the top layer of cloth,
turning under the edges and allowing
the color of the cloth underneath to
show through. It is only applique in the
sense that layers of cloth with designs
cut into them are "applied' to a bottom
layer.
New Art Form
The women, apparently carried away
with their new art form, gradually wid-
ened the decorated hem until by the
early 1900's it included the whole area
below the armpits. The yoke and sleeves
were usually white, although one finds
in early photographs that a completely
incongruous printed fabric was often
used to "top" the artistic needlework,
a practice which continues to this day.
It was during this time that a blue,
factorywoven cloth suitable for wrap-
around skirts became available and fash-
ionable, and so the blouse was shortened
to hip length in order that the skirt could


show. Skirt styles have not changed
basically since.
The cutwork panels which formed
the back and front of the early blouses
were usually of two or three layers of
cloth. Red, orange, and black became
the favorite basic color choices. The
designs were most frequently geome-
tric, continuous-line compositions with
about an equal distribution of back-
ground and foreground colors. When
figures did appear they were highly
stylized and abstract.
This same style of the early 1900's
is still being produced today.
As the mola grew in size, it also grew
in complexity. The brilliantly colored
cloth of good quality that was available
had the same effect on the women of
San Blas as a large box of crayons has
on a small child.
By the 1920's the Cuna women were
known to have one of the most striking
costumes among the indigenous people
of the Americas. No visitor failed to re-
port the colorful apparel and he usually
tried, w ith success, to obtain an example
of this remarkable folk art.
Hardy Visitors
Visitors were few and hardy in those
days, usually limited to scientists, Pan-
ama Canal employees, and adventurous
tourists. But the mola of this period was
relatively crude compared to what it
would become in the next generation.
The parallel spaces in the cutwork was
often 1/, to 1 inch wide and in some of
the photographs taken prior to 1930 one
can even see evidence of the stitches.
The unique geographical location oc-
cupied by the San Bias Archipelago,
located off the Caribbean shore of east-
ern Panama, is no doubt responsible for
the Cnna having a longer history of
contact with Europeans than any other
Indian group of the Americas.
Beginning with Columbus, who in
1501 gave the San Bias Islands their
name, there has been an unending
stream of explorers, exploiters, bucca-
neers, would-be settlers, surveyors for
the railroad, builders of the Canal, mis-
sionaries, U.S. military forces, scientists,
and tourists. And yet, from earliest re-
corded times, the Cunas have resisted
integration with other groups and have


-A t


The author holds a "bird" mola blouse
with a background of appliqued triangles.

managed to retain their own integrity.
The increased exposure to other cul-
tures, however, did have the effect of
creating new inspiration for mola de-
signs. Any subject was fair game for
translation into their unique visual
vernacular. In 1938, the islands were
opened for day tourists and it was not
long afterward that the mola became
an elaborate masterpiece of four or five
layers of cloth and as many colors.
Wide Repertoire
From the 1950's to the present, the
wide repertoire of subject matter in-
cluded such nonindigenous items as pro-
duct labels, magazine pictures, calendar
art, pictures from children's storybooks,
Christian iconography (following the
arrival of missionaries), and illustrations
of current events, as well as interpreta-
tions of their own folklores and scenes
from everyday life. These professional-
primitives had reached the epitome of
fusing originality with borrowed ideas.
Add to this an ever increasing supply
of materials and a growing enthusiastic
market of tourists, private collectors, in-
terior decorators, fashion designers, gift
shop owners, and museums and the re-
sults could be termed the heyday of
the molas. (Please sec p. 24)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW































Two Cuna women with molas to sell pose with Canal Zone Governor
W. P. Leber while he was visiting the San Blas Islands.


(Continued from p. 23)
With so many hands busy sewing
molas to meet these demands the ques-
tion of quality arises. Are all molas
works of art? Probably not. In a primi-
tive society, native crafts are originally
made for utilitarian purposes, whether
ceremonial or practical. Art is not a
profession as it is in Western civilization
but a social duty. When everyone not
only can but must produce, it follows
that the clumsier hands are going to
produce inferior work.
Anybody's Guess
Recently, the mola has experienced
a further lessening of quality due to a
speeding up of the length of time spent
on sewing each panel. It is estimated
that the average panel takes from 4 to
6 weeks to complete. How much of this
time is spent in actual sewing hours,
however, is anybody's guess. The women
spend every free moment sewing and
they usually have several pieces of
needlework going at one time.
But despite the fact that for a while
it looked as though there would be
enough of these brilliant panels to cover
the earth, at the rate that molas are
leaving the islands the supply will even-
tually diminish. And although a few of
the very complex and good quality mo-
las are still being made, it is at an ever


decreasing rate. There are still some old
but good ones to be found but this sup-
ply is also on the wane, and once they
are gone-like the Old Masters, they
will never be replaced.
The time spent, the care taken, and
the quality of materials used all com-
bine to make the mola an outstanding
achievement among folk art today.
There is such a tremendous variety on
the market that the prospective buyer
could easily become confused. Here are
a few guidelines.
First, styles may vary from very
simple, two-layer designs to the ulti-
mate in complexity with four or five
layers of cloth and intricately embroid-
ered detail. So, examine the mola for
number of layers of cloth.
A Clue
Second, notice the quality of fabric
used. If you can, try to determine if it
has been worn and washed. This would
give you a clue to its durability. There
are some very old molas which were
made with quality cotton and have sur-
vived countless washings and wear with
little or no fading. But thin and even
synthetic material is often found in the
molas currently being produced.
Third, examine the width and even-
ness of the lines and spaces The more
carefully sewn molas may have spaces


no wider than 38 inch. And there was a
time when a good mola was one that
had no space greater than one inch
without some work on it. In addition,
good stitching does not show on the top
laver, only on the bottom.
Fourth, besides the more frequently
seen "slot" technique used for filling in
background areas, there are other more
time-consuming techniques. These in-
clude filling large areas with tinv dots.
a modified Creek-kev motif, and sur-
rounding the edges of figures with a
saw-tooth pattern or one that resembles
tiny gears, to mention a few.
Fifth, color and subject are largely
a matter of personal taste. There are
those collectors who find the subtle
tones of the old, closely keyed panels
highly desirable. On the other hand,
some prefer the ones made with vibrat-
ing and bright colors. Also, clashing
colors are often used to achieve striking
effects. As far as subject matter goes,
the variety is infinite and whether \ou
prefer an Adam and Eve wearing top
hats, a portrait of a famous person such
as General MacArthur, or perhaps an
amazing reproduction of a sardine can
label, is entirely up to you.
Prices
Prices on the San Bias Islands begin
at $2.50 for a very ordinary mola panel.
A whole blouse, right out of a Cuna
woman's wardrobe, can usually be pur-
chased for from $5 to less than $10.
In Panama City and Colon, prices begin
at around $5 a panel and increase
according to quality.
Collectors' items begin at approxi-
mately $25 and sometimes reach $100.
In the United States it is difficult to find
any of the San Bias needlework for less
than $10. The panels are frequently sold
framed which increases the price consi-
derably. In a May issue of the NEW
YORKER magazine, an article describing
a new gift shop stated that mola wall
hangings sold at $40 to $45 each, and
mounted on a 20 x 24-inch piece of
Formica, $75.
There are many theories regarding
what the future of the San Blas Cuna
Indians of Panama might be. Their re-
luctance to join the 20th century may
preserve them and their art. And, per-
haps, these Indians, with their fantastic
imaginations, marvelous innate sense of
design and color, and their skill, will
continue sewing in spite of creeping
civilization.

Mrs. Corin has taught art in the
Canal Zone and recently completed
her master of arts thesis in art edu-
cation on the mola.


AUGUST 1970







Molas Sought By Museums







THE MOLA achieved art status when Dr. Louis Hoover,
head of Illinois State University Art Department, decided
to devote the remainder of his life to helping the Cuna
artists. Dr. Hoover first collected more than a thousand
quality molas from all the areas of the San Bias. These
molas formed a background or research group for study,
classification, and development of nomenclature. After
many trips into the Cuna country and long talks with
the tribal leaders it was possible to begin to understand
the stories being told by the molas.
In December 1968, the Hoover Collection was un-
veiled for the art world. The Center for Inter-American
Relations in New York held an exhibit and turned all its
facilities over to the collection and printed an extensive
catalog. The exhibit next opened at the Pan American
Union in Washington, D.C. where the Ambassador of Pan-
ama held a formal reception attended by President Nixon.
Following these beginnings the collection has been
sought by museums and galleries all over the United
States and Canada. Molas as art are now accepted and
as a result higher quality molas are being avidly sought.
This should lead to the ultimate realization that a mola
as a tourist souvenir and as an art object are two separate
entities.
The Hoover collection has made it possible for anthro-
pologists and sociologists to study the "writings" of the
Cuna in great detail. One mola in the Hoover collection
is identical to a third millineum Mesopotamian drawing.
Recent indications are that designs such as this were
transmitted down through the ages by grass weavings
until the molas offered a better medium.
W. D. Barton, Islandia.


This is an example of a continuous-line composition frequently
seen in early molas.


The yoke and sleeves of printed fabric contrast sharply with the
intricate needlework panel.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Joseph E. Ramsay
Supervisory Cargo Checking Assistant
Granville Haynes
Clerk
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICES
BUREAU
Albert A. Roach
S.1piersuo Sr 14n Slorr Clerl
Juan A. Epi o\
LirlI \, ker
Toroho E.'%Mah I I I
Slpr r."g* Sl.,r -e l1 l Iemn
ENI l^TEiPclA.DcNSTn C1VON

William C iil N T O
Oiler (Fle. hr'T, ir.T ul
Jeremiah A. Grant
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)
Theodore C. Henter
Supervisory Hydrologist
Christopher Sealey
Lead Foreman (Hyacinth and Debris Control)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Spencer S. Josephs
ligh School Teacher-L. A. Schools


OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT
R. Trendon Vestal
Management Analyst
Louis J. Poletti
Visa Examiner
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Ethel K. Askew
Accounting Assistant
Elsie N. Smith
Supervisory Operating Accountant
Mathias Regist
Clerk
Adolphus Bushell
Bookkeeping Machine Operator
Louis Emanuel
Bookkeeping Machine Operator
Louis C. Caldwell
Accounting Assistant (Steamship Clearances)
Robert F. Roche
Supervisory General Claims Examiner
Clarence E. Notyce
Accounting Technician
Oliver L. Riesch
Budget Officer
Thomas E. Spencer
Supervisory General Claims Examiner
PERSONNEL BUREAU
George V. Daniels
Personnel Staffing and Employee Relations
Specialist
Edmund L. Toppin
Information Receptionist
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Beatrice E. Lee
Supervisory Transportation Assistant
Thelma E. Watson
Bindery Worker
MARINE BUREAU
Lionel Ashby
Launch Dispatcher
Marcos F. Rueda
Leader Painter
Andrbs CArdenas
Helper Pipefitter
Eustace G. Mathews
Carpenter (Marine)
Marcos Bracamaya M.
Helper Lock Operator
Wilfred West
Motor Launch Operator
MAiximo L6pez
Boatman (Locks)


Nicolis Lanas
Boatman (Locks)
Juan Rodriguez B.
Boatman (Locks)
Joaquin Montoto
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Eleuterio Sanchez
Linehandler
William N. Arthur
Signalman
Prince A. Bowen
Motor Launch Operator
Robert A. Lord
Clerk
Grenvill G. Cooper
Time and Leave Clerk
John T. O'Donnell, Jr.
Machinist (Marine)
Owen E. Christopher
Leader Painter (Maintenance)
Howard N. Golden
Lock Operator (Operating Engineer-Hoisting
Equipment)
Felipe Mendoza
Helper Lock Operator
Cirilo Timana
Helper Lock Operator
Juan C. Sing
Helper Lock Operator
Gerald Anderson
Helper Lock Operator
Harry Van Loon
Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks)
Sinico Hall
Bridge Crane Operator
Andrew F. Codrington
Bridge Crane Operator
Lloyd G. Thornhill
Seaman (Launch)
Gregorio Barria
Seaman
Anatolio Anderson
Oiler (Floating Plaot)
Carlos F. Cuthbert
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Edwin Lawrence
Leader Linehandler De.:l o 0 wairi)
Alfred A. Stewart
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Jacinto Castro
Linehandler
Daniel Blake
Stockman
Leopold O. Marshall
Preservation Mechanic
Reginald D. Burton
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Moises Ortiz
Linehandler (Deckhand)
George W. Porter
Leader Seaman
Vertick Guerrero
Leader Seaman
Basil C. Edwards
Seaman
Joseph Rogers
Boatman (Locks)
Justo Valencia
Boatman (Locks)
Roman Mendieta
Motor Launch Operator
Coldridge T. St. Hill
Lead Foreman Operations Lock Wall
Joseph H. Young
General Foreman, Locks Operations
(Mechanical)
Sidney Brandford
Marine Traffic Clerk
Fermin A. Reid
Time and Leave Clerk
Haten C. Springer
Time and Leave Clerk
Rayburn L. Brians
Admeasurer
Henry J. Wallace
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Antonio Roberts
Furnaceman


Kenneth L. Bailey
General Foreman Boatbuilder

TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Rafael A. Vaughn
Boiler Tender (High Pressure)
B. A. Caballero
Leader, High Lift Truck Operator
James Moore
Helper (General)
Whinston D. Jones
Truck Driver
TomAs Guardia E.
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Hip6lito Sanjur D.
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Brandford Doyle
Truck Driver (Heavy Trailer)
Martin L. Grenald
Guard
Clifford E. Bovell
Glazier
Noel J. Morgan
Stevedore
Charles G. Warren
Stevedore
Albert A. Johnson
Maintenanceman (Rope and Wire Cable)
Charles G. Brown
Carpenter
John F. Lawrence
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher
Manuel S. Aparicio
Liquids Fuels Valve Manifold Operator
George L. Campbell
School Bus Driver
Ralph H. Austin
Le Lin chandler
y ed
I isp her


R io I. n
.: 1 0ur .t! C I




Ivan B. Evering




Merchandise Management Specialist
Fr .:i;ro C rih







(Housewares)
Jckson J. Pierce (Docks)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
BUREAU
Ivan R. Evering
Merchandise Management Specialist
(Housewares)
Jackson J. Pearce
Housing Project Manager
Mary H. Foster
Supervisory General Supply Specialist
Doris M. Brown
Tailor (Alterations)
Apolonio Camarena
High Lift Truck Operator
Ivy A. Sisnett
Stockman
Herbert E. E. St. Rose
Leader Stockman
William A. Whittaker
Leader Marker and Sorter
Hilda F. Harriman
Presser (Garment)
James Scott
Assistant Baker
Ethlin J. Alston
Food Service Worker
Marie A. Brownie
Sales Store Clerk
Cynthia K. de Mullins
Sales Store Clerk
Millicent E. Adams
Sales Store Checker
Isodora O. Green
Sales Store Checker
Hyacinth C. Gayle
Tailor (Alterations)
Charles E. Small
Laborer (Cleaner)


AUGUST 1970





Juan Valdes
Garbage Collector
Seward P. Cargill
Crane Hookman
Leon H. Taitt
Truck Driver
Joseph C. Hill
Meat Cutter
C. E. Scantlebury
Clerk (Checker)
Leon V. Deterville
Accounting Clerk
Charles A. Russell
Budget Analyst
Idalin Cooper
Sales Store Clerk
Muriel Pennycook
Sales Store Clerk
May C. Ennis
Sales Store Checker
Cecil A. Payne
Laborer (Heavy)
Clarence V. Markland
Melter (Scrap)
Henry W. R. Headley
Milk Plant Worker
Harry MN. Savage
Leader, Warehousing and Shipping
Carmen A. Bayne
Warehouseman (Cold Storage)
Ulric S. Moore
Stockman
Inez NM. Armstrong
Leader, Marker and Sorter
Darnley Yearwood
Assistant Baker
Ignatius C. Inglis
Waiter
Mavis A. Roper
Meat Wrapper
Pedro A. Castillo
Utility Worker
Suanne Coq
Pantrywoman
Herm S. Nolan
Waiter
Manuel A. Contreras
Stockman
Vicente R. Soley
Warehouseman
Napoleon Forbes
Warehouseman
Cleveland Williams
Warehouseman
Ewart V. Howell
Service Station Operator
Fernando A. Yip
Scrap Materials Sorter
Alfonso Rodriguez U.
Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator
Alejo Rodriguz IM.
Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator
Daniel Sanchez F.
Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator
Frederick F. Szymanski
Supervisory Distribution Facilities Specialist
Lucy A. Constable
Sales Store Clerk
Eleonora C. Carrington
Sales Store Checker
Arnold J. Buchanan
Leader Laborer (Heavy)
Errol Kirton
Laborer (Cleaner)
Denis Debranche
Laborer (Cleaner)

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Marciano Egues
Surveying Aid
Joseph A. Harvey
Helper Electrician
Stanley G. Nicholson
Helper Electrician
Joaquin L6#ez A.
Helper Electrician (Lineman)
Policarpo Hernandez
Electrician (Lineman)
Julio Alveo
Electrician (Lineman)
Rudolph Davey
SMaintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Henry G. Danzic
Helper Electrician (Power Plant)


Robert James
Winchman
Arturo G. Lbpez
Carpenter
Frank Stewart
Maintenanceman
James B. Ingram
Leader Seaman
Adan V6liz
Leader Seaman
Noel A. Dunn
Learner Oiler (Floating Plant)
Miguel A. Reyes
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Arden N. Greaves
Helper (General)
Lenmard W. McBean
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Manuel H. Vence
Pipefitter (Maintenance)
Eulalio Romero
Helper (Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Mechanic)
Eduviges Ardines
Helper Machinist (Maintenance)
Ulpiano Rios
Helper Machinist (Maintenance)
Lorenzo Deer
Boiler Tender
Conrad R. Wade
Chauffeur
Patricio Perea
Seaman
Sydney A. Smith
Seaman
Samuel Alfred
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Auswal H. Edward
Surveying Aid
John II. Foster
Lead Foreman Electronics Mechanic

I\ ren-nc Distribution Systems)

b ~.. I Maintenance)
orb o yhll 1.
L,- r Lab. -r .,i i



Forn enr.l Hospital Maintenance)


Seaman
Henry Morris
Seaman
Victor n. Hamblin
Seaman
Jos4 S. de la Cruz
Seaman
B. M. Parmentier
Foreman (Marine Equipment and Facilities
Repair)
Ernesto Rodriguez
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Thomas B. Rainey
Operator, Craneboat
Norman C. Anderson
Supervisor. Mechanical Power Station
Robert T. Geddes
Water System Operator
Arthur C. Hubert
Oiler
John C. Thompson
Lead Foreman, Barge Maintenance
Rupert Hamilton
Surveying Aid
Alfred Griffith
Survevine Aid
Harold J. Million
Supe-isory Hydrologist
Hubert M. Evans
Helper, Armature Wioder
Clyde U. Chaplin
Laborer (Highway Maintenance)
Charles X. Corbin
Cement Finisher
John Williams
Hot Water Tank Repairman
Humberto Torres A.
Pipelayer
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Maurice E. Muller
Police Private


Dale R. Meriwether
Customs Inspector
Carmen A. Butcher
Teacher, Junior High, L. A. Schools
Ashton A. Brown
Dressing Room Attendant
Albert E. Greene
Supervisory Customs Inspector
Ronald MN. Brome
Police Technician II
Emel P. A. Regist
Guard (Correctional)
Julia J. Adams
Counselor, L. A. Schools
HEALTH BUREAU
Fred L. Workman
Hospital Housekeeping Officer
Clyde D. Bailey
Hospital Attendant
James S. Yard
Medical Aid (Ambulances)
C. D. Cumberbatch
Clerk
Edward Sealey F.
Clinic Clerk
Eulalio Sosa
Animal Caretaker
Catherine J. Mitchusson
Clinical Nurse
Mildred A. Byrd
Medical Record Librarian


(Continued from p. 17)

Chinese Cruise Ships
PEOPLE WITH LOTS of time and a
taste for the exotic can take a world
cruise aboard any one of four oriental
luxury passenger liners. They take 4
months to travel around the world by
way of Brazil, South Africa, ports in
the Far East, the U.S. west coast, and
the Panama Canal. The ships were pur-
chased by the Orient Overseas Line and
rebuilt into one-class passenger vessels
catering to retired senior citizens.
The Oriental Carnaval, that came
through the Canal in April on her
maiden voyage, is the former New Zea-
land Shipping Company's Rangitoto.
She has accommodations for 350 pas-
sengers and, typical of her unusual itin-
erary, spends 3 or more days at most
of 20 ports around the world. The ship
combines the best of the East and West
in cuisine, service, and art. Her appoint-
ments include tiled swimming pool,
theater, sauna baths, and gymnasium.
Each of the 176 staterooms has a private
tub and/or shower and the liner is fully
air-conditioned.
Other ships placed on this run re-
cently are the Oriental Esmeralda which
is the former New Zealand liner Rangi-
tane; the Oriental Rio, the former Rua-
hine; and the Oriental Amiga, the former
Holland American Liner Dynteldyke.
Wilford and McKay are agents at
the Canal for the Orient Overseas Line
which started a new independent ex-
press service from the United States
east coast ports direct to Japan and Ko-
rea at the end of June. The first ship
on this service was the MV Hong Kong
Merchant.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Culinary





Capers



By Fannie P. Hernmndez

GLEAMING CLEAVERS, a heavy olie
for chopping bones, and a lighter one
for chopping meat and vegetables, hold
a prominent place in every Chinese
kitchen. The cook using these menacing
looking tools for cutting up ingredients
into cubes, slices, shreds, or into the
finest bits with skill and a high sense
of dignity, is not only preparing a meal,
he is happily performing an art.
He is also dispensing with the need
for the dinner knife which never ap-
pears at a Chinese dinner table. The
food is cut up into bite-size morsels
during preparation. The multi-purpose
cleaver, usually made of steel and sharp
as a razor, also is used to pound, scoop,
crush, scale fish, and to carry the raw
food from the chopping block to the
cooking pot.
Chinese cooking, the cuisine of the
world's oldest continuing civilization,
and the joy of dining have been given


great significance through the centuries.
The subject of food was treated with
respect as long ago as 2000 B.C. when
a Chinese philosopher is said to have
written an account on cooking.
Confucius
A number of Confucius's ideas have
to do with food and eating and early
Chinese literature included cookbooks
as far back as the llth century. Food
has always been a topic of conversation
and a matter of discussion in the Chinese
home and still is today.
According to the Chinese, food is not
only necessary to give nourishment to
the body and as a means of satisfying
the palate, but also a source of enjoy-
ment to the one cooking it as well as
the diner.
To understand this attitude of respect
for food, one must realize that hardships
and hunger have always been a part of
Chinese life. The mere thought of its


- uCi "I,- .-
Flashing smiles, quick hands, and a wide variety of Oriental foods make shopping at Chinese
groceries in Panama City a unique pleasure. At the carryout section of the Yet Loy Kee
Oriental Restaurant, on Salsipuedes, Mrs. Irene (Chan) Gerdes chats with Juan Siu who is
dipping into a glass jar of dried squid. Mrs. Gerdes supplied the recipes on pages 29 and 30.


lack has created a profound feeling
for food.
Fascinating, highly diverse, and seem-
ingly complex, Chinese cooking is the
product of centuries of culinary experi-
ence of a people who have lived their
own way of life, often facing famine
and the ever-present shortage of fuel.
It was customary to heat rooms in cold
weather by burning a little charcoal in
a small pot. To double the usefulness
of the heat, it was common to set a pot
of soup or broth over it and cook small
pieces of food.
Compelled to use their imagination,
ingenuity, and economy in preparing
meals, the Chinese have fussed over
food so long that their plainest cooking
has evolved into a cuisine with a unique
flavor rivaling French cooking in its
subtlety.
Each Province
Because of the vast expanse of China
and inadequate transportation facilities,
each province developed its own cuisine
using local products as well as foods
common to all sectors.
Expertise in blending ingredients
native to each locality has resulted in
four major schools of Chinese cooking:
Mandarin or Peking, Canton, Shanghai,
and Szechwan. The different schools
have in common the use of sova sauce,
bamboo shoots, mushrooms, water chest-
nuts, and other vegetables. They use
the same principle of cooking such as
the stir-fry method and cook with the
same fat: peanut oil and chicken or
pork fat. Butter, cheese, cream, milk
and other dairy products are not used
in Chinese cooking. Pork suet is used
for pastry making.
Centuries Ago
Very little water or none at all is used
and the majority of dishes require a
maximum of preliminary preparation
and a minimum of fuel and cooking time.
In contrast to western cooking, vege-
tables predominate over meat in most
dishes. Pork, duck, and chicken are the


AUGUST 1970





preferred meats of the Chinese but they
also eat beef, lamb, and mutton.
In addition to the versatile cleaver
and chopping block, cooking vessels
and utensils are much as they were
centuries ago. Several sizes of woks, the
convex-bottomed pan, and a steamer
are always found in Chinese kitchens.
The wok may be compared to the Pan-
amanian paila, which permits food to be
cooked on the sides of the pan as well
as the bottom. Lighter utensils include
slotted spoons and wooden chopsticks
for stirring.
Best Chefs
Since the Imperial Palace was for
centuries in Peking, the capital of China,
the best chefs and highest quality food
were found in this area.
Although Chinese cooking is charac-
terized by a generous use of rice, wheat
is the staple food of northern China.
The majority of recipes from the Peking
area call for wheat and not rice. The
world famous Peking duck and the
best sweet-and-sour dishes come from
this sector known for its subtle and
delicately flavored dishes. Garlic and
scallions are common condiments in
this area.
Rice replaces wheat in the coastal
areas around Shanghai. The use of soya
sauce and sugar is more prevalent and
gravy and salty dishes are more popular.
The abundance of fish and seafood from
the many rivers and the sea make for
excellent fish dishes. The well-known
bird's nest soup is from here.
Cantonese cooking in the southern
part of China has a varied cuisine. This
is the Chinese cooking that most west-
erners know. Most of the Chinese chook-
ing found in Panama had its origins in
the Canton area. Cooks use very highly
concentrated chicken bouillon, nuts,
mushrooms and less soya sauce. The
popular egg-roll, shark fin soup, egg
foo young, and steamed dumplings are
from here.
Southwest China
The Szechwan school of cooking in
the southwestern part of China is noted
for its use of hot pepper, making it
comparable to Mexican style cooking.
Ham from this region is the best in
the country. (The world's best natural
bristle is plucked from the backs of
Szechwan hogs.) The use of the hot-
pepper flavoring is now popular in the
Taiwan cuisine.
Here are a few recipes for Chinese
dishes. Ingredients are readily available
in Chinese markets and shops in Panama
City for these simple recipes.


Sweet-and-Sour Pork

1-lb. lean pork
1 egg, slightly beaten
1 tsp. salt
L cup cornstarch
c cup flour
t cup chicken broth
2 cups peanut oil
2 cloves garlic, mashed
1 green pepper cut in strips
I carrot cut diagonally into thin
slices
2 cup chicken broth
4 tbsp. sugar
4 tbsp. red wine vinegar
1 tbsp. cornstarch dissolved in
3 tbsp. water
Cut pork into I-inch cubes. Mix
together the egg, /4 cup cornstarch, Y4
cup flour, 4 cup chicken broth and salt.
Add pork pieces to egg and flour mix-
ture and stir until each cube is well
coated. Heat oil in a vok or paila until
hot but not smoking. Put pieces of pork.
one by one, into the oil and cook for
about 5 minutes until crisp. Remove
pork with a slotted spoon and place in
a baking dish. Keep warm in oven set
at 250 degrees.


N.^^-


The Chinese way to slice a carrot.

For the sauce, pour 1 tbs. oil in a
skillet and heat until it barely begins
to smoke. Add the green pepper, garlic
and carrot and stir for about 3 minutes
being careful not to burn. Pour in
chicken broth, sugar, vinegar, and soya
sauce. Boil 1 minute. Lower to a sim-
Iner and add cornstarch mixture. Cook a
few minutes longer, stirring constantly.
When sauce is thick and clear, pour over
pork and serve. Serves two to three.
Dessert is not served as part of a
Chinese meal. China does not have a
wide-spread dairy industry and dairy
products required for desserts are some-
times rare. Pastries and sweets are, how-
ever, served at holiday festivities and
at social affairs.
A light delicate dessert particularly
suitable for the tropics is Almond Float.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


-;S.D,




Almond Float
2 pkgs. unflavored gelatin
% cup cold water
I tbsp. almond extract
3 tbsp. or more of sugar
(according to taste)
1% cups milk
1 1-lb. can lichee fruit, chilled
1 6%-oz. can mandarin oranges,
chilled
(or other canned fruit such as
fruit cocktail, pears, peaches)

Sprinkle the gelatin in V1 cup cold
water to soften for 5 minutes. Add 1
cup boiling water and mix thoroughly.
Combine the milk, sugar, and almond
extract with the diluted gelatin and
blend. Pour the mixture into a 7/2 by
10-inch flat pan. It should be enough
liquid to gel into about a 11-inch thick
gelatin. Chill for about %-hours and then
cut into small shipped pieces. Pour the
canned fruits and their syrup over the
almond float and serve. Serves three
to four.


Braised Fish
1 corbina (l1-lbs.) cleaned, whole
2 slices fresh ginger root, cut in
strings
2 tsp. sugar
1 tbsp. soya sauce
1 tbsp. dry sherry
2 or 3 scallions, chopped fine
salt, pepper, salad oil, cornstarch

Combine ginger root, sugar, soya
sauce, and wine and add enough water
or stock to make /2 cup liquid. Salt and
pepper fish inside and out. Dust lightly
with cornstarch. Put enough oil in a
heavy skillet or paila to cover the bot-
tom. Heat oil to a medium temperature.
Brown fish turning over only once to
avoid breaking fish by too much han-
dling. Pour off any excess oil. Pour gin-
ger-sauce liquid over the fish. Cover and
cook over medium-low heat for approx-
imately 15 minutes or until fish is tender
and flakes easily. Garnish with chopped
scallions. Serves two generously.


Onion Chicken Canton Style
1 3-lb. chicken fryer, cut up into
uniform pieces
1 lb. onions, quartered and
sliced
1M level tsps. sugar
thumb size piece of crushed fresh
ginger root, oil or fat from chicken


A wide variety of canned goods mostly from Hong Kong and Taiwan are stocked by
Chinese merchants.


2 cloves garlic, crushed
soya sauce
1% cups hot water
dash of monosodium
glutamate (optional)
(The Chinese remove the fat from
the chicken and render it by adding a
little water and cooking it until the water
evaporates and only fat remains).
Heat a little oil or chicken fat in a
heavy iron pot, wok, or paila. Brown
chicken pieces along with the ginger
and garlic. Add onions and cook with
the chicken a few minutes. Add sova
sauce (enough to give a rich brown
color), monosodium glutamate, sugar
and stir. Add the hot water and bring
to a boil. Cover and cook over low heat
approximately 45 minutes or until the
chicken is tender. Add no salt as the
soya is salty. Add more water if neces-
sary. Serve with fluffy white rice. Gar-
nish with sprigs of Chinese parsley
(coriander). Serves six to seven.


Delicacies to suit refined Oriental tastes are
kept in glass jars which surround Juan Siu.


Aucusr 1970















"THE WORLD IS ONE FANIILY Dr. Sun Yat-sen







By etisGrge







yC Lvis n Grn

'By Louis R. Granger


Ambassador and Mrs. J. L. Huang pose
amid antique Chinese furniture.

RESIDENTS OF The Canal Zone and
Panama interested in seeing a bit of the
Orient should drive to the Chinese Em-
bassv in La Cresta. There, on a hill
overlooking much of the city, is the first
classic-style Chinese pavilion in Panama.
In inaugurating the colorful structure,
Lt. Gen. J. L. Huang, Chinese Ambas-
sador to Panama, said he named the
pavilion Ta-Tung Ko-"the world is one
fainilv"-in honor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen,
the founder of the Republic of China.
"The Republic of China and the Re-
public of Panama have always enjoyed
a most cordial friendship," the Ambas-
sador said. "This is further evidenced
by the arrival of an agricultural tech-
nical team (from Taiwan) which is work-
ing side-by-side with the Panamanian
farmers in the fields of Montijo (Vera-
guas Province south of Santiago). There-
fore, I have taken the liberty of naming
this pavilion Ta-Tung Ko honoring the
political philosophy of Dr. Sun."
The pavilion, with its arched roof,
glazed tiles, painted ceiling, and the
blending of bright colors, is in the
classic Chinese architectural style.
It features antique hand-carved fur-
niture, bright red columns, and golden
dragons bordering a ceiling of inlaid
wood from Taiwan.
A portrait of Dr. Sun takes a promi-
nent place over an altar-type table which


is decorated with a 600-year-old seal of
the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty,
a replica of a bronze Shang Dynasty
(500 B.C.) tripod vessel, and an antique
teapot.
Since he arrived in Panama 5 years
ago it has been Ambassador Huang's
desire to introduce to the country some
form of Chinese architecture.
"This pavilion, to my mind, is only
an experiment. There are many imper-
fections, make-shifts, plus my own inno-
vations. But it represents a beginning,"
he said.
One innovation was to place lighted
color transparencies of scenes of Taiwan
on three sides of the pavilion.
The Ambassador noted that the
Chinese colony in Colon is planning
a Chinese style park, and the Chinese
in Panama City are considering the
construction of a Chinese Association
building in the classic style.
Not only were many of the decorative
pieces in the pavilion imported from
Taiwan, but master craftsman Chang-
Ah-mao came to Panama to supervise
the construction. Taiwan architect Yao-
Ven-vin and his son designed the struc-
ture. Panamanian engineers of Chinese
ancestry, Idelfonso Lee, Alberto Him,
and Winston Cham, also worked on
the building.
Yao is regarded as Taiwan's top


The pavilion is colorful and airy in the
classic Chinese architectural style.

designer of Chinese palatial-style struc-
tures and last year was a prize winner
in architecture in Nationalist China.
Ambassador Huang formally opened
the pavilion to officials from the Canal
Zone organization, the U.S. military,
Republic of Panama, and the diplomatic
community during this year's celebra-
tion of the Dragon Boat Festival (Tuan
Wu Chie)-one of China's three most
important festivals.
During the reception, Ambassador
Huang explained that Dr. Sun aimed not
only to better the living conditions of the
Chinese people, "but also improve the
economic welfare of all the peoples, to
reach a state of worldly brotherhood or
the great commonwealth."
The Dragon Boat Festival had its
beginnings more than 2.260 years ago
during the Chou Dynast y. Ch'u Yuan.
a poet-statesman-reformer, deplored ex-
isting conditions and urged reforms. He
was finally banished from court and as
a gesture of protest, on the 5th day of
the 5th moon which corresponds to the
8th of June this year, he jumped into
the Meelo River and drowned himself.
Many of the people favored Yuan's
reform efforts and attempted to save
him from drowning. Since then it has
become a traditional custom to organize
dragon boat races as a symbolic attempt
to save Ch'u Yuan.


THlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




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