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i *flhR 6r
\. P. LEBER,
R. S. HAHTLINE,
FRANK A. BALDWIN,
P:nama Canal Information Officer
Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
MORGCAN E. GOODWIN, Press Officer
Louis R. GRACNGER, TOMAS A. CUPAS
EUNICE RICHARD, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ,
JOSE T. TU.ON, VILLIE K. FRIAR, and
LUis C. NOLI
Printed at hie Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located In the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Growing Orchids--------- 3
Orchid collecting and grow-
ing is a favorite pastime in
the Canal Zone.
Eyes and Ears of Panama----- 6
INTERCOM.SA brings world
events to the Isthmus.
Balboa Gun Club ---- ---- 8
It offers instruction and
competition for Canal Zone
On the Malaria Front ----- 10
Monkeys are taking tlhe
place of humans in malaria
Culinary Capers ---------_ 14
For the gourmet we feature
fish cookery garnished wiith
Following the Conquistadores-_ 16
Sailing the Spanish Malin
with Captain Kapp.
Panama's Money Trees------- 20
Dried leaves and seed pods
turn into cash for the Ste-
Anniversaries -------------_ 23
Statistics and Canal Feature_-- 24
Panama Canal Headquarters_-- 27
The Administration Build-
ing is the hub of Canal
Grecian scene on
our front cover is
at the home of
Mr. and Mrs.
Henry A. Tooke
S of Los Rios. Both
covers feature or-
chids. On the
front is the Cat-
tleya skinneri, a
wild plant native to Central and South
America. The national flower of Pan-
ama, the Peristeria elata, commonly
known as the Holy Ghost or dove
orchid, graces the back cover.
Tooke is one of the many avid orchid
growers in the Canal Zone and presently
has a collection of approximately 2,000
wild and hybrid orchids.
The Cattleya skinneri grows from the
lowlands of Panama up to approx-
imately 2,000 feet. The best ones are
found in the western part of the
Republic. The flower blooms in the
fall. Although the skinneri is sometimes
found near populated areas, says Tooke,
for some unknown reason, these urban
plants rarely produce a flower.
A migrating moth, the Cydimon ful-
gens, comes to rest on the Holy Ghost
orchid. The shape of the flower calls
to mind a dove which hovers over an
altar formed by the lip. This fragrant
orchid blooms from July to September
and can be found at low to medium
elevations in shaded areas. Commercial
collecting has made this plant increas-
ingly scarce except in inaccessible
sections of the Interior of Panama.
Photographs by Arthur L. Pollack, front cover,
and Melvin D. Kennedy, Jr., hack cover.
"ROSE IS a rose is a rose is a rose," said
Gertrude Stein, noted author and poet.
And that was fine, for a rose does look
like a rose no matter what the size, shape
If Gertrude had said this about
orchids, she would have been in
trouble. Under no given set of circum-
stances can an orchid be an orchid be
an orchid be an orchid.
In the first place, orchids represent
the world's largest family of flowering
plants. At present there are more than
30,000 different species and the num-
ber is increasing as new hybrids are
In the second place, in spite of the
general popularity of orchids, few per-
sons can give a fairly accurate descrip-
tion of what distinguishes an orchid
from other similar or allied plants.
Paul H. Allen, who wrote the book
"THE ORCHIDS IN PANAMA," said that
in the American tropics, any plant found
growing on a tree is called by the natives
a planta parAsita" or parasite plant and
hence all parasites are automatically
presumed to be orchids.
Orchids are air plants, not parasites.
They grow well with lots of air, water
and plant food but never take suste-
nance from another plant. The roots do
not penetrate the living tissue of the
host plant or extract nourishment from
it as do true parasites such as dodder
Other plants such as bromeliads and
aroids are frequently found on the trunks
and branches of trees along with orchids.
During the dry season, orchid grow-
ers sometimes water their collections
with a hose using a fine spray twice a
day. In the rainy season, spraying may
sometimes be skipped; orchids can die
by too lavish or too limited watering.
Most tropical orchids are known as
epiphvtes, a term meaning to "live
upon" some supporting body, usually
a tree or a rock. But there are other
orchids known as terrestrial. These grow
in the ground and, in the tropics, are
far less numerous than the epiphytic
type. Of the terrestrial orchids there are
two classes-those with green leaves and
stems which behave like most other
plants, and those which are saprophvtic
or living wholly upon decaying plant
(Please see p. 4)
S J.. J. 'hj1.i :LZ3
Orchids do not require elaborate
arrangements to bring out
their beauty as the above photo
shows. A single spray
of the scorpion orchid produces a graceful
display. A simple black teapot
below is used by Mrs. Mary Linden
to create an interesting
vanda arrangement. A hint of
of the Orient comes
through in the display at
right by Mrs. R. Arosemena.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
By Eunice Richard
(Continued from p. 3)
matter. Epiphytic orchids are sometimes
apparently terrestrial growing upon the
ground in beds of moss and other plants.
In temperate regions almost all orchids
Well Guarded Secrets
The preface of a book on orchids by
Walter Richter, a German orchidologist.
says orchidology is a cult and its secrets
are well guarded by its "high priests."
He said their very name summons up
visions of strange lands and high adven-
ture, and only those persons who are
prepared for a life of rigorous sacrifice
can hope to enter its orders.
Whenever the uninitiated is con-
fronted with literature dealing with
orchids, he is soon lost in a labyrinth of
scientific and Latin terms. It has been
said that man either understands orchids
or he does not. and he who was not
celebrated Spanish voyage around the
world under navigator Malaspine from
1789 to 1794. Nee visited Panama and
is known to have collected plants on
Ancon Hill. Several of the most com-
mon tropical plants were first described
from specimens obtained by him there.
During the early days of the Canal
construction, workers arriving in Pan-
ama from the United States scarcely
could fail to take notice of the more
conspicuous plants such as the orchids.
Some of the early orchid collectors
were Mrs. D. D. Gaillard, wife of the
division engineer in charge of the Cen-
tral District; Mrs. H. H. Rousseau.
wife of a member of the Isthmian
Canal Commission; and Mrs. Maurice
Thatcher, first chief of Canal civil
affairs. Although theirs were amateur
collections assembled in a haphazard
wa\v, they were of considerable interest
to visitors. One scientist reported that
is a thing of the past, the interest among
local orchid growers has not dimin-
ished. Members of the Canal Zone.
Orchid Society on the Pacific side of
the Isthmus and of the Cold Coast
Orchid Society on the Atlantic side take
their orchids in their stride as part of
a wav of life. Most of them, while not
scientists or naturalists, have learned
the language that identifies most species (
and are adept at producing fine hybrids.
Some of the fine local collections
were started by Harry A. Dunn. former
medical chief technologist at Corgas
Hospital. who was one of the pioneers
in the orchid growing business in the
Canal Zone. Before retiring in 1965, he l
had one of the finest orchid collections
on the Isthmus.
Writing in the American Orchid
Society Bulletin in 1948, he said he had
born with the sixth sense required for
caring for these extraordinary flowers
will never acquire it.
That may be so, but the orchid lovers
living on the lush Isthmus of Panama
have not been cowed by the apparent
pitfalls of orchid growing.
The local aficionados have gone
blithlv ahead and acquired some col-
lections that would be famous anywhere
in the world. Approximately 300 orchid
species may be found growing wild in
Panama and many of them are in local
orchid collections. Many others that
have been introduced into this region
are now grown by orchidologists on
Orchid collecting in Panama is not
new. One of the first botanical collectors
on record to visit Central America and
Panama was Luis Nee, botanist of the
he had obtained specimens which were
found to represent species previously.
unknown to science.
The late C. W. Powell, a construction
days employee of the Panama Canal, is
credited with providing scientists with
the first major part of their knowledge
of the orchids of the Republic of
The Powell orchid garden, which
existed in Balboa from 1914 until the
beginning of W\orld War II, was known
to orchid growers all over the world.
The garden was sponsored by the Mis-
souri Botanical Gardens of St. Louis. It
contained more than 7,000 plants rep-
resenting nearly all of the species of
orchids known to grow in Panama. Man
of the plants were sent by Powell to
Missouri for classification.
Although the Powell orchid garden
Mrs. Alice Clark, at left, sprays
some of her orchids
with a fine stream of water, part of
an orchid growers ritual
which keeps the plants in the pink
of condition. At right,
opposite page, this orchid, the Lockhartia
Micrantha, looks more like a spider
than a plant. It is
growing in a piece of tree
fern and is owned by
Mrs. Elizabeth Mercier. At the
far right, Canal Zone Police
Capt. George E. Martin examines
a vanda growing in
his orchid garden in La Boca.
been collecting orchids as a hobby for
the past 15 years, but even at that time
the roadside collection of orchids had <
become a thing of the past. The enemies
of the orchid were the lumber compa-
nies that cut the trees on which the,
plants grew, and the native farmers
who burned the jungle to make wa\
for their crops. In addition, orchid col-
lectors had sought and collected in most
of the accessible places close to home
and it became necessary to go further
afield in the search for rare plants.
Dunn took a 10-day trip each \ear to
Chiriqui Province in western Panama
and collected as many as 1.500 orchid
plants of about 30 genera and 54
species. It was his opinion that the
Province of Chiriqui was the finest
place in the world to get orchids, mainly
because the area includes three varie-
ties of climates-tropical, temperate.
Panama, in occnpying the narrow
land bridge linking the two major divi-
sions of tropical America, has flora
indigenous to both north and south.
Residents of Panama and the Canal
Zone thus have the opportunity of see-
ing a remarkably representative cross-
section of the orchids of the New World.
The Dunn collection was broken up
when he left the Isthmus in 1965. But
Mrs. Alice Clark, who lives with her
husband and family at the top of
Ancon Boulevard, got her start in the
orchid business when her sister-in-law
gave her five orchid plants from the
Since then, she has traded, purchased,
and produced plants that cover two
trees, fill one greenhouse, and grow
along the side of the hill behind the
house in a profusion of white, yellow,
and purple. Most of those that are in
bloom through most of the year are the
vanda hybrids and the bamboo orchids,
both of which are terrestrial or ground
orchids. Her garden is on the side of
the hill and is in the line of march for
tourists taking the Ancon Boulevard
route to tour the Canal Zone.
Many visitors arrive at her house
thinking it is part of the old Powell
botanical garden. Although her garden
is constantly putting on a show, she
seldom loses any of the exotic blooms
to human thieves. Orchid-eating deer
are her trouble. They sometimes come
down from Ancon Hill and eat a whole
stand of vandas in one night.
Mrs. Clark savs she has learned to
know Panama as well as many far away
places through the hobby of orchid col-
lecting. She has collected orchids in El
Valle, El Volcan in Chiriqui Province.
Cerro Campana, and many other
parts of Panama including Ancon Hill
and islands in Gatun Lake. She has
imported some from the Far East and
the United States.
Canal Zone Police Inspector Capt.
George A. Martin is another veteran
orchid grower. He started his collection
of plants in 1950 when he was living
on the Atlantic side and has obtained
some from the Catun Lake region.
Although he began with native blooms,
he has branched out into the hybrids
and the imported plants, many of which
he obtained through trading. Trading.
he says, is as good a way of making
friends in out of the way places of the
world as being a ham radio operator.
Captain Martin, Henry Tooke of Los
Rios, and most other orchid collectors
here have a number of the large
flowered hybrid cattlevas. It is difficult
to persuade the average individual that
there are others. And vet SO percent
of the wild orchids are small to minute
The hybrids can be produced b\
sowing the microscopic seeds and bring-
ing the plants to maturity under pre-
cise modern methods, which takes about
2 years. Some of the varieties are
The most celebrated of the Panama
orchids is the Peristeria lata commonly
known as the Espiritu Santo or Hol\
Ghost orchid-the national flower of the
Republic of Panama. It is a terrestrial
type that inhabits the lowland forests.
From a cluster of green bulbs, a few
narrow leaves rise and a flower stalk
3 or 4 feet high bears a raceme of
fragrant white waxy flowers resembling
miniature doves which give it the
In Panama, the Holy Ghost orchid
blooms not in the Easter season as one
might expect, but in August, midway\
in the rainy season. New growth starts
with the first heavy rains of the year
The Mariposa, or butterfly orchid, is
another beautiful species native to Pan-
ama. It grows from sea level to 2,000
feet on the espave trees along the banks
Orchids have been used for medicinal
purposes. They cure very common ail-
ments and not as one ma\ think, onl\
exotic diseases. According to orchid
expert Walter Richter in his book THE
ORCHID \\'oLD, a drug known undei
the name of "salep" is made from the
dried bulbs of certain species of
The drug is important for the treat-
ment of serious intestinal illness in chil-
dren ibut the production is small because
attempts to cultivate salep producing
plants for commercial purposes have
been unsuccessful and the world sources
are becoming exhausted.
The roots of some orchids are used
against inflammation of the joints and
the flowers of another against dysentery.
Orchids are used for man\ varied
medicinal purposes. Some species from
Mexico are used as fever cures and
for coughs, and some are even good
for the treatment of \oumnds. The bulbs
of another are eaten in Jamaica to
aid digestion. The bulbs of the Japan-
ese terrestrial orchid are a remedy
No orchid is known to be poisonous
although the Chinese have been known
to extract alkaloids from some species
and the leaves of others can cause
inflammation of the skin.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
T 11' rr -
By Jos6 T. Tufi6n
INTELSAT II blasts off
from Cape Kennedy.
Antenna brings world
events to Panama.
A 98-FOOT BOWL-SHAPED antenna
rising from pasture land amid primitive
surroundings approximately 20 miles
east of Panama City, at Utiv6, marks
the site of Panama's ultramodern Sat-
ellite Communications Station. It was
the link between the Isthmus and the
epoch-making live telecast from space
of man's first steps on the moon that
thrilled viewers in Panama, just as it
did millions of others throughout the
The station is part of the worldwide
INTELSAT communications system-
International Satellite Telecommunica-
tions Consortium-and has placed Pan-
ama in the forefront of Latin American
nations in the field of telecommuni-
The system is represented in Panama
by the Panamanian company INTER-
COMSA, S.A. (Intercontinental de Co-
municaciones por Satelite, S.A.). The
current president of the company is
Fernando Eleta AlmarAn.
The INTELSAT system includes 68
nations which have signed an interna-
tional agreement for this type of com-
munications in which the United States
is represented by COMSAT (Communi-
cations by Satellite). COMSAT owns
53 percent of the stock in INTELSAT.
The highly specialized equipment
required by INTERCOMSA, both in
Panama City and in Utive, was provided
and installed by Page Communications
Engineers, Inc., of Washington, D.C.
Page is managing the local company
until Panamanian personnel are fully
trained to take over all operations.
Late in December 1968, the first
of two INTELSAT III satellites was
placed in operation high over the At-
lantic. The Panama earth station made
the transition from the earlier INTEL-
SAT II satellite to the new and more
powerful satellite early in January 1969
and has since operated commercial cir-
cuits through it. INTELSAT III added
Mexico and Spain to the countries
previously linked with Panama-United
States, Italy, and Chile. Next will be
England, Colombia, and Canada.
By the end of 1970, Panama will
have direct access through the INTEL-
SAT III satellite to the United States,
Canada, Mexico, and Puerto Rico; Ar-
gentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Venezuela,
and Colombia, in South America; and
Germany, Italy, and Spain, in Europe
In addition, an agreement has been
reached to route telephone traffic from
Central America to all points served by
INTERCOMSA. Already there are di-
rect circuits available to nations in areas
where telecommunications demand has
made communications via satellite more
Panama has received several telecasts
by satellite from the United States,
Europe, and Asia. Of course, the moon
telecast-carried in color by Channel 4
in Panama City-topped all. Among
others there were the transmissions of
President Richard M. Nixon's inaugu-
ration in Washington; a soccer game
carried from Liege, Belgium, via Spain;
the opening of Expo '70 at Osaka, Ja-
pan; and the Good Friday service from
the Colosseum in Rome. Both of Pan-
ama City's television stations carried
these programs and some were carried
by the Southern Command Network in
the Canal Zone.
Cost has been the limiting factor in
these international TV transmissions,
but once this problem is solved they are
expected to become a regular feature.
The INTERCOMSA installations
were completed in a surprisingly short
time. Page Communications Engineers
was awarded the contract in March
1967; construction began the following
month and the first commercial messages
were transmitted September 7, 1968. All
this was accomplished within the first
4 years after international communica-
tions by satellite became a reality.
INTELSAT III is far more powerful
than INTELSAT I, which became uni-
versally known as the Early Bird sat-
ellite. Panama's system utilizes 60 chan-
nels, providing telephone, television,
photo, telex, and data communications.
A telephone call via the satellite sys-
tem begins with the call being received
by the International Center for Com-
munications Maintenance, in the Avesa
Building on Via Espafia in Panama City,
where it is handled by the INTER-
COMSA international operators. The
voice signal is combined there with
many other channels and is processed
for transmission by microwave to the
earth station at Utiv6. There, the signal
undergoes additional processing before
being transmitted 23,000 miles to the
satellite over the Atlantic by the 98-
The satellite receives the signal, com-
bined with many more from other
points, amplifies it and converts it to
the carrier frequency of the receiving
satellite station. This one, in turn, re-
converts the signal from the carrier
frequency to the original voice form.
The international operator at the receiv-
ing end then plugs the call into the
local telephone system.
Presently, there are seven INTELSAT
commercial satellites in fixed orbits over
the equator. They are known as "geo-
stationary satellites" because their orbi-
tal velocity at 22,300 miles above the
surface of the earth is such that they
remain over the same area in relation
to the rotation of the earth.
There are two INTELSAT III satel-
lites in operation over the Atlantic. A
new series of satellites, INTELSAT IV,
providing greater power and increased
circuit capacity, is now in the produc-
tion stage. The first satellite of this
series is scheduled for launching in
A group of Panamanian telecommu-
nications experts is being trained by
INTERCOMSA in the secrets of one of
the world's newest professions: satellite
communications specialist. Their know-
how will contribute greatly to the
Republic's efforts to keep pace with
ABOVE: Frank Santomenno, right,
general manager of INTERCOMSA,
and Gary Ross, engineer in charge
of operations, study the complex network
of satellites. UPPER LEFT: Justo
Pinilla examines cables which
link the communications station at
Utiv6 with the 98-foot antenna.
LOWER LEFT: Electronic technician
Nicolas Peters is in training
as a satellite communications specialist.
He is checking signals sent
by central control to the antenna seen
through the window.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
lUUaJULI l UL- 1JV lllj a ..J U ,vt,-
landscaped grounds adjacent to Farfan
Beach near the Pacific entrance to the
Panama Canal. Here there are first class
facilities for skeet and trap shooting,
pistol, small bore rifle, large bore rifle,
and bench rest rifle firing.
In the early 1950's, the club was
incorporated and became known as the
Balboa Gun Club, Inc. Membership
today is comprised of approximately
600 adults, both men and women, and
90 junior members, ages 12 to 19, from
the civilian and military communities
of the Canal Zone. There are many
father and son teams that spend hours
together practicing on the club's ranges.
President of the 56-year-old shooting
group is Albert S. Adams. Other officers
include: Archie Turner, vice president;
Neil A. Doherty, secretary; and James
Thompson, treasurer. Competition and
activity managers are: Bovd Ferry, Rob-
ert Jeffrey, Nat Litvin, Beverly Salter,
and Fred Wells.
Over the years, the club's main
interest has changed from a hunting
organization to an activity promoting
the safe handling and use of firearms,
and for competitive events.
The clubhouse and main shooting
ranges are located on the lower level of
the neatly landscaped grounds. The
pistol range is divided into two sections,
one with 30 firing positions and turning
targets (used for time shooting) at a
distance of 50 and 25 vards. The other
Father, Son Team
An important function of the club is shoot-
ing instruction. Here James L. Collins, Jr.,
coaches his son, James L. Collins III, in
.22 caliber prone position firing.
has six stationary positions for precision
firing at a distance of 25 yards. Also in
this area is the range for small caliber
rifle with 20 positions for match shoot-
ing at 50 feet, 50 yards, 50 meters, and
Perhaps the most popular place on
the lower level of the grounds is the
shooting gallery used strictly for "fun
shooting" with .22 caliber rifles using
light gallery ammunition.
The 200-yard range for high-powered
rifles and bench rest competition is at
an intermediate level above the small
bore rifle range.
Skeet and trap shooting are done on
the highest level, on the crest of a rise
about 30 meters above Ezra Hurwitz
Hit The Tack
Many kinds of shooting competitions
are held at Farfan. Among the newest
is the "tack driving" contest. The shooter
aims his precision rifle from a bench
rest at a thumbtack in the center of a
small white target at a distance of
200 vards. This is so difficult that since
this competition began 2 years ago,
only five members have "hit the tack."
The Balboa Gun Club is affiliated
with the National Rifle Association,
National Skeet Shooting Association,
and Amateur Trap Shooting Association.
Junior members are coached every
Saturday morning in small bore rifle
marksmanship and safety by trained
instructors such as Sgt. Beverly Salter
of the U.S. Air Force. The senior
members provide rifles, targets, and
other equipment for the boys' use at
Many fine marksmen have been rated
as Distinguished Experts by the Na-
tional Rifle Association. Among these
outstanding shooters of the Balboa Gun ...
Club is Dana Ferr 16, a junior at Bal- .
boa High School. He scored 387 out of j
a possible 400 in the recent National
Junior Sectionals placing him with the
25 or so best junior shooters among the
5.000 listed in the United States.
Women members of the club,
although few in number, have distin-
guished themselves as shooters. Mrs.
Klara McKeen is the only pistol shooter
to participate in the U.S. Army South-
ern Command, Commanders Pistol
Matches. for 2 consecutive years.
Safet\ is the watchword of the gun
club. During its 56 x ears, only one minor
accident has occurred, and that was
30 years ago.
Accidents are avoided as all match
firing is done by specific command and
easy to follow safety rules are rigidly
enforced at all times-J.T.T.
TOP: Targets appear only as
small black dots on the
100-yard small-bore range. From left
are Ken Andersen and
Boyd W'. Ferry. Andersen has just fired and
is checking his target
through a scope. ABOVE: Scoring
a target can be a difficult job
if the grouping is close.
Ferry uses a pointer to determine
j whether a slug has touched
the white line which would give the
shooter the next highest count.
In center is Fred E. Wells.
Supervising the scoring
is Robert S. Jeffrey, administrative
assistant to the Governor.
rracy Howard staples .22 caliber targets at Following a round of firing, Ken Andersen
the 100-yard range. All shooting stops when "scopes" his target to check on his score.
targets are being put in place. Such safety The targets are so far away that shooters
rules keep the club accident free. must use telescopes to see the holes.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Th e... ,,f:,i ge o
. i. \ ... : : : ,
The fight goes on
By Willie K. Friar
made in Panama
MONKEYS ARE becoming man's best
friend in the fight against one of the
world's most destructive diseases-
Scientists working in Panama have
succeeded in infecting Panama monkeys
with human malaria which means that
monkeys can partially replace human
volunteers in the testing of anti-malarial
drugs and that the disease can be
more carefully studied under laboratory
This breakthrough has far reaching
implications, for despite the develop-
ment of new drugs and new insecticides,
malaria remains a major health problem
in many parts of the world and much
more research is needed.
Malaria is caused by a minute animal
that lives, prospers, and multiplies ra-
pidly in the livers and blood streams of
humans once it has been injected by
the blood-sucking female Anopheles
1 i f 7, "
Cebus (white-faced or capuchin), well known as the monkey that collected money
for organ grinders in years past, is among the species in which human malaria
is being grown for research purposes.
mosquito. But until recently, all efforts
to grow the human parasite in small
animals failed. The importance of this
breakthrough can best be understood by
a look at the history of the disease.
Malaria is an old enemy. Julius
Caesar saw many of his men suffer
and die of the disease during the
Roman civil wars. Napoleon's forces
were ravaged by it. Malaria caused
more than 5,000 deaths during the
Spanish American War, and in Vorld
War I campaigns were stalemated for
months because British, French, and
German troops alike were immobilized
by the disease.
During the battle for Sicily in World
War 1II, more American and British
soldiers were put out of action by mala-
ria than by the weapons of the enemy.
Not only has malaria determined the
outcome of wars, but it has stymied
Examining a blood sample containing
malaria parasites is Dr. Martin D. Young,
director of Gorgas Memorial Laboratory,
who has 35 years of experience in
the building of cities, roads, railroads,
industries, and many of man's great
undertakings. Its destructive role in the
construction of the Panama Canal is a
classic example. During 1906, the rec-
ords show 821 Canal employees out of
every 1,000 were admitted to hospitals
for malaria treatment.
Newcomers to the tropics quickly
learned that it was not the visible pests,
the snakes, the biting ants, the stinging
fish, or the jungle animals, but a min-
ute organism unseen by man that was
the dangerous enemy.
An Old Enemy
Later, new drugs and new insecti-
cides were discovered and the old
enemy of ancient armies seemed close
to being conquered. Then came disturb-
ing reports from Vietnam. American
soldiers were getting malaria and it was
a kind that the new drugs didn't cure.
Also, DDT and other insecticides were
not killing the mosquitoes as they
It became apparent that more re-
search was necessary. Man's old enemy
was far from being conquered. Better
anti-malarial drugs were urgently
10 MAY 1970
~ ~ ~~
Scientists' success in infecting
these monkeys with human
malaria means they can now
partially replace humans in
the testing of new drugs.
A lively Ateles (Black spider) with his tail
wrapped securely around Dr. Young's arm
warns intruders they are not welcome.
The fight against malaria has been
an international one. It was a French
doctor who in 1880 first saw the malaria
parasite. He discovered the minute an-
imal living in the blood of malaria pa-
tients. Later, in Italy, doctors connected
the periodic fevers of malaria patients
with the periodic reproductions of the
parasites already in their blood, and
demonstrated that it was possible for
attacks to come later in places where
there were no mosquitoes.
British doctors tried to infect volun-
teers by mosquito bites but failed.
Finally it was discovered that the mala-
ria parasite needed an incubation period
in the mosquito. Then in 1898, British
Maj. Ronald Ross, while dissecting mos-
quitoes in India, discovered the truth.
The parasites reproduced asexually in
their human hosts, but in stomachs of
the mosquitoes they developed a kind
of sexual reproduction. Their hordes
of offspring migrated to the insect's
salivary glands where they waited until,
if they happened to bite an uninfected
human, the transmission cycle was com-
plete. It was Ross who made the im-
portant discovery that it was only the
Anopheles mosquito, and only the vam-
pire female, who performed this task.
One of the first steps toward the
conquering of malaria began after it
was found that mosquitoes transmitted
the disease. Control measures such as
eliminating breeding places by drain-
age or putting oil on the water of
lakes and ponds, protecting people
with screens, and killing mosquitoes
with insecticides proved effective in
preventing the disease.
These were the methods employed
by Col. William C. Gorgas in the sanita-
tion work that made possible the build-
ing of the Panama Canal. These meth-
ods, however, were successful only if
Gorgas drove his men relentlessly
and once told a story about a weary
sanitation inspector, who on a very hot
day after pouring oil on a number of
mosquito breeding places, returned to
his hotel and in a final gesture of com-
plete exhaustion dumped his remaining
supply of crude oil into the cistern on
the hotel roof.
Soon, a Navy officer arrived at the
hotel, and went to his room to bathe.
He stripped off his clothes, stepped into
the shower, covered himself with liquid
soap, and pulled the chain to release
the water. Out came the sticky oil which
mingled with the soap to make a gooey
coating that could not be washed off.
miles of drainage ditches each year.
They help the health authorities apply
residual insecticide twice each year
in the dwellings of more than 150
Blood smears are taken regularly
and the residents whose smears are
found positive for malaria are given
weekly doses of an antimalarial drug
for 14 weeks.
The budget for the Division of Sani-
tation is $400,000 a year and its em-
ployees spend 60 to 70 percent of their
time in the continuing fight against
malaria. The operation still includes
such well known practices as draining
mosquito breeding areas, cutting away
underbrush, and the use of chemicals
to kill the larvae throughout the
Although the malaria rate among
Canal Zone employees may, in the
future, decrease to zero, it is practically
impossible to eliminate the mosquito.
The practical control objectives of the
sanitation forces are to reduce the num-
bers of mosquitoes breeding and to
selectively kill those mosquitoes resting
on walls in houses by putting residual
insecticide on the walls.
Pancho, the lab's pet, looks for cigarettes
in Dr. Young's pocket.
There was no other water available.
The officer couldn't put on his clothes,
so he wrapped himself in a sheet and
went to bed. The next morning, still
wearing the sheet, he set out to find the
sanitation inspector. But someone, in an
attempt to calm the outraged bather.
told him that the sanitation inspector
had died of yellow fever. The well oiled
Navy man responded with, "I'm damn
glad of it."
There has been no letup in the fight
against malaria since the Americans first
took over the project of building the
Canal. The Canal Zone Division of
Sanitation now has 123 men, all Pan-
amanians, who clean more than 400
Human malaria parasites were first grown
successfully in the night or owl monkey.
Colonel Corgas used all these meth-
ods along with daily doses of quinine
for all construction workers. Quinine
became known about 3 centuries ago
after Count Chinch6n sailed from Spain
to become Viceroy of Peru. One story
is that at Lima, the count's wife, the
Condesa de Chinch6n, contracted mala-
ria. A local citizen recommended a med-
icine which the Indians made from the
bark of the quina-quina tree which is
native to the Andean foothills, and now
named in honor of the Condesa.
The countess drank the bitter med-
icine and recovered. The Jesuit mission-
(Please see p. 12)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 11)
aries began to collect the bark and
spread the word of its medicinal value.
Bv 1750, the value of "Peruvian" or
Jesuits' bark was well known to the
medical world even though the facts
about malaria were still shrouded in
Quinine remained the usual treatment
for malaria until World War II when
the shortage of quinine resulted in
an intensive search for other drugs. One
of the drugs developed in the early
1930's was Atabrine which had the
disadvantage of turning some people a
Most people objected to the coloring,
but a doctor told a story of a Fiji
Islander who found his new color made
him so attractive to the local girls that
he stole Atabrine from the Army dispen-
sary to keep up the coloration after he
had been cured of his malaria.
Other drugs were developed without
such side effects, and quinine began
to play a smaller and smaller role in
malaria treatment until in recent years
when drug resistant strains of malaria
Now the search is on again for new
and better medicines. The finding and
testing of new drugs, however, is always
a long, expensive, and complicated pro-
cess. Until recently, new malaria drugs
had to be tested in humans because
there was no practical animal substitute.
This has many disadvantages. There
Thousands of Anoph-
eles mosquitoes which
transmit malaria are
grown in the Rand In-
sectory at Gorgas Mc-
morial Laboratory for
research purposes. Dr.
D. C. Baerg examines
mosquito larvae grow-
L ing in white metal trays.
have never been enough human volun-
teers and although prisoners volun-
teered during the war, questions of
security often posed big problems.
Also, it is difficult to know that the
human patient has taken the medicine
even in hospitals. Sometimes for rea-
sons of his own, the person does not
take the drug.
Gorgas ran into this difficulty in his
malaria work. He reported one some-
what humorous and unexpected inci-
dent. He had built a convalescent hos-
pital on the island of Taboga for pa-
tients with the more severe cases of
malaria. The convalescent treatment
was designed to rid the patients' blood
of malarial parasites and prevent
them from becoming carriers. The
treatment consisted of large doses of
quinine continued for 10 days after the
Gorgas noticed one day that an old
turkey gobbler which was a hospital pet
was acting strangely. He staggered
around as if lie couldn't see. On inves-
tigation, Gorgas discovered that a num-
ber of the malaria patients, when they
were given their daily dose of quinine
in the dispensary, threw their tablets
out the window. The old turkey devel-
oped a taste for the tablets and the
stimulating effects of the quinine and
gobbled up all the tablets he could find.
He became so dissipated in this way
that lie finally developed amblvpia, a
kind of blindness caused by too much
quinine. The doctor had to confine the
old turkey to keep him awav from the
quinine until he recovered his sight.
Malariologists work today toward
finding a way to control malaria not
only in small sanitized areas like the
Canal Zone where through strict con-
trol measures the disease has been
almost eradicated, but in the vast
jungles of the world where such meth-
ods as drainage and spraying with
insecticides are impractical.
But for effective research, there was
an obvious need for a small animal that
could be infected with malaria. Since
the discovery of the malaria parasite
90 years ago, the parasites have been
found in reptiles, birds, apes, and mon-
keys, but attempts to grow human
malaria in birds and monkeys in the
laboratory were not successful.
It was known that human malaria
would grow in chimpanzees and gib-
bons whose spleens had been removed.
But these animals are scarce and very
expensive as well as difficult to handle.
At Corgas Memorial Laboratory in
Panama, Dr. Martin D. Young, director,
who has worked with malaria for 35
years, began trying to grow malaria
in Panama monkeys, although past
attempts to grow malaria in small
monkeys had failed.
The new technique which Dr. Young
planned to use was based on the reason-
ing that the immunity of the monkeys
to human malaria might be reduced by
using some of the recently devel-
oped drugs that have been used for
suppressing immunity in the case of
organ transplants. These drugs prevent
the body from rejecting foreign sub-
stances, such as transplanted hearts.
Also, the monkey's spleen, which helps
fight disease, would be removed.
The experimental work was begun at
the laboratory. Blood was taken from
patients who had malaria and was in-
jected into various monkeys belonging
to the seven species of Panama mon-
keys. After 6 months the first successful
results were obtained when the para-
site, Plasmodium vivax, a species of
malaria, grew in the small night or
owl Aotus monkey.
Allowed To Bite
Later experiments showed that the
mosquitoes which transmit human
malaria could be infected by biting
these monkeys. To further prove that
the malaria in the monkey was the same
human malaria that had been injected
into the monkey, these infected mosqui-
toes were allowed to bite two human
volunteers who were staff members of
the laboratory. Within the normal 11 to
12 day incubation period they devel-
oped malaria. To complete the cycle,
blood from these volunteers was in-
jected into other monkeys and produced
This work proved for the first time
that human malaria could be grown in
small monkeys and soon laboratories
in other parts of the world verified
these findings. Continuing investiga-
tions showed that other monkeys com-
mon to Panama could be infected with
human malaria. The parasites grew
well in the black spider monkey, the
red spider monkey, and in the
So, in Panama, in the laboratory that
is a memorial to one of the world's
greatest malaria fighters, a very im-
portant breakthrough in the war on
malaria was made.
Later experiments showed the para-
site could be grown in monkeys with-
out resort to immunity suppresant drugs
and without spleen removal.
Attention was given then to the
growing of the most dangerous malaria
parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in
monkeys. This possibility was partic-
ularly important as some strains of this
species were resistant to the best mala-
rial drugs. A scientist in the United
States then found that an African strain
of this malaria would grow in the Aotus
monkey from Colombia.
Later work at Corgas Memorial Lab-
oratory showed that this African mala-
ria strain and strains from Southeast
Asia would grow not only in the Pan-
ama Aotus monkey but also in the white
faced capuchin Cebus.
Now Gorgas scientists are using these
monkeys to continue learning more
about malaria and how these animals
may be used as a partial replacement
for human volunteers for the develop-
ment of better antimalarial drugs.
Dr. Young, while discussing this
important breakthrough in malaria,
said: "The bright possibility that mala-
ria can be eliminated from the world is
a breathtaking prospect charged with
far-reaching significance. It would mark
the first successful elimination of a
major disease from this planet. It would
improve the health, happiness, well-
being, and economic status of vast seg-
ments of the world's population. It gives
hope and a design for further conquests
of disease, especially those transmitted
by small insects or those which can be
attacked by drugs."
IN THE HISTORY
During Canal construction days these men were part of an army of sanitation
workers whose job was to spread oil on mosquito troubled waters. The barrels in
the foreground contain the oil. The mule is hauling drinking water for the sprayers.
EVEN AFTER the discovery of quinine
it was not universally accepted as a
treatment for malaria and many home
remedies were used. Beverages made
of sassafras roots, cherry bark, or horse
manure were used and one country
doctor treated himself with salt and
For many years, people were con-
vinced that malaria was caused by water
So many workers were infected with
malaria when the banana plantations
were being started in Central America
that there is good reason to believe that
there would be no bananas today except
for quinine and other antimalarial drugs.
A doctor in Apalachicola, Fla., once
recommended that Washington, D.C. be
enclosed in a giant screen to keep out
malaria carrying mosquitoes.
The colony established by the English
at Jamestown, Va., was almost destroyed
twice by malaria. It is believed that
the colonists moved to Williamsburg
because of it.
In the Canal Zone, all screened doors
swing outward because inward swinging
doors favor entry of insects which may
be on the doors.
Although the Anopheles female is a
voracious vampire which dines on
blood at every opportunity, the male is
a namby-pamby, mild-mannered vege-
At one time it was believed that
whiskey would prevent malaria and it
was issued to sailors in the Confederate
Navy every morning. A popular cock-
tail during Canal construction days was
4 grains of quinine in an ounce of rum.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Pan a ma (pan ah mi), n.
[probably Choco Indian.] An abundance of fish.
By Fannie P. Hernandez
EARLIEST HISTORICAL chronicles
on dining say the eating of fish was
prohibited to mortal man in pagan
times and note that the gastronomical
privilege was reserved solely and ex-
clusively for the gods. Fish was held
sacred and holy. And there was
weeping and wailing for the dead
aquatic creatures which washed upon
Down through the ages, legend after
legend has carried the symbolism of
fish as it has been depicted in pagan-
ism, Christianity, love, romance, fertil-
ity, prophecy, and hieroglyphics.
In prehistoric eras, many people in
Asia worshipped a fish god. So did the
Egyptians and the Greeks. At the time
of Christ, Ichthus, the fish, was the
symbol worn by the Christians in the
catacombs of Rome.
In the Middle Ages, the fish symbol
meant light and intelligence. And in
the Zodiac, the sign of two fishes de-
notes love and wisdom. Fish are still
honored as sacred symbols in parts of
India. The symbolism of fish remains
also in parts of the world where the
traditional blessing of departing fishing
fleets and their catches still takes place.
With the passing of the Dark Ages.
the taboo on fish eating disappeared.
During medieval times, the eating of
fish became a way of Christian life.
Counting Fridays, Lent, and all the
other days of fasting, meat was ex-
cluded from the menu for almost half
the year. Fishing came to play an im-
portant role in the destinies of nations
as it prepared the way for sea trade.
Fish contains a rich combination of
vitamins, minerals, and proteins and
ocean fish contains 50 to 200 times as
much iodine as any other food. No
other food supplies so great a degree
of these essentials of the daily diet.
Most important, too, is the fact that the
low calorie content in fish permits
weight watchers to indulge almost
at will in the delight of succulent
At the 1969 Fish Expo held in Boston,
Dr. Frederick J. Stare, professor of
nutrition at Harvard University, and
a great believer in fish as a major item
in today's diet, said, "Fish belongs in
diets designed to lessen the develop-
ment of our main cause of death today-
coronary heart disease. It has less fat
and fewer calories per ounce than
In purchasing fish the main thing is
that it must be fresh. If it smells like
fish, it isn't fresh. The skin and scales
should be brilliant, the flesh firm and
if the head is still attached, the eves
should be bright, clear, full, and bulg-
Corbina, a prized
catch from Panama's Pacific
waters, is displayed by
head chef of the Union
Club of Panama.
Corbina is a favorite
food on the Isthmus. The
recipe for Corbina a la
Villarreal is on the
ing. It is recommended that if the fish
cannot stare back at you, have nothing
to do with it.
In buying frozen fish, make sure it
is frozen solid and has little or no smell.
Frozen fish stays fresh for about a
month if it is well wrapped and kept
frozen. It should not be thawed at room
temperature or in warm water, but in
the refrigerator. Frozen fish sticks and
portions are cooked without thawing.
Before cooking fish, wipe it with a
cloth which has been dipped in salt
water and wrung out. This does not
take away the flavor as washing does.
If the fish must be washed, do it quickly
and pat it dry. For better flavor when
serving the fish whole, let it keep its
head. A headless fish loses its juices.
In cooking fish, leave the skin on it
as the best flavor in fish is found just
under the skin.
Red Snapper is perhaps the most
colorful food fish in the sea and it is in
season all year around. The meat is juicy
and white and has a fine delicate flavor.
It can be broiled, baked, steamed, or
boiled but many consider a baked red
snapper a real treat.
Baked Red Snapper
3 or 4 pound red snapper, whole
1% tsp. salt
2 tbsp. melted butter
Sprinkle inside and outside with salt
and stuff the fish loosely. Place on a
well greased baking pan and brush
with butter. Bake in a moderate oven
at 350 degrees for 40 to 60 minutes
or until the fish flakes easily. Baste it
occasionally with the melted butter.
% cup celery, chopped
cup onion, chopped
i cup melted butter
1 quart bread cubes
i' cup sour cream
L cup lemon, peeled, and diced
2 tsp. lemon rind
1 tsp. paprika
1 tsp. salt
Cook the celery and onion until soft
and combine with all other ingredients.
(If it looks too dry add a little more
melted butter.) Serves six persons.
For the broiling method of preparing
fish we have selected the excellent cor-
bina from Panama's Pacific waters. The
following recipe has been contributed
by Cristobal Villarreal, the head chef of
the Union Club of Panama, whose out-
standing success in cooking the fish has
made it one of the true epicurean
treasures in this area:
Corbina A La Villarreal
2 pounds fillets of corbina
4 tbsp. melted butter, plus 6 tbsp. butter
1 tsp. salt
dash of pepper
1 tbsp. flour
2 tsp. chopped parsley
1 anchovy fillet, mashed
Use thick fillets and cut into portions.
Brush with melted butter. Preheat oven
and broiler at 500 degrees for about
10 minutes. Dust the fillets with flour,
salt, and pepper. Arrange on oiled broil-
er pan and place about 5 inches from
the flame. Baste with melted butter
twice while cooking for about 8 min-
utes, or until the fish flakes easily. Re-
move from oven and cover with hot
butter sauce to which chopped parsley
and anchovy have been added. Or add
chopped toasted almonds in place of the
parsley and anchovy. Serves six.
Fish and Rice
A breakfast food common in parts of
India called Kitcherie was refashioned
by the British Colonials to suit their
tastes. By substituting fish for beans
or lentils in the original recipe, they
came up with a delicious fish and
rice dish called Kedgeree. Here is a
recipe for Kedgeree contributed to
Culinary Capers by His Excellency
Ronald Scrivener, Ambassador of Great
Britain in Panama:
1 cup rice
1 pound cooked fish
1 tbsp. butter
1 hard-boiled egg
1 raw egg
1I cup fresh cream
salt and pepper
Wash a cup of rice, boil it and dry
it in the oven. It must be very firm and
not soggy. Flake the cooked fish which
may be cod, turbot, haddock (fresh, ot
course, not canned). Heat the butter in
a saucepan. Chop the hard-boiled egg
and add it. Season. Add the rice and
then the raw egg. Turn down the flame
and stir all together. Add as much
cream (milk will do) as you need, re-
membering not to make it runny.
Sprinkle with chopped parsley before
serving. Serves six.
Escabeche, which probably origin-
ated in Spain during the rule of
the Moors, is common in all Spanish
speaking countries. Here is a version
our readers may want to try using
grouper, corbina, snapper, or any fish
2 pounds fish fillets
2 onions, sliced thin
2 cloves garlic, minced
3 tbsp. flour, cornmeal or fine
breadcrumbs for dredging
1 tsp. black pepper
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. oregano
1 tbsp. chopped parsley
I cup olive oil, (, cup for frying)
3 cup water
halved black olives
Cook onion and garlic in oil until
soft. Remove from oil. Dredge fish fil-
lets in flour, to which salt and pepper
have been added. Fry in hot oil for
about 5 minutes or until brown. Arrange
the fried fish in a serving dish. Mix the
vinegar, oil, water, and spices and pour
over fried fish. Cover with onion slices
and olives. Put wax paper over dish and
refrigerate for 24 hours. Occasionally
spoon marinade over fish. Serves six.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
~r ;; i,
- ',,- -'
NAVIGATOR, mapmaker, explorer,
sailor-Kit S. Kapp, master of the ketch
Fairwinds, has made his home in the
wake of the Conquistadores.
The gregarious man from Cincinnati
who once was heading towards the
"normal" nine to five life behind a desk,
has proved that there are still plenty of
virgin territories for the historian, arche-
ologist, and explorer.
Along the Spanish Main and in the
jungles of Panama and Colombia,
Kapp's expeditions have taken him to
uninhabited islands that once were
pirate hideouts or Spanish fortifications,
and deep into the Darien jungles to
By Louis R. Granger
ancient towns and Spanish gold mines.
He has headed nine official expedi-
tions under the auspices of the famed
Explorers Club of New York. Traveling
in his 50-foot sailboat, Kapp was accom-
panied by interested adventurers made
up of "spirited, intelligent men and
women" willing to spend weeks and
sometimes months sharing the finances
and the duties afloat and ashore. Many
have come from the Canal Zone and
Panama City, and others from the
United States. South America, and
At a boyish 43, Kit S. Kapp (his real
name) has retained an excited interest
in his work that may have come from
years of not having to worry about
house payments, the stock market, and
whether or not he gets to work on time.
Born in Cincinnati, Kapp was grad-
uated from the University of Cincinnati
in 1950 with a B.A. in business admin-
istration. After serving 2/2 years in the
Armv and later receiving an ROTC
commission in the Air Force, Kapp
decided he needed a vacation and a bit
of adventure. He headed for the West
There he bought a 41-foot ketch
named the Faircinds and got into the
charter business. It was a financial suc-
OPPOSITE PAGE: Sleek and
sturdy, the 50-foot ketch "Fairwinds"
heads out on another
voyage to adventure.
RIGHT: The Explorers Club flag,
displayed by Capt. Kapp and his wife
Valerie, has been taken
on many of their expeditions.
LOWER RIGHT: The arrow points to
where Kapp expects
to find the old city of Santa Maria
la Antigua, the first Spanish
Central and South America.
cess almost from the beginning, but
there was something lacking. "It was
like running a seagoing taxi service,"
He bought his present 50-foot ketch,
also named the Fairwinds, in 1955 and
built a home in St. Thomas, Virgin
Islands, shortly afterwards. "But this
wasn't for me. It became a rat race
in the Caribbean. It wasn't creative
enough," he said.
Heading south to Panama, Kapp
began a self education program of
exploration. Cartography, he explains,
was like doing his graduate thesis work.
He made trips to Europe to systemat-
ically search museums, libraries, and
archives in an attempt to locate the
sites of early Spanish settlements from
centuries-old charts and prints. These
documents sometimes reveal historical
and geographical facts not found in
books and manuscripts, he said. Often,
such searches give tips to old spellings
and former names no longer used.
Kapp also buys old maps and charts
which serve a dual purpose-to verif\
his studies of place names and locations,
and to sell at a profit to help defray his
While studying old charts in London
a few years ago he discovered some-
thing in British naval history that caused
quite a stir among museum historians.
While examining an 18th Century
chart of St. John's, Virgin Islands, Kapp
noticed that the cartographer signed
himself H. Nelson Adm. Lord Horatio
Nelson, the most famous of British naval
heroes, was not known to have ever
been a cartographer, but Kapp had a
hunch. He knew Nelson had married a
woman from Nevis, a British island in
the Leeward Islands, and that he had
spent many years in that area of the
He compared an original signature of
Admiral Nelson to that on the St.
John's chart. They appeared to be
the same. British Museum historians
thought so too and were quite surprised
at the discovery. Kapp took the dis-
covery in unruffled stride and left the
museum authorities scratching their
His interest in cartography has led
to the publication of charts of Jamaica,
Isla Roatan, Honduras, and landinga
and Carti Ke\ s in the San Blas. He has
produced a preliminary large scale chart
of the uncharted coast between Isle of
Pines and Ailigandi and has submitted
innumerable chart corrections of many
Caribbean areas to the U.S. Hydro-
graphic Office and the U.S. Navy
Off and on for the past 8 years, Kapp
has sailed among the islands of the
lower San Blas, from Plavon Chico Vil-
lage to Anachucuna (near the Colom-
bian frontier), making painstaking sight-
ings and depth soundings in an area
that was last surveyed more than 160
The latest San Bias chart is published
by the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office
(Please see p. 18)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
L< L L +., L q DG
R"-''BLICA D COLOMBIA
COSTA NORT -
This chart of the northern coast of Colombia was made by Kapp during expeditions along the Spanish Main.
(Continued from p. 17)
and is of the northern part from Nom-
bre de Dios to Brava Point. Where this
northern part ends and the southern
part begins the chart states that "the
coastline and off-lying reefs to the east-
ward of Mono River is enlarged from
a Spanish chart published in 1817."
Kapp's chart will be the most up-to-date.
Kapp's first sailing expedition was
The captain explains the secrets of map
making. On the table is a chart of Port
the start of a series of three beginning
in 1961 stretching from the Virgin
Islands to Car6pano on the Venezuelan
coast near Trinidad and then on to
Bocas del Toro at the northwestern end
of Panama and back to the Virgin
Islands-a total of 3,500 miles.
"We were in search of abandoned
forts and lost settlements and endeav-
ored to uncover an' forgotten tidbits
of Hispanic history. We were amazed
to find a number of inaccuracies on
the modern charts. In the San Blas
Archipelago alone we uncovered two
ancient Spanish fortifications, unknown
to the National Archives of Panama,"
In 1962, with a crew of seven, the
Fairwinds sailed out from the Virgin
Islands and headed for the tiny island
of Orchila which, unknown to the
adventuresome group, was used by the
Venezuelan government as a political
prison. Their chart, however, showed
it to be barren and abandoned.
An incident that would make a Holly-
wood writer envious occurred while
tacking up to the island to find an
"A large grev ship about 120 feet
long without a flag or any identification
bore down on us. She was really pour-
ing smoke (moving fast). We got out
of there but the ship chased us for
about 6 hours. Finally we lost them in
a squall, but not before the crew opened
up on us with automatic weapons." (The
Fairwinds was not hit.)
Not associating the ship with the
island, the Fairwinds sailed back to
Orchila where all hands were imme-
diately arrested on suspicion of being
part of a political escape plot.
Luckily, the island commander, a
Venezuelan naval officer, had attended
Columbia University in New York City
and greeted his unwanted and surprised
American visitors like cousins. Even so,
they were held captive for a day until
other government officials determined
they were not attempting to release anv
cf the prisoners.
On that same cruise, in a squall off
the Darien coast, the Fairwinds was
struck by lightning. It stunned the crew-
member at the helm, started a fire in
the engineroom, knocked out the entire
electrical system, and burned the mast.
Repairs made and the injured treated,
the journey w'as resumed.
"The purpose of investigating the
antiquated fortifications along the coast
was to make a comprehensive study of
their construction, design, choice of
location, and specific materials used.
This information will prepare us for
locating the ruins in the Darien which
have been abandoned to the jungles for
hundreds of )years," Kapp said.
One of the tasks set by the expedition
was to locate the site of the first capital
of Terra Firma (on old charts the area
that comprises parts of Panama and
Colombia), Santa Maria la Antigua, in
the western part of Colombia near the
Panama border. They located an area
12 miles in the jungle which once was
believed to be the site, but ruled it out
on the basis of logic and a historical
description of 1516 which indicated it
should be close to an anchorage.
"We proceeded to investigate every
possible harbor along the Gulf of Uraba
and were able to narrow the possibil-
ities down to four locations. In one of
the most logical bays, we found an
unknown battery and man-made sub-
merged seawall," Kapp said.
Time for this portion of their journey
ran out and they were unable to con-
tinue their investigations. Kapp says.
however, he may return and possibly
make excavations if more evidence is
found to indicate that the site was the
location of Santa Maria.
Gulf of Uraba
During the search for Santa Maria,
Kapp was able to chart the Gulf of
Uraba. This has been published by the
Republic of Colombia.
During his travels along the coasts
of Panama and Colombia, Kapp devel-
oped a scholarly interest in the Cuna
Indian culture. He became so inter-
ested he moved his base of operations
from the Virgin Islands to Cristobal.
on the Atlantic side of the Panama
Canal, and to Cartagena, Colombia.
A sometimes freelance writer, Kapp
is stud\ ing Cuna medicine dolls and
"mola" designs as thev apply to the
Indian medicine. He plans eventuallN
to write a book on the results of his
The mola consists of la ers of various
colored cloth sewn together and cut
through to bring out a particular color
which forms a design. Cuna Indian
women make blouses out of them. Each
blouse consists of two brightly colored
molas plus short sleeves and a yoke.
The Cuna women also wear large
gold nose rings, and beaded legbands.
Medicine dolls, made of balsam and
other harder woods, are used by the
medicine men to remove the evil spirit
from within a sick person. The doll
rescues the abducted spirit and the
patient is restored to health.
Kapp has published "The Printed
M.aps of Jamaica Up to 1825," and is
working on two other books, maps of
Panama, and maps of Colombia.
While in Jamaica. Kapp met and
married a petite, pretty English girl.
Valerie. She properly fits in with the
nautical life, having been born on the
seafaring Isle of Wight off the southern
coast of England. Eric, his 14-year-old
son of a previous marriage, some-
times joins the expeditions when his
school vacations allow.
Kapp is now preparing for his great-
est undertaking-to locate and explore
the fabled city of Eldorado. He is pre-
sently working on financing the trip.
According to legend, Eldorado was
fabulously wealthy and the most cul-
tured city of northern South America.
What drives Kapp and that exclusive
fraternity of men and women who have
left the grass cutting, the carpools,
church outings, and mortgage pay-
ments? Independence? Freedom? A
drive to do the unusual-something that
has not been done before? Or merely
escape? It is possible all of these things
are part of it. For example. Kapp
applied to the National Science Foun-
dation for a grant to help finance an
expedition to Roatan, an island off the
the northern coast of Honduras. "The
request was turned down. but I went
ahead and did it an\ wa\. I get carried
away sometimes." he said.
Kapp has difficulty in explaining his
way of life and the satisfaction he gets
"1 really can't say in one paragraph
what it's all about. As much as I've
explained it to mi father, he still doesn't
understand what I'm doing. 1 wanted
to do something scientific and I enjoy
traveling and the romance of the old
days-the swashbuckling clays of the
pirates, not the blood and guts of it,
but the times, the treasures and the
people." Kapp explains enthusiastically.
"1 have pride in seeing my charts
published and being accepted by the
scientific community. The Explorers
Club says that exploration should be
well planned, sophisticated, and some-
thing that hasn't been accomplished
before. The difference between adven-
ture and exploration is scientific ad-
vancement and that's what we attempt
in each of the expeditions."
Kapp's effort cannot be measured by
the same standard as those of Perry
or Lindberg. but he and the rest of
the world's wanderers are from the
Henry David Thoreau explained it
succinctly when he wrote:
"If a man does not keep pace with
perhaps it is because he hears
a different drummer.
Let him step to the music tchich
However measured or far away."
Kapp takes time out
from his work in charting
the San Bias Islands to make
friends with two Cuna Indian girls.
The children are wearing
the typical "mola" blouses and
one girl a nose ring,
traditional among the Cuna women.
TnE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
THE OLD ADAGE that money doesn't
grow on trees doesn't hold true for
liI Panama. It does, and probably in vour
own back yard.
S/ ,f Two enterprising brothers saw the
(i green shimmering in the trees years
// f \ ago and now slowly but surely are
S cashing in on a relatively untapped
Panamanian resource-dried plants that
Y can be used for table arrangements.
The pair, Davis and Sydney Steven-
son, both U.S. citizens born and reared
in Panama, operate the Tropical Plant
Products Co. on a 50-acre farm in the
Pedregal area between Panama City
and Tocumen Airport.
The products literally grow on trees
and vines. They are the large curly
cecropia leaves, acacia pods, ferns,
hops, sea oats, sea grape leaves, wood
roses, palm sprays, ginger lillies, the
handsome heliconias which grow wild
along the roads, and dozens of miscel-
laneous flora eagerly sought by florists
in temperate climates where tropical
plants are rare.
To date, neither brother has taken
a salary nor any profits from the farm
operation. All earnings are returned to
the company in the form of land pur-
chases, salaries, seedlings, machinery,
and raw materials.
But they see a lucrative future not
only for themselves, but for the Pan-
amanian economy as well. All the raw
materials including seedlings, plastic
bags, paper collars for the bags (these
are printed with the name of the plant
and are stapled over the bag opening),
cardboard boxes for shipping, and
many other small items, are bought
in Panama. Even farm machinery not
manufactured in the Republic is pur-
chased through local companies.
The future was not always as bright
as it now appears, however. When the
operation was first starting in 1960 it
came close to failing. Less determined
men might have given up. Following
the first harvest, a Florida distributor
ordered $8,000 in dried plants. But
A collection of dried Panama
plant life transformed into an attractive
table arrangement is held
by Mrs. Gladys Burdick of the
Curundu Flower Shop.
With the help of 10 men and women
who harvest, dry, fumigate, and pack-
age the marketable foliage, the Ste-
venson brothers are working toward a
half-million-dollar a year industry. It
may be the largest export company of
dried tropical plants in Central and
Already the "product of Panama"
label printed on the packages can be
seen in nearly every State of the con-
tinental United States.
So far this year they have shipped
to the United States approximately
250,000 wood roses and about 200,000
other plants. Everything is sent air-
freight from Tocumen Airport to the
nationwide distributor, Horticultural
Sales in Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
Tropical Plant Products has grown
from 10 to 50 acres since the farm
started 10 years ago. Although it was a
struggle for them in the early \years,
the Stevensons now feel there is a vast
market for tropical dried plants, not
only in the United States, but Europe,
England, and Japan. They plan to in-
crease the size of the farm to 200 acres.
which will provide jobs for 50 persons.
before the shipment was paid for the
wholesaler went bankrupt and the ac-
count was never settled. Except for
the farm itself, and the energies and
business sense of the Stevenson broth-
ers, the company was just about out
Slowly they brought it out of the
doldrums. Stockholders who invested
in the original venture are being repaid
their original investment, plus interest.
Davis, \\ho takes care of the adminis-
trative side of the company, said the
obligation to the stockholders will be
totally repaid in another 2 or 3 years.
while e Panama's weather provides an
ideal growing season, it also creates
something of a problem. Harvest time
on the Stevenson tarm is at the begin-
ning of the dry season. But if the rain\
season ends late, as it did this year, un-
seasonal storms damage the plants. Dr\
season rains in lanuarN destroyed 10
to 50 thousand wood roses. lBut every-
thing considered, nature is generous to
persons who till Istllnian soil.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture
requires that before being lhiipped to
the United States. all plats must bt
(Please see p. 22)
With his homemade, plywood collection box
strapped to his back,
Jer6nimo Garcia snips seed pods from
the vine with his right hand and flings them accurately
over his shoulder into the box.
A closeup view of the seed
pod shows why it is called a wood rose.
It is actually the seed pod of the
Ipomoea Triberosa vine which produces a bright yellow
flower during the latter part
of rainy season.
Just prior to fumigation
the plants are sorted and packaged.
Mrs. Maria de los Santos Molina,
who lives nearby,
earns extra money during
Approximately 100 dozen wood roses are in
this wire box about to be placed in a gas-heated drying room
by Ricardo Torres. Although the
plants are almost dry when picked, further drying is necessary
and assures better coloration.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
T6, WooA Rovw 1. A~ca4 A fiav-t"
Surrounded by the lushness of Panama,
David Stevenson, left, and
his brother Sydney, inspect a new hatch of wood roses
before the plants are packaged and
fumigated. Their efforts may eventually turn into
a $500,000 a year industry.
Packaged in plastic
the finished product is
ready to be flown
for distribution. So far
450,000 dried plants
have been shipped out
(Continued from p. 20)
fumigated to destroy unwanted and
possibly dangerous insects. Fumigation
is one of a series of processes carried
out between the time a plant is picked
and the time it is shipped to the airport.
In the case of the popular wood roses,
a team of harvesters moves through the
rows of vines carefully selecting and
cutting the flowers. They are then put
into shallow boxes with wire bottoms
and placed in a gas-heated drying room.
Although the plants would dry natu-
rally, the artificial method does a faster
job and results in better color.
The plants spend 48 hours in the
chamber and then are moved to the sort-
ing table where each plant is inspected
for color, size, and general quality. The
best of the plants are then hand bagged
(a dozen to each perforated plastic bag),
stapled closed and moved to the fumi-
gating room where menthol bromide
gas kills the insects. After this necessary
procedure, the plants are placed in card-
board cartons for trucking to the airport.
Braniff International and Pan Amer-
ican World Airways fly the packages to
Florida. An average shipment consists
of 50 cases which contain 4,000 dozen
Besides the pleasant climate of Pan-
ama, there are other advantages for
businesses in the Republic. Davis points
out that the Isthmus has excellent ac-
cessibility to world markets; the invest-
ment climate is good because it is a
dollar economy, and the business com-
munity is a progressive one. Also, there
are certain guarantees for foreign busi-
nessmen; ability to move dollars in and
out of the country without restrictions,
and a liberal dividend tax.
On The Ground
The Stevenson farm does not produce
all the items that Tropical Plant Prod-
ucts exports to the States. Some of the
dried plants such as the white cecropia
leaves are provided by suppliers who
simply pick the leaves off the ground
and take them to the farm. Other flora
supplied in the same manner include
sea oats, sea grape leaves, heliconia.
and royal palm sprays.
Panama, like other tropical countries,
has a wealth of items that can be dried
and made into attractive arrangements
for the home or office. Anybody can
do it. All it takes is the right plant, a
little imagination, and a vase.-L.R.G.
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION
Malcolm E. Smith
Time and Leave Clerk
Francis V. Lord
Elton H. Sealey
Marine Traffic Clerk
Herbert G. Forbes
Leighton F. Franklin
Arthur C. Willocks
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
S. M. Scantlebury
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher
Albert V- Mikinn:.n
Albert A. %mith
Time Ind Liji- ClIrk
U. W V % dlat -
Time and Leave Clil, Tpiui,
SUPPLY AND COMILiNITY SERVICE
Zilla M. o.:.rthy .-
Marker and Sorter
Allan A. Faulkner
Leader Laborer (Cleaner)
William A. Woodcock
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Julian S. Hearne
General Engineer (Dredging)
Ernest T. Wallace
Asphalt or Cement Worker
William A. Howard
Ernest A. Welch
Medical Aid (Sterile Supplies)
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT
William M. Whitman
Secretary, Panama Canal Company and
Assistant to the Governor
Cleveland E. Stevens
Court Clerk (Typing)
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION
Fred E. Wells
Supervisory Transportation Officer
Robert G. Hammetter
General Foreman-Printing Plant
Edna E. Newton
Phyra 1. Decoster
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Wilfred W. Jones
Carl M. Pajak
Donald J. Bowen
Robert A. Stevens
Supervisory Position Classification Specialist
Ira B. Knight
Lead Foreman (Operations-Lock Wall)
the is oftota Feder
Charles W. Rager
Lock Operator (Pipefitter)
Servio T. Rueda
Helper Lock Operator
Alfred E. Thompson
Air Compressor Plant Operator
John W. Urey
Lead Foreman Pipefitter
William W. Anderson
Alson T. Boyce
Joseph N. Gill
Charles A. Barnes
Elwin S. Maitland
Line Handler (Deckhand)
E. S. Harrison
Motor Launch Operator
Sixto De la Cruz
Earle H. Holder
Mate Trainee (Towboats)
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Eric B. Phillips
Leader Line Handler (Deckhand, Boatswain)
Luis De Le6n
George L. Curtis
Helper Lock Operator
Walter F. Jarvis
Lead Foreman, Lock Operations
George E. Phillips
Fiberglass Worker (Boats)
Grover R. Barnes
Leader Lock Operator-Iron Worker, Welder
Alfred E. Ferdinand
Ashton E. Crichlow
Jos6 M. Castro
Chabel H. Moses
Jos6 del C. Perez
Henry I. Bennett
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher
Arnoldo J. Sinclair C.
Edward R. McDonald
Helper Lock Operator
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Adolphus L. Osborne
Leader (Dock Stevedoring)
Automotive Equipment Serviceman
Cargo Operations Clerk
Joseph E. Frederick
Basil E. Curtis
Eric E. Glasgow
Vivian Blandiord B.
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher
Nicolas I. Caput
Leonard D. Saunders
Willard O. Robinson
Arthur J. Edwards
Materials Handling Equipment Repairman
Joscelyn H. Evering
Lee B. Hunnicutt
Supervisory Cargo Checker
Liquid Fuels Wharfman
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Blocker and Bracer
Clarence A. Taylor
Parts and Equipment Cleaner
McDonald A. Evans
William R. Graham
Railroad Operations Officer
Wilson H. Waldron
Lead Foreman Automotive Mechanic
Carlos Segreda C.
Grounds Equipment Repairman
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Elhel I li hr.],n
C .:....telr ni,:mar.
Abel rd.., heluz
Garbai e C.llo: t.:.r
Newton E. Skeet
General Foreman (Grounds)
Leader Laborer (Cleaner)
William K. Mapp
Booker T. Alleyne
Laborer (Pest Control)
Harlington G. Davidson
Laborer (Heavy-Cold Storage)
Marker and Sorter
Luisa 0. de Sanchez
Marker and Sorter
Remi O. Grimaux
Cleveland G. Meikle
Lillian G. Holder
Sales Store Checker
James N. Miller
Commissary Store Department Manager
Irene V. McClean
Sales Store Checker
Snack Bar Operator
Eric L. Wilson
Manuel Morales P.
Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator
Jos6 G. Santana
Field Tractor Operator
Gerald S. Oakley
Randolph V. Perkins
Sales Store Clerk
(Please see p. 30)
THE PAI.AMA CANAL REVIEW
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
Nati y 1970 1969 1961-65
No. of Tons of No. of Tons of Avg. No. Avg. tons
transit cargo transit cargo transits of cargo
Belgian __-__ 98 351,821 87 111,277 34 129,660
British __-__-_ 1,195 10,125,298 1,074 8,730,616 962 6,205,633
Chilean ______ 88 577,204 80 557,341 90 635,775
Chinese (Nat'l.)_ 106 812,457 93 649,100 58 416,564
Colombian __-- 160 445,302 135 410,005 191 300,332
Cuban ..--- 49 453,665 32 317,487 2 5,369
Cypriot -____-_ 49 431,090 26 228,380
Danish _____- 325 1,648,553 279 1,613,433 225 1,094,336
Ecuadorean --- 52 83,120 44 53,727 32 37,602
Finnish --__. __ 49 322,928 32 191,640 17 71,349
French --- 178 660,097 183 789,779 103 551,340
Cernnar 813 3,548,878 864 3,286,373 837 2,516,154
Crttk .. 424 5,398,801 391 4,401,580 470 4,571,535
Honduran 123 75,154 153 96,131 155 121,136
Israeli- 68 349,243 72 483,444 49 191,206
Italian .---_ 212 1,106,371 197 1,270,506 141 828,450
Japanese ----- 846 7,774,494 795 6,750,180 625 3,644,188
Lbtrjr,a 1,174 19,070,291 1,190 18,238,702 692 6,781,206
M ..aI. 56 383,228 79 331,340 16 50,956
Netherlands 367 2,209,269 343 1,786,190 457 2,075,590
Norwegian-- 987 12,105,706 999 10,441,949 1,065 7,961,315
Panamanian _.- 586 3,171,785 462 1,982,080 336 1,453,025
Peruvian _-..- 146 746,061 130 599,521 86 409.523
Philippine --. 87 555,194 69 359,124 51 220,593
South Korean 59 638,036 27 195,188 7 36,470
Soviet 91 646,559 70 502,118 16 122,837
Spanish -___ 53 178,562 27 175,231 11 45.769
Swedish 352 2,467,103 371 2,484,246 275 1,608,182
United SIlle 1,132 5,878,823 1,125 5,605,069 1,273 7,597.402
Yugoslavian 30 486,204 24 346,010 10 78,745
All Other _- 196 1,524,953 219 1,066,514 130 455,307
Total _. 10,151 84,226,250 9,672 74,054,281 8,416 50,217,549
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fisc
March __ __-..-
June .- ---------.
fiscal year _
I Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN I
The following tale shows the number ot transits of large, come
segregated into 8 main trade routes:
United States Intercoastal
East coast United States and South Amrrtri
East coast United States and Central America ----__.
East coast United States and Far East
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia ..
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada -----------
Europe and South America .. .--____
Europe and Australasia ---- ---...
All other routes -----------________. _______---
Total traffic __ -_ __
o U\V, sH 111 t lc pUas, JpiUot are
C AND TOLLS assigned to ships according to their
al years) qualifications (as to the size of ship
oss tolls1 (Thousands of dollars) they are permitted to take through the
s tAverage Canal), their last assignment, whether
1970 1969 Tolls or not they had been assigned harbor
1961-65 duty, their leave schedule, their home
7,787 7,089 4,929 base (Cristobal or Balboa), and other
8,136 7,362 4,920 considerations. What it all amounts to
7,870 7,473 4,697 is a mountain of paperwork.
7,771 7.471 4,838 The Central Pilot Control Board Unit
7,401 7.279 4,748
8,059 7,571 4,955 is comprised of seven men headed by
7,503 6,715 4,635 Capt. Christian J. Gundersen, assistant
7,479 25,774 4,506 port captain at Balboa. The unit keeps
8,350 27,608 5,325 a 24-hour pilot availability schedule for
8,109 5,232 each Canal pilot, his pay and leave rec-
7,466 5,013 ords, and daily assignment. It began
287,423 58,865 as an experiment last June and was put
28 2 into full operation in January.
ised. For the past 55 years, these tasks
RADE ROUTES were handled by assistant port cap-
rcial vessels (300 net tons or over) tains, timekeepers, and marine traffic
controllers at the two Canal ports. There
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year were actually two pilot units, one on
Avg. No. the Atlantic side and the other in
1970 1969 Transits Balboa on the Pacific side. Each was
280 270 330 responsible for assigning pilots for their
982 1.026 1.771 respective area.
447 492 372
2,489 2,234 1,655
312 298 241
769 738 719
959 969 908
353 327 286
3,560 3,318 2,135
10151 9.672 8417
Very often, under this two-unit sys-
tem, when there was a large number of
ships moving in one direction, one set
of pilots was required to ,work overtime
while the other group might have been
working less than normal.
Pilot Record Unit
Of Marine Bureau
KEEPING TRACK of the Panama
Canal's 185 pilots is a task assigned to
the newest addition to the Marine
Bureau-the Central Pilot Control Board
The unit was organized to stream-
line operations which were becoming
increasingly complicated by paperwork
and round-the-clock activities requiring
a greater number of pilots.
For almost as long as the Canal has
been in operation, pay and leave rec-
ords, availability schedules, pilot qual-
ifications, and other pieces of informa-
tion all were being kept by scattered
personnel in Cristobal and Balboa.
There was no central location or
one man responsible for keeping work
records and assignment schedules.
N i h 1
This situation resulted in a study of
the pilot-control system.
The Marine Traffic Control (MTC)
which was centralized in Balboa 5 ears
ago, provided the pattern. Up to that
time it too was being handled like the
pilot assignments-separately at Balboa
and at Cristobal. Streamlining was
needed to cope with the increasing
The Executive Planning Staff saw the
success of the centralized MTC and
recommended that pilot assignments
and record keeping should also be
centralized. Captain Gundersen was
given the task of developing a workable
He devised several methods, and after
a series of experiments, one was finally
put into operation. It called for a large
magnetic color coded tab board show-
ing the name of each pilot, the size of
vessel he was qualified to take through
the Canal, his home base, and his
availability on a given day.
The information can easily be up-
dated by simply changing the magnetic
tabs. Different color tabs denote the
home base and pilot qualifications.
An alphabetical directory board
shows the name of each pilot, his tele-
phone number, home base, and qualifi-
cations. This board and the tab board
are in clear view of clerks as they de-
velop daily rotation papers that are sent
to the MTC, which phones pilots and
assigns them to the ships.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
Commodity 1970 1969 5-Yr. Avg.
Ores, various -_____________________ 4,045,819 3,169,177 762,731
Boards and planks-----------------____ 2,429,332 2,663,054 N.A.
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils_---_----_ -----------__ 2,377,905 2,131,373 N.A.
Sugar__------------------------------- 1,884,980 1,999,273 1,702,895
Petroleum and products ----- -------------1,611,370 573,961 1,434,746
Fishmeal----------- 1,089,001 1,412,494 N.A.
Metals, various -_-_____- ___-...__-________ 1,062,651 985,060 870,499
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)________ _____ 9S5,497 1,006,916 659,362
Bananas ---- --_ -- ------------------ 876,683 849,757 859,357
Pulpwood _____.. ----- .- 867,325 909,899 376,192
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous___ 862,202 802,108 N.A.
Petroleum coke ------------------------- 755,105 .333,081 N.A.
Plywood and veneers ---- 672,531 669,285 N.A.
Salt -. __ 485,102 247,803 N.A.
Canned food products .---__. __-._______. 467,027 459,361 739,746
All others ____-_________.. _____________ 9,294,318 8,535,000 15,289,130
Total _- -_________________.__.... 29,766,848 26,747,602 22,694,658
Atlantic to Pacific
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
Commodity 1970 1969 5-Yr. Avg.
Coal and coke
Petroleum and products ---_------_______-_.
Phosphates ___- ___________
M etal, scrap -. _ __ __ _ _ __
Soybeans ______-_____--___ -....__.-___..
Ores, various --- -..- ---- .. .
Sorghum __- ____ ____ _____
Sugar___ _____.. .- _____________________
Metal, iron ___
Chemicals, unclassified ---.------
Rice __ -. .
Paper and paper products ---_______
Fertilizers, unclassified -
Autos, trucks, and accessories________________
All others --_______________________ _____
_ 54,459,402 47,306,679 27,522,890
Checks pilot board
All pilot records-leave, pay, and any
change in qualifications-are now kept
by the Central Pilot Control Board Unit,
which maintains a continuous and up-
to-date record of all pilots' duty avail-
ability.. The unit prepares, maintains,
and administers all pilot schedules and
records including annual and intermit-
tent leave, special duty, regular non-
work-day lists, and schedules of regular
habor watches. (Please see p. 26)
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
1970 1969 Transits
to to ITotal Total Total
Total Commercial -_
U.S. Government vessels: 2
10,151 39,672 8,416
367 433 412
10,518 10,105 8,828
Oceangoing_________ 419 i 434 853 1,046 185
Small ------------------------- 30 35 65 92 121
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment -__ ._-____- 5,856 I 5,580 11,436 1311,243 9,134
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 25)
The unit is responsible for all func-
tions pertaining to pilots' timekeeping.
This centralization of time records
reduces the possibility of errors in deter-
mining night differential, and other
extra pay factors.
Captain Gundersen is also the admin-
istration's liaison with the elected offi-
cials of the Panama Canal Pilot Asso-
ciation with regard to agreements on
the interpretation and application of the
Pilots Work Rules.
Centralizing the pilot record and
assignment system "was a tremendous
improvement," said Rufus C. O'Neal,
chief marine traffic controller. "There
is better utilization of manpower, uni-
formity in administration of the pilot
force, and better equalization of pilot
Other benefits, said Captain Gunder-
sen, include removing clerical chores
from assistant port captains, keeping
pilot time records in a single office, and
keeping more accurate pilot rotation
He also noted that this is the first
time that anyone connected with pilot
assignments and pilot schedules has had
complete information readily available
for the status of any of the 185 pilots.
Working with Captain Gundersen
are: Kenneth Gibbs, supervisor; Ashbv
Smith, alternate supervisor; Claude
E. Burgess, timekeeper; and Hubert
Weeks, Ernesto Evering, Arthur Barter,
and Ricardo Roberts, watch standing
Container Ships Ordered
FOUR 41,000-ton container ships will
begin using the Panama Canal in 1972
in the United Kingdom to New Zealand
trade, according to an announcement
made recently by the chairman of the
New Zealand Conference.
The vessels, which will be the world's
largest refrigerated ships, have been
ordered from British yards for delivery
in 1972 and 1973. They will carry
approximately 1,420 containers, 1,160
insulated and 260 general cargo, at a
speed of 23 knots.
Two were ordered by Overseas Con-
tainers Ltd. of which the New Zealand
Shipping Company and the Shaw
Savill Lines are members, and two
by Blue Star Line and Port Line, mem-
bers of Associated Container Transpor-
The ships, plus their containers, will
cost approximately $132 million. They
will operate a 14-day service from Til-
bury and Southampton to Auckland and
Wellington and will charter 80 percent
of containerizable exports from Britain
and nearly 50 percent of New Zealand
export cargo to the United Kingdom.
THE SWEDISH flag Johnson Line, a
regular customer of the Panama Canal,
has added three new speedy container-
ships to its Europe to the United States
and north Pacific run. They are the Axel
Johnson, Annie Johnson, and Margaret
Johnson. Each vessel cruises at 23 knots
with a full load of 610 containers and
200,000 cubic feet of palletized general
cargo. Each ship has two high efficiency
gantry cranes, seven holds with a million
cubic foot capacity, and a sophisticated
remote control system. The enginerooms
on the three vessels can operate
unmanned for 16 out of every 24 hours.
The new ships entered service last
year when the Axel Johnson made her
maiden voyage through the Canal to the
U.S. west coast and Vancouver. The
Annie Johnson arrived at the Canal a
few months later and broke the com-
pany's speed record between London
and the U.S. west coast in 14 days
and 19 hours. Margaret Johnson was
launched last fall and was to make her
initial trip through the Canal last month.
Panama Agencies is the local agent
for the Johnson Line.
Liners Being Sold
TWO WELL-KNOWN passenger ships
which have visited the Panama Canal
on various occasions under the flags of
their previous owners may be coming
here soon as cruise ships operated by
(Please see p. 30)
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 9 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1970
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial-----------_ 10,151 9,672
U.S. Government ---.__- 853 1,046
Free---__--- _________ 81 46
Total______________ 11,085 10,764
Commercial_____ $70,355,589 $64,342,447
U.S. Government_ 4,936,460 6,442,040
Total--_--- $75,292,049 $70,784,487
Commercial __- 84,226,250 74,054,281
U.S. Government__ 3,365,077 5,660,210
Free----------__ 173,949 74,871
Total _____.87,765,276 79,789,362
SIncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.
AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
"SUCH A VARIED collection of functions has seldom before
been assembled under one roof, and the building is probably
unique and not liable to be duplicated until some undertaking
as great in magnitude as the Canal is to be consummated."
That statement, somewhat formal as was the style of the
times, capped the description printed in THE CANAL RECORD
on December 30, 1914, of the new Administration Building
in Balboa Heights.
And although the "varied collection of functions" still re-
mains, the edifice that serves as headquarters for the Panama
Canal organization "was planned without any definite know-
ledge of what offices were to occupy it, how much space they
would require, or how they were to be correlated," THE CANAL
Under One Roof
During the construction days various offices and admin-
istrative units were spread throughout the area. As the Canal
neared completion it became obvious that a structure was
needed to concentrate the offices of the several departments
under one roof for the sake of efficiency and economy, and
for the convenience of the general public having business
with the Canal.
Actual work of excavating, filling, and leveling of the site
was begun in March 1913 by the Department of Construc-
tion and Engineering. The United States Steel Products Co.
was able to start erecting the steel skeleton on June 18, 1913.
The first employees occupied the "E" shaped building in
November and December 1914, while the noise and hubbub
of final construction was still going on around them. By June
1915, there were 424 employees, 39 of them women, working
in the Administration Building.
Architecturally, the building is 15th century Italian renais-
sance. Except for landscaping and the addition of parking
areas, the exterior of the Administration Building has changed
little since 1915. Changes, however, have come to the inte-
rior. Offices have been shuffled, reshuffled, extended, cut up,
rearranged, carpeted, curtained, and cooled.
Gone are the ladies' reading rooms, pool tables for men,
and a small room on the landing between the first and second
floors where candy and cigars were sold.
Cold Beer Served
Cone also is the cold beer which was available in the res-
taurant in the basement. A library once occupied the porch
at the front of the building. It was moved to the Civil Affairs
Building in 1949.
Many of the porches, which were necessary to protect the
offices from the direct rays of the sun and which also served
as corridors for public communication to and between the
various offices, were covered in 1942. The Graphic Branch,
originally in the attic, was moved to the basement in 1954.
Canal organization functions which have remained at their
original places include the Engineering and Construction
Bureau, the main vault in the basement, the telephone ex-
change, and the seismograph. The Balboa Heights Post Of-
fice, whose main purpose was to expedite official Canal mail,
has always been on the first floor just off the rotunda.
(Please turn to p. 28)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Looking west from Ancon Hill on March 14, 1914, one
could see the almost completed Administration Building.
In 1955 the American Society of Civil Engineers chose
the "E" shaped structure as one of the seven modern civil
engineering wonders of the United States.
Major changes to the interior were made about 12 years
ago. A number of improvements were undertaken at a cost
of more than S1 million. These included an air-conditioning
system, fluorescent lighting, suspended acoustical ceilings,
conversion of a suite of rooms adjacent to the Governor's
Office to be used as the Board Room, a new self-service
elevator was installed, and glass doors replaced wooden doors
at all outside exits.
Van Ingen Murals Restored
A bronze bust of former President Theodore Roosevelt was
unveiled in the rotunda during the Roosevelt Centennial cele-
brated on the Isthmus in November 1958. A bust of Ferdi-
nand DeLesseps had been placed in a niche of the rotunda
in 1955. The beautiful Van Ingen murals circling the upper
walls of the rotunda, which show the monumental construction
of the Panama Canal. were restored in 1960.
More recent innovations in the Administration Building
are new windows and doors, rehabilitation of restrooms, car-
peting and general refinement of offices.
Latest additions to the interior of the Administration Build-
ing are epoxy reproductions of the seal of the Canal Zone
Government and the seal of the Panama Canal Company
which embellish the two columns facing the east entrance.
Extends To W\ashington
Approximately 730 persons, including some 230 women.
are now employed in the Administration Building.
Headquarters for the organization which employs close to
16,000 persons, the building is the hub of an organization
extending to Washington, D.C. where the Office of the
Secretary for the Panama Canal Company is located.
The photographs on these pages show some of the day-to-
day activities that take place in the Panama Canal's Admin-
istration Building. -F.H.
Canal Zone Governor W. P. Leber, right, discusses
one of many administrative matters that arise
every day. At left is Lt. Governor R. S. Hartline
with Paul M. Runnestrand, executive secretary.
The Engineering and Construction Bureau is
responsible for all design, construction, inspection, and
maintenance of buildings. Col. Charles R. Clark,
Bureau director, right, uses a model of the Panama
Canal to explain how a ship transits the waterway.
Listening are Julieta Arosemena, stenographer, and
Richard Lopp. budget and projects coordinator.
With health directors from the past seemingly looking
on, Col. 11. 11. Ziperman, present director of the Health
Bureau, center, confers with two colleagues,
Col. Robert W. Green, director of Gorgas Hospital, right,
and A. B. Carr, assistant to the health director.
28 MAY 1970
ABOVE: The purse strings of the Canal
organization are held by Comptroller
Philip L. Steers, Jr., left, talking over a
budget matter with Arthur J. O'Leary,
deputy comptroller. BELOW: Telephone
operators Joan Chevalier, foreground, and
Mariela Vieto are at the switchboard in
the Communications Branch. Five operators
handle from 500 to 750 calls a day.
The Marine Bureau's
hility is to put ships th
Capt. Alvin L. Gallin, U
tor, left, talks over a pr
A. Dryja, assistal
rough the Canal.
SN, bureau direc-
oject with Walter
Maintenance of the teletype circuits and
microwave equipment is continuous. Wade
Huffman, Jr., leader central office repair-
man, checks the circuits. More than 1S5,000
calls a day go through the exchange.
Hugh A. Norris, Executive Planning Staff
senior economist, seated, discusses shipping
statistics with Iris Peralta, statistical clerk,
and Donald Schmidt, economist.
Programers in the Data Processing Division
discuss a systems configuration. From left
are: Richard Gayer, Norita Scott, and
The Balboa Heights Post Office is always
busy. Checking parcels are, from left:
Conrad Blades, Neville Fraim, James Beds-
worth (standing), and Edmund Johnson.
Legal counsel and litigation are integral
parts of the Canal organization. From left,
attorneys John L. Haines, Jr., Stephen A.
Berniard, Jr., and Earl R. McMillin discuss
a point of law as they prepare a brief.
The Graphic Branch provides a wide range
of services. Carlos MIndez, prepares art-
work for photographic reproduction.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 23)
Conslantia T. Lawson
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk
George C. Clark
Claude L. Goodridge
Laborer (Heavy-Cold Storage)
Samuel U. Johnson
Sales Store Clerk
Everard S. Levexier
Lead Foreman (Materials Handling)
Alfred C. Drakes
Wilbert H. Kellman
Manuel E. Hernindez
Sadie D. Belle
Office Machine Operator
Clifford W. Edwards
Marker and Sorter
Laundry Worker (Heavy)
Sales Store Checker
Alma V. Larger
Ruth D. Jaminson
Egbert E. Davis
Ignacio L6pez G.
Rafael J. Femenias
C. M. Dandrade
Sales Store Clerk
Inez C. Howell
Sales Store Clerk
Fabian O. Brown
Assistant Meat Cutter
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Felix G. L6pez
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Pedro A. Gord6n
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Rupert C. Fennell
Motor Launch Engineman
Jorge A. Shuffler
Leader (Deck Operations, Dredge)
Motor Launch Operator
Jos6 Z. Moreno
Gilbert C. Foster
Leader (Quarry Operations)
Hilton F. Hughes
Chief, Power Plant (Hydro)
Gerald J. Fox
Lead Foreman Machinist (Maintenance)
Harvey WV. Sauler
Lead Foreman (Hospital Maintenance)
Eric T. Smoll
Charles A. Sealey
Helper Sheetmetal Worker
Nicols Estrada R.
James H. Holder
Luciano Del Cid S.
Wilfred G. James
Jos6 Del Cid M.
Mildmay C. Lamotle
Clerk, Work Order
Victor E. Griffith
Austin G. Mapp
Rafael Molinar C.
Maintenanceman, Distribution Systems
Reginald A. Mason
Helper Cable Splicer
Carlos A. Valderrama
Oiler, Floating Plant
Miguel A. Garcia
Oiler, Floating Plant
Lead Foreman, Debris Control
Juan A. Ibarra
Oiler, Floating Plant
Mauricio C. Poveda
Leader-Deck Operations, Dredge
Isaac Bermndez T.
Motor Launch Operator-Small
Frederick M. Palmer
Waller R. Weeks
Ernest C. Taylor
Orlando P. Lashley
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Mike N. Bent
Motor Lau.ich Operator
Carlos F. Joseph
M.:.r,:i L-un:l. Operar,:.r-r
Frederti A. Ulat.on
C Trpirr r
M antenin : man
Robert F. Dunn
Alfred A. Reid
\Vater Tender (Floating Plant)
Helper Machinist (Maintenance)
Ferdinand M. Graham
James S. Daniel
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Hoaglan A. Maynard
John F. Rice
Samuel B. Prince
Richard J. Salvato
Stanford W. Campbell
Roberto A. Torres Q.
Laborer (Heavy-Pest Control)
Leslie A. Panther
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)
Clara Z. Saarinen
Supervisory Clinical Nurse
I. Robert Berger
Chief, Out Patient Service, Gorgas Hospital
Roy A. Watson
Filz G. Bowen
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery)
Thomas A. Barretl
Medical Aid (Ambulances)
(Continued from p. 26)
the Greek Chandris Lines. They are the
President Roosevelt of the American
President Lines, which recently com-
pleted a round-the-world cruise, and the
American Export Isbrandtsen Line's
Constitution, which has been laid up in
Jacksonville for more than a year.
A report in the MARINE DIGEST said
that Chandris will pay $8 million for
the Constitution and $1.8 million for
the President Roosevelt. The company
would use the Constitution on round-
the-world passenger service and the
President Roosevelt for cruises. Chan-
dris has been operating with many other
liners including the former U.S. flagship
SS American now sailing through the
Canal as the Australis; the Elinis, form-
erly the Matson Line Lurline, and the
Queen Frederica, formerly the Malolo.
This last ship is still going strong de-
spite the fact that she was built in
1928. Other U.S. passenger liners laid
up on the U.S. east coast at present
are the Atlantic, the United States,
the Argentina, the Brazil, and the
Stock Exchange Cruises
DOCTORS GO on cruises, the bridge
players join ranks and travel to the south
seas, and the idle rich go around the
world. Added to this list of special
travelers are cruises for stock investors.
The Prudential Grace Line's Santa
Magdalena, which transits the Canal on
a regular schedule to the west coast of
South America, has joined the "Wall
Street Navy" for the first time. She and
her luxury sister ship, the Santa Rosa,
sailed on Investors' Special Cruises with
her passengers enrolled in investment
seminars provided for them by Oppen-
heimer and Company, members of the
New York Exchange.
Apparently so successful are these
investors' cruises that Merrill Lynch,
Pierce, Fenner & Smith completed its 3d
Annual Investors' Cruise last month
aboard the West German-flag vessel,
the TS Hamburg. The 13-day "relax and
learn" tour sailed from Port Everglades
and visited St. Thomas, Martinique,
Trinidad, Granada, Venezuela, Curacao,
Jamaica, and Haiti.
30 MAY 1970
The H.M.S. "Renown" steams into Colon Bav. Aboard the cruiser is the Prince of Wales.
50 Years Ago
THE BRITISH cruiser Renown, carry-
ing the Prince of Wales (now the Duke
of Windsor) and his staff, arrived at
Cristobal in the morning of March 30,
1920, and proceeded through the Canal
to Balboa. According to the PANAMA
CANAL RECORD, the President of Pan-
ama, the Governor of the Canal Zone,
and other officials boarded the Renown
at Gatun Locks and made the pas-
sage as far as Pedro Miguel. The
ship was delayed about 3 hours in Gail-
lard Cut while the dredges cleared the
channel of a slide which had occurred
March 20. She arrived in Balboa at
8:30 p.m. having been 132 hours in
transit. The RECORD said the Renown
was the largest ship in length and dis-
placement to have transited the Canal
at that time. She was 795 feet long and
had a displacement of 33,379 tons.
The Prince of Wales was entertained
during the evening of his arrival at a
dinner and reception, followed by danc-
ing, given by the British Minister to
Panama at the Tivoli Hotel. The next
day he was the guest of honor at a ban-
quet and ball given by the President of
Panama at the Union Club. The Renown
was on its way to New Zealand and
Australia via San Diego and Honolulu.
The Panama Canal salvaged two
freighters in March 1920. The steam-
ship Olockson was towed in from sea
and was sunk in the outer harbor at
Balboa to extinguish a fire in her cargo
of gasoline. The steamship Marne sank
in Cristobal harbor, also with fire in
her cargo of gasoline. Both were re-
floated and repairs made in the Panama
25 Years Ago
PANAMA CANAL employees contin-
ued to carry heavy workloads at both
Cristobal and Balboa early in 1945 due
to the sharp increase in Canal traffic
which was up approximately 73 percent
above the previous fiscal year. The
limited docking facilities at Balboa,
used as a repair base for a large fleet
of tankers carrying war cargoes to the
Pacific, necessitated the berthing of ves-
sels three and four abreast at the piers
and doubling up at the moorings.
The system of convoys in effect up
to the end of hostilities in Europe taxed
personnel and equipment at Cristobal
to the limit in providing quick servic-
ing. Wartime precautions for safeguard-
ing the Canal and vessels in transit
continued throughout the year although
the war was coming to an end in Europe.
0 0 *
President Franklin D. Roosevelt died
in Hot Springs, Ga., April 12, 1945.
At the end of April, as allied troops
marched into Berlin, there were reports
of the deaths of Mussolini in Italy and
Hitler in German\y.
70 Years Ago
THE INCREASE in the size of ships
using the Canal was reflected in Pan-
ama Canal shipping statistics issued in
February 1960. With the exception of
ship traffic, all Canal records were
broken during the second quarter of
fiscal year 1960. The amount of cargo
carried through the Canal, the size of
the transiting ships, and the tolls paid
to the Panama Canal during that period
all reached the highest figures in Canal
history. This was attributed to the in-
crease in the size of ships during the
3-month period. Among the customers
were such superships as the San Juan
Merchant and the Sinclair Company's
The Japanese firm of Mitsubishi Shoji
Kaisha Ltd. made the apparent low bid
on a contract to furnish new towing
locomotives for the Panama Canal. The
bids were opened February 22, 1960.
They called for 6 test locomotives, 33
additional locomotives, and three loco-
motive cranes. The Japanese firm
entered a base bid of $3,829,900.
One Year Ago
THE LINER Fairsea was towed back
to Balboa last February following a
fire in the engineroom. The ship, en
route from Australia to England with
more than 900 passengers, was towed
to Balboa by the tug Culf Raider from
a position nearly 900 miles southwest
Monday, March 31, 1969, was set
aside as a national day of mourning to
mark the death of former President
Dwight D. Eisenhower who died March
28 in Washington, D.C. As a mark of
respect to his memory, Governor Leber
ordered that all flags in the Canal Zone
remain at half-staff for 30 days.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
-=1 -- --~