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Front Cover 1
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Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
Back Cover 1
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
IN THIS ISSUE
Living and ,W -Itj her
Welcomwi (po,, f
Whale oh e Loose
New D for Junior Collg
uj6t (or Po.teryit
t ~ .
ROBERT J. FLEMING. JR., Governor-President l Publications Editors:
W. P. LEBER. Lieutenant Governor' *k ---- JOSEPH CONNOR and GURLERMO RODoo VA~DS
WILL AREY Oleili Puima Canal Cpanyu Publiatio Editorial Assistants:
Panama Canal Information Officer Publised Menhly at Balbo Heights, C.. Z EUCE RICHARD. TOBI BnrL, and TOMAS A. CUPAs
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope,Canal Zone
On dle at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days alter publication date at 5 ecat each.
Subscrptions. $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C. Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C. Z.
Canal Employees Support
IN THIS MONTH'S COVER PHOTOGRAPH, Mrs.
Thelma Bull, a statistical assistant on the Executive
Planning staff at Balboa Heights, examines with Dr. Ale-
jandro M6ndez, Director of the National Museum of
Panama, a piece of polychrome Indian pottery which she
discovered near ChamB and presented to the Museum.
Other artifacts she has added to the Museum collection
include clay utensils, carved figurines, shell beads and a
gold breastplate from the burial of a pre-Colombian
shaman, or medicine man, at Venado Beach, on the
Mrs. Bull is one of many Canal employees who has
long taken an intensive scientific interest in the pre-
Colombian and colonial history of the saga-rich Isthmus.
Scientific articles of lasting value have been written by
members of the Archaeological Society of Panama, a
group organized on the Canal Zone in 1949 which counts
Dr. M6ndez among its members. All qualified persons of
allied interests on the Isthmus of Panama are eligible for
Among other members of the group who have made
donations to the Museum collection are Gerald Doyle,
a Canal architect; Philip L. Dade, Chief of the Civil
Defense Unit; and Mrs. Eva M. Harte, linen supply
supervisor at Gorgas Hospital.
Any archaeological work undertaken in the Republic of
Panama requires a permit from the national government.
Other Canal Zonians who are not necessarily archae-
ologists nevertheless share an interest in the ethnology,
natural science and contemporary art of the Isthmus.
Many of them have expressed this by joining the Friends
of the National Museum of Panama, a group organized
5 years ago to assist the work of the Museum by providing
extra funds and personal service.
This group composed of Panamanians, members of the
foreign colonies in the Republic and residents of the
Canal Zone also welcomes people of similar interests to
membership. Its headquarters are at the Museum on
Cuba Avenue at 30th Street, in Panama City.
Common Interests-Shared Experiences----------- 3
In Boating, In Civic Organizations--------- 4
As Generous Children, Good Neighbors-------- 5
Professional Interests, Charitable Impulses------ 6
Horseback Riding, Bowling --- ---- 7
Cooperative Training, Hobby Interests--------- 8
Athletics, Joint Medical Effort -------- 9
As School Children---------------------- 10
Debutantes for Charity_--- ------ 11
12,000 Welcomed--------------- 12
New Dean for Junior College --------- 14
Dean Hackett Retiring _------- ---------- 15
Worth Knowing-- --------------- 16
Retirements ---------------- --- 16
"Thar She Blows" -------------------- 17
Safety ------------------------- 18
Promotions and Transfers ------ -----------19
Canal History----------------------------- 20
Anniversaries ------------------ 21
Shipping ---------------------------- 22
AUGUST 3, 1962
Brownies from Troop 79 of Balboa Union Church are among the many Zone residents Youngsters from Panama and the Canal
who have visited the famous Presidential Palace in Panama. Zone learn to swim at Balboa YMCA.
Common Interests Shared Experiences
THE INTEREST of the men, women, and children associated with the
Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government in Isthmian life,
culture, art, history, archeology, language, and many other areas is demon-
strated constantly by their extensive participation in various activities and
events in the Republic of Panama and the Canal Zone.
In the area of culture, there are many occasions when Panamanians and
Zonians demonstrate their common interests and share opportunities to
exchange ideas and knowledge. Zonians frequently attend cultural exhibits
and activities in Panama, sharing their enthusiasm for such events with other
Socially, both as individuals and in groups, Canal personnel and citizens
of the Republic mingle freely, visiting in each other's homes, attending func-
tions to which both are invited, and meeting for casual conversation in both
formal and informal settings.
In these activities, Panamanians and Canal personnel share their cultural
heritage and enthusiasm from the cradle to the grave. Youngsters attend
school together to obtain an education, spare time activities such as Scouting
bring them together frequently, and adult pursuits continue to cement
understanding and appreciation developed through long years of association.
On the next several pages of the REVIEW a few of the many activities which
lead to such associations in pursuits of common interest are presented. There
are many which are not mentioned, but which also contribute to Isthmian life,
but those described and pictured are good examples of the hundreds of
friendly daily contacts between Panamanians and Zonians on the Isthmus
Mrs. Pat Morgan, wife of a retired Canal
employee, is one of a number of Zonians
to be awarded the Vasco Nfiiez de
Balboa by the Government of Panama for
contributions to life on the Isthmus.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
HUNDREDS of amateur, leisure-time
sailors from both Panama and the Canal
Zone have become qualified small-boat
operators through participation in a
10-week course in piloting, seamanship
and small boat handling offered each
year by the Canal Zone Pacific Power
Squadron, local unit of the United
States Power Squadrons.
The course of instruction is free and
language is no problem, despite the fact
that most of the lessons are given in
English. One year in Cristobal the
lessons were translated on the spot by
Shown in the picture is Panama Canal
pilot Capt. S. F. Mason, right, explain-
ing parts of a pelorus or dummy com-
pass, to some of the students taking the
course in Cristobal. Standing, left to
right, are Guillermo G6mez, Panama-
nian employee of the Italian Line; Dr.
Willard French, of Coco Solo Hospital;
J. B. Coffey, superintendent of the
Panama Canal Printing Plant; Arthur
Albright, electrical supervisor at Gatun
Locks; W. R. Byrd, assistant freight
agent, Terminals Division; seated left to
right, Hubert Kam, of the Goodyear
Rubber Co., Colon Free Zone, and Jos6
Van Beverhoudt, Colon importer.
The popularity of boating on the
Isthmus has made it one of the many
activities in which Zonians and Panama-
nians participate in their spare time.
There are frequent fishing trips by
boating friends from both the Republic
and the Zone, as well as skindiving,
water skiing, swimming, and other
aquatic sport events.
-- ivc Club Aiemberikip
THE CRISTOBAL-COLON ROTARY
CLUB, founded by a group of Atlantic-
side businessmen in 1921, long has been
a constructive force in building an
excellent record of accomplishment and
cooperation between residents of the
Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama.
Approximately half of the 63 present
members of the club are Panamanian
citizens, while the other half includes
citizens of the United States, including
Axton T. Jones, Director of the Trans-
portation and Terminals Bureau of the
Panama Canal Company, and several
other Canal officials.
Herman Henriquez, a partner in the
Isthmian firm of Henriquez & Co., S. A.,
was speaker at a recent meeting of the
club. Although now a resident of Pan-
ama City, Mr. Henriquez was one of
the early members of the 41-year-old
club and continues to maintain his
membership in it.
With Mr. Henriquez at the speaker's
table in the accompanying photo are
Bernard Femminella, U.S. Vice Consul
in Colon; R. W. Owen, manager of
C. Fernie & Co., and president of
the club; Julio Dominguez and Lino
Sanfilippo C., Colon businessmen.
The Gold Coast club is only one of
a number of Isthmian civic organiza-
tions with bi-national membership, its
sister club in Panama City also having
members from both the Canal organiza-
tion and the Republic of Panama.
4 AUGUST 3, 1962
WHAT HAPPENS when the cook gives
the king Purple People Eater Pie-when
the king's favorite is Pickled Bees
Knees Pie? One answer (and not neces-
sarily the only one) is that the Bella
Vista Children's Home in Panama
receives a contribution of $7.40.
This, at least, was the answer that
resulted from the recent production of
King Cole and the Witch Doctor, a saga
written, directed, and presented by a
group of Pacific-side children of Canal
personnel for their own amusement and
the financial benefit of the Children's
Members of the cast are shown here
in their costumes, assembled from their
own belongings-and anything else they
could find. From left to right, the youth-
ful writers, actors, actresses, producers,
and stagehands are: David Steers, page;
John Arey, ambassador; Tommy Moyer,
second page; Steve Moyer, guard; Philip
Steers III, director; Vicki Harrison, the
king; Anne Harrison, guard; Bonnie
Leber, the witch doctor; and Yolan
Steers, the cook.
The play was presented at the home
of Comptroller and Mrs. Philip L.
Steers, Jr., after nine rehearsals. After
the performance, refreshments were
served for both the participants and
the 26 enthusiastic members of the
A second performance was given later
in the month at the Bella Vista Chil-
dren's Home, thus giving the children
there an opportunity to view the saga
developed and presented on their behalf
by the Canal youngsters.
PHILIP L. DADE, Chief of the Canal Zone Civil Defense
Unit, amateur archeologist, and weekend farmer, is one of
a number of Zone residents who own land and homes in the
Republic of Panama.
Mr. Dade owns a small farm in Cocl6 which he visits nearly
every weekend. Since acquiring the farm some years ago, he
has planted a number of fruit trees on it, spent considerable
time and money experimenting with various grain and vege-
table crops, and has acquired numerous friends among per-
manent residents of the area, many of whom he has assisted
in developing new planting methods. He also has assisted them
by supplying various types of corn and vegetable seed for
them to use.
Cooperation with the local small farmers has not been
Mr. Dade's only contribution to the area, however. He has
undertaken to improve the facilities of the two-classroom Cocl6
school, which is located along the Inter-American Highway
about 6 miles west of Penonom6. Mr. Dade bought enough
excess school desks from the Canal Zone to provide one for
each of the approximately 90 children, had them trucked to
the school, then hired a carpenter to rebuild the old desks
into seats for the new desks, all at his own expense. He is
shown in one of the two refurnished classrooms.
Why did he do it and why does he continue his aid to the
school? (He is now planning to supply some trees and shrubs
for the yard.) He says: "These people are my neighbors,
many of them are friends, and I treat them the same as
I would any neighbor anywhere. I like them, and, besides,
I feel like doing it."
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5
SW I j
TYPICAL of the many professional
organizations and individuals in Pan-
ama and the Canal Zone which join
forces to develop ideas, plan programs,
and advance public knowledge of their
special fields of interest are the libra-
rians who formed the Association of
Graduate Librarians of the Isthmus of
The Asociaci6n Bibliotecarias Gra-
duadas del Istmo de Panama, as the
bilingual organization is known in
THE NATIONAL RED CROSS of Panama benefitted in cash
recently when a group of women from the Panama community
of Las Cumbres and vicinity gathered at the Club Campestre
in Las Cumbres for a benefit tea during which they played
canasta and bingo. Those participating included a number of
U.S. citizens whose husbands are employed by the Canal.
A committee representing the entire group later presented
a check for $200 to Mrs. Roberto F. Chiari, wife of the Pres-
ident of Panama, who is president of the Panama Red Cross.
Residents of Las Cumbres, many of them North American
families associated with the Canal, often meet at social and
cultural affairs held in the community and women of the com-
munity frequently join forces to work for a number of welfare
projects and community activities.
AUGUST 3, 1962
Spanish, was formed as a highlight of
National Library Week in 1961, the
first year that libraries in Panama and
the Zone joined in observance of this
Objectives of the organization, as set
forth by the first president, Mrs. Carmen
de Herrera, Director of Libraries of the
University of Panama, are to advance
the profession of librarianship and to
work enthusiastically for the improve-
ment of library service on the Isthmus
Mrs. Eleanor Burnham, Canal Zone
Librarian, served as vice-president of
the new group and was one of the
leaders in its organization.
The regular meetings of the group
provide an excellent opportunity for
the librarians to discuss problems of
mutual concern and develop programs
of mutual interest.
The organizing meetings were held
at the University of Panama Library, in
front of which the accompanying pic-
ture was taken. Those in the photo,
from left to right, are Mrs. Herrera;
Mrs. Isaura de De las Casas, USIS
librarian; Miss Ana Maria Ja6n, Direc-
tor of the Panama National Library;
Mrs. Burnham; Mrs. Evelyn Branstetter,
Command Librarian, Albrook Air Force
Base; and Miss Shirley Welshinger,
formerly Staff Librarian, USARCARIB,
Fort Amador, now Librarian, La Biblio-
teca de las Am6ricas, Fort Culick.
HORSEBACK RIDING, like a number
of other outdoor activities, has a popular
following in both the Canal Zone and
among Panama Canal personnel. Groups
of Zone residents and Panamanian cit-
izens join on weekends to ride along
beautiful bridal trails near Old Panama
where the Club de Equitaci6n d4
Panama Viejo has its headquarters.
Like all horse owners, members o
the Club de Equitaci6n take consider
able pride in their mounts, which ar
both Panamanian bred and imported
from the United States and other coun-
tries. There are several riding clubs in
the Canal Zone, members of which fre-
quently join their fellow enthusiasts in
the Republic to display their skill and
enjoy a ride. Zone riders have attended
a number of fairs in Panama, giving
demonstrations of horsemanship.
Riding thus has joined golf, tennis,
swimming, boating, and many other
activities which have brought residents
of the Canal Zone and Panama together
in the terminal city areas and the
interior for many years.
Mr. and Mrs. Tulio Gerbaud of
Panama are in charge of the Club de
Equitaci6n de Panama Viejo, several
members of which are shown riding
past the famous ruins of the tower of
the Old Panama Cathedral destroyed
in the raid by pirate Henry Morgan on
the city in 1617. Members of the club
include Mr. and Mrs. Gerbaud's daugh-
ters, Maria Eugenia and Annette, Yo-
landa de Urriola, Diane Boulger, Linda
Green, Mrs. Berta Lewis, and Devan
A GROUP of Canal Zone teenagers are
learning the ABC's of judo these days
from H6ctor SAnchez, a University of
Panama student who teaches the art of
judo at the Balboa YMCA, Monday,
Tuesday, and Wednesday afternoons.
Mr. Sanchez learned much of his skill
in judo from William O'Sullivan, official
translator for the Panama Canal, who
coaches an adult class in judo.
This Japanese art of weaponless self-
defense has been a hobby of numerous
U.S. citizens and Panamanians on the
Isthmus for many years and for the past
several years has been a job require-
ment for members of the Panama
National Guard and the Canal Zone
The Canal Zone Judo Club was
formally organized and affiliated with
the Panama Judo Association in 1956.
Each participant in the judo training
classes or performances wears a belt
signifying the degrees of skill in the
art. The belts are worn with the Judo-gi,
or practice costumes, such as Mr.
SAnchez is wearing here.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
t I -4V
THE PROBLEMS involved in creating
and maintaining a healthy environment
on the swampy, pestilence-ridden Isth-
mus of Panama were some of the first
to be tackled by technicians of the
United States after it assumed the role
of Isthmian Canal builder.
Cooperation and joint effort between
health authorities in the Republic of
Panama and those in the Canal Zone
has marked this effort from the earliest
days of the construction effort. Under
the guidance and leadership of Col.
William Crawford Gorgas and Isthmian
medical officials, malaria was reduced
to a minor health menace, dysentary
was virtually banished, and yellow fever
all but disappeared.
The dread yellow fever, first beaten
into submission to medical technology
in Cuba by U.S. doctors and later so
successfully attacked on the Isthmus,
was a recurring problem in Panama
until after World War II, however,
when a joint effort by the United States
and Panama health experts eliminated
the last vestiges of it.
In a determined onslaught, the co-
operating health experts conducted an
Isthmian-wide campaign, tracing the
yellow fever-bearing mosquito Aedes
A, gypti to its breeding habitat and
destroying it. Not a single case of yellow
fever has been reported on the Isthmus
since 1949 and not one of the disease-
carrying mosquitos has been found since
In the accompanying photo, Dr.
Pedro Galindo, well-known Panamanian
entomologist, is shown with Dr. K. O.
Courtney, former member of the Canal
Zone Health Bureau, taking a blood
specimen from a resident of Bocas del
Toro province during the anti-yellow
Joint efforts of Panama and Zone
authorities to improve health conditions
on the Isthmus continue today. Disease
outbreaks in either jurisdiction are
reported promptly to officials of the
other jurisdiction. This cooperation and
mutual effort, on both an official and
unofficial level, brings together many
United States and Panamanian citizens
with mutual professional interests and
results in frequent contact between
them. At present, authorities in Panama
and the Zone are studying the problem
of malaria on the Isthmus and hope to
develop plans which will eradicate it,
just as yellow fever was eradicated
more than a dozen years ago.
STAMPS provide a common interest for
a group of Canal employees and citizens
of Panama who gather twice each
month at the JWB-USO to discuss the
fine points of stamp collecting, trade
stamps, and exchange ideas.
The Caribbean Stamp Club has
approximately 50 members, with more
than half of them being citizens of Pan-
ama and most of the others from the
Canal organization. A similar group, the
Cristobal Stamp Club, operates on the
Atlantic side of the Isthmus, also with
Hobbies such as stamp collecting are
a constant incentive for association
between citizens of the United States
and Panama who live on the Isthmus.
The pursuit of such common interests
frequently result in lifelong social and
8 AUGUST 3, 1962
BOWLING, like many other sports,
attracts citizens of both Panama and
the Canal Zone to its ranks as partici-
pants. The members of the teams affi-
liated with the Pan Canal Bowling Asso-
ciation League meet at regular intervals
in the Bowling Centers on both sides of
the Isthmus, for both practice and
Men and women both take part in
this popular sport, with some mixed
teams participating and others made
up of men only or women only. The
appeal of the challenging pins knows no
language or cultural barriers.
Bowling has been going on for a long
time in the Canal Zone, the first set of
bowling lanes having been installed in
the Balboa Clubhouse in the 1920s.
There are a number of clubs in oper-
ation today, with most of them being
organized along lines similar to that of
the Balboa Men's League, members of
which are shown in action here. This
league has 12, 5-man teams and meets
throughout the year in the Balboa
Bowling Center. More than half of the
60 team members are Panamanian
citizens and most of the remainder are
U.S. citizens employed by the Canal
COOPERATIVE training and instruc-
tion of personnel from the Republic of
Panama and the Canal Zone long has
been an established practice with the
Panama Canal Company and Canal
Canal Zone firefighters and bombers
from the Republic of Panama have fre-
quent contacts with each other and once
each year join in sponsoring a Fire Pre-
vention Week aimed at reducing fire
hazards in the Republic and the Zone.
Police officers also have frequent con-
tact through cooperative efforts to pre-
vent and reduce crime on the Isthmus.
There also are occasional pistol matches
between members of the two groups at
the Canal Zone Police Firing Range.
In this age of atomic and hydrogen
bombs, Civil Defense also has become
a cooperative endeavor, with Zone
authorities cooperating with Panama-
nian agencies to provide training in
radiological defense measures necessary
to protection of the public in any attack
with such weapons.
In this training class for Panamanian
bombers, sponsored by the Canal Zone
Civil Defense unit and presented at
Fort Clayton, the Panama firefighters
learned how to operate and read the
delicate instruments which measure the
amount of radioactivity in a given area.
Luis Carlos Endara, Second Com-
mandant of the Bomberos and Chief of
Civil Defense in Panama, is having his
watch checked for radioactivity in the
accompanying photograph, taken during
the training class. Philip L. Dade, Chief
of the Canal Zone Civil Defense unit is
standing to the left of Mr. Endara.
More than 40 radiological monitoring
points now are maintained on the Isth-
mus, including a number operated by
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9
READIN', writing' and 'rithmetic are a
cinch in both English and Spanish for
scores of North American youngsters
from both the Canal Zone and Panama
who are enrolled in schools in the
Republic of Panama.
When teachers and classmates speak
only Spanish, Junior from Ancon or
Miss Boo from Balboa learn the lan-
guage "rApidamente" or they are left
out of the fun. As a result, the children
who go to school in Panama are grow-
ing up with a fluent command of
Spanish and even better-a host of
friends from all parts of the Republic.
To the many North American chil-
dren who attend school in Panama, the
Republic and its people long will be a
second home and a foster family. They
never will be strangers in the land.
The Colegio La Salle in Panama
has the greatest number of young
North Americans registered as students.
Twenty-five youngsters whose parents
are U.S. citizens living in the Canal
Zone and Panama attend classes there
during the regular school year. In Cole-
gio Javier there are 10 U.S. citizen-
students and in Colegio San Agustin,
7 are enrolled.
The Liceo de Sefioritas, a school for
girls, has two young ladies who are
students from the United States enrolled
for regular classes.
The Kindergarten Mercedes, on Ave-
nida M6xico, has 19 children of U.S.
citizens who are learning pre-school
manners and discipline along with boys
and girls whose parents are Panamanian
citizens. The Canal Zone children in-
clude Sue Alexander, daughter of Mr.
and Mrs. Allen Alexander, Assistant to
the Panama Canal Information Officer
and Richard Lester, son of Mr. and Mrs.
Richard Lester, both of whom are em-
ployed by the Canal organization, and
David Steers, son of Comptroller and
Mrs. Phillip L. Steers, Jr.
The University of Panama also has
a number of North American students
attending regular classes and several
others have enrolled recently in regular
classes in order to learn Spanish.
Thus, from kindergarten through col-
lege age, children of Canal employees
develop the knowledge and understand-
ing of Panamanian social, cultural, and
educational life which contributes so
much to common understanding and
respect between peoples the world over.
10 AUGUST 3, 1962
Zaidbe Sucre Camarano
Sandy Schmidt Hutchins
Julie Lynn Floyd
Maria del C. Mir6 Quezada A.
One of the Isthmus'
social events of the year
is the formal introduc-
tion of young ladies to
Society. This year 20
young women from
Panama and the Canal
Zone made their debuts
through Las Damas
in many social and
charity fields, Las Da-
mas Guadalupanas are
perhaps best known for
feeding breakfasts every
day to needy pre-school
Mechita Luz Clare
Maria Esperanza Lavergne
children in the Mara-
fi6n district of Panama.
The pre-debut activi-
ties of the young
women were climaxed
the night of July 20
when they made their
formal debuts at the
Debutante's Ball at the
Union Club. Included
among the 20 were Miss
Debutante of the Year,
and Miss Eleanor Flem-
ing, daughter of Gov-
Dalys Bremer Eacoffery
Lee Ann Petrok
Lee Ann Petrosky
THE P.AAMA CAiAL REVIE 11
Guides Edward Michaelis and Sandra Wallace discuss Canal with two
passengers on the tourist ship Himalaya.
MORE THAN 12,000 visitors were
welcomed to the Isthmus and the Canal
Zone last month by the new Canal
Zone Guide Service, as members of it
assumed responsibility for -.'r, iing and
serving Zone sightseers, whether local
residents or travelers from afar.
During the first 2 weeks of the Guide
Service operation, the seven guides then
on duty provided individual service to
Guide Supervisor Robert Byrne explains operation of locks to visiting Peruvian
a 'a mr'1". 1
Guade Fred Beieil discus.,e histun of murals in Ad~ istration Building with visitors from the 1United States.
6,273 Isthmian visitors. They provided lem Ruys, and Oriana. School children
information, advice, descriptive litera- and teachers from the Republic of Pan-
ture. and talks about the Canal. the ama including a ground of 150 teachers
Zone, and the Republic of Panama. The
pace set during the first 2 weeks con-
tinued during the remainder of July,
with an average of more than 400
visitors a day being served by the guides
in a 7-day-a-week operation.
Visitors included several thousand
ships' passengers arriving in Balboa and
Cristobal aboard tourist vessels, includ-
ing the Himalaya, Reina del Mar. Wil-
from Colon schools, also were among
the visitors served by the guides. There
also were Panamanian newsmen, busi-
nessmen, and other touring groups
from the United States, high-ranking
guests invited by Governor Fleming,
military personnel from the United
States, Peru, and other countries of the
Western Hemisphere, and numerous
others from all walks of life.
During rest period from guide duties at Locks and !r points of interest, Guide Fanny Hernmndez takes
turn at InformatiorJ k at Balboa Heights.
AucuST 3, 1962
u -- .-[,i^;
.- TE PANAMA C RE 13
THE PANAMA CANAL. REVIEW 13
Guide Alice Fulleton points out some Isthmian geographic features on relief
map in Civil Affairs Building during tour by students and teachers from the
Repiblica de China School of Panama City.
Panama school children hear Spanish-language explanation of locks
operations by Guide Edward Michaelis during visit to Miraflores Locks.
Empl.Tee of the Balboa Retail Store and Panamanian guests board Las Cru-
ire. lo partial transit of Canal with Guides Michaelis and Wallace escorting.
- *" -*-t
Dr. Charles L. Latimer
DR. CHARLES L. LATIMER, who
will succeed Dean Hackett as head of
the Canal Zone Junior College this
month, claims to have been a teacher
since the age of 8 years. He also claims
to have been an honest-to-goodness
cottonpicker-bagging 200 pounds of
the fluffy fiber in a 12-hour, 60-cent day
of work at the age of 9 in his native
His claim to an early start in the
teaching profession is based on the role
he played as a barefoot boy in a 2-room
South Carolina school. Having just been
placed in the fourth grade from the
second-skipping the third-he was sent
for an hour each day to teach the
school's fifth grade pupils to read.
Preparing to observe his 38th birth-
day on September 13-exactly 1 month
from the day he becomes Dean of the
Canal Zone Junior College-Dr. Latimer
can look back at a career in which he
was graduated from high school at 15
and the College of Charleston, S.C., at
18, followed by 4 years on active duty
with the U.S. Naval Reserve, in which
he now holds the rank of Commander.
(The new dean and his wife also will
observe their 15th wedding anniversary
After visiting the Canal Zone last
February in connection with his pro-
posed employment as Dean of the
Junior College, Dr. Latimer said he
was "favorably impressed by the Canal
Zone operation, by the school system,
and by the personnel in the schools."
"It was obvious," he said, "that here
was a going concern and one with which
a professional person could be asso-
ciated with pride. I saw that the teach-
ers were enthusiastic and enjoying their
teaching, and that the students were
working industriously and happily."
Having met Governor Fleming dur-
ing the 5-year stay in Europe which he
now is ending, Dr. Latimer said he
remembers the Governor "had a tre-
mendous interest in the schools, and in
young people, and also a great interest
in host-nation relations, building up
good rapport between the Americans
and the French in the Verdun area,"
where the Governor then was serving.
The new Junior College Dean says
he expects no great changes in opera-
tional procedures at the college. "What
I saw of the operation was good, and
I just expect to attempt to make it even
better if I can. I am pleased to see
faculty members with such good train-
ing, experience, and real teaching
Praising Dean Hackett for "the care-
ful manner in which he has prepared
for his successor," Dr. Latimer said of
the retiring Junior College Dean: "His
21 years of successful leadership will
continue to show in the things we do
in the years to come. I will attempt to
show the interest in each student that
he has demonstrated, but his personal
knowledge of the entire history of the
college and of all its graduates and
former students will be impossible to
match and hard to approximate."
The new Junior College Dean has
taught at the elementary, high school,
and college level, as well as serving
as an educational administrator. The
academic training which led to his
bachelor's degree at an age when most
boys and girls are just getting ready to
enter college did not end with that
degree. In 1948 he received a master
of arts degree in social sciences from
Harvard University and 2 years later
was awarded a master of education
degree from the same institution. He
received his doctor of education degree
from Columbia University Teachers
College in 1951.
Married and the father of a 10-year-
old son and 5-year-old daughter, Dr.
Latimer is looking forward to adding
Spanish to the German, French, Dutch,
and English he already speaks. Both
he and his wife expect to master the
language with relative ease, however,
inasmuch as they already read it.
Dr. John L. Steele, Director of the
U.S. Army Dependents' Education
Group, whom Dr. Latimer has served
as Chief of the Instructional Services
Branch in France, Germany, Italy, and
Ethiopia, has written of the new Junior
College Dean's work in Europe:
"He has done brilliant work here,
taking a strong lead in pushing every
facet of his work to new ranges of
comprehensive scope and new levels
of high professional competence ....
Many of the most valuable programs
recently introduced in our schools stem
from his energetic and competent
Dr. Latimer, his wife Alice Louise,
son James, and daughter Mary Louise
are scheduled to arrive in the Canal
Zone August 13.
14 AUGUST 3. 1962
... and Going
Mr. Junior College
A MAN WHOSE NAME has become
virtually synonymous with the Canal
Zone Junior College during the 26 years
he has been associated with it as
instructor and dean will leave the school
this month, rightfully proud of his long
career with Canal Zone schools.
Dean Roger C. Hackett has been
more than an administrator and edu-
cator at the Junior College. He was
instrumental in the organization of the
Junior College Student Association,
which has played an important role in
life at the college. He also assisted in
establishment of the Tropical Colle-
gian, the college publication, and the
Conquistador, the College yearbook.
Not content with the two college
publications, the energetic dean long
has written and edited The Spotlight,
a mimeographed newsletter loaded to
the end of each page with the minutae
of accomplishments and successes of
former Junior College students and fre-
quently including personal observations
and comments by Dean Hackett.
Always vigorous, intent on his pur-
suit of the moment, and deeply inter-
ested in the training, education, and
activities of the young people with
whom he came in such constant contact.
Dean Hackett came to the Canal Zone
as a teacher in 1930, joined the faculty
of the new Junior College in 1935, was
named chairman of the college faculty
in 1941, and became the first fulltime
dean in 1943.
Officially retired last March, Dean
Hackett was asked to stay through the
remainder of the regular school year
and the summer session of the college
before terminating his long service
with the school system. He and Mrs.
Hackett will leave the Isthmus this
month and plan to make their home in
Few, if any, of the 3,750 full-time day
students and 10,000 part-time extension
division and summer session students
who have attended the college during
Dean Hackett's tenure there ever would
have suspected that this graying, schol-
arly man once served as a seaman on an
oil tanker and as an attendant on a
cattle boat. He did both, however, and
to hear him relate the resulting experi-
ences today is to live them with him
again, so vivid are his comments.
His first tour at sea, as servant to
600 hungry, bawling steers bound for
the English market, ended when he
"jumped ship" in Liverpool as a prelude
to visiting Paris to see the Olympic
games. He later wangled half-fare pas-
sage back to the United States as a
He abandoned the sea for the class-
room for a number of years after that,
but in the summer of 1933, while em-
ployed as a history teacher in Cristobal
High School, he joined a tanker as an
ordinary seaman. The future college
dean made no attempt to match the
performance of the crew member he
replaced, however, that worthy having
been removed from the vessel at Cris-
tobal to be returned to Chicago to face
a murder charge.
In addition to his interests and activi-
ties on behalf of the Junior College,
Dean Hackett has taken a lively interest
in the Isthmian Historical Society and
this year is serving as president, after
several years of service in other offices.
A current pet project of the retiring
dean-but one he regretfully admits has
not been completed or even very far
advanced thus far-is to trace the history
of famous Isthmian place names.
But just as his major interest has been
the Junior College and the students who
have obtained part of their educations
there, so, too, does his conversation
inevitably turn to the school's activities
and the careers of graduates. In 1941,
when he became chairman of the
faculty, day class enrollment stood at
168; last year, as he rounded out his
last full year as dean, day class enroll-
ment was 391 and 359 night students
were enrolled in the extension division,
for a total of 750.
Dean Hackett also looks back with
sincere interest and rightful pride at
the many students who have attended
the college as a prelude to more
advanced education and high scholastic
achievements. Approximately 35 former
students have earned doctors' degrees,
either in medicine or the more general
field of philosophy. A number also have
been elected to such highly regarded
college honor societies as Phi Beta
Kappa and Sigma Psi, while others have
achieved marked success in business
or Government service. Many former
Junior College students now are
employed by the Canal organization.
With Dean Hackett's departure from
the Isthmus, the Canal Zone will lose
one of its most respected and useful
citizens; a man of whom his successor
says: "Dean Hackett has been pro-
viding me with copies of reports, forms,
and statements of policy and proce-
dure," acknowledging that this is giving
him extensive and continuous prepara-
tion for the duties he will assume this
All who have known Dean Hackett
through the years would fully expect
such attention to detail from this man,
whose passion for hard work and con-
tinuous effort has been exceeded only
by his delight and enchantment with
the educational process-the sure sign
of a real teacher.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Worth knowing ...
THE STOCKHOLDER of the Panama
Canal Company, Cyrus Roberts Vance,
who assumed office as Secretary of the
Army on July 5, visited the Panama Canal
2 weeks after assuming his new duties.
During a brief trip to the Isthmus, Stock-
holder Vance, in dark suit in photo at right
toured Miraflores Locks and made a partial
transit of the Canal aboard the sightseeing
launch Las Cruces. Shown with him in the
locks control house are Gov. and Mrs.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr., on the extreme right
and left; Gen. George H. Decker, retiring
U.S. Army Chief of Staff, and Mrs. Decker;
Frank Dolan, control house operator, and
members of the Canal Zone Guide Service.
FRAMED AGAINST the Isthmian sky,
employees of Bildon, Inc., are shown
below hard at work on the "reconductor-
ing" of the 44,000-volt transmission line
between Miraflores Electric Substation
and the Balboa Substation.
The line, which carries electrical
current from Madden Power Station
and Cocoli into the Pacific terminal area,
is being revamped to improve voltage
regulation in the Balboa area.
When work on the project is com-
pleted about the middle of this month,
the entire line from Madden Power
Station to the Balboa Substation will
have been reconductored. The work
on the line is part of the continuing
60-cycle conversion program.
RETIRE MENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of June to the em-
ployees listed below, with their positions
at time of retirement and years of
Carlos Antioco, Laborer, Schools Division;
14 years, 7 months, 24 days.
Philip A. Clarke, Clerk, Railroad Division;
31 years, 10 months, 8 days.
Ruth C. Crozier, Elementary and Sec-
ondary School Teacher, Schools Divi-
sion: 33 years, 5 months, 19 days.
Robert A. Engelke, Supervisory Admin-
istrative Services Assistant, Dredging
Division; 38 years, 7 months, 22 days.
Beatrice Greenway, Laborer Cleaner,
Schools Division; 20 years, 5 months,
George M. Hall, Window Clerk, Postal
Division; 18 years, 7 months, 3 days.
Bernardine U. Hanna, Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher, Schools Di-
vision; 30 years, 5 months, 8 days.
Leon S. Headley, Oiler, Dredging Divi-
sion; 35 years, 3 months, 18 days.
Walter H. Hebert, Supervisory Admeasurer,
Navigation Division; 33 years, 8 months,
Richard J. Koperski, Retail Store Super-
visor, Supply Division; 24 years, 9
months, 24 days.
Florence A. Lamson, Elementary and Sec-
ondary School Teacher, Schools Divi-
sion; 30 years, 8 months, 7 days.
Admiral E. Maitland, Brakeman, Railroad
Division; 26 years, 7 months.
Salom6n S. Martinez, Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 12 years, 4 months, 1 day.
Gertrude M. Milloy, Voucher Examiner,
Accounting Division; 42 years, 3 months,
Domingo Mojica, Laborer, Maintenance
Division; 14 years, 9 months, 17 days.
Gerald M. Morgan, Helper, Lock Operator,
Locks Division; 33 years, 9 months,
Selucus Myles, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion; 20 years, 3 months, 28 days.
Carl R. Newhard, Communications Man-
agement Officer, Electrical Division;
38 years, 8 months, 23 days.
Eduardo Pacheco, Garbage Collector,
Community Services Division; 20 years,
Sepferino Palacio, Maintenanceman, Elec-
trical Division; 34 years, 1 month, 9
Julio Pazmino G., Winchman, Terminals
Division; 23 years, 22 days.
Pablo Pertuz C., Laborer, Supply Divi-
sion; 15 years, 7 months, 21 days.
Bernard F. Pohren, Boilermaker, Industrial
Division; 21 years, 6 months, 8 days.
Clifton W. Ryter, Towboat or Ferry Master,
Dredging Division; 35 years, 11 months,
Bhanga Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion; 16 years, 7 months, 28 days.
Cyril A. Warren, Motor Launch Captain,
Dredging Division; 47 years, 10 months,
Benigno A. Zorita, Oiler, Dredging Divi-
sion; 36 years, 8 months, 27 days.
RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of May to the em-
ployees listed below whose names were
omitted from the list printed in the July
issue of THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW.
Fitz H. Brathwaite, Painter, Maintenance
Division; 43 years, 10 months, 16 days.
Herbert Newhouse, Policeman, Police Di-
vision; 21 years, 4 months, 22 days.
Manuel Olivares, Cement Worker, Locks
Division; 17 years, 2 months, 28 days.
Fulgencio Portillo, Boatman, Locks Divi-
sion; 26 years, 8 months, 23 days.
James B. Rigby, Guard, Locks Division;
22 years, 2 months, 25 days.
Batan Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Divi-
sion; 32 years, 2 months, 24 days.
Bir Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Division;
30 years, 4 months, 26 days .
AuGUST 3, 1962
Cristobal Harbor -- 1921
ONE EARLY MORNING in November
1921, the master of the steamship Cedar
Branch radioed Panama Canal authori-
ties that his ship had passed an obstruc-
tion to navigation 28 miles north and
5 miles true east from the Cristobal
The obstruction, the shipmaster said,
appeared to be about 120 feet long and
3 feet above water. There was not
enough light to determine the nature
of the obstacle, but he guessed it was
a derelict with the poop deck raised.
The news was duly reported by
Gov. Jay J. Morrow in a warning notice
Several hours after the first report
was received, two terrified San Bias
Island coconut farmers found them-
selves swimming for dear life when their
small "cayuco," loaded to the brim with
coconuts, was overturned at the entrance
of Cristobal breakwater by the back-
wash of a huge object which looked
suspiciously like a whale.
The Indians climbed the breakwater
to safety and, although the whale did
not try to molest them, it seemed to be
moving toward them, they said, when
they tried to retrieve their boat. They
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17
stayed on the breakwater until he was
well out of sight-inside the breakwater.
Thus, the obstacle to navigation on
the high seas had become an obsta-
cle to navigation inside the Cristobal
harbor. Probably no one was more sur-
prised that the master of the Eastern
Prince, who spotted the big mammal
from the bridge of his ship on the
evening of November 17. The Eastern
Prince was coming down the Canal
channel to Cristobal, after making the
northbound transit, when the whale was
For a time, it was a toss-up as to
which would hit the channel bank, the
whale or the ship. Luckily the whale
swerved just as collision was imminent
and the Eastern Prince continued down
the channel under the command of
a master who probably never again
touched anything stronger than tea.
Whales, as this one soon learned, are
not built for shallow water, and shortly
after its near-collision with the Eastern
Prince, it grounded in the water to the
east of the Canal prism, about K mile
south of the former Cristobal Coaling
Plant. There the big mammal remained,
with the top of its head and most of its
back showing above water.
It wasn't long before the news that
a whale had arrived in Cristobal harbor
became generally known on both sides
of the Isthmus. Spectators arrived in
droves and while every available launch
was being pressed into service, the
situation received the official attention
of the late Chief Admeasurer F. E.
Williams, who measured the visitor at
104.97 by 15.63 by 8.67 feet and
weighed 87.66 gross tons.
With a whale nearly as big as Moby
Dick interfering with shipping opera-
tions in Cristobal, the Canal organiza-
tion made plans for its immediate
removal. The idea was furthered by
Capt. Stirling Miller and Capt. John
operations if they were permitted to
take the whale to the Mount Hope
abattoir for rendering.
The idea sounded perfectly reason-
able to Port Captain F. V. McNair, who
authorized an attempt to land the
whale from the harbor flats by means
of a 75-ton floating crane and two
(See p. 18)
(Continued from p. 17)
Captain McNair stipulated, however,
that if the whale was not in cold storage
by noon on November 20, "the Captain
of the Port would tow the whale to
sea with the understanding that the cost
of returning said whale to the water
would be borne by Captain Wieshofer
and Captain Miller."
The whale was killed by machinegun
fire, and towed by a tug to Pier 6 at Cris-
tobal where three Panama Railroad flat
cars waited to take it to Mount Hope.
Thousands of people from all over
the Isthmus jammed Pier 6 to witness
the salvage operations. At one point,
excitement rose so high that a smartly
dressed lady lost her footing and tum-
bled-hat and all-into the water. She
subsequently was rescued by two mem-
bers of the U.S. Army Quartermaster
Corps stationed at Fort DeLesseps and
taken ashore aboard a launch.
Attempts to lift the whale from the
water to the three flat cars were con-
tinued without success all day and
finally abandoned shortly before the
deadline set by Captain McNair. With
failure of the operation went hopes of
salvage and profit on sperm oil and
whalebone by Captains Miller and
Removal of the whale from Cristobal
harbor was simple and easy, compared
to the complexity of the salvage opera-
tions which had preceded it. The Pan-
ama Canal Tug Portobelo nosed into
Pier 6, a stout tow line was made fast to
the big mammal's tail, and out through
the breakwater went the first whale ever
known to menace navigation at the
Hoping this would be the last that
local marine authorities would have to
do with the whale situation, Captain
McNair ordered Capt. A. B. Forstrom,
master of the tug, to take the carcass
well beyond the 12-mile limit. In the
meantime, two hydroplanes from the
naval base at Coco Solo were ordered
out to bomb and sink the remains.
It was harder to dispose of a
whale than originally thought, however.
Several days later, Governor Morrow
ordered the tug Portobelo to remove the
carcass from the beach off Maria Chi-
quita, 10 miles north of Cristobal. It
was done under supervision of Dr. Jesse
Byrd, Panama Canal Health Officer,
who provided the crew with gas masks
against the stench.
The whole anti-whale operation was
estimated to have cost $1,000, which
was high finance in 1921. Officials
expressed the hope that despite the
tourist publicity, no other whale would
ever visit Cristobal again.
And none has.
Don't Mix This
Reprinted by special permission from Consumer's Bulletin, May 1962;
published by Consumers' Research, Inc., Washington, N. J.
RECENTLY a government medical
news letter reported that 20 people
were overcome from a gas or gases
released from a cleaning mixture which
was being used in a government
Investigation revealed that a mixture
of cleaning agents had been employed
for a "sanitizing" operation. The mixture
included a well-known liquid household
cleaner, chlorine bleach, and ammonia.
This brings to mind other similar
accidents and particularly the tragedy
and near tragedy of a few years back
reported by the National Safety Council,
in which two housewives, on separate
occasions, were using a well-known
cleaner in toilets.
Not satisfied with the way the cleaner
was working on stains, both women
made the mistake of adding chlorine
household bleach and mixing the
two chemicals with a brush. One
woman died; the other underwent long
A poisonous gas was liberated when
the women decided to employ a mixture
of two or more common household
cleaning agents. When the widely used
household chlorine bleach, which is a
solution of sodium hypochlorite, is com-
bined with an acid or acid-producing
substance, such as a toilet-bowl cleaner
(sodium acid sulfate) or vinegar, there
is a sudden release of a quantity of
chlorine gas. Likewise, when a chlorine
bleach is mixed with ammonia, lye, or
other alkaline substance, the action will
liberate a highly irritating gas.
ALL UNITS 305 21
YEAR TO DATE 1536 209
If the gas is inhaled, in either case,
particularly in a poorly ventilated room,
it can cause serious injury and possibly
death. Accidents of this type have
occurred not only in the kitchen and
bathroom but also in cleaning and
treating the water of swimming pools.
Don't make the mistake of thinking
that because certain household products
are good and useful, the combination of
two or more of them will do a better job
than one alone. Very often mixing them
is useless and unnecessary, since com-
bined they will not make the job of
cleaning easier or give better results;
and sometimes combining them may
Follow the safe rule-use chemical
cleaners as the manufacturers direct on
the labels. If in doubt, never combine
a scouring powder and a toilet-bowl
cleaner (since several scouring powders
now contain chlorine bleach), or a
toilet-bowl cleaner and a bleach, or a
bleach with any other chemical material
or cleanser since the composition of
many cleaning compounds will com-
monly be unknown. Keep bleaches and
cleaning materials stored in separate
places, and keep all household chemi-
cals out of the reach of children at all
It is best, anyway, not to use a hypo-
chlorite (chlorine) bleach in toilet
bowls, sinks, or bathtubs, or on electri-
cal appliances, as it can in time in-
jure, dull, or roughen a fine, smooth,
AID DISABLING DAYS
:S INJURIES LOST
*61 '62 '61 '62 '61
84 8 13 364 6321
15(699) 58 76(4) 7546 14126(95)
Locks Overhaul injuries Inc!uded in total.
AUGUST 3, 1962
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
June 5 through July 5
EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between June 5 and July 5
are listed below. Within-grade promo-
tions and job reclassifications are not
OFFICE OF THE
Walter M. Mikulich, from Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher, Schools Di-
vision, to Special Services Officer.
Panama Canal Information Office
Joseph Connor, from Writer-Editor to
Public Information Specialist.
Louisa J. Rowland, from Clerk-Typist,
Electrical Division, to Clerk-Translator.
Sami E. Far, from Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion, to Canal Zone Guide.
Edward J. Michaelis, from Tour Leader
(Interpreter), Locks Division, to Canal
Zone Guide (Interpreter).
George H. Scoggin, from Tour Leader (In-
terpreter), Locks Division, to Canal Zone
Robert J. Byrne, from Tour Leader Inter-
preter, Locks Division, to Supervisory
Canal Zone Guide (Interpreter).
Robert L. Austin, from Tour Leader (In-
terpreter), Locks Division, to Canal Zone
Tevia P. De Vasquez, from Clerk-Typist,
Engineering Division, to File Clerk.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Richard D. Duncan, from Fire Protection
Inspector, to Fire Sergeant.
James E. Bryant, from Fire Sergeant to
Constantine Downs, from Clerk-Typist to
John S. Pettingill, from Coordinator of
Education Studies and Curriculum, to
Administrative Assistant to the Super-
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Earl E. Mullins, from Operator, Dipper
Dredge, to Master, Dipper Dredge.
Andrew H. Page, from 1st Assistant Engi-
neer, Pipeline Dredge, to Chief Engi-
neer, Towboat or Ferry.
Charles L. Miller, from Mate, Dipper
Dredge, to Operator, Dipper Dredge.
Nazario G6ndola, from Laborer to Seaman.
Isiah A. Gordon, from Launch Operator to
Jose Arias, from Helper Core Drill Oper-
ator, to Leader (Core Drilling).
Algis D. Herrera, from Assistant Light-
house Keeper, to Maintenanceman.
Ricardo R. Reefer, from Heavy Laborer,
Eustorgio Garcia S., from Lighthouse
Keeper, to Leader Maintenanceman.
Alberto Velisquez, Wigoberto Guerrero,
Olmedo D. Moscoso, from Assistant
Lighthouse Keeper, to Maintenanceman.
Phillip Joseph, from Toolroom Mechanic
(Limited) to Toolroom Mechanic.
Marco T. Molinares S., from Laborer, to
Leader Laborer (Heavy).
Frank A. Hall, from Plumber to Leader
Manuel D. Jiminez C., from Heavy
Laborer to Helper.
Rudolph V. Myrie, from Laborer to Heavy
Randolph C. Hunt, from Heavy Laborer,
to Line Handler.
Hugh G. Davis, Jose Cerda, Norman Bland-
ford, from Line Handler to Helper Lock
Herbert K. Peterson, from Supervisory
Planner and Estimator, to Supervisory
Henry J. Wallace, from Helper Machinist,
Electrical Division, to Helper Machinist,
William Powell, from Helper Machinist
Electrical Division, to Helper Machinist
Mary G. Urey, Dorothy A. Stevens, from
Clerk to Clerical Assistant.
Richard J. Holder, from Launch Dispatcher
Ram6n Benjamin, from Clerk-Typist to
Gilbert Detouche, from Heavy Laborer to
Division of Sanitation
Joseph M. Corrigan, from Sanitation In-
spector, to Supervisory Sanitation In-
Silvestre Labastida C., from Exterminator
to Launch Operator.
Augustin A. Rodriguez, from Asphalt or
Cement Worker, to Exterminator.
Leonardo Subera, from Heavy Laborer, to
Tomas Rodriguez, from Heavy Laborer, to
Roberto M. Afere, from Laborer, to Ward
Catalino Quiroz M., from Heavy Laborer,
to Laborer (Hospital).
Henry W. Francisco, from Housekeeping
Aid to Nursing Assistant.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Community Services Division
George W. Squires, from Leader Laborer
(Cleaner) to Lead Foreman Laborer
Valtosal Hudson, from Utility Worker to
Irvin V. DeSousa, from Utility Worker, to
Counter Attendant .
Guillermo Archibaldo, from Utility
Worker, to Helper (General).
Maximino Carraco, from Counter Attend-
ant, to Pantryman.
Carl E. Dunn-Moodie, from Counter
Attendant, to Sales Checker (Food
Roy L. Jones, from Utility Worker, to Sales
Maria A. Valladares, from Car Hop, to
Ethel L. Hanssell, from Counter Attendant
to Sales Clerk.
George Menzies, from Warehouseman, to
George Brathwaite, from Accounting Clerk,
to Stock Control Clerk.
William M. Boyce, from Warehouseman,
to Sales Clerk.
Guillermo G. Blandford from Leader Main-
tenanceman, to Leader Carpenter.
Elaine K. Herring, from Usher (Theater),
to Ticket Seller.
Roy A. Cox, from Pinsetter, to Utility
Worker and Pinsetter.
Cyril E. Hewitt, from Pinsetter, to Utility
Worker and Pinsetter.
Josephine L. Beecher, from Sales Clerk, to
Sales Clerk, to Sales Section Head.
Domingo B. Quintana, from Utility Worker,
to Produce Worker.
Amilia J. Pinder, from Counter Attendant,
to Sales Checker.
Frederick W. Williams, Carlos A. Uriarte,
from Warehouseman, to Gas Cylinder
Checker and Serviceman.
Ruth B. Hawkins, from Car Hop, to Utiilty
Olivia R. de Chiari, from Presser (Flat-
work), to Presser (Shirts).
Frank N. Green, from Package Boy to
Clarence A. Glean, from Utility Worker,
to Counter Attendant.
Roy E. E. Ellis, from Pinsetter, to Utility
Worker and Pinsetter.
Sherman R. Brown, Jr., from Waiter to
Clarence E. James, from Utility Worker to
Donald C. Escalona, Roderic L. Blades,
from Package Boy to Utility Worker.
Oscar Edmund, Jr., Daisy L. Cole, Edith
S. Fitzroy, from Utility Worker to
Eugenio E. Madeam, from Bus Boy to
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
General Audit Division
Robert N. Bowen, from Auditor to Super-
Benjamin S. Chisholm, from Construction
Cost Accountant, to Cost Accountant.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
JuliAn Agrazal, from Railroad Trackman,
to Leader Railroad Trackman.
Remigio Mendez, from Leader Railroad
Trackman, to Leader Maintenanceman.
Percival F. Soso, Edgar A. Hodgson,
Edward Davis, from Leader Heavy
Laborer, to Leader Line Handier
Dazel G. Watson, from Lead Foreman
Heavy Laborer, to Lead Foreman Line
Stanley A. Bartley, Aubrey Judge, James
McDonald, Alexander A. Lewis, James
N. Burgess, Noel P. Major, from Leader
Heavy Laborer to Leader Line Handler.
Edwin G. Roy, from Painter (Maintenance)
to Maintenanceman (Dock).
(See p. 20)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Promotions and Transfers
(Continued from p. 19)
Hugh H. Harrison, from Carpenter (Main-
tenance) to Carpenter.
Cornelio Raven, from Lead Foreman Car-
penter (Limited), to Lead Foreman Car-
Arthur E. Critchlow, from Leader Car-
penter (Maintenance) to Leader Car-
Rupert Ennis, from Carpenter, to Leader
John I. Matthews, from Cement Finisher
(Maintenance) to Painter (Maintenance).
Angel Salazar, from Dock Worker, to
Julio Valverde G., from Laborer (Cleaner)
to Dock Worker.
Tomfs Delgado, from Heavy Laborer, to
Helper Liquid Fuels and Wharfman.
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Paul R. Walker, Fire Sergeant, Fire Divi-
Erell C. Alexis, Detention Guard, Police
Carlos E. Bech, Engineering Draftsman,
Frances L. Audia, Clerk-Typist, Contract
and Inspection Division.
Raymond G. Bush, Supervisory Sanitation
Inspector, Division of Sanitation.
Cecelia S. Lelaidier, Clerk-Typist, Com-
munity Services Division.
Earl R. Russell, Alfonso T. Shaw, Utility
Worker, Supply Division.
Leslie M. Spencer, Albert B. Hendricks,
Systems Accountant, Accounting Policies
and Procedures Staff.
Ruth H. Elich, Accounting Technician,
Benjamin Thorpe, Clerk-Typist, Terminals
Irl R. Sanders, General Foreman (Dock
Maintenance), Terminals Division.
Walter T. Williams, General Attorney, Of-
fice of the General Counsel.
Clifford B. Ocheltree, Master, Towboat or
Ferry, Dredging Division.
Victor De Le6n, Leonard A. Jackson, Jos6
D. Rodriguez, Rock Crushing Plant
Gilberto Simancas, James Morgan, Stephen
R. Gordon, Asphalt or Concrete Mixing
John E. Erikson, Herbert S. Driscoll,
George E. Riley, Jr., William K. Price,
William T. O'Connor, Russell A. Weade,
James H. Hagan, Robert K. Adams,
Charles M. Swisher, John B. Spivey,
John D. Lowe, to General Foreman.
John F. Stephenson, Rayburn L. Brians,
Eugene I. Askew, to Admeasurer.
George L. Holder, Bernardo E. Howard,
Vilma V. Burke, Library Assistant.
Ruby G. Smart, Rhoda C. Palmer, Carlton
A. Taft, Clementina D. White, Joyce
E. Jordan, June L. Greaves, Ligia E.
Maria C. Kidd, Library Assistant.
Hilda W. Butcher, Library Assistant.
James L. Harding, Library Assistant.
Geneth H. Squires, Clerk Stenographer.
Marcella G. Green, Clerical Assistant.
50 Year- a go
PLANS for permanent buildings to be
erected for the maintenance and opera-
tion force of the Canal, were being pre-
pared 50 years ago this month by
Austin W. Lord, a New York architect
employed by the Isthmian Canal
According to THE CANAL RECORD,
"Mr. Lord made a careful study of the
topography and local conditions and
was expected to devise a scheme in
which all of the permanent buildings
from Toro Point to Taboga Island would
be of prevailing style, probably a modifi-
cation of the Spanish renaissance, with
appropriate adaptation of adjacent
More than 91 percent of the concrete
for the locks was in place by August 31,
1912, with 95 percent of the concrete
for the system of three twin locks at
Gatun in place. The upper guard gates
in the east chamber of Gatun Locks
were closed July 31 by the contractor
and were ready to keep the waters of
Gatun Lake from flowing into the lower
level of the locks. The same gate in the
west chamber was closed August 6.
25 year dcgo
A BILL eliminating the former dual
system of determining tolls for vessels
using the Panama Canal was approved
by the U.S. Senate 25 years ago this
month. The bill which later became a
law, provided for the measurement of
ships by Panama Canal rules and made
that the sole basis for determining the
net tonnage upon which tolls would
be charged. The rules, which are still
in effect, became effective March 1,
As the Panama Canal celebrated its
23d birthday in August 1937, transit
figures revealed that traffic through the
waterway from the beginning of the
calendar year up to the August 15
"birthday" mark showed a decrease of
2.9 percent in ocean-going commercial
transits and a decrease of 2.6 percent
in tolls, compared with the same period
of calendar year 1936.
Authorization was received by the
former Municipal Engineering Division
to prepare sites for quarters which
would eventually house the Gorgas
Hospital staff on the southeast slope of
Ancon Hill. The work was to be done
at a cost of $62,000. Preparations also
were made by the Construction Quarter-
master for building what was to be
known as the Balboa School Shops, a
structure which would contain facili-
ties for student participation in
woodworking, automobile repair, and
machine shop practices.
10 yearJ ~ABo
THE PANAMA CANAL COMPANY
was about to retire from coal bunkering
operations 10 years ago this month.
Practically all of the coal in stock at
the Cristobal Coaling Plant had been
sold and when the supply was ex-
hausted, this once important phase of
Canal operations was to be closed.
The sale of coal was one of the most
important phases of the Canal's opera-
tions soon after the opening of the
waterway in 1914. At that time, coal-
burning ships were still predominant.
The business declined rapidly after the
close of World War II.
The contract for construction of the
Goethals Memorial in Balboa was
awarded in August 1952 to the Panama
firm of Constructora Martinz, S. A.,
which made a low bid of $78,533 on
the project. The contract did not in-
clude the cost of the marble, which was
to be obtained from the United States.
One year a4o
NEW DIRECTORS for two bureaus of
the Canal organization were named by
former Governor Carter on August 21
last year as the result of a vacancy
created by the retirement of Henry L.
Donovan as Director of the Civil Affairs
Bernhard I. Everson, former Direc-
tor of Transportation and Terminals
Bureau, was appointed Civil Affairs Di-
rector. Capt. Axton T. Jones, U.S.N.,
Ret., former Cristobal Port Captain,
was appointed to succeed Mr. Everson
as head of the Transportation and
AUGUST 3, 1962
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Rodway R. Phillips
Le ss Pressm
os .B Bwn /
el r ock rator
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Leon V. Heim
Allan F. Woodruff
Helper Core I erator
Nurse Su rvisor, a
Gladys H r
Nursing As Medicine
Fitz J. Taylor
Donald H. Spencer
Lead Foreman Painter
Vernandez O. Taylor
Kenneth L. Jamieson
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
oS-BW ICE BUREAU
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
William G. Dolan
Chief, Fire Division
Capt. Donald V. Howerth
District Police Station
Joseph F. Dolan
R. B. McIlvaine, Jr.
Melmoth L. Morris
E. W. de Pringle
Senior High Teacher,
Latin American Schools
Jessie O. Lindsay
George J. Roth
Joel L. Cook
John F. McDowell
Cyril D. DeLapp
Herbert F. Taake
Helper Cable Splicer
Floating Plant Oiler
Dr. Willard F. French
Chief, Dental Service,
Coco Solo Hospital
Lloyd E. Barnett
William S. Acheson
Towboat or Ferry Master
John B. Spivey
General Foreman Docking
THE PAAA CANAL REVIEW
McNair C. Lane
Towing Locomotive Operator
Arthur L. Smith
Lock Operator Machinist
Michael J. Burza
Helper Lock Operator
Helper Lock Operator
George A. Jeffers
Helper Lock Operator
Helper Lock Operator
Arnold F. Small
Joseph E. Evans
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Fred N. Dahl
Gene E. Clinchard
General Grounds Foreman
Wilfred R. Waldrip
Commissary Store Manager
Joseph J. Pustis
Service Center Manager
Allan P. Noel
Paint and Varnish Maker
F. W. Griffiths
Sales Section Head
Jasper N. Williams
Eugene I. Dudley
Horace J. Orgeron, Jr.
Chauffeur, Car of President
Edwin G. Roy
Fermin L. Ibfiiez
Vernal A. Harper
St. Clair V. Gill
Rail H. Pinedo
Heavy Truck Driver
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year 1962
1962 1961 Transits
United States intercoastal ------------------ 118 115 170
East coast of United States and South America ------ 617 582 458
East coast of United States and Central America - 104 118 123
East coast of United States and Far East ----- -- ---- 576 634 271
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia -- 75 63 52
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada-.--- 231 211 182
Europe and South America_ --------- ------- 299 287 124
Europe and Australasia ------ -------------- 110 113 83
All other routes_ ------------------ 760 730 372
Total traffic ----------- ----------- 2,890 2,853 1,835
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Gross Tolls *
Transits (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1962 1961 Transits 1962 1961 Tolls
July 1961 - - - 931 941 557 $4,776 $4,680 $2,432
August---------- -- 934 912 554 4,749 4,585 2,403
September_-_- 892 847 570 4,523 4,172 2,431
October--------- -935 913 607 4,646 4,495 2,559
November--------- 891 859 568 4,443 4,300 2,361
December _--- 938 868 599 4,870 4,385 2,545
January 1962------ 917 893 580 4,736 4,449 2,444
February-- ------ 841 843 559 4,388 4,113 2,349
March ---------- 980 937 632 5,098 4,725 2,657
April ______--- 942 904 608 4,961 4,523 2,588
May 984 1,002 629 5,122 4,960 2,672
June-- ----964 947 599 4,978 4,741 2,528
fiscal year_ 11,149 10,866 7,062 $57,290 $54,128 $29,969
SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year 1962
1962 1961 1951-55
Number Tons Number F Tons Average Average
of of of of number tons
transits cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
Belgian -- -- 12 36,289 13 40,137 2 13,223
British .-------- 344 2,384,222 320 1,874,163 299 1,812,242
Chilean .---. 27 193,901 26 195,507 16 88,080
Chinese---- 23 157,444 15 110,780 9 72,660
Colombian _-_ 65 100,485 62 130,941 38 43,967
Danish----___ 79 492,661 81 353,700 65 245,718
Ecuadoran --- 11 13,761 13 17,136 35 22,014
French------_- 37 342,052 33 212,720 31 134,662
German ----- 292 949,716 287 803,482 57 146,661
Greek ------ 198 1,883,243 187 1,801,557 28 249,194
Honduran --.. 15 27,805 17 42,839 114 130,927
Israeli-___--. 19 43,372 11 31,179 ---
Italian------- 45 283,730 53 335,361 36 197,097
Japanese------ 214 1,167,418 223 1,323,557 70 497,278
Liberian------ 213 1,922,555 294 2,658,383 51 333,268
Netherlands --- 163 719,084 133 653,345 31 160,545
Norwegian - 381 3,079,083 367 2,501,456 206 916,735
Panamanian---- 104 435,904 108 502,106 108 596,566
Peruvian------ 31 103,399 29 142,264 5 10,626
Philippine----- 18 66,724 20 124,861 5 37,985
South Korean_-_ 10 37,761 _ ---- -------
Swedish ----- 85 527,505 90 459,414 50 196,815
United States _ 469 2,646,283 425 2,429,743 546 3,536,809
All others ----- 35 229,010 46 251,376 33 97,772
Total --- 2,890 17,843,407 2,853 16,996,007 1,835 9,540,844
ONE OF THE largest shipments of
frozen and refrigerated cargoes ever
loaded at New Zealand passed through
the Canal in June aboard the Blue Star
cargo ship Tasmania Star. The ship had
10,700 tons of New Zealand beef, lamb,
and butter on board. She was transport-
ing it to the United States and Canadian
east coasts, and to England.
Recently, the Blue Star Line rep-
resentatives in the United States
announced plans to inaugurate in
August a new trans-Pacific refrigerated
cargo-liner service between Australia
and the United States east coast.
Although no word has been received by
Payne & Wardlaw, local agents for Blue
Star Line at the Canal, it is expected
that the ships will make regular trips
through the waterway with Australian
and New Zealand frozen produce.
Liquid Ammonia Tanker
A TANKER to be named the Esso
Centro America, soon will travel through
the Canal carrying liquid ammonia fer-
tilizer to Central American countries.
Formerly the Esso Venezuela, the new
type carrier is being converted in the
United States by the addition of a
229-foot midsection. The midsection
was built in Bremen, West Germany,
and contains 4 steel tanks for transport
of the liquid fertilizer at a temperature
of 280 below zero, Fahrenheit.
According to an item appearing in
the New York Times, the ship will
emerge as a 382-foot tanker capable of
transporting 4,000 tons of anhydrous
ammonia. The midsection, the report
said, is the first to be built by a West
German shipyard and the Esso Centro
America will be the first vessel of her
type to be operated by Esso.
Local agents for Esso Standard Oil,
S. A. say the ship should be converted
by August of this year and probably will
be put into service in September. She
will pick up raw material for fertilizer
in Aruba, and will transport it through
the Canal to ports on the west coast
of Central America, where processing
plants are now being built.
Outsized Bulk Carrier
A NORTHBOUND transit of the Canal
was made by one of the largest bulk
carriers early in July and it returned
later in the month with a record load
of coal en route to Japan. The vessel
was the Nini, a new type of bulk carrier
built in Japan for C. M. Lemus & Co.,
which will use it mainly for the trans-
portation of coal from Norfolk, Va.,
22 AUGUST 3, 1962
On her maiden voyage from Japan,
the Nini picked up a cargo of 40,392
tons of iron ore in Chile and made her
first transit July 7 en route to Norfolk.
She then loaded 45,000 tons of coal
and returned through the Canal en
route to Japan.
The Nini is to be followed by 5
similar vessels carrying coal on this
route. All of the vessels will make
regular trips through the Panama Canal.
The Nini is 746.1 feet in length,
100.6 feet in beam, has a displacement
of 62,551 tons and an estimated Pan-
ama Canal net tonnage of 21,800 tons.
Despite her size, she has an operating
speed of 16% knots. Panama Agencies
will represent the vessel and her five
sister ships at the Canal.
New Cruise Ship
THE CANAL ZONE will be a port
of call next year for the Home Line's
ultra-modern passenger liner Oceanic,
which is now under construction at
Monfalcone, Italy. According to C. B.
Fenton & Co., agents for the line, the
vessel will visit the Isthmus at least
once during the 1963 winter cruise
Called the "Ship of Tomorrow" by
her builder, the Oceanic has been de-
signed to meet all the needs of present-
day transatlantic and cruise travel. The
27-knot, 33,000-gross-ton vessel will
have 18 public rooms, 2 swimming
pools, a Lido deck area, a 770-foot
chapel, a 1,200-foot gymnasium, special
areas for children and teenagers, and
a 2-level theater with seating capacity
for 450 persons.
Two P & O-Orient Liners
MORE THAN 3,000 passengers travel-
ing aboard the two P & O-Orient liners
Himalaya and Oriana visited the Isth-
mus briefly during the month of July.
The Himalaya, making her first
transit of the Canal, arrived July 6 with
1,149 passengers. She docked in Balboa
and Cristobal in order to give the
visitors time to make a tour of all points
of interest, then sailed from Cristobal
for Southampton. The Himalaya is
scheduled to return to Panama in
September on her way to Australia.
The Oriana, one of the newest and
largest ships of the P & O-Orient Line,
arrived in Balboa at midnight, July 21,
from U.S. west coast ports, with 2,184
passengers aboard. She transited July
22 and sailed the morning of July 23 for
Southampton, via Jamaica, Bermuda,
and Le Havre. This was the Oriana's
second visit to the Canal since she was
put in service 2 years ago. Agent for
both ships is Norton, Lilly & Co.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U. S. GOVERNMENT
Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year
Total commercial _____
U.S. Government vessels: 0*
Ocean-going ------- ---
28 20 48 40 166
18 25 43 59 75
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
erment--------------- 1,587 1,517 3,104 3,072
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH TIE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodi1962 1961 Average
Ores, various ------------------- 2,071,950 1,993,955 999,938
Lumber ------------------------ 1,046,606 1,030,800 1,014,773
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)--- 264,900 266,026 229,177
Wheat---------- --------------- 135,005 212,060 437,251
Sugar-------------------------- 762,842 540,647 351,696
Canned food products ------- ------- 214,940 219,143 269,073
Nitrate of soda-- ----------------- 229,176 258,366 319,896
Barley ---------- ------------ 456,099 124,017 24,408
Bananas_----------- ------------ 279,096 261,020 200,684
Metals, various -------------------- 297,408 299,555 191,913
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) ------ --------- 219,904 236,698 142,423
Fresh and dried fruits ----- -- 110,622 98,380 95,284
Pulpwood_-------------------- -- 118,518 160,961 56,464
Iron and steel manufactures ----------- 152,857 98,862 59,091
Fertilizers, unclassified---- -------- 249,496 122,120 3,577
All others ------------ --------- 1,318,084 1,134,087 861,475
Total --------------------- 7,927,503 7,056,697 5,257,123
Atlantic to Pacific
Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year
1962 1961 1951-5
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) -_ 3,288,465 2,381,080 1,075,363
Coal and coke ------------------- 1,777,735 1,595,146 703,397
Iron and steel manufactures ---------- 456,841 429,649 461,804
Phosphates------- --------------- 499,977 441,260 180,384
Sugar------ --- -- --------- 599,149 573,910 190,966
Soybeans------ ------------ -- 287,296 405,441 119,263
Metal, scrap ----- ---------- 392,274 1,359,843 12,985
Sulphur ----------------------- 95,780 73,248 106,086
Ammonium compounds-- --------- 162,063 59,163 35,655
Wheat ----- --- --- --------- 151,888 176,726 35,034
Corn --------------------------- 212,249 312,269 25,146
Machinery----------- -- -------- 120,728 95,370 66,780
Cotton, raw_ -------------- 93,890 159,082 54,293
Chemicals, unclassified ------------- 177,611 146,737 51,553
Bauxite_----------- ----------- 97,414 114,961 38,838
All others------------- ---------- 1,542,544 1,615,415 1,238,094
Total_ _--------- ---------- 9,915,904 9,939,310 4,395,641
Norway Second In
SHIPS FLYING the Norwegian flag
took second place among the commer-
cial ships using the Panama Canal
during the fiscal year 1962. It was
the second consecutive year that
Norway outdistanced Germany and
With a total of 1,491 vessels transit-
ing during the 12-month period,
Norway was second only to the United
States in the amount of commercial
traffic using the waterway. British ship-
ping took third place and German ships
Norway first took second place during
fiscal year 1961 and continued to main-
tain this position during the past fiscal
year, with an average of almost 373
vessels each month.
A total of 1,783 commercial ships
flying the U.S. flag made the transit
during fiscal year 1962. British flag ships
numbered 1,276, while German vessels
made 1,094 transits.
Other nations ranking as the Canal's
best customers during the past fiscal
year, according to official figures, were
Japan in fifth place, with 844 ships;
Greece, sixth, with 771; Liberia, sev-
enth, with 648; the Netherlands, eighth,
with 558; and Panama, ninth, with 393.
During the fiscal year, U.S.-flag
traffic remained almost at a par with
that of fiscal year 1961; Norwegian
ships increased slightly, the Germans
dropped back slightly, the Japanese de-
creased about 40 vessels, the Greeks
added about 100 transits, and Panama
remained stable. Liberia, which had
1,044 vessels transiting the Canal during
fiscal year 1961, dropped to 648 ships
Many new supercarriers were added
to the list of vessels passing through the
Canal. A number of them were of
British and United States registry, many
of them built in Japan and equipped
to carry both oil and bulk cargo.
In addition, the Canal witnessed
maiden arrivals of a number of large
passenger ships such as the Canberra
and Oriana, which have been built by
TRANSIT BY OCEAN-<
VESSELS IN JUN]
U.S. Government ...........
Free ................... ...
U.S. Government. 49,898
Commercial. . 5,757,868
U.S. Government. 47,071
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-goin
"Cargo figures are in long tons.
the British for round-the-w
cruise travel. The Canberra
Panama Canal $26,226 in
;OING largest amount ever paid by a passenger
191 196o2 Commodities moving through the
161 Canal during the year included the
S1 usual large shipments of petroleum and
10 13 petroleum products moving from the
10 7 Atlantic to the Pacific and the ship-
967 984 ments of ore going through the Canal
from South America to the United
States and Europe.
$4,978,326 Scrap iron reached a record level in
97,739 the third quarter of the fiscal year but
$5,076,065 dropped sharply during the final 3
months, largely because of Japanese
exchange controls imposed several
5,684,416 months ago. Up to that time, scrap iron
110,938 to Japan was one of the major cargoes
5,795,354 moving southbound through the Canal.
During the last part of the fiscal year,
and small hipments of bauxite took a more pro-
minent position in the Atlantic to
Pacific movement of commodities. Much
world and of this aluminum ore is being produced
paid the in Jamaica and is being carried to the
tolls, the U.S. west coast and the Far East.
192 _I1000 U
1961N 090 E
0__ __900 R
-(AVERAGE 1951-1955)- - 600 T
I -I o 0
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
AUGUST 3, 1962
Due Returned Due Returned
A(os SUG 0 19 94
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 4829