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\V. P. LEBEH, Governor-President
H. S. IIl-TI.INE, Lieutenant-Governor
IFHANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer
Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
\lORH(AN E. CoowviN,. Press Officer
Lo.Its R. GCiNcEIRH, TOMAs A. CUtPA
EUNICE RICHARD, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ,
JOSE T. TUNON, and Luis C. NOLI
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $t a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents eacb.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Birds of Panama _-----------
More species of birds are found in the Republic
of Panama than in all of the United States.
Chiriqui's Orange Concentrate Industry ______
Rovira, a once isolated village, is destined to
become the orange center of Panama.
Petroglyphs _--_---_-----_ _ --__ ---__--
Hieroglyphics by Carib warriors can be seen,
but not easily, throughout the Interior.
Shipping Notes ----------------
Fairs ____--- __-__-________-
The Dry Season brings on the fairs as thousands
head for La Chorrcra, David, and Los Santos.
The 0-5 Goes Down__-------------
Tragedy and heroics mark submarine collision
on Limon Bay. Five men are missing.
Culinary Capers -
Shipping Statistics __-_
Power Squadron's 20th Year ______________
The Canal Zone Pacific Power Squadron makes
seamen out of landlubbers.
Palo Seco Reaches Milestone -----_____ -_--
Rehabilitation program and new "miracle" drugs
highlight 62 years of medical history.
Anniversaries --------- --- -
History _________ _
3 BIRDS ABOUND in the jungles as t well as cities and
towns of Panama. This obvious observation caused us to
dedicate both the front and back covers to four of these
5 lovely icinged creatures. The birds, all macaws whichh
are members of the parrot family, are, from left on both
pages: Lefty, Pappy, Allegra, and Cindy. Except for
Pappy, tchy are owned by Miss Mary L. Clark, a super-
9 visory nurse at Gorgas Hospital. Pappy, a blue and gold
macaw which came from Colombia, is owned by Air Force
S. Sgt. and Mrs. Fred R. Doss. Lefty, a green-wcinged
12 mountain macawt whose eyes give the appearance of his
being a tavern regular (the red lines are actually small
fceatllrs), was Purchased at the public market on Ave-
nida Eloy Alfaro in Panama City. Allegra, a scarlet
macawr, will roll over on her back to have her belly
16 scratched. She cwas near death clhen Miss Clark bought
her from a Canal Zone parrot fancier last year. Cindy is
the rarest of the feathered foursome and was acquired
19 by Miss Clark through a friend in Brazil. A hyacinth ma-
can, Cindy is native to the jungles south of the Amazon
20 River. Miss Clark, iwho has been collecting large birds
22 for about 15 years, says theci are relatively easy to keep.
She feeds them such things as stunflotwer seed, peanuts,
raw vegetables and fruit, hard-boiled eggs, chicken
24 drumstick bones and cheese for protein. Parrots live
approximately 40 years, although there are claims that
they lice much longer. Macatws are confined to Central
anLd South America but once were found in the West
Indies. They are among the largest parrots and are
27 distinguished by a "naked" space around their eyes.
Cover photos by Arthur L. Pollack. Sketches on inside pages by Myrna Soriano.
A Bird Watcher's Paradise
By Fannie P. Hernandez
IN THE earliest dawn, before the sun
has emerged through the paling sky.
a sleek, black, vellow-eved, male grackle
nestled in a mango tree breaks the
silence with a serenade to the new\
morning. His tune is of long drawn
out notes, cheerful, throaty, subdued.
\et loud enough to awaken anyone in
the vicinity. The female, brown and
smaller, quietly chatters back from a
nearby palm frond.
The handsome fellow singing with
all his heart is also known as a clari-
nero-one of the abundant bird fauna
inhabiting the Isthmus of Panama. An
ornithologist's paradise, there are more
different birds found here than in all
of North America north of Mexico-
approximately 850 species.
Though the abundance of birds is
evident throughout the year, April and
early May are especially favorable for
bird watching. It is the beginning of
rain season, a time when not only the
native species but also the North Amer-
ican birds in migration may be observ-
ed South American species flying to
Central America also can he seen.
It is estimated that 6 billion birds,
adults and young, moving at night
from Canada and the United States.
migrate to southern United States.
Mexico, Central America and South
America each winter. A large num-
ber of these are seen in Panama.
Besides the striking grackle which
may be seen most anywhere except the
dense forest, are the birds of the tan-
ager family noted for their brilliance
of plunge. They are blue, \ello\\
green, and red. The crimson and black
species locally called "sangre de toro
is usually seen at the edge of the jungle
or along the roads in the Interior.
At this time of the \ear, the lovel\
musical notes of the Panama thrush
tanager ma\ be heard ringing out from
the jungle. One of Panama's most
beautiful birds, this tanager is dark slate
with a rose-red stripe on the sides of
the forehead broadening in front of
the ex es The male has a loud sweet
whistle of notes in different pitches
Related to the tanagers are the honie\ -
creepers, the family> of small song birds
which abound in the humid, heavily\
wooded areas of the Isthmus Bright
shades of blue and green predominate
in the males and \ ellow is prominent
in some species. One of the most bril-
liant is the red-legged blue honeycreep-
er. The male is deep sapphire blue with
a turquoise crown. Part of the under-
wing is yellow and flashes out brightly
when the bird is in flight. The female
is olive green with underparts of paler
and brighter green. The honeycreeper
rarely sings in full daylight, but in the
breeding season, the male sings a weak,
unmelodious song at dawn.
Common and comical to watch in
the cpen fields are the small blue-black
grassquits that leap vertically several
feet and alight again in the same spot.
uttering a few short notes during the
On a spotting tour. a hirder ma
also obser\ e on the Panama country\ side
barred ant shrikes, sparrows, Panama
robins, which resemble their northern
relatives, hummingbirds, woodpeckers,
saltators, wrens, the "pico-gordo." the
thick-billed euphonia, which has a
sweet canar\ -like sound, and flveatchers,
which probably outnumber them all.
Busy little seedeaters are very nu-
merous at the end of the dry season
and the manlgroe warbler is always to
he found in the swamps. Of special in-
terest to the bird watcher is the oropen-
dula which suspends his long hanging
nest from the branches of large trees
The male sings a long-drawn, far-carry-
ing liquid gurgle as he shows forward
into an inverted position. raising his
wings above his back.
Doves are abundant and very tame
in the fields, gardens, and along the
roads. A flock of ducks is not a rare
Along The Shore
Shore birds, practically all migrants.
are abundant. Sea birds also are numer-
ous and breed in immense numbers on
the islands in Panama Bay. Laughing
gulls. royal terns, brown pelicans and
frigate birds are usually seen along the
Another large family of birds is that
of the kingfisher ranging in size from a
small songbird to a erow. They are
found near the water and feed on small
fish which they catch by plunging into
the water. They nest in holes in trees
The motnots. related to the king-
(See p. 4)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Birding On The Isthmus
(Continued from p. 2)
fishers, are beautiful birds of green, blue
and russet with graduated tails bare
about an inch above the extremities,
forming racket-shaped tips. The bird
itself preens off the barbs. Motmots
are found in the deep forests or dense
thickets, often sitting in one place for
a long time.
A fairly common bird in woods and
undergrowth is the squirrel cuckoo,
somewhat like the widely distributed
long-tailed members of the family.
A slow, melancholy call, like a whistle
of variations is heard in the savannas.
It is the northern striped cuckoo, called
"tres pesos" by the Panamanians. These
birds call to each other by the hour
bringing music to the open fields.
\\here there are cattle, the tick bird
or "garrapatero" is surely to be found
as he feeds on insects on cattle.
A frog-like croak which ma\ be heard
more than half a mile across the open
comes from one of the most striking
and distinctive of all tropical birds-
the toucan, a large jungle bird. It has
an enormous, slightly curved \ellowish
green bill, nearly as long as its body
and very thick. The brightly colored
toucan roosts in holes in trees and feeds
A favorite of bird watchers and non-
birders too, is the family of parrots rep-
resented by several species on the Isth-
mus including parrakects and macaws.
Their plumage is highly colored and
variegated, with green being the pre-
dominant color. Parrots are noisy birds
with harsh voices and usually nest in
hollow trees, the large species inhabit-
ing the deep forest. They remain quiet
during the day but can be heard
squawking earlv in the morning and
The macaw, the large, magnificent,
blue and yellow or scarlet bird, is the
showiest member of the parrot family.
It has a powerful hooked beak which
it uses to crack palm nuts and is ex-
tremelv noisy. Fairl\ common, macaws
are usually seen in pairs and frequent
the tops of trees.
One of the most common and widely
distributed birds of the Isthmus is the
parrakeet. Watchers may observe the
orange-chinned parrakeet at sunset go-
ing from tree to tree keeping up a shrill
chattering as it feeds. The Veragna
parrakeet is apple green passing to
bluish green on top of his head with
greenish blue wings, ello\\ish below.
The bill is horn color. The smaller "pe-
rico" is bright yellowish green with a
patch of bright orange on his chin and
upper throat. These beautiful little crea-
tures are often caught and sold as cage
Paamrna, host to many species common
to both North and South America be-
sides its own particular birds, offers a
veritable field da\ to bird watchers.
Jtlmmian Citru3 Capital
looma On volcano Slopes
By Jose T. Tufi6n
A COMBINATION of Panamanian
technical skill, and United States busi-
ness foresight and dollars has turned
a once isolated village, tucked away
in the highlands of western Panama,
into the citrus capital of the Isthmus
in less than a decade.
Rovira, just 15 miles from David.
the thriving capital of Chiriqui Pro-
\ince. is no longer a remote spot on
the map. It is the center of a 10,000-acre
grove planted with 665,000 trees about
to yield their first golden harvest. These
are not ordinary orange trees. The
Panama-United States combination that
has marked the Citricos de Chiriqui
venture in Rovira has been carried right
into them-literall\. The native Pan-
amanian orange trees were used as the
scions for the grafting of stocks from
the best of the United States' orange
The skill has been provided b1 a
team of Panamanian agricultural spe-
...... ,.. .'
., ". ..'". , ... ". -*
PICKER-About 300 are employed during
cialists Thl business foresight ndl
dollars have coine front National Bulk
Carriers. Inc., a corporation owned 1\
United States interests which conceived
the orange juiee industry in the Chiriqui
area. The investment is no\\ approach-
ing several million dollars.
Fenl ears agio, RHvilsa c.uild be reach-
ed onl hi all oxcait trail \\inding in
and out of cane fields, rock-stre\n fields.
and sections of thick jungle. Today .
visitorss drive comtiortablv to the town
over a modern asphalt highway. Ro-
\ira itself is dwarfed by the installations
of Citricos de Chiriqui for producing
orange concentrate of highest quality
for export. And there is no other spot in
the Republic whose location is marked
b\ 665,000 orange trees.
IJnc 26. I968. \\as a memorable da\
for Citricos de Chiriqui. Several re-
liicerated containers filled with 50-gal-
(Src I). 6f
4- .- .i~`;k
~I~mb~ir 'L-4i *. -.
A. f-tt y- ^ ;.
-" .".. ; > lnT'..,, "" ,- < *'. i .
.. m -
NEW INDUSTRY-Orange trees are spread as far as the eye can see on the slopes of the Baru Volcano in the Rovira area of Chiriqui
Province, where Citricos de Chiriqui, S.A., is established.
'2.r "'~ ,. . .-., .. ,..,. .. ... .. ..
NE INDSTY-Oag re r peda a ste y a e ntesoe fteBr Vlaoi h oiaae fCiin
Prne hr irio eC iiuS.. setbihd
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 5)
Ion barrels cf \\ hat to Rovira was liquid
gold, were loaded aboard a ship berthed
in Cristobal-destination, Canada. The
barrels contained the first orange con-
centrate produced in Rovira and the
loading operation crowned 10 years of
The Citricos de Chiriqui complex is
on the slopes of the Baru Volcano at
an altitude of 3,000 feet. Dominating
the scenery is a huge processing plant.
installed at a cost of more than $1 mil-
lion. Clustered around it are adminis-
trative offices, large maintenance shops,
and a plant for producing "Citropulpa,"
(a byproduct in growing demand as
cattle feed), a company restaurant and
even a lime quarry. The complex itself
is the hul) of the orchard, spread as
far as the eve can see and beyond.
some sections as high as 4,000 feet
.above sea level.
Until March of this year, the man
who supervised the operations at Ro-
vira as Chiriqui manager for Citricos
was Juan B. Ferrer, a Panamanian
agronomist. He has just been promoted
to staff agricultural consultant with
residence in Panama City for the vari-
ous fanning projects operated by Natio-
nal Bulk Carriers, Inc. Ferrer's sue-
cessor is Sebastiin Gilberto Rios, Jr.,
formerly chief engineer in charge of
processing and construction.
Ferrer, still in his thirties, holds
i master's degree in phvtopatholog\
(plant diseases) from the University of
Florida. With Citricos since the com-
pany came into being in 1960, le was
responsible for all the field work that
was required prior to actual planting
His work ranged from soil analysis and
preparation to the selection of the type
of orange best suited for cultivation in
the region and a study of prevailing
"The native tree was chosen as the
hbldwood source," Ferrer savs, "because
tests showed it has a good vield and is
resistant to insects. \Ve decided to graft
it to rootstocks of Florida's known vari-
eties. The results have been amazing.
The first real crop from the initial plant-
ing in 1961 is due next September. The
trees are bearing and we estimate that
HEART OF PLANT-The evaporators shown here produce the orange concentrate. About
12,750 pounds of juice are reduced to 2,750 pounds of concentrate every hour. Fidel Serrano,
on ladder, is one of scores of Panamanians trained by Citricos de Chiriqui.
each will yield from 1,000 to 1,500
oranges a year." His voice rings with
pride when he talks of what is to come.
Rios, a civil engineer, is a graduate
of the University of Panama. He has
been responsible for keeping the proces-
sing plant running and for the various
building projects within the company
property, including some 40 miles of
asphalt roads in and around the huge
His assistant is another y.oilng Pan-
amanian agricultural engineer. Eugenio
Lee, who graduated from the Techno-
logical Institute in Monterrev. Mexico,
and also holds a master's degree in soils
from the Universit\ of California. lie
is now assistant Chiriqui manager in
charge of the company's Agricultural
Another member of the team of Pan-
~O f4~7> p
I ex I Y
- l et
SPRAYING-Fumigation is widely used for pest control in the citrus fields. Panamanian workers have become experts at this work.
amanian specialists is a University of
Florida graduate, Hugo Cortes, an agri-
cultural engineer who is in charge of
the Experimental Department-a key
operation in a business that must con-
stantly seek ways to improve upon na-
ture itself. Here is one example of the
type of work done in this department.
"People today don't go for plain
tastes," Cortes says. "In many places,
orange juice is mixed with the juice of
pineapple, grapefruit and other fruits.
Here in Citricos we grow passion fruit,
the juice of \\ which we have found blends
excellently with that of orange."
Cort6s also runs the nurseries where
the Florida seedlings are grown for
grafting with the Panama shoots.
Field work began in 1960. The initial
phase was a thorough study of the soil
characteristics that proved the land was
of the highest grade. An impressive
feature: The laver of rich topsoil runs
5 feet thick in much of the land set
aside for planting. Then came nema-
tode (worm) and insect control in prep-
aration for the large-scale planting in
1961. When planting was completed 3
years later, a dark-green carpet formed
by 665,000 oranges trees, set in neat
(See p. 8)
-, !,,., V
- -. -. .
^ '~---- --3^^
- I- 4 1 -
Ir ~t "I -
FIFTY GALLONS EACH-In the warehouse of Citricos, Hugo Cortes, an agricultural engineer, points to drums used for exporting orange
concentrate. Cort6s, a graduate of the University of Florida, is in charge of the firm's Experimental Department and nurseries.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
JUICE WILL FLOW
TO WORLD MARKETS
(Continued from p. 7)
ro\\ss, la\ over the Rovira countryside.
The Rovira area is ideal orange
countrv-the daily temperature ranges
from 60- to 80 Fahrenheit; the annual
rainfall averages 200 inches but the las
of the land provides effective natural
drainage. Nature and man have teamed
up to produce first-class oranges in Ro-
vira. The benign weather and the rich
soil in the Chiriqui highlands account
for the luscious quality of the fruit.
Citricos' largest mechanical instal-
lation is the concentrate processing
plant, which can handle as mans ;as
100,000 oranges an hour. The plant is
fully automatic, although imperfect
fruits are manually eliminated. The
speed of the juice extractors is about
400 oranges a minute and the char-
acteristics of design prevent the oil
from the peel from mixing with the
juice. The fluid is then pumped into the
evaporators, which are the heart of the
plant, for the last step in the process
of producing the concentrate. Every
hour the evaporators receive 12,750
pounds of juice which are reduced to
2,750 pounds of concentrate. The con-
centrate is then placed in 50-gallon
tanks and frozen in a cavernous 250,000
cubic-foot storage room where the tem-
perature is kept at 280 Fahrenheit
The pulp and the rejected fruit are
carried by mechanical conveyors to the
NALN- r- .. --;
Checks Passion Fruit
Mediterranean Fruit Flies.
"Citropulpa" plant. The mash is mixed
with lime to facilitate the extraction of
excess water and increase the feed's
bonebuilding properties. The mixture
then goes into a revolving oven for
toasting at 1,6000 Fahrenheit. Packing
in 80-pound bags is the final step in the
production of "Citropulpa."
The company's laboratoriv is located
in a section of the processing plant. A
University of Panama graduate, Hor-
tensio Pinilla, Jr., is in charge of a con-
tinuous analytical program. Worm and
insect identification still is an important
part of the work here. Constant aerial
fumigation is carried out by Citricos in
the Rovira area.
Citricos also is helping a project of
the International Regional Animal
Health Organization for control of one
of the most dreaded pests-the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly. Though this insect has
not reached dangerous proportions in
Rovira, Citricos is helping in the fight
for its eradication in neighboring areas.
The project involves population studies
and the propagation of millions of sterile
No operation in Citricos is left to
guesswork. The harvesting time is de-
termined by scientific know-how. Con-
tinuous tests on samples of the fruit
determine the acidity and sugar content.
Three Hundred Pickers
The picking of the fruit is about the
onil major operation that is done en-
tirely hy hand at Citricos, where mech-
anization is the word. At harvest time,
about 300 pickers are added to the
company's 150 full-time employees.
TIhe PI;!'mnanian specialists running,
Citricos de Chiriqui pride themselves in
having welded a force of skilled work-
ers. \\hen \\e beann" Ferrer recalls.
"most of our men knew only how to
handle a machete. Today we have ex-
pert grafters and soil men, first-class fu-
migators and heavy equipment oper-
ators, all trained here. Incidentally, they
all are paid above the minimum wage.
Citricos will reach another milestone
soon. Three \eais from nov. ever\ one
of its 665,000 orange trees will be
bearing. Then Rovira s golden harvest
will raise production at Citricos' plants
to full-scale production and concentrate
from oranges grown and processed in
Panama will go to many parts of
lortensio Pinilla. Jr.
In Charge of Lab
CARIB HIEROGLYPHICS-This 12-foot tall boulder overlooking the Santa Lucia River in Chiriqui Province was
inscribed by Carib Indians. The designs have been traced in chalk. The two markings with lines going out from
circles represent the "sun of life." The "fringes" on the top and bottom designs may indicate royalty. This petroglyph
is cracked due to extreme heat.
Meawye Fom Tke Padut
By Louis R. Granger
YOU CAN miss them easily enough
even when searching, and anyone who
has walked up a stream bed or along
some of the many valleys in Panama
mav have seen but not recognized the
petroglyphs-huge rocks and boulders
on which the Indians left part of their
indelibly written history 1,000 years ago.
These large gray masses dot much of
the Interior, but to discover them takes
more than an adventurous spirit and
boundless energy, although these qual-
A study of the ancient Carib Indians
who are credited with engraving their
hieroglyphics, is a must. Warlike, but
highly skilled in the arts and crafts, the
Caribs chipped out their messages on
only certain boulders-those that faced
water, either a stream, river, or pond.
The inscriptions invariably face the
upstream direction or mountain ranges
where rain clouds first begin to darken
the sky. It can be assumed, therefore,
that some of the writing may have
been for the benefit of the rain god.
The Caribs populated Panama from
approximately 900 to 1,500 years ago.
Although little is known about their
hieroglyphics compared to the writings
of the Mayan culture, the petroglyphs
may have been used to commemorate
certain festivities or religious functions,
warnings to other tribes not to trespass
and to explain the ways of the spirits.
Sun And Rain
Various sized circles, and symmetrical
signs possibly indicating the sun, rain
and earth, death masks, and animals
such as alligators and monkeys adorn
There is one location where Sunday
explorers from the Canal Zone and
Panama City can, with a bit of effort,
examine a petroglyph.
Drive west 46 miles along the Inter-
American Highway to Bejuco and turn
right at the El Econ6mico store onto
a dirt road, the only one there is, lo-
cated approximately in the middle of
the town. It leads to the village of SorA.
About half a mile out of Bejuco you
will come to a grove of coconut palm
trees. Just to the right, on a hill, will
be an outcropping of dark, gray rock,
the site of several petroglvphs.
You will have to climb over the larger
boulders which overlook the palm grove
and examine them closely to find the
engravings. The largest one is of a 5-foot
alligator. On another boulder, a little
farther down the hill where it gets dif-
ficult to walk, are many small circles
and a symmetrical circular design dug
out of the rock's surface.
Other sites where petroglyphs have
been found include: El Valle, La Pin-
(See p. 10)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
r.\.I;t~~t 4-I~CV T
i. cjr. 4:
4." t -I _.
~i~l .--_-. ~-iA PAP
AT BEJUCO-Chalking in a design is Neville A. Harte who has discovered 280 petroglyphs.
The figure at right is an alligator. It has legs but they have not been outlined in
(Continued from p. 9)
tada, Rio Grande, Calobre, Atalava,
Ocu, La Mesa, Sona, Mamev, Boca Ba-
ja, Remedios, Caldera, Boquete, Con-
cepci6n, San Miguel, and El VolcAn.
Easy To Miss
To find them is another matter.
Weathered over the hundreds of years
since the Indians engraved them, a per-
son, unaware of their presence, could
stand on a petroglyph and not see the
But if you have the time, plenty of it,
and the inclination, you can talk to farm-
ers who live in the areas where the
petroglyphs are found and know their
The writing is not the only significant
thing about these stones. On 90 percent
of the larger ones are blood basins and
drainage canals leading down the sides
One theory, and there are many con-
nected with the petroglyphs, is that the
Carib hieroglyphics were made for cer-
tain festivals and ceremonies, and that
humans were sacrificed on the rocks to
bring good luck to the tribe.
The first petroglyph in Panama was
discovered in 1898, and by 1953 only
three were known. But that year, the
most zealous petroglyph hunter in the
Republic of Panama, Neville A. Harte,
began his quest.
In seven years between 1953 and
1960, Harte, now 62 and a retired
PanCanal employee, spent all of his
spare time and $12,000 of his own
money in searching out the petroglyphs.
He discovered and investigated 280 of
them traveling by jeep, horseback, dug-
out and on foot through the Interior.
Part of his expenses was for a booklet
he published titled Panorama of Panama
Petroglyphs. Copies are in the Canal
Petroglyphs are found throughout
most of the world and a charcoal rub-
bing of one in Hawaii can be seen in
the Canal Zone Library-Museum.
The Caribs worshiped various gods
and spirits and apparently implored
them to give rain, good crops, and
animals to hunt. Hunters from various
tribes would occasionally travel out
of their territory to hunt and possibly
plunder villages and graves where much
of the other tribe's wealth and religious
totems were to be found.
According to belief, even today, an
Indian never dies, but goes to a happier,
more plentiful life. Therefore, their
wealth consisting of gold ornaments,
colorful feathers and pottery was buried
To protect the graves and to keep
away pillaging warriors from other
tribes, some of the petroglyphs appear
to have been engraved with warnings
saying that trespassers would be dealt
with severely and possibly face death.
The death's head design such as the
one found at Sona in Veraguas Province
may have been a warning sign. The
boulder it was engraved on was a sacri-
ficial alter. On the top is a blood basin
where humans were sacrificed to the
Then, as now, Indian graves were
robbed. The Caribs believed that if they
could obtain the items placed in the
graves of great warriors or tribal chiefs
they would receive their power and
strength. Today, however, unlawful
grave robbing is for the artifacts they
Many of the petroglyphs are cracked.
The theory is that the Caribs may have
built fires on the rocks as part of their
ceremonies. During his investigations,
Harte has found modern-day coins in
some of the cracks indicating that some
of the natives of the Interior still regard
these strange boulders with ancient
carvings as more than mere large stones,
and throwing a coin or two within the
crack might bring them luck.
Although Harte admits he is only an
amateur archeologist, he discounts one
theory for the purpose of petroglyphs
given by some American archeologists.
"A lot of Americans think these are
/-.'i e" ,a ,,
W 1 [ 11.. '
MAYAN-One of the most intricate petro-
glyphs is this one near Las Palmas in
Veraguas Province. The design is similar
to that of the Mayan culture.
only signs to the Indians that there was
good hunting in that area. That's a lot
of hooey because they would know
whether there was good hunting there
without having to read signs," he said.
A reason for some of the petroglyphs
was for grave markers. Circles represent
graves, explains Harte, who proved this
theory by actually finding grave sites
indicated by the circles found on a
Some of the boulders Harte discov-
ered had to be dug up from under sev-
eral feet of earth. It is still a mystery
why some were buried, but one pos-
sibility is that the invading Spanish saw
them and decided to hide them from
the Indians as punishment. Some of
them may have been placed over graves
and sunk down. Whatever the reason,
the buried ones were kept in better
condition because they were away from
Through his studies, Harte has found
that there was no variation either in
the depth or width of the inscriptions
on any of the rocks. Each engraved line
was a quarter of an inch deep and five
eighths of an inch wide.
"This indicates that they used the same
type of tools to make the engravings."
How Harte was able to discover the
petroglyphs was a combination of in-
stinct, knowing a lot about what he was
looking for, and hard work.
Dedicated to the hunt, Harte said his
instincts often led him to the right place.
He would then look for broken rock and
chips which remained over the years.
"When I found a stone where it wasn't
supposed to be then I knew there was
something interesting there."
The petroglyphs not buried invariably
became covered with moss, vines, and
other types of vegetation. He has spent
as much as 3 days cleaning off a boulder
to get down to the engravings.
Once a petroglyph has been cleaned,
Harte uses chalk to outline the designs
so they will stand out more clearly to
be studied and photographed.
Harte was born in England. By the
time he was II years old he was inter-
ested in archeology and dug in the
Roman ruins around Great Britain. He
moved to the United States at 16 and
came to Panama 28 years ago from
"I planned to stay in Panama for 6
months, but then I got interested in the
local history and I forgot all about the
time," he said.
It is likely that some petroglvphs are
still to be found in Panama. But before
you pack your picnic hamper and scurry
off to the nearest stream, think again.
First, you must have a government
permit to dig in the Republic. It would
probably take you days on end to find
a petroglyph, and when you did, you
would have to spend several more days
cleaning it off. It would cost you money
to pay your way there and back and for
workmen to help you dig up a boulder.
And since it would be next to impos-
sible to take the petroglyph home, the
best you could hope to wind up with
would be a photograph.
*II .. - ";
'l ,< ,. r.: "... ..
FAR FROM CIVILIZATION-Near La Pintada in CoclM Province, Harte examines a petroglyph at a dry stream bed. During the rainy
season water will cascade over this large, flat rock. Many petroglyphs are in the area.
I'llE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
ONE OF the first of several new vessels
being built for the Korean Shipping
Corp. is the MV Korean Pioneer which
is now making regular trips through the
Panama Canal from the Far East to
The Korean Shipping Corp. of the
Republic of Korea was established in
1950 and began operation with the
acquisition of some old Korean tonnage
and 12 ships chartered from the United
States. By 1964, the company maintain-
ed liner services to Thailand, Japan,
and other Far East areas.
Although the major stockholder has
been the Republic of Korea itself, re-
cently the company began turning over
stock to private capital. Boyd Bros.
represents the line at the Panama Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL will be a port
of call next March for the Moore
McCormack liner Argentina which will
be making a 47-day "Prelude to Retire-
ment" conference cruise around South
Chartered by a new organization
known as Prelude Inc., the ship will
have on board 200 near-retirement-age
executives from large corporations and
their wives. The cruise is designed to
set the stage for a positive approach to
retirement. Nearly 60 hours will be
devoted to lectures and panel discus-
sions by top-flight gerontology experts
wvho will talk on how to enjoy an active
The cruise is scheduled to leave New
York March 7, 1970, passing through
the Panama Canal and down the west
coast of South America, calling at ports
in Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, and
the West Indies before returning to
New York. Tours are being organized
in Panama, the Canal Zone, and at most
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 9 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1969
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial 9,674 9,787
U.S. Government 1,046 1,088
Free ---- -- 44 83
Total 10,764 10,958
Commercial- _-$64,383,292 $61,734,257
U.S. Government 6,445,040 6,669,827
Total $70,828,332 $68,404,084
U.S. Government 5,660,210
Total 79,789,362 77,440,270
s Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
**Cargo figures are in long tons on all vessels,
oceangoing and small.
968- 1200 N
7 00 A
(AVERAGE 1951 -1955) --- 600
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN 0
FLIP Transits Canal
ONE OF the most unusual Panama
Canal customers recently was the ocean-
ographic ship FLIP, which is short for
Floating Laboratory Instrument Plat-
form. The vessel was towed into Balboa
April 13 by the U.S.S. Calmia and was
picked up in Cristobal by the U.S.S. Sa-
lish and taken to Barbados. She will be
engaged during the next few months
in one of the greatest scientific ex-
peditions ever organized to study the
way in which the ocean affects major
When the 355-foot long FLIP is at
her work station in the Atlantic, her
ballast tanks will be flooded to "flip"
her to the vertical position. When she
is fully vertical, 55 feet of the vessel
will be above the water line, while the
remaining 300 feet will extend into
the ocean. She has done this 138 times
in Pacific Ocean operations. Her above-
water working space accommodates 10
scientists, 6 crew members, laboratories,
sleeping quarters, galley, and mess hall.
FLIP is operated for the office of
Naval Research by the Scripps Ocean-
ographic Institute of San Diego. In the
Caribbean she will take part in BOMEX,
the U.S. Department of Commerce's
Barbados Oceanographic and Meteor-
Shipping agent for FLIP during her
transit was Panama Agencies Co.
A BARBECUE picnic on the island of
Taboga has been planned for the pas-
sengers aboard the Matson Line's SS
Monterey due at Balboa June 5 from
the west coast of the United States.
This will be the line's first venture into
South American waters and the first
time that a trip to Taboga has been in-
eluded in the shore excursion plans of
any visiting cruise ship.
In addition to the picnic at Taboga,
the passengers will have a complimen-
tary boat ride through the Panama
Canal aboard the launch Islamorada.
They will return to the Pacific side
aboard the Panama Railroad.
According to Panama Agencies, which
will represent the Matson Line here, the
ship will call at the Canal and stop at
Balboa until June 7 after visiting Acapul-
co, Mexico; the Galapagos Islands and
Guayaquil, Ecuador, and Lima, Peru.
i1 .---- --- .,
' ,'-' ,'*' '-L Z; "4 ;.-,: .. .
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".r D, ,# .. ..', ,t;. :'., .; i !. -I :
,, -_.i _.;r , .. .. : .... .. ": j
The scene here at La Chorrera is typical as thousands of persons head for the fairs throughout the Interior of Panama.
THE RASPADO (snow-cone) vendors
hawking their wares under a hot sun,
the joyous laughter of little children,
blaring music emerging from numerous
loudspeakers creating a cacophonous
symphony, and everywhere, teeming
crowds of humanity move and mingle
as they tarry before the attractive
These are the sights and sounds
greeting visitors to the Panama regional
fairs held annually during dry season
at Oc6, La Chorrera, David, Los San-
tos, and in September, at Bocas del
Toro. Always popular events, the fairs
at David, La Chorrera, and Los San-
tos this year attracted approximately
300,000 visitors or about one fourth of
the Republic's population. The small-
est of the regional fairs held at the In-
terior town of Ocui drew some 30,000
visitors, and Bocas del Toro, accessible
only by air or sea, brought more than
12,000 viewers to its displays and
beautiful beaches. Primarily agricul-
tural in nature, the fairs have com-
mercial and industrial exhibits which
permit the local inhabitants to display
and sell the wares they produced during
Many people and numerous agencies
participate in these regional fairs, along
with the local vendors and exhibitors.
Panama's industrial giants such as Des-
tiladora Nacional, S.A.; Vinicola Lico-
rera, S.A.; Cerveceria Nacional and
many others set up exposition booths
at the fairs, as do Panama Government
agencies directly related to the eco-
nomic growth of the Interior regions-
the Ministry of Agriculture, Commerce
and Industries and the Panama Tourist
The Panama Canal participates act-
ively in these events, providing exhibits
on Canal operations, photographic dis-
plays, free rides for children on the
popular burros, Mancha and Gato, and
other features. The U.S. Southern Com-
mand, with its Army, Navy, and Air
Force components, also provides ex-
hibits and feature attractions at the
The U.S. Information Service and
the U.S. Agency For International De-
velopment in a joint effort supply the
fairs with an Alliance For Progress For
Panama display. In addition, a number
of special groups are brought to the fairs
from the Canal Zone by both PanCanal
and the U.S. Southern Command to per-
form in the fairgrounds and augment
the program of events.
Everywhere fairs attract people, and
(See p. 14)
... Panama Style!
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13
Military sky (livers approach the target aria nenr the U.S. Snuthern Command display.
Out-of-town visitors shop for natives hats at one of the many hooths.
This smiling beiiiity
siirmrn( s lc rsrif with
native arts aonl (rifts.
At lift are a Caiii sail.
lho.iat a i friniel
illilii, ailii in haIck-
grillltill is aI l(ililllillg
gr aiaI is 11 piitingii
oIf 1. (Cinyii Indian
onithilcr will. her baby.,
' Look at the lghts! stems to he what this
comely visitor is s;iing to her young com-
panion as they watch the electrical map
display at the Pianama Canal pavilion.
(Contfinrd from p. 13)
Panama fairs are no different. Visitors
from the Canal Zone and Panama City
head to even the most distant fairs to
buy the local goods, try the native food,
explore the hidden charms of the rural
areas and to make new friends, Friends
and fun go hand-in-hand with good
times and pleasant memories when vou
visit a country fair-Panama Style!
Cattle exhliilts doininalle the livestol.k hows iat all thl lfairs. niinchll cnlpete by sending prize animals to each event.
As the United States and Panamanian flags wave in the breeze, a crowd gathers around
S the Balboa High School Band. The music has also drawn one of the many riders who got
t to the fairs on horseback rather than by automobile.
With the winning lottery numbers clearly
shown, a woman takes an order at nne of
the nmny native food stands. Visitors can
sample a variety of local dishes at the end
of a busy (lay at the fair,
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
TnE PANAMA CANAL REVIEWl
(r .* U
zcUBMARMN AE T0RAGi"
SiETS`1!'AG3Er r ri t ti S
* /F I g u
ILL FATED SUBMARINE-The U.S. Navy's 0-5 in calmer days before the fateful collision in Limon Bay off Cristobal in October 1923.
The number 66 refers to the hull number given by the contractor.
THE MEN of the U.S. Submarine 0-5
were roused out of their racks before
dawn for a Sunday transit through the
Panama Canal. The 0-5 had orders to
escort three other submarines through
the Canal from Cristobal to deep water
on the Pacific side.
Routine duty, actually. The 0-5, com-
manded by Lt. Harrison Avery, was
attached to Commander Submarine
Base, Coco Solo, and received such
orders matter of factly.
Like most sailors during the rather
quiet 1920's in Panama, the men moved
around the 173-foot vessel performing
their duties in an unhurried but exact
way. The 21 officers and men quietly
chatted about the usual things-women,
whisky, the heat and rain, and plans for
their next liberty.
Early risers that Sunday October 28,
1923, may have been leafing through the
morning edition of the STAR & HERALD.
On page 5, lollywood was advertising
"Thrills! Pathos! Smiles!" in Mack Sen-
nett's movie "Suzanna." As they read,
another Hollvwood-like melodrama with
all of Mack Sennett's thrills, pathos plus
tragedy and heroics was taking place in
Limon Bay, Cristobal.
At 6:25 a.m. the 0-5 was a dead ship
in 6 fathoms of water on the bottom of
the bay. She had a 10-foot-long gash
in her bow . three men were dead,
one of the bodies was never found . .
two of the survivors were trapped inside
. and another chapter to submarine
history was launched.
During the next 31 hours the 0-5,
which never saw duty again, became the
stage for heroes.
The event became one of the most
pictoriallv documented stories of sub-
marine salvage ever made. It created an
underwater record when a Canal Zone
diver in his rescue attempts made the
longest dive up to that time. Also, it
became the first attempt at physically
lifting any vessel the size of the 520-ton
0-5 off the ocean bottom.
At a time when modern rescue and
safety devices did not exist, and while
submarines were still in their infancy, it
was a remarkable feat that the two men
trapped in the 0-5 were not only saved,
but that their submarine was raised at
all. Rescue of personnel from disabled
submarines was not duplicated until 16
years later when 33 men were saved
from the U.S.S. Sqnuals using a special
That historic day for the 0-5 began
before lawn with the arrival from
Havana of the SS Abangalrez, a 380-foot,
5,000-ton freighter owned by the United
Fruit Co. Shortly after 6 a.m. Capt. \V.
A. Card, master of the Ahangarez, re-
ceived orders to proceed to Dock No. 6,
It was a collision course. The 0-5
was leading submarines 0-3, 0-6, and
0-8 to Gatun Locks. At 6:22 a.m. Cap-
tain Card, seeing that collision was im-
minent, sounded a danger signal-the
first warning given by either vessel. The
Abangarre then backed emergency full
speed and let go her starboard anchor.
Without acknowledgment of the
danger signal, the 0-5 held her rudder
amidships and continued on a southerly
Sinks By Bow
At 6:24 the Abangarez struck the star-
board side of the submarine penetrating
the engineroom and the No. 1 main
ballast tank. The 0-5 rolled to port about
15 degrees, righted, and in less than a
minute sank bow first. The freighter
At a board of inquiry which placed
the blame of the collision on the 0-5,
Captain Card said: "Just before we
struck. I heard someone call from the
submarine's conning tower for everyone
to come from below. When we struck,
someone ordered the 0-5 crew to jump."
Sixteen men were quickly rescued but
five were missing. They were: Henry
Breault, torpedoman second class; Law-
rence T. Brown, chief electrician's mate;
Clyde E. Hughes, motor machinist's
mate first class; Thomas T. Metzler, fire-
man first class; and Fred C. Smith, mess
attendant, first class.
Two days later the bodies of Metzler
and Smith were found floating in the
sea off the Colon breakwater. Hughes
was never seen again.
Rescue work started almost imme-
diately. Navy divers on a salvage tug
stationed at Coco Solo had arrived to
survey the sunken submarine. Their raps
on the 0-5's hull brought immediate
response from inside-Breault and Brown
were alive in the forward torpedo room.
But the divers were helpless to rescue
the trapped men. Artificial lungs and
rescue chambers to enable men trapped
in a submarine to escape had not been
invented and there were no salvage pon-
toons within 2,000 miles of the Canal
Zone. Therefore, a means to lift the sub-
marine's bow off the bottom was neces-
sary. In the Panama Canal there were
two 250-ton capacity floating cranes, the
Ajax and Hercules. These leviathans had
the mightiest lift in the world for floating
equipment. They were specially built in
Germany to handle the enormous lock
gates of the Canal.
Capt. Amon Bronson, Jr., USN, Com-
mander Submarine Base, Coco Solo,
was in charge of the 0-5 salvage opera-
tion and requested the Panama Canal to
furnish one of the floating cranes to haul
up the sunken vessel.
But it was not going to be just that
easy. A slide had just occurred in Gail-
lard Cut, the narrowest part of the
Canal, and both cranes were on the
opposite side, miles away from the 0-5.
Ironically, this was the first slide to block
the Cut since 1916.
Working to remove the slide were two
huge dipper dredges, the Cascadas and
Paraiso, which by 2 p.m. had cleared a
narrow passage for the Ajax. The crane
squeezed through and was over the 0-5
about 10:30 p.m.
Before the arrival of the Ajax, Panama
Canal salvage forces had assembled over
the submarine. Among them was Shep-
paid J. Shreaves of Newport, Va. "Shep,"
38, was dockmaster and foreman ship-
\wright for the Panama Canal Me-
chanical Division. (Now the Industrial
Division of the Marine Bureau.)
Barrel-chested and tough, Shep was a
qualified diver and supervisor of the
Canal's salvage and diving crew. Rather
than risk the lives of his men on the
treacherous underwater assignment, he
decided to make the dive himself, tunnel
under the 0-5, pass through the lifting
cable and secure it to the hook of the
Here is his account of the rescue
efforts on the 0-5.
"I could spot the 0-5 on the bottom
by the air bubbles exhausted from the
compartment where Breault and Brown
were trapped. To survive, they were
bleeding air from 3,000-pound com-
pressed air reserves in the forward
"Since the Navy divers had given me
a good briefing on the position of the
0-5 and the location of the two trapped
men, I went right in through her side.
The light of my lamp was feeble against
the pitch black. The inside was in an
awful mess, and it was tight and slippery
going. I was constantly pushing away
floating debris. When I reached the for-
ward bulkhead of the engineroom
I hit it with my diving hammer.
Faint raps were returned. Breault and
Brown were alive. I acknowledged their
taps, but almost with a feeling of hope-
lessness because I couldn't do anything
for them at the time."
Shreaves then made his way out of the
submarine and signaled for a firehose to
"The 0-5 lay upright in several feet
of soft, oozing mud, and I began water
jetting a trench under the bow. Sluicing
through the ooze was easy; too easy, for
it could cave in and bury me.
"Swirling black mud engulfed me,
I worked solely by feel and instinct.
I had to be careful that I didn't dredge
too much from under the bow for fear
the 0-5 would crush down on me. Once
Sheppard J. Shreaves
A Sleepy Hero
in a while, I'd rap the hull with the
nozzle to let the boys know someone was
working to bring them out. Their raps
were returned weaker each time."
Finally, the tunnel was through.
A 4-inch-diameter steel cable was
dragged under the keel and shackled to
the hook of the Ajax.
Aside from its flooded w-eight, there
was tremendous mud suction hugging
the 0-5. Twice the cable broke and each
time new cable was wrestled under the
bowv. By early morning of the 29th,
round-the-clock efforts to raise the sub-
marine had failed. Shreaves surfaced
occasionally to report to Captain Bron-
son and to allow' doctors to examine him.
They were concerned that his extreme
exertion while working under pressure
at 36 feet down might strain his heart.
He had been underwater for nearly
"I came up from what I hoped would
be mv last dive. I was near exhaustion.
The job below was done and we were
ready for a third lift. At 12:30 p.m. on
the 29th, from topside, I released com-
pressed air into the engineroom of the
0-5 to unflood that compartment and
lighten the boat. Water and mud bub-
bled to the surface as in a boiling cauld-
ron . I signaled the Ajax to slowly lift
"God, how we prayed the cable would
take it this time. The intense silence of
the rescue force and spectators was
After what must have seemed a life-
time, the bow finally broke surface.
When the hatch was clear the two
trapped men crawled out, more dead
(See p. 18)
TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 17)
than alive. They were taken to Coco Solo
and placed in a decompression chamber,
and later transferred to Colon Hospital
"I was a big hero for a while," said
Shreaves. "The boys carried me around
on their shoulders. Everybody rushed
down to the Stranger's Club in Colon for
a big celebration. But me, I went to
sleep at the party."
The 0-5 incident established a world
record. Shreaves had made dives of the
longest duration to that time.
He was presented a Congressional
Lifesaving Medal on recommendation of
the Acting Canal Zone Governor, Harry
Burgess, and was given a 14-carat gold
watch donated by 800 grateful members
of the Coco Solo Submarine Base.
There emerged, however, another
hero of the 0-5 sinking.
Breault, 23, of Putnam, Conn., was in
the forward torpedo room at the time of
the collision. He escaped to the main
deck, but then realized that his friend,
Brown, was asleep in the forward bat-
tery room. Breault went back into the
sinking submarine, closing the hatch
cover as he slid below. Brown had not
heard the order to abandon ship. With
water charging in on them, they
attempted to escape through the conning
tower, but the deluge blocked that
route. They struggled back into the tor-
pedo room and forced shut its water-
tight door as the 0-5 hit bottom.
It was for Breault's act of selflessness
and valor by going to the assistance of
his shipmate, even though realizing
the 0-5 was doomed, that he was
awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor by President Calvin A. Coolidge
on March 8, 1924.
History closed in tight around Tor-
pedoman Breault and the only known
record available is with the Con-
gressional Medal of Honor Society which
said in January 1969, that he has been
dead for many years.
Captain Card of the Abangarez retired
in 1953 after 51 years in the merchant
marine. He now lives in Millbrae, Calif.
The collision with the 0-5 was the only
maritime accident during his career.
Chief Electrician's Mate Brown has
also died, and there is no informa-
tion available on the whereabouts of
With more than 1,000 dives behind
him, Shep retired to St. Petersburg, Fla.,
on December 31, 1945, after 32 years of
Panama Canal service. He died in
Material for this story was
compiled by Capt. Julius Cri-
gore, Jr., USNR, supervisor of
shipbuilding, conversion and re-
pair for the 15th Naval District,
-:- U,, "
Zj' "._Ar,','r "W,
SAVED FROM WATERY CRAVE-The USS 0-5 is raised by Panama Canal crane "Ajax" during salvage and rescue operations. Two men
who were trapped in engineroom are shown shortly after rescue. One is in white T-shirt being helped off deck. The other is kneeling on
deck holding a wire stay. They are: Lawrence T. Brown, chief electrician's mate, and IHenry Breault, torpedoman second class.
18 MAY 1969
"e"'"e CUU NARY
pot to a guest. "Shake it up good" adds Mrs. Pat Morgan as she turns to welcome
the next arrival. The occasion is the Garden Club buffet held the second Tuesda\
of each month at Morgan's Garden on Gaillard Highway near Corozal.
By inviting thle guests to jostle the contents of the pot, Mrs Morgan is acthall\
involving her dinner guests in the preparation of a delectable dish which will en-
hance the principal course of the menu-a juicy barbecued filet of beef, done to
perfection, served with wine-spiked baked beans, tossed salad, and a simple dessert.
The edibles in the jerking, jouncing pot were once paid tribute as a "kitchen-
god"-on ions- Ifull-flavored and pungent, being "lbruised" in a tumbling process;
always a favorite with the garden clubbers attending the Tuesday soiree, a Canal
Zone event for the past 20 years.
Although Mrs. Morgan needs no bouquet throwing for flower growing and
arranging, and her contribution to life on thle Isthmns has been recognized by the
Panama Government with the presentation of the Order of Vasco Nifiez de Balboa.
this naticle makes a deTep oaon to her "ardeniseCl" onions ,
this article makes a deep bowy to her llniisedl ooioons.
It's The Sulfur
From earliest recorded time the
onion has held high esteem in the annals
of cookery. Low in calories, wholesome
and nutritious, the onion is both a
delight and despair to the gourmet. It is
delicious to the palate, yet objectionable
for the offensive odor it leaves on the
breath. This is due to the pungent vola-
tile substances absorbed by the blood.
which are carried to the lungs, where
they are set free. The strong smell and
flavor comes from the oil, rich in sulfur.
It is the essence of this sulfur that brings
on the tears, too.
Whether or not one is a good cook
depends largely on the skillful use of
onions. Cookbooks contain very few
recipes, with the exception of desserts,
which do not have at least a trace of
onion. A thin slice of onion or a few
drops of its juice has saved many a dish
'A precious gift from the East to the
West, the onion originated in northern
Asia and Palestine. It is mentioned in
old Hebrew literature and drawings of
it are found on monuments in Egypt.
As a "kitchen-god" in Egypt, it was paid
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19
special tribute and the Egyptians made
their oaths by it. The Bible also speaks
of its merits.
In Egypt, as well as Greece, the
onion was thought to give physical
strength and was fed to soldiers to give
them courage in battle. It also was
believed to have aphrodisiac qualities.
Cultivated in Europe from the time
tie Crusaders brought it back from their
expeditions, the onion probably made its
debut into the American kitchen in the
early 17th century. Today, its hundreds
of varieties are grown in all parts of
the world. When grown in warm cli-
mates, it is milder and somewhat sweeter
than the northern variety.
Strange as it may seem, the fragrant
lily and the onion belong to the same
family, the lilaccas. Other members of
the family are the chive, the shallot, the
scallion, and the leek, the latter being
the emblem of \\ales.
Yellow onions are preferable for
soups, stews, sauces, and are also good
raw. White onions, a little more expen-
sive, are not necessarily milder, but
small white onions are excellent served
whole in stews or creamed. The purple
ones, called California, Spanish, or
Italian, are beautiful in salads but a
little too sweet for cooking. No matter
what color, a moderate size onion
contains approximately 91 percent
To A Frazzle
Comparing its utilization with other
vegetables, the versatile onion has most
of them beaten to a frazzle. Onions
are boiled, baked, creamed, scalloped.
glazed, grated, stuffed, smothered,
fried, sauteed, pickled, roasted, toasted,
chopped, sliced, minced, scraped and
"bruised," depending on whether the\
are to be used as a vegetable or to add
flavor and a little zip to a dish. Due to
this versatility, the onion has made a
profound impression on cookery. A good
cook knows exactly what to do with it.
Here is the recipe for preparing Mrs.
Morgan's "bruised" onions: For a regular
family size portion, slice about eight
medium sized yellow onions into rings
into a pot or receptacle large enough
to shake them in. Add about 3 table-
spoons each of salad oil and vinegar
and I tablespoon sugar. Shake the pot
and then let marinate a few minutes.
Then shake and "bruise" the onion
rings. Prepare them 2 to 4 hours before
serving and shake often, the more, the
1btter, as the marinade penetrates the
raw onion rings in the process. Serve
with meat course.
.y ', 4.1
ONION TREAT-Reeovering from a snake
bite and fractured wrist, Pat Morgan pre-
pares "bruised" onions for the Carden Club.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
No. of I Tons of
Belgian 87 111,27
British 1,074 8,730,61
Chilean 80 557,34
Chinese (Nat'l.) 93 649,10
Colombian 137 410,00
Cuban 32 317,48
Danish _--___- 279 1,613,43
Ecuadorean 44 53,72
Finnish 32 191,64
French 183 789,77
German 864 3,286,37
Greek 391 4,401,58
Honduran 153 96,13
Israeli 72 483,44
Italian 197 1,270,50
Japanese --_- 795 6,750,18
Liberian 1,190 18,238,70
Mexican 79 331,34
Netherlands 343 1,786,19
Nicaraguan 39 68,99
Norwegian 999 10,441,94
Panamanian 462 1,982,08
Peruvian _ 130 599,52
Philippine __ 69 359,12
Soviet 70 502,11
Swedish 371 2,484,24
United States 1,125 5,605,06
All Others 284_ 1,942,33
Total 9,674 74,054,28
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
%\'. \i AL lIrn
transits I of cargo
nor O CA I10
1969 1968 Transits
July------------- 1,122 1,177 960
August .. .. 1,109 1,117 949
September -- 1,115 1,023 908
October 1,13S 1,048 946
Novemhr 1,103 1,041 922
December 1,119 1,100 946
January__-- _----- 958 1,094 903
February -.---. 875 1,055 868
\larch ..- 1,135 1,132 1,014
April 1,132 966
May 1,168 999
June- 1,112 954
Totals for ---- -
fiscal year 13,199 11,335 I
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
Cross tolls0 (Thousan
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTI
The following table shows the number of transit of large, commercial vessels (300 net
segregated into 8 main t.ade routes:
United States Intercoastal
East coast United States and South America
East coast United States and Central America
East coast United States and Far East
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia
Europe and west coast United States/Canada _-
Europe and South America
Europe and Australasia
All other routes
First 9 months, fis
IN CANAL ZONE
AN INTENSIVE study of the problems
of oil pollution and oil spill disposal is
being made by the Panama Canal Ma-
rine Bureau and other U.S. Govern-
ment agencies concerned with possible
damage to their facilities here.
With an average monthly traffic of
170 to 175 tankers, more and more of
them in the supership class, the possibil-
ity of a massive oil spill in the Canal
6,781,206 has become greater.
50,956 The problems arising from a large
2,075,590 spill of oil or hazardous material first
56,811 received world-wide attention in 1967
1,453,025 when the supertanker Torrey Canyon
409,523 ran aground and split open off the coast
220,593 of England.
122,837 This disaster was the first of its kind
7,597,402 and magnitude and there was no
559,480 precedent for its treatment.
50,217,549 A similar mishap occurred off Puerto
Rico when the Ocean Eagle grounded
at the entrance to San luan Harbor.
The resort beaches were blackened with
thick oil and hundreds of waterfowl
ds of dollars) were soffocated.
Average The Panama Canal, so far, has been
Tolls relatively fortunate. The most notable
S961-65 mishap occurred December 23, 1955,
4,929 when the tanker Andros Venture struck
4.920 the east bank north of Pedro Miguel
4.697 Locks. One of the tanks was holed and
4'838 crude oil poured into the Canal waters
4,955 in the Caillard Cut area.
4,635 Canal employees hurridly improvised
4 506 a log boom that was used to contain
5325 the oil slick and directed the spillage
5,232 through Pedro Miguel Locks. After that,
5,013 some of it was taken into the third
-- locks cut and the remainder locked
58,865 through Miraflores Locks to sea.
Last December, the tanker Witiwaer
broke in two outside the Cristobal
ES Breakwater after receiving a cargo of
tons or over) 25,000 barrels of bunker "C" fuel and
nearly 11,000 barrels of diesel oil at
Las Minas Bay. Approximately 14,000
cal year barrels spilled into the sea. Of this, 500
Avg. No. barrels accumulated in the Fort Ran-
1961-65 dolph area and the rest spread along
0 the shoreline in the vicinity of Caleta
1,771 Island and the breakwater. Fortunately,
372 the breakwater prevented much of the
1,655 spillage from entering the harbor.
271 Those persons most concerned over
908 the results of this oil spillage were the
286 staff members of the Smithsonian Tro-
2,135 pical Research Institute who had been
8,417 studying the ecology of reefs and man-
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)
grove swamps off Galeta Island for the
past 8 years. Their study areas were
threatened with destruction.
There was no effective method at
hand for removing the oil. Attempts
were made to disperse it with chemicals
and to burn it by soaking bales of hay
with kerosene and distributing them
throughout the spill pool and igniting
them. The attempts were only partially
This was an unfortunate accident but
not dangerous to the Canal. But what
if a massive oil spill were to occur in
the Canal itself or within the harbors?
It would not be just a matter of pollut-
ing resort beaches or killing waterfowl
and fish. Such an event could interrupt
transists and endanger other ships using
Meetings to discuss possible solutions
and firm up an approach to planning
for handling oil spill emergencies were
held by representatives of the Canal
organization, the U.S. Armed Forces
and the Smithsonian Tropical Research
Some of the possible solutions to pro-
vide capability to effectively control
and dispose of oil products sl;illed into
the Canal and harbors include various
chemicals dispersantss and emulsifiers)
and absorption materials now on the
market and under test by the Marine
Bureau. Materials and equipment have
been ordered to be on hand at Balboa
and Cristobal harbors and at Camboa.
They consist of two pumps with
eduetors for applying liquid chemicals
used in oil dispersal and eight drums
of two of the leading dispersants now
available. Also ordered is 800 feet of
"slickbar oil-spill boom" consisting of
9-foot sections connected together so
that it can be stowed accordion-fashion
ready for deployment to contain oil
spills. Present plans are to store the oil
boom at Camboa, and possibly purchase
shorter booms for containing bunkering
spills in each of the port terminals.
A ton of straw has been ordered and
will be used as an absorbent to remove
oil during clean-up operations after the
bulk of an oil spill has been removed.
The Marine Bureau has made ar-
rangements with chemical companies
and the U.S. Air Force to airlift sup-
plies to the Canal Zone in an emer-
gency. Also, emergency kits consisting
of a skimmer, pump and oil container
are under development by the U.S.
Coast Cuard to be flown to an oil spill
site should the need occur.
Marine Bureau personnel are now
investigating the various methods and
means of combating oil pollution in
order to develop a pollution plan.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Ores, various ._
Boards and planks -- -_____
Iron and steel plates, sheets
Food in refrigeration
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous . .
Plvwood and veneers
Petroleum and products
Potash -- .. ..
Canned food products
All others --
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
1969 1968 5-Yr. Avg.
3,169,177 3,604,090 762,731
2,663,054 1,320,779 N.A
26, -47.6n02 23.(s3O.2V'e
Atlantic to Pacific
Petroleum and products
Coal and coke------
Phosphates-- ---- ----
Ores, various __..
Paper and paper products .____
Autos, trucks and accessories
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
1969 1968 5-Yr. Avg.
11,886,351 11,309,224 8,352,069
11,543,869 9,275,908 4,430,533
3,532,425 2,981,462 1,583,682
1,897,167 2,393,275 1,994,208
1,888,242 1,822,578 1,117,075
1,883,668 2,037,397 1,132,893
1,399,842 1,459,718 223,574
1,137,322 956,737 N.A.
1,064,541 1,805,149 146,018
766,613 720,898 690,950
762,989 723,171 418,323
596,602 522,177 313,189
567,407 596,388 477,983
427,063 376,580 243,972
400,005 365,503 283,699
7,552,573 7,667,504 6,114,722
47,306,679 45,013,669 27,522,890
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First 9 Months, Fiscal Year
U.S. Government Vessels:
Total commercial and U.S. Go\-
I Av. No.
Total Total Total
577 469 1,046 1,088 185
56 36 92 90 121
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Governnent-operated ships
NAVIGATORS-John H. Stevens, in uniform, a past commander of the Canal Zone Pacific Power Squadron, teaches an advanced pilot-
ing course. He and R. F. Hesch, left, the incumbent commander, look at a compass. Col. John Allis, squadron treasurer, sights through
a pelorus, an instrument for taking bearings. Looking on is Kenneth E. Lake.
TURNING LANDLUBBERS INTO SEAMEN
By Luis C. Noli
ISTHMIAN LANDLUBBERS who
turn into sea lovers (an understandable
metamorphosis because of their natural
surroundings) find themselves inclined
to give expression to their newly ac-
quired passion through the sport of
boating. Like the poet B. W. Procter,
they are beckoned by the expanse of
"The sea! the sea! the open sea!
"The blue, the fresh, the ever free!"
But fear of the unknown is apt to
keep landlocked many a man suddenly
enamored of the deep. He need not
A group of dedicated boating enthu-
siasts in the Canal Zone stands ready
to unlock for him the secrets of power
and sail boating-at least enough of
them to make the sport safe and en-
joyable. It is the Canal Zone Pacific
Power Squadron-a unit of the United
States Power Squadrons-which is about
to complete its 20th vear of activity on
Isthmian waters. One of 375 power
squadrons in the world, the Canal Zone
unit seeks to promote the sport of boat-
ing with emphasis on safety through
knowledge. This it does by imparting
knowledge through teaching.
Once a year, volunteer qualified in-
structors from the Canal Zone squadron
take as many as 200 budding boatmen
for what is jokingly known in power
squadron parlance as "keelhauling"-
a course in piloting. The term comes
from a eruel practice in the olden days
of seafaring: hauling a man under the
keel of a ship as a punishment or a
mode of torture. There is nothing pu-
nitive or torturous about the course
taught by the Canal Zone Pacific Power
Squadron, except for the agony that
every student-young or old-is apt to
suffer. The fact that only about half
the starting number of students in every
class reaches the final examination is
evidence, though, that the course is not
strictly for fun.
Thus it has been since the first power
squadron course taught in the Canal
Zone, which, incidentally, marked the
beginning of the local organization on
March 31, 1949. Of 31 boating en-
thusiasts who attended that first course,
on piloting, 14 reached the end.
Those first 14 "graduates" and their
instructor, William M. Clark, Jr., form-
ed the charter membership of the Canal
Zone Pacific Power Squadron. Clark.
an engineer who had been a member of
the Stamford, Conn., Power Squadron,
came to the Canal Zone in 1942 to work
for the 15th Naval District. It was
because of his interest that the local
squadron came into being.
In February 1949, he wrote the
squadron's national headquarters in
New Jersey requesting information on
how to start one here and how he could
be reinstated as a member in good stand-
ing. With the reply from headquarters
came material for the piloting course.
Incidentally, seven ladies, some of them
wives of the charter members-to-be,
also passed the course. Since only males
can belong to power squadrons, the
women organized themselves into the
squadronettes, the local unit's auxiliary.
The official anniversary of the Canal
Zone Pacific Power Squadron is Sep-
tember 12, the date 20 years ago when
the Governing Board of the United
States Power Squadrons approved the
Why Canal Zone Pacific Power Squa-
dron? Everybody was certain that in
little time a second squadron would be
organized among boating enthusiasts on
the Atlantic side. It hasn't happened yet.
The Canal Zone squadron's charter
contains the names of Clark, Howard
C. Rufus, Brodie Burnham, Walter F.
Kindt, Clifford Brewster, Edward D.
McIntosh, William H. Clinchard, Wal-
ter E. Pearson, William E. Heussler,
Bernard J. Brown, Francis S. Hargy,
Robert A. Berry, Robert B. Mclntosh,
Leo E. Barzal, and William J. Neither-
coat. The original Canal Zone Squa-
dronettes were Eleanor Burham, Am-
britt Pearson, Alida Clark, Hildegarde
Rufus, Eileen Kindt, Ellen Thomas and
Lela C. Mclntosh.
Clark was the first commander of
the Canal Zone squadron. He was last
known to reside in Subic Bay, Luzon,
Philippine Islands, but nothing has been
heard from him since 1956. Of the
founders, only "Bernie" Brown remains
active in the Pacific squadron. Hargy,
now of St. Petersburg, Fla., and Berry,
a resident of Townsend, Mont., still
maintain membership in the Canal Zone
The squadron is planning an anniver-
sary celebration and will promote local
observance of Safe Boating Week.
When the Canal Zone Pacific Power
Squadron was founded 20 years ago,
the parent organization had been active
already for more than one third of a
century. Started just before World War
I in the Boston Yacht Club by Roger
Upton, a tenacious, safety-minded boat-
man, the United States Power Squadrons
received much-needed impetus a decade
later from a "fortuitous tragedy." Dur-
ing a Boston-to-Halifax sailboat race,
a storm dismasted many of the sailing
yachts which had to be rescued by the
power boats that had tagged along.
The episode served to focus interest on
power boats, theretofore looked upon
with some disdain as "stinkpots" by
The USPS has grown to a member-
ship of 76,210 boatmen and its 375
squadrons are scattered from Maine to
Yokohama and from Alaska to the Canal
Zone. The organization is divided into
districts, each with several squadrons.
The Canal Zone Pacific Power Squa-
dron is in District 50 and has the dis-
tinction of being the southernmost unit
Membership is by election after the
candidate has passed the initial course
on piloting, but is restricted to male U.S.
citizens. This first course-piloting and
small boat handling-is free and open
to anyone interested in boating. More
than a million men and women have
taken it since the founding of USPS.
Despite the inevitable high turnover in
local membership-caused by the tran-
sitory condition of many Isthmian res-
idents-the Canal Zone squadron now
has a roster of 70 squadronites, 20 squa-
dronettes and 2 apprentices (boys 16
and 17 years old who have completed
the piloting course but who have to
await their 18th birthday before being
accepted as members).
Once enrolled, squadronites and
squadronettes are eligible for the four
advanced courses which are concerned
with the general subjects of seaman-
ship, piloting, dead reckoning, and ce-
lestial navigation. The courses are free.
except for the cost of textbooks and
materials and of written examinations.
The papers (marked by numbers to
conceal the identity of the student) are
graded in the United States by profes-
sional proctors, as power squadron in-
structors are called officially.
Each course lasts 12 weeks and
classes are held one night a week. For
years now', the Canal Zone squadron
has used the Panama Canal Training
Center in Balboa as its classroom.
By passing these courses, members
advance in grade within the squadron-
from seaman to advanced pilot, to junior
navigator, and finally to navigator. The
Canal Zone squadron has two junior
navigators in its roster-past command-
er Brown and John M. Waters. Ten of
the squadronites are advanced pilots.
Instructors are volunteers from the
squadron membership. They are award-
ed a coveted merit mark denoting that
s- 3^ '
Raises USPS Ensign
they) teach or lecture to newer students.
Only enrolled members are privileged
to display the United States Power
Squadron's ensign on their craft. The
rectangular ensign shows the traditional
anchor design surrounded by 13 stars
in the left upper quarter, in white and
red; the rest of the design consists of
blue and white stripes. Boats of the
Canal Zone squadronites also fly the
Pacific squadron pennant, showing the
Southern Cross in white against a field
of blue enclosed by red borders. What
each symbol means is best explained by
the USPS bulletin:
"It is an outward and visible sign
that the boat displaying it is under the
charge of a capable person who has
made a study of piloting and small boat
handling and will recognize the rights
of others and the traditions of the sea.
The squadron's flag marks a craft also
as being under the charge of a man
who has met certain minimum require-
ments and is so honored for meeting
them. This honor may not be bought
or sold, rented, loaned, or given avway."
SEAMANSHIP-Power squadron students learn the handling of a sextant from John 11. Stevens. From left are: Edward E. Garrett, P. Riggs
Forrest, Kenneth E. Lake, Jr. (an apprentice), Stevens, Harry E. Musselman, Jorge Fermn6dez, Robert H. McDaniel, and Betty H. Olchin.
S ... .i .iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i.
I ~' I
-- q ^-^^y* *^ .^S.
^ -- *'^i f-^*^ .-'*^ --H~fg
BREEZE-SWEPT-In one of the most picturesque settings in the Canal Zone, Palo Seco nestles in a cove near
the entrance to the Panama Canal.
Picturesque Palo Seco
Reaches A medical Atilestone
By Eunice Richard
. CHAPTER in the medical history\ of
the Panama Canal Zone is quiettly comn-
ing to a close.
Palo Seen Hospital. established in
1907 at a picturesque cove on the Paci-
fic Ocean west of the Canal entrance, is
gradually being phased out and should
cease operation by 1972. It is one of
four hospitals in the world supported
bv the U.S. Government for the care (of
those suffering from Hansen's disease
(leprosy). The others are at Carville,
La., Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
The closing of the hospital will follow
a long-term plan which went into effect
in 1965 when the first patients living
at Palo Seco were discharged and re-
turned to their communities under a new
rehabilitation program sponsored by the
Canal Zone Health Bureau in coopera-
tion with Panamanian authorities.
The discharge of more patients from
Palo Seco actually became possible as
far back as 1945, when the hospital
hegan using the miraculous silfone
drugs developed for treatment of tuber-
CREAT-GRANDFATIIER-Still able to
read his Bible without glasses is this 83-
year-old patient. lie has several great-
grandchildren living in Panama.
culosis alnd other infections dis.ases. It
\\as filst used at Carville for Hans:-n's
disease patients in 1941.
The sulfone drugs replaced chaul-
moogro oil, an ineffectual and ile tast-
ing drug obtained from the Burmese
chaulmoogra tree. which had been used
since medieval times for the treatment
of Hansen's disease. Sulfone, first ad-
ministered intravenously, was such a
great improvement that results could be
seen with the naked eye. By 1961, the
drug was administered orally in tablet
form. With the new treatment, the
rehabilitation program was stepped-up.
Before being discharged, the patients
are examined b\ the Hansen's Discharge
Board \which rules on the question of
whether r the case is arrested and if there
is no further sign of the disease.
Whenever possible, the patient being
discharged is given a job, usually in the
Canal Zone. and it is made certain b\
Canal Zone authorities that he can carr\
mot his job with no danger to himself
oi to others.
All patients discharged from Palo
Seco under this program are kept un-
der supervision by the Panama Public
Health Service and are given supplies
of sulfone tablets to be taken at home
to assure against recurrence of the
The possibility of being returned
home first came as a surprise and a
shock to many of the patients who had
come to think of Palo Seco as their per-
manent home and who must now pie-
pare to accept the outside world.
The outside world had to be educated
too, to accept the fact that Hansen's
disease is not now the dread contagious
disease referred to in the Bible, but is,
in reality, one of the least communicable
of all communicable diseases.
With the present rate of rehabilitation
and the continued cooperation of the
Panama Public Health Service, it has
been possible at Palo Seco to discon-
tinue the use of one three-story dormi-
tory for men and the top floors of two
dormitories for women. The patient
census, which was 103 in 1965. has
been reduced to 71 and soon will go
down to 69. Their ages range from
39 to 96.
Home for these patients is a wind-
swept quadrangle of nine buildings con-
sisting of living (quarters for single
patients, each with a room to him-
self, married patients' apartments, two
churches and a building with a kitchen
and two dining rooms, one for patients
and one for employees. Next door are
the administrative office, dental clinic,
commissary and storerooms, a hospital to
take care of the more seriously ill, and
a clinic and treatment room. A laundry,
which handles 200 pounds of laundry
a day, and a maintenance shop oper-
ated by patients, are under the dining
One of the most important compo-
nents of the hospital is the recreation
building where movies are shown and
where patients can hold dances and
parties, play pool, and entertain their
W( fare and activities programs have
always been of great value, and the
movies, furnished free by film distrib-
utors in Panama, are shown five nights
a week. In recent years there have been
such outings as trips to Fort San Lo-
renzo, sightseeing tours in the Canal
Zone and Panama, picnics at Summit
Gardens, trips through Gaillard Cut
aboard the Panama Canal sightseeing
launch Las Cruces, and celebration of
Panama's Independence holidays and
The staff consists of John R (Tomm\
Thomson, administrative officer; Dr.
Cuillermo E. Cedeiio, who holds an
outpatient clinic four mornings a week
to treat and check patients' progress,
and three registered nurses, Mrs. Mar-
guerite Orr,. Mrs. Lucille Wilson, and
Mrs. Amelia P. McCroartv. nurse super-
visor. In addition, there are nursing as-
sistants, eight kitchen employees, a
clerk t\pist, and Alexander Webster.
who is an assistant to Thomson. A con-
sultant service is available at Corg-as
Hospital with periodic visits from a den-
tist. dermatologist, and orthopedic team.
Life is pleasant at Palo Seco even
for those for whom the new "miracle
drugs" came too late and w\ho show
the marks of the disease. Some of them
are employed as orderlies, waiters, and
maintenance men. Others grow fruit
and vegetables which they sell to the
colony's commissary. Others fish and
sell their catch. The patient payroll
amounts to approximately $1,000 bi-
weekly. Each patient, in addition, re-
ceives a monthly allotment of $2.50
which he can spend in the Palo Seco
Retail Store or draw in cash.
Patients furnish their own clothing.
but this is supplemented by gifts from
individuals, discarded clothing from the
Retail Stores, and unclaimed garments
from the Ancon Laundry.
Others make their own recreation
such as one old man usually found bask-
ing in the morning sunshine reading his
VISITS CLINIC-Dr. Guillermo E. Cedefio,
who holds clinics four times each week at
Palo Seco, leaves the hospital building after
visiting the 30 or more patients who are ill
enough to be hospitalized.
Bible. Although he is 83 \ears old, he
reads without glasses.
Or the active young woman who
designs and transfers pictures to cloth
in yarn and embroidery floss. The work
decorates the wall of her bright, cheer-
And the middle-aged woman, who
is one of those allowed to prepare food
in her room. She is never too bus\
to show off her African violets. The
eggshells on the plants? "Oh, they keep
awaN the insects." she explains.
~~1" JVL 1-IT ----c .,
I a~:~ ~ w-
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION
Felix L. Wilkins
James R. Shurland
Motor Launch Operator
Helper Lock Operator
George A. Jones
Leader Toolroom Attendant
Sidney J. Tivey
Ervin D. Moore
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Adolphus E. lapp
Helper, Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic
Webster F. Marshall
Percival A. Jorda
S IPLY AD 1D U TY S V E
George O. II
Bernard D. Headley
Assistant Retail Store Department Manager
Kenneth H. Weeks
Rupert L. Yard
Motion Picture Projectionist
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Leroy A. Cooper
Dispatcher (Floating Equipment)
Lead Foreman, Carpenter
lames B. Rodney
Walter N. Babb
Navigational Aid Maintenanceman
Philip P. Daniel
Teacher (Elementary L. A. Schools)
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION
Edgar L. Josephs
Frank A. Venture
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Claudius A. Jordan
Rookkeeping Machine Operator
Cecil O. Nlaughn
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Euaska M. Roberts
Edwin D. Milwood
Motor Launch Operator
Darnley G. Rawlins
Henry E. Charles
Andrew E. Watson
Angel Maza R.
Burton L. Powell
General Foreman (Salvage and Diving)
William Wirtz, Jr.
Foreman (Marine Woodworking and
Douglas S. Smith
General Foreman (Locks Operations-Mechanical)
Gabriel C. Adonicam
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Manuel E. Serrano
Motor Launch Operator
S. A. Brathwaite
Lead Foreman (Operations Lock Waall)
Amos N. Blades
Maintenanceman (Rope and Wire Cable)
Joel W. Donawa
Lead Foreman (Operations Lock Wall)
Evans S. McClain
Ricksford D. Rayley
Helper Lock Operator
Asphalt or Cement Worker
Clifford A. Nurse
Darlington L. Bullen
Lodge WV. Waterman
Matthew M. Kelly
Robert J. Blevins
Oliver G. Palerson
Leader Lock Operator-Machinist
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Eustace A. Holmes
Joseph B. Greenidge
Helper Automotive Mechanic (Body and Fender)
Culhert E. Daniel
Ivor A. Reece
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Boiler Tender (High Pressure)
Lucilo H. Hoyte
Supervisory Cargo Checking Assistant
Donald R. Brayton
Railroad Operations Officer
Philmore M. Alexis
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Canon S. Brathwaite
School Bus Driver
SUPPLY AND CO\IMUNITY SERVICE
Marcus A. Grannum
Retail Store Department Manager
Elmer M. Leslie
Jose D. Acosta
Warehouseman (Cold Storage)
Ernesto H. Correa
Edward C. Gittens
G. Clair Lawrence
Chief Foreman Laborer-Cleaner
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Rolston G. Harewood
Lee R. Gittens
David S. Facey
Helper Electronics Mechanic
David A. Mlannings
Edward G. Coyle
Donald E. Judson
Power System Dispatcher
Clevlan A. Small
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A ministrative Assistant
Robert C. Calvit
Edward K. Wilburn
Lovestan F. Samuel
Laundry Equipment Repairman
Federico A. Valencia
Engineering Draftsman (Civil)
Stephen R. Gordon
Asphalt or Concrete Mixing Plant Operator
Arcadio M. Matamoros
George N. Watson
Automotive Equipment Operator
Carlos A. Rios
John 1i. Flynn
James U. Samuels
Residual Fuel Treatment Plant Operator
Joseph F. Watsnn
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Frederick W. liolmberg
Huhert E. Thompson
Clifton C. Nolan
26 MAY 1969
50 ,earj A4go
THE PANAMA CANAL Mechanical
Division was busy 50 years ago rebuild-
ing five former German-flag ships which
had been seized during World War I off
the South American coast and interned.
The first was the steamer Callao,
formerly the Sierra Cdrdoba of the North
German Lloyd Steamship Co. and once
one of the best equipped passenger
vessels of this company plying between
the port cities of Bremen and Buenos
The vessel was towed from Lima,
Peru, to Balboa by the dredge Culebra
and rebuilt at Balboa by the Canal in
6 months. All five of the ships had
been systematically sabotaged by their
former German crews. The Callao was
completed in April 1919.
The new cold storage plant at Mount
Hope was used by the Commissary Divi-
sion for the first time in February 1919.
It was one of the finest of its kind in the
world, according to the PANAMA CANAL
The total number of oceangoing ships
using the Panama Canal from August
1914 to May 1, 1919, was 7,632, accord-
ing to figures printed in the PANAMA
CANAL RECORD. The number using the
Canal in the month of January 1919
totaled 171 exclusive of U.S. Government
and non-oceangoing vessels.
25 ,Ieard A4go
A 33 PERCENT increase in the overall
food prices in the Canal Zone commis-
saries since Pearl Harbor was reported at
Balboa Heights in April 1944. The
report said that food led the advance
among all basic living cost items both on
the Isthmus and in the United States but
that a higher percentage for the Canal
Zone was caused by increased handling
charges resulting from disruptions in
shipping routine by the war.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent
to the U.S. Senate the nomination of
Brig. Gen. Joseph C. M. Mehaffey to be
Governor of the Panama Canal. He had
served as engineer of maintenance since
September 1941 and succeeded Gov.
Glen E. Edgerton April 19, 1944. In
May 1944, it was announced that
Col. Francis K. Newcomer had been
appointed engineer of maintenance for
the Panama Canal.
Headlight paint, used to keep auto-
mobile headlights at a minimum during
the years the wartime blackout had been
in effect, was being removed from Canal
Zone vehicles in April 1944.
Possible reduction in U.S. Navy per-
sonnel stationed in Panama and the
Caribbean area was voiced in Wash-
ington by Vice Adm. F. J. Morne, vice
chief of naval operations.
":::* *" --. "" ..
BALBOA FIRE STATION IN 1919-This was the latest in fire
fighting equipment as the horse drawn apparatus was discontinued
in 1918 with the installation of a hose truck at Gatun. The Canal
Zone Fire Department was established in 1905 with one man, a chief.
10 ,feard ,go
WITH THE EXCEPTION of a few
isolated pieces of equipment, all house-
hold electrical equipment on the Pacific
side had been converted by the end of
March 1959 from 25-cycle power to
60-cycle operation. The principal re-
maining users of 25-cycle power on the
Pacific side were the locks where con-
version was in progress, and Miraflores
Filtration Plant, which was scheduled
for conversion soon.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh,
arrived in Balboa in April 1959, aboard
the Royal Yacht Britannia. It was his
second visit to the Canal, but the yacht's
first call in Isthmian waters and her first-
transit of the Panama Canal.
Final tests were being made in March
on the air-conditioning system in the
Administration Building at Balboa
Heights. The operation of the new sys-
tem was initiated on a floor-to-floor basis
and the installation of lighting fixtures
was being completed.
Bids were being asked by the Panama
Canal for replacements for the 50-year-
old Panama Canal towing locomotives.
It was to be the largest single replace-
ment order ever to be placed for Canal
equipment. Also, work was starting on
the construction of the bridge over the
Panama Canal at Balboa with awarding
of a contract for the east approach.
* i7r i
W^ r' ?
FIFTY YEARS LATER-The trees are taller, an addition to the
station has been added and vast changes are seen in the equipment.
In 1956 all fire services were consolidated under one division. Today,
Canal Fire Division consists of 12 companies and 152 employees.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 27