Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Back Cover


Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00051
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: February 1962
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: semiannual
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00051
Classification: lcc - HE2830.P2 P3
ddc - 386/.445
System ID: UF00097366:00051
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


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University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries

http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalreviel 27pana



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N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Press Officer
JOSEPH CONNOR, Publications Editor
VA:d : Il A : t

\\. P. LEBER
\ic I'r Psidenc and acting g Governor

\\ILL AREY Official Panama Canal Company Publication I U Li Si ~i5- .
i'anama Canal Information Officer Published Monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNICE RICHARD and 'o
Printed at the Printing ;", 'il. ~.I i it Hope,Canal Zone \ILIAM BRNS, Official i
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at S cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies. 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M. Balboa Heights. C. Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights. C. Z.


r u~

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS of the Panama Canal Company, general officers, and official visitors are shown in the
Board Room at Balboa Heights as they prepared for the official Board meeting on January 20. Clockwise around the room from the
foreground are: J. Kenneth Mansfield; Under Secretary of State George W. Ball; Company Stockholder and Secretary of the Army Elvis J.
Stahr, jr., Chairman of the Board and Under Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes; Company Secretary W. M. Whitman; Under Secretary
of Commerce Clarence D. Martin, Jr.; Dr. Charles J. Zinn; Walter J. Pearson; Comptroller Philip L. Steers, Jr.; Governor Carter;
Deputy Under Secretary of the Army for International Affairs Howard E. Haugerud; Governor-designate Robert J. Fleming, Jr.; Vice
President W. P. Leber; Executive Planning Staff Chief John D. Hollen; John W. Martyn; and C. Owen Smith. Board members unable
to attend the meeting were Secretary of the Navy Fred Korth, Howard C. Petersen, and C. Robert Mitchell.

THE ANNUAL MEETING of the Board of Directors of
the Panama Canal Company on the Isthmus was a
highlight of local events during January, as retiring
Gov. W. A. Carter prepared to turn his duties over to
Maj. Gen. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., nominated by President
Kennedy to become the fourteenth Governor of the Canal
Zone. Our cover picture of the two men was taken
aboard a car of the Panama Railroad as the Governor
(on the il, ti and the visiting Governor-designate traveled
to Cristobal to meet members of the Board of Directors
as they arrived aboard the Cristobal from New Orleans.
Dm,, iin a formal meeting at Balboa Heights, the Board
unanimously approved a resolution commending retiring
Governor Carter for his fine performance as Governor
(I t!O Canal Zone since July 1, 1960. It also authorized
lim ( "i, Nrir to expedite purchase and installation of gas
turii i't growing power demands.
In a t, I .i to the press after the meeting, Secretary
of the Ari l s1 J. Stahr, jr., Stockholder of the Corm-

pany, said of Governor Carter: "During his term of office,
he has accelerated the waterway improvement program
and has developed enlgintering procedures that will
greatly reduce vessel delays during future locks overhaul
periods. And, perhaps as important as anything else he
has done, as President Kennedy said . in accepting
his resignation, he has contributed greatly to the spirit
of friendly cooperation that exists between the Govern-
ments of the United States and Panama. In my opinion,
General Carter has turned in an excellent record as
Governor of the Canal Zone and President of the Panama
Canal Compl .i \."
Stockholder Stahr also told the newsmen, "Our Board
of Directors represents a broad cross-section of U.S.
industry and Government. As I sat with them in the
Board meeting . at Balboa Heights, I was impressed
with their intense interest in Canal problems and their
1Inu'\ld,:e of the operation."

FEBRUARY 2, 1962


"I .

k \

. .



\ "^

. and his lady


Fleming, Jr.

THE NEW GOVERNOR of the Canal Zone,
Maj. Gen. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., was short on
statements and long on questions last month as he
visited the Isthmus for the annual meeting of the
Board of Directors in the Zone-and brevity of
comment and inquisitiveness seem to be basic
characteristics of the man named by President
Kennedy to succeed retiring Gov. W. A. Carter.
Governor Fleming likes to see firsthand what
is going on in his organization; likes for people
to get to the point quickly and not spend too
much time in explanations; believes the only
adequate foreign policy for the United States
"is the one we can derive from the preamble to
the Declaration of Independence-'We hold these
truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal;'" believes American representa-
tives should be able to speak the language
of the country where they're stationed; and
delights in making cryptic observations and
An avid golfer (he shoots in the 85-95 range),
Governor Fleming says he likes to spend some
time "digging divots," but also enjoys aviation
and photography, particularly taking and
showing 8 mm. movies. He has let a youthful


enthusiasm for polo wane since the days
when he learned the game on Army
Cavalry posts where his father was
stationed. A former smoker, the new
Governor now describes himself as "a re-
formed nicotinic with a missionary zeal."
A 1928 I.1.dl.t,. of the Military
Academy .it \\Nt Point, Governor
Fleming had been to the Canal Zone
only once before last month-"I was a
customer on a ship."
Although he likes and enjoys the
lighthearted, almost laconic comment,
Governor Fleming also likes to talk seri-
ously about the things in which he
believes and the activities in which he
is involved. In his assignment as South-
western Division Engineer for the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, with
headquarters in Dallas, he has spent
considerable time filling speaking
engagements in that area, usually dis-
cussing the civil works construction pro-
,.1,, which includes projects costing
approximately $1.8 billion.
The '-14 -. ir-old Governor, who was
born in Fort 'ilii...... Nebr., on Jan-
iiar\ 13 1 1907, has definite viewpoints
about his work and is not averse to
voicin them. Although much of his
sxrice :has involved the management
>,f irat amounts of supplies, machines,
>iil tools, Governor F1, mrin once

"The 'Dst important tool we have is
people. LUliike machines, people can't

J Governor Fleming's
Mrs. Benjamin B.
Beasley, at left,
and Miss Eleanor
A. Fleming.


be neglected. Unlike supplies, tli.\ can't
be stockpiled in depots or put into deep
freezers until needed. Nobody has to
think about the morale of a 2Vz-ton
truck or a can of beans. But you do
have to think about people. Practically
all of my time and all of my effort is
spent on problems involving people.
I can get other officers to think about
the truck and the can of beans. I think
about people."
During an assignment in France,
where he was stationed for a number
of years and was awarded the French
Legion of Honor for his efforts in
the field of foreign service, Governor
Fleming once asked subordinates,
"What are your problems here?" Then
he answered his own question: "I'm
sure I don't know all of them. Any time
any commander thinks he knows all
about his problems, he is fat, dumb, and
happy-waiting for the roof to fall in."
Thi Dallas Morning News, editorially
commending General Fleming on his
service in Dallas, concluded with this
"He is boning up on his Spanish
because, as he explains, he likes to speak
the language of the people where he is
assigned. He succeeded admirably in
that regard here in the Southwest."
Governor Fleming, who speaks fluent
French, was brushing up on Spanish, a
l.iigII.1Le he once spoke, within days
after receiving word of his appointment

to the Canal Zone. To a newspaper
reporter, he quipped, "I'll be speaking
Spanish in 6 months. I'll make myself
learn it, because I think it's important
for American representatives to be able
to speak the language of the country
where they're stationed."
The 5%-foot, 135-pound Governor,
who says he chose the Engineers over
his father's field of Cavalry because he
decided "the horse wasn't here to stay,"
was in Europe from January 1944 to
May 1'-)47, supervising the construction
program for the U.S. Army of Occupa-
tion after the war ended. Earlier in
World War II, he had served in the
Central Pacific area.
From 1947 to 1950 he was in the
Office of the Chief of Engineers in
Washington, first as Chief, Engineer
Organization and Training Division,
and then as Assistant Chief of Engi-
neers for Milit..ri\ Operations. From
1950 to 1951 hl was a student at the
National War College in Washington
and from 1951 to 1954 was Engineer,
A in.. Field Forces, Fort Monroe, Va.
During 1954 he was District Engineer
at Philadelphia, then served until April
1957 as Division Engiii,--r. New Eng-
land Division, before returning to
Europe for a 3-year stay in France. He
has been stationed at Dallas since
November 1960.
Married to the former Eleanor Marion
Canby of Denver, Colo., Governor
Fleming, like both his immediate pre-
decessors, is the father of two daughters.
One, Mrs. Benjamin B. Beasley, is the
wife of an Army lieutenant recently
assigned to Germany and is the mother
of four small children. The younger
daughter, Eleanor A. Fleming, is a
student at Bucknell University in Lewis-
lui. Pa., but is expected to be with
her parents in the Zone during vacations.
S\\t-uinlig his assignment to Zone
duties, Governor Fleming told a Dallas
newspaper reporter, "I'm delighted at
the . assignment." If past perform-
ance is any indication, Governor Fleming
can be expected to renew the open-door
pi' %i he and his family maintained in
France, where they threw themselves
into the life of the French community,
participating in local iatij\ities and
playing host to local residents for both
formal and informal occasions.
And Mrs. Fleming, who is credited
by the new Governor with learning
the French language in 6 months, pro-
bably N ill try to repeat the feat with
Spanish. First, however, she will have to
arrange the furnishings in "the house on
the hill" which has been the official
residence of every Canal Zone Governor
since it was moved to its present location
from the long-abandoned construction
era townsite of Culebra.

FEBRUARY 2, 1962

and. .

Farewell p"

... to

Governor Carter attended and lent support to fairs in Panama . .

Governor Carter

THE FAST-STEPPING, quick-think-
ing, normally soft-spoken professional
soldi,..r-tn ir, ni who assumed the top
administrative post in the Panama Canal
Company/Canal Zone Government

19 months ago, left that post late last
month to take a position as senior engi-
nI .i ii.l'i silt.i t for thelnter-American
Dei -.rlpnri t-t B.nk.
During the 19 months that he served

. . and community activities in the Canal Zone.

j i

as Governor of the Canal Zone, Maj.
Cen. W. A. Carter established a solid
record of constructive and pi,'Lr.>i\n
achievement which earned him plaudits
from Zonians, Panamanians, and high
officials of both the United States and
Panama, including President Kennedy.
Assuming his Canal Zone duties
during a tense period of Panama-Zone
r,-l.ltioi., Governor Carter took early
and effective action to restore the cli-
mate of fii, dhlrI m and cooperation
which have characterized both official
and unofficial life on the Isthmus since
arrival of U.S. construction forces in
1904. Whenever possible, he demon-
strated by friendly acts and gestures
that he sincerely desired and sought the
friendship of the Panamanian people.
The retiring Governor's success in
securing that friendship was indicated
by a public tribute and presentation of
a gold medal to him by a group of
Panamanian citizens at Balboa Heights
on the Illl'ini g of January 25. And as
Governor Carter observed about his new
job during that ceremony:
"In my new position, I will better
understand Latin America and her
people because of the experience and
knowledge I have obtained here. And
I find more than a spark of joy in the
thought that in connection with my
new job I will be in this area quite often
in the years ahead."
Performing his multitudinous duties



Conducted President Chiari on tour of lock
overhaul work . .

with a heavy reliance on careful staff
work, Governor Carter took a personal
interest in virtually all facets of the
Canal's operation, from the question of
establishing low-cost bus shelters for
school children to the multi-million
dollar waterway improvement projects.
Meeting frequently with labor rep-
resentatives of Canal employees, the
retiring Governor took a personal inter-
est in seeing that problems submitted by
them were investigated and solutions
sought. He continued the past encour-
;in. II, nt given to Civic Councils in the
several Zone communities and urged the
Councils to take an even more active
role in community events and activities.
Just as he earned the gratitude and
trust of employees and their organiza-
tions, Governor Carter also earned the
respect and appreciation of Civic Coun-
cil representatives who dealt with him
frequently. This appreciation was indi-
cated by the Civic Council representa-
tive who told the Governor last month,
"We are sorry to see you leave us. We
on the Atlantic side are beginning to
fell that we are no longer stepchildren."
Not limiting his efforts to official
decisions, the pipe-smoking Governor
became a frequent visitor to festivals,
fairs, swiin going meets, official and
-It ,I functions, and many other
Lts in both the Zone and Panama,
Iri'l'' i' ]iI i ito the Interior
of thi .'. ti.r I...1 occasions.
He uri-, -.. 1 and approved the
development o~ programs designed to
improve tle: i ., conditions of dis-

ability relief retirees of the Canal organ-
ization, including the establishment of
a group health insurance program, visit-
ing nurse and part-time doctor services
for their benefit.
Interesting himself in the Canal Zone
facilities provided by the Company/
Government for Zone residents and
employees, the Governor established
improved utilization of those facilities
by extending their use to all Zone res-
idents employed by the Canal organiza-
tion and by continuing the construction
program designed to provide better,
more adequate housing.
He also pursued the implementation
of the presidential 9-point program of
benefits for Panama, including the con-
struction of a new 30-inch water line
to make more water available for Pan-
ama City. He also instigated the pur-
chase of the Las Crucos, a 200-passenger
launch for Canal .si-hts..-.iig thus pro-
viding a major assist to the Republic of
Panama in developing its tourist trade.
Making himself readily available to
newsmen, the Governor fic~liiiitlt
explained his viewpoints about the
Canal, its operation, maintenance, and
improvement, thus increasing under-
standing of the waterway and its
importance to Panama, the Western
Hemisphere, and the whole Free World.
To help answer the increasing num-
ber of requests for information about
the Canal and the Canal Zone, he paved
the way for production of the documen-
tary film described on the next page.

~'" -. ---'

... and
speeded task of
Gaillard Cut.

Although concerning himself with
many of the human relationships in-
volved in operation and maintenance of
the Canal, the retiring Governor also
took an active role in dealing with the
engineering problems and plans for
improving the waterway.
This included the speeding of work
on widening Gaillard Cut from 300 to
500 feet, ordering studies aimed at
modifying lock overhaul procedures
to reduce lock lane outages during
future overhauls, development of plans
for lighting the entrance channels to
the waterway to improve nighttime use
of the Canal, and ordering comprehen-
sive studies of the Canal's present and
future water requirements.
With a sense of the historic and
an appreciation for the engineering
achievements of leading figures during
the construction era, Governor Carter
ordered three new tugs delivered to the
Canal during his administration named
in honor of John F. Wallace, John
F. Stevens, and George W. Goethals,
the successive Chief Engineers in
construction of the waterway.
On January 25, just 1 week less than
19 months after arriving on the Isthmus
to assume his duties as Governor of the
Canal Zone and President of the Panama
Canal Company, the retiring Governor
left the Isthmus to return to the United
States and his new duties, which con-
tinue to be in the engineering and
administrative field in which he has
proved himself so capable.

FEBRUARY 2, 1962

Harold Fischer
adjusts camera
to shoot
scene, as Bay State
Film President
Morton H. Read,
far right, and
A. Herbert Wells

Filming the Waterway

CAMERAS have been whirring on the
Isthmus the past few weeks as a
photographic crew of the Bay State
Film Productions, Inc., of Springfield,
Mass., started production work on a
documentary film about the Panama
Canal and the Isthmus.
The 16 mm. sound movie, in color,
will have both English and Spanish
sound tracks and will take about 30 min-
utes showing time to tell the mechanics
of the Canal enterprise, as well as the
basic procedure in transiting ships from
one ocean to another.
The film, a number of copies of which
will be available for showing on a loan
basis, will be aimed at presenting a com-
plete and accurate story of the con-
struction, operation, maintenance, and
improvement of the waterway. The first
him of its kind ever produced under
auspices of the Canal organization, it
will be used for more effective personnel
recruitment and orientation, as well as
for informational uses outside the Canal
Shortly after the first of the year,
representatives of Bay State Film Pro-
ductions, Inc., arrived to start produc-
tion work on the film. The group, headed
by Morton H. Read, president of the
film firm, included Harold M. Fischer,
production manager and the cameraman
who shot "Assignment in America," and

A. Herbert Wells, assistant production
manager. Edward R. Knowlton, script
~ writer, had made several trips to the
Canal Zone and worked closely with
the Panama Canal Information Office,
prior to the start of the actual shooting.
The film will examine all aspects of
the Panama Canal operation in an edu-
cational account of the Canal construc-
tion, its purpose, use, and importance to
the United States and the world. It will
picture the economic, military, and
Carlos Montalban



Movie will tell story of con-
struction, operation, main-
tenance, and improvement.

moral reason for the United States' man-
agement and operation of the Canal,
while showing what the Panama Canal
and the United States are doing here.
The film also will deal with the friendly
relationships between the Canal Zone
and Panama.
The filmed story of the 50-mile long
international waterway connecting the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans starts with
the efforts and failures of the two French
companies, and moves through the his-
torical and geographical background to
a photographic actual transit.
While virtually all the scenes will be
filmed on the Isthmus, the sequences of
the documentary will be completed in
the Springfield, Mass., laboratory of the
film company, and sound effects and
dialogue will be dubbed in.
Actors George Caynes and Luis Van
Rooten, both of whom speak fluent
Spanish, will share the dialogue. The
narrator will be Carlos Montalban, who
has been active for many years in the
American theater, radio, and television
as actor, director, and producer.
Filming of the documentary was
approved by the Panama Canal Com-
pany Board of Directors, at the request
of Governor Carter. The contract with
Bay State Film Productions was signed
in May 1961. It is expected that the film
will be completed in about 6 months.


-, -

Chief Hydrographer W. H. Esslinger and Robert D. Munson of Coast and Geodetic Survey with seismological instruments
C A T C H I G G. C. Burrell with the newly-installed time-



A SMALL ROOM in one corner of the basement
of the Administration Building at Balboa Heights
long has been the source of local information about
earthquakes which occur in this part of the world.
Now, with installation of new and more sensitive
equipment completed, that room is ready to become
part of a global earthquake recording network span-
ning 6 continents and including a total of 125 stations
in 65 nations and islands by the end of this year.
Robert D. Munson of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic
Survey, and George C. Burrell of Texas Instruments,
Inc., left the Isthmus in January after spending
approximately 21/ months inst.,lling the new equip-
lt iianid training representatives of the Canal's
Mi utor~lo)ical and Hydrographic Branch in its
(.i ;'tion nl11i maintenance.
\' Iiii iniitallation of all of the 125 stations is com-
pleted !t,( is year or early next, the Balboa Heights
station I' i oI link in a system which includes
stations at sii'ih widely scattered points as the South
Pole, on Conadi:.anal, in South Africa, Ecuador,

Sat Balboa Heights.
-control mechanism.

FEBRUARY 2, 1962

Turkey, Peru, New Britain, and 25
different locations in the United States.
Not only is the equipment in the new
stations to be far more sensitive than
that previously in use, but an ultra-
accurate radio time signal will keep the
time recording devices of all the stations
within a few fractions of a second of
each other. The Summit Radio Station
operated in the Canal Zone by the
U.S. Navy is to be used for transmitting
the time signals to some of the seis-
mograph installations, including the one
at Balboa Heights.
The immediate information available
locally about earthquakes occurring
within a 1,000-mile radius of Balboa
Heights is not expected to be much
more extensive or accurate than in the
past, but Chief Hydrographer W. H.
Esslinger says it will make it somewhat
easier for him to provide the information.
Most of the improved value to be
derived from the Balboa Heights station
will be in the correlation of informa-
tion from the other stations which are
part of the network. As the U.S. Coast
and Geodetic Survey representatives
explained it, most present stations differ
from one another to a greater or lesser
degree. The differences from station to
station have made it virtually impossible
to relate, correlate, and evaluate all the
information coming from them to the
Geophysics Section of the Coast and
Geodetic Survey Office in Washington.
With all the 125 new installations
to be identical, even to the point of the
time registered on the recording sheets,
the Geophysics Section personnel will
be able to correlate information from all
the stations and evaluate it much more
thoroughly, with consequent increases
in scientific knowledge about the earth.
As explained by Capt. R. A. Earle,
Chief of the Geophysics Section of the
Coast and Geodetic Survey's Office of
Physical Sciences, "The extremely prac-
tical results hoped for from the system
are earthquake warnings and seismic
ocean warnings. If we know when signi-
ficant disturbances occur under the
sea, we can predict destructive ocean
waves." This, of course, could serve to
provide coastal residents with warnings
of impending tidal waves and thus help
protect them. Eventually, Captain Earle,
said, "We hope to be able to predict to
some degree of accuracy dangerous
earth shocks."
If and when that day arrives, the
information collected in that basement
room at Balboa Heights will have
played its part, just as it and a pre-
decessor station established in the Zone
in 1908 have contributed for the past
half-century to the knowledge of earth-
quakes and seismologic disturbances
gathered by scientists.

The sharp jagged
lines marked
the beginning of an
earthquake, while
the wavy lines
below them were
recorded as the
effects were dying
down about
an hour later.

Here's How It's Done

"I KNOW a seismograph records vibra-
tions caused by an earthquake, but how
does it work?"
In a sense, this query raises much the
same problem posed by Archimedes
when he made his remark about "Give
me a place to stand, and I can move the
earth.' The problem, in other words, is
giving the main working part of a seis-
mograph "a place to stand" where it
will not be unduly affected by minor
vibrations, but can "see" any major
vibrations transmitted through the earth
by shaking in response to them and
transmitting its movements to a separate
and also partially "neutralized" device
which records them.
Because there isn't any practical
"place to stand" except the earth, all
seismographs represent a compromise
with the ideal, achieving part of the
desired goal through use of a pendulum
designed to utilize the inertia of matter
to capture, measure, magnify, and record
seismic vibrations.
Through this design, it is possible to
create an instrument in which the
pendulum is relatively unaffected by
minor vibrations such as those created
by human footfalls, but reacts in a pre-
dictable manner under the impact of
seismic vibrations emanating from an
When the pendulum quivers from the
tremors of a temblor, its movement is
recorded via a beam of light directed
onto a piece of photographic paper. The
effects are shown on the accompanying
sample from a recording sheet taken
from the Balboa Heights seismograph
after it recorded an earthquake which

occurred last month in the Dominican
During periods when there are no
earth vibrations, the light beam records
a straight line on the photographic
paper which slowly revolves in front of
it. The wavy lines on the accompanying
sample are typical of those created by
earthquakes. Irregular lines are created
by vibrations such as those made by a
train passing below the Administration
Building, by dynamite blasts on the Cut-
widening project, or by other vibrations
of sufficient severity to be recorded by
the instruments. The trained seismo-
logist has no difficulty distinguishing the
movements caused by an earthquake
from those caused by other sources.
By using several seismographic instru-
ments placed in proper geographical
relationship to the earth, the various
vibrations emanating from an earth-
quake are recorded simultaneously.
Using the recordings from the several
different machines, the seismologist then
is able to determine the direction from
which the vibrations came, the distance
they have traveled before reaching the
seismograph, and the severity of the
earthquake at its point of origin. By
comparing data from a number of dif-
ferent locations, much more extensive
information can be accumulated.
John Milne, father of modern seis-
mology, once defined seismology, as
"the eye through which one may view
the innards of the earth." The new
equipment now operating at Balboa
Heights will serve as a better "eye" than
that formerly in use here, giving scien-
tists a better look at the "innards of the
earth" than ever before.



'J A j
,'; *
b.'II M

Robert E. Marshall, ex-Zonian turned author, in hunting attire.

Jim A4eeveo Wonored

THE ATOMIC Energy Commission's Distinguished Service
Award has been presented to James (Jim) E. Reeves, formerly
of Diablo Heights during assignment to the Panama Canal on
design of the third locks now of Albuquerque, assistant
manage for field operation in the commission's Albuquerque
operations office.
Mr. Reeves and his family first resided in the Canal Zone
from 1938 to 1942. A few years later he returned as a con-
sultant on sea-level canal studies and, more recently, he has
been a member of the Canal Zone Governor's advisory board
on planning work for the proposed 24-hour outage locks
overhaul project. He visited the Canal Zone late in 1960 in
relation to the latter project.
The Atomic Eiini g Commission's award to Mr. Reeves was
based primarily on his achievements in leadership and in
management of field test programs basic to military and to
peacetime applications of nuclear explosives during the
period 1954-1960.
Mr. Reeves is a native of Atkinson, Ill., attending school
there and in Davenport, Iowa, before going to the University
of Iowa. After graduation, he served in the Army Corps of
Engineers and, among his assignments, worked on develop-
ment of the Mississippi River 9-foot channel, 1930-1938; the
Panama Canal, design of the third locks, 1938-1942; report
on Isthmian sea-level canal, 1946-1948; Greek rehabilitation
projects, 1949; and flood control, navigation, and military
construction in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, 1949-1952.
Since July 1'54,b he has been assistant manager for Field
Operations (formerly Test Operations) in the Albuquerque
organization, -. 'pi'-il,'l for planning, oiir..izing, coordi-
i. ,,:i and controlling operations at Nevada Test Site; for
S1.....in organizing, and coordinating AEC scientific and
I pport phases of Eniwetok Proving Grounds Operations; for
ii.rn'iiniii ;.-.nrdinating, executing, and controlling
S11 I ""p...' and for planning, o(i izinin. and
S. it selection activities under the seismic improve-
i.; T.~. tl has served, additionally, as Manager,
\t it organization.
Nh. ni... member of the American Society of Civil
l',Lii. i lied and the father of three children, Ann,
,.. .. , io I l

ZVale of Strange Cat

A FORMER Zonian and onetime fireman on the old Ancon
has written what he believes to be the first book ever published
about a mysterious and pugnacious member of the cat family
which Mexican legend, history, and present-day belief ascribes
to remote mountain districts of that country.
Robert E. Marshall, now a resident of Phoenix, Ariz., and
a brother to David B. Marshall of Margarita, has been an
ardent student and hunter of the wild members of the cat
t..mnl. ever since his days on the Isthmus.
In the preface to his book The Onza, Marshall says:
"The research that has resulted in The Onza has been
sustained only secondarily by a desire to make known the
unknown; the primary motivation can be ascribed more
accurately to an interest in the Felidae, or cat family, that
dates back nearly 30 years, to the day in the jungle along
Panama's great Chagres River that I sat on a stump and stared
Into the huge golden eyes of a big black jaguar. I had been
sitting for more than 2 hours on that stump. ...
"Where el tigre came from I do not know. . He
suddenly appeared close by as if by magic, one forefoot half
raised for the next soft step, his head half turned my way in
surprise. How long we stared into each other's eyes before
I remembered the 25-35 Savage carbine I had with me, I do
not know. It lay across my lap, pointed in the general direction
of the beast. 1 held the rifle straight out at the black brute
and pulled the trigger. The report shattered the spell. I jumped
to the ground, the hunter once more, but the beautiful cat
was gone forever. ...
"I was in my middle teens at the time of this experience,
and it made a deep impression on me. In the years that have
gone by since, my interest in the big cats has grown steadily
and I must own to an inordinate fascination for these beasts."
The onza, though unrecognized by zoologists, is known to
natives over a wide area of Mexico's great Sierra Madre
Occidental as a terrible cat the size of the puma, or mountain
lion. Existence of the animal first came to Mr. Marshall's
attention through a picture and brief explanation which he
saw in an old copy of the Arizona Wildlife-Sportsman in the
spring of 1954.
From the description given, Mr. Marshall was sure the
animal was not any commonly known member of the cat
family, which he had studied for so long. Many hours
and days of library and museum research followed, with
Mr. Marshall sifting hundreds of scraps of information in
search of the truth. Several trips to Mexico were included in
his study and, finally, in 1957, he took a year's leave of absence
from his job as a senior design draftsman with Motorola, Inc.,
in Phoenix, to pursue the chase for information about the
elusive animal. His book is the story of the search.
The 47-year-old author's Isthmian background dates to
1916, when his parents brought him to the Canal Zone as
a 2-year-old baby. During 2 years on the Isthmus his brother,
David, was born. The family left the Zone in 1918, but
returned in 1929 and the two brothers attended school in
Cristobal. In 1933 and 1934, the future author of The Onza
worked for the Army Signal Corps as a motorboat operator
on Gatun Lake. He then signed on as a fireman for the old
Buenaventura for 5 months, later joining the Ancon for
9 months, at the end of which time he left the ship in New
York. That was in May 1936 and he has not visited the
Zone since, but is planning to do so within the next couple
of years. His mother, Mrs. Irene Houston Marshall, also lives
in Phoenix.

10 FEBRUARY 2, 1962

David J. Markun receives file from Secretary Grayce L. Nadeau during meeting with


Florencio Arosemena F., and Theodore P. Daly.

Office of General Counsel serves
Company/Government as private
attorneys serve individual clients.

"SEND THIS to the General Counsel
to have the legal aspects checked,
The man speaking was Marine Bureau
Director Richard G. Jack, but it could
have been any of his fellow bureau
directors or other top executives of
the Company/Government in need of
official legal advice or guidance.
Captain Jack wanted a legal review
made of a proposed regulation about
private skindiving in the Panama Canal
channel, but the questions submitted to
the Office of the General Counsel are by
no means limited to matters directly
associated with the waterway and its
During a single day recently, the
office was called upon to (1) argue a
motion in a case pending against the
Company in the Canal Zone District
Court; (2) draft a proposed regulation
governing home-leave travel allowances;
(3) review the provisions of a contract

on which the Engineering and Con-
struction Bureau was preparing to seek
bids; (4) recommend a course of action
involving a financial claim against the
Company which had been presented to
the Claims Branch; (5) advise whether
an employee's damage claim against the
Company was legally allowable; and
(6) represent the Company at an
evening marine-accident investigation
held by the Canal Zone Board of Inspec-
tors in regard to a ship mishap which
occurred that day in the Canal.
These requests are fairly typical of
the varied matters which come to the
Office of the General Counsel for
legal review. They all are dealt with
on the top floor of the Administration
Building at Balboa Heights, where the
legal experts have their offices.
David J. Markun, a 39-year-old
Minnesotan, who has been employed
by the Canal organization since October
1948, is General Counsel, having been

appointed to that position on April 1,
1960. His chief associate is Theodore
P. Daly, Assistant General Counsel, a
36-year-old New Yorker. A graduate
of St. John's University in Brooklyn,
Mr. Daly joined the Canal organization
in January 1957 as admiralty trial
attorney, having previously been asso-
ciated with an admiralty law firm in
New York City. He was named to his
present position in April 1960.
Mr. Markun received his law degree
in 1948 from the University of Minne-
sota Law School, where he served as
law clerk in his senior year to Justice
F. T. Gallagher of the Minnesota
Supreme Court.
Fulltime attorney members of the
office staff, in addition to Mr. Markun
and Mr. Daly, are: John A. Cooper,
Dwight A. McKabney, W. Allen
Sanders, Whitney E. Smith, and Walter
T. Williams. Florencio Arosemena F.,
son of a former Panama president and


a p" ,ti.li. attorney in the Republic
for more than 40 years, is employed by
the office on a retainer basis to represent
the Company in litigation in Panama
and to advise on questions of Panama-
nian law which arise from time to
time. Having been associated with the
Panama Canal Company and its pre-
decessor, the Panama Railroad Com-
pany, since 1920, Mr. Arosemena is the
"dean" of the legal staff.
The General Counsel is the official
legal adviser of the Governor, Pv,-liclnt
and other Company Government offi-
cials and, contrary to the belief held by
an occasional employee facing personal
legal problems, attorneys on his staff
are not authorized to practice privately
and, therefore, cannot advise the
occasional employee who seeks such
legal guidance.
In addition to providing official legal
advice and representing the Coimpari.
in the Courts and before administrative
boards, the General Counsel also pre-
pares legislative proposals for submis-
sion to Congress, drafts a wide variety
of Canal Zone regulations having the
force and effect of law, and studies bills
introduced in Congress which might
affect operations of the Panama Canal
Company or Canal Zone Government,
then alert the officials concerned.
Preparation of a bill to revise the
Canal Zone Code has been the most
significant work in the field of proposed
legislation during the past 2 years. The
revision, prepared under Congressional
auitlirit'. to revise and codify the Code,
was introduced in the House on June 5,
1961. The revision was prepared by a
firm of law revisers under the Governor's
general direction, with the aid of an
advisory committee on which Markun
served as chairman and Sanders as
secretary. A brief listing of proposed
changes of general interest included in

M .Atiiniu fliun t- for cat(l iiti, it.d hfnm il tro S)I0, .nid
the maximum term of imprisonment
increased from 30 to 90 days.
New sections provide that whoever
operates a motor vehicle shall be deemed
to have given consent to a chemical test
or tests to determine the alcoholic con-
thnt of his blood. Anyone it Fliiii to
p''nnit the testing may have his license
or pIrnit to drive revoked for 1 year.
A.\ nw section requires that local
Cr l ios which specify criminal
pelna.i: nd aIr not published in the
Federal ,. ,. such as traffic regula-
tions, must bi published in one or more
of the daily :.. i "-rs having a general

John A. Cooper
indicates section of
contract under
with - -
Whitney E. Smith

the proposed new Code is contained
elsewhere with this article.
A major change in the Code would
be to adopt Stateside Federal improve-
ments designed to streamline legal
administration by providing for use of
the Federal Rules of Procedure, both
civil and criminal, developed since 1948
and prescribed by the U.S. Supreme
Court. The Rules are designed to
facilitate introduction and discovery of
Under the new rules, evidence in the
hands of the opposing parties must be
disclosed on demand. This tends to
eliminate surprise as a factor in a civil
suit. Also, the Rules encourage pre-trial
settlements. In the Canal Zone, the Dis-
trict Court has had pre-trial conferences
in major civil cases for a number of
years, as a matter of Court-ordered
Legislation prepared by the office

circulation in the Canal Zone before
1a tII inil effective.
The Governor is given authority to
issue fishing and swimming regulations
which have the force and effect of law
and could carry a penalty of a fine of
not more than $100 or imprisonment
for not more than 30 days, or both.
Procedure is modernized for hospital-
ization of the mentally ill and for deter-
mination of the mental competency of
defendants in criminal actions.
Probation procedure is improved and
parole is authorized, along with author-
ity for appointment of a probation and
parole officer.

during recent months, in addition to the
work done on revising the Canal Zone
Code, has included the measure which
recently was enacted to prevent garnish-
ment of \.igr-s owed to Company
A pending bill (H.R. 9351) in the
present Congress would provide for
issuing certificates of U.S. citizenship in
the Canal Zone to certain persons born
in the Canal Zone or the Republic of
Panama who are U.S. citizens at birth
under U.S. law. At the present time
the certificates of citizenship must be
obtained at a U.S. Immigration Office
and before an immigration officer in
the United States. The proposed bill
would authorize an immigration officer
to come to the Canal Zone periodically
to issue certificates here.
One of the major and more absorbing
tasks of the Office of the General
Counsel is to defend the Company in
the Canal Zone District Court in suits
arising out of accidents to vessels in the
Panama Canal. The trial of these cases
is assigned to one attorney, but any or
all of the legal staff may be called upon
to contribute to the solution of the
complex and diverse legal problems
which these suits involve. Mr. Daly's
background makes him the specialist in
these cases. His principal assistant, until
his recent i-itiitin. was Paul Dunn.
The Company became suable in
vessel-accident cases in 1951 by Act of
Congress. Prior to 1951, the Canal
authorities were not suable for injuries
to vessels except for accidents occurring
in the "locks."
When a vessel goes aground in the

FEBRVABY 2, 1962

Proposed Changes in Code

Canal or strikes one of the rocky banks
of Gaillard Cut, the resulting damages
are usually substantial, running typi-
cally from $100,000 to $500,000. It is
often difficult to determine just why a
vessel leaves her ordered course, or
"takes a sheer." Many vessels are
inclined to become balky when they get
into confined waters. Complicating the
picture is the fact that, although Canal
personnel have control of the naviga-
tion of the vessel and issue the necessary
orders, it is the ship's crew and equip-
ment which are called upon to execute
the orders.
Fortunately, the General Counsel's
staff has on call willing and able experts
in the Company Government to pro-
vide advice and to offer testimony on
the many technical questions that arise
in the defense of these suits. Experts in
the fields of piloting, towing, steering
gears, propulsion engines, ship sini,.
niirti ei lgv and hydrology, hand-
,i ming .wI document analysis, are
called upon in almost every case. The
Company has been absolved of blame
in five of the six vessel-accident cases
which have been tried to date in the
District Court.
Because of the diverse activities of
the Company Government each staff
attorney must be competent to handle a
wide variety of legal pr blh Ins. but each
tends to have one or more specialties in
which he is regarded as the office expert.
Mr. Cooper, 3-\ ear-old Chicagoan,
who was with the Department of Jus-
tice in Washington before joining the
Canal organization in 1954, specializes
in contracts, reviewing all major con-

Mrs. Marion Mallory hands additional law book toW. A. Sanders as he prepares to give dicta-
tion to Mrs. Thora Mahoney about a proposed regulation referred to him for legal evaluation.

tract proposals and participating in
discussions relative to any major change
orders after contracts have been signed.
Dwight McKabney, 4l1-. a.ir-old Illi-
nois native, who served with the Canal
organization in two previous tours with
the Personnel Bureau, Electrical Divi-
sion, and the Office of the Comptroller,
before ti nn.iii. as an attorney in I '1)t,
handles most wage and personnel
matters, including litigation in those
W. Allen Sanders, 2i\. .ir-old Alaba-
man, who joined the Canal organization
in 1957 through the Justice Department
Honor Pr,',.iiii, which was limited to

Dwight A. McKabney
holds door for
Walter T. Williams
as they enter
Mr. Markun's
office for a meeting.

law school iIdlii it, who ranked in the
top 10 percent of their law school
graduating class, has major responsi-
hility in the field of legislation and in
drafting various regulations.
The two most recent additions to the
staff are Whitnet\ E. Smith, 46-year-old
native of Utiia.. N.Y., and Walter
T. \\ illi.ini;. 26-\teir old Indianan.
Mr. Smith, who had served as real
estate officer for the Panama Area Engi-
neer, Army Corps of Ei,'.i, i i., before
joining the Canal organization in
December 1960, handles a variety of
general legal matters including con-
tracts and procurement. Mr. Williams,
who was an .aitltnol..\.nniii..r in the
Division of Corporate Finance of the
Securities and Exchange Commission,
joined the Canal enterprise in Septem-
ber 1961 and is assigned general legal
matters covering many areas.
Much of the effort of the General
Counsel and his staff is directed toward
the end that the Comptroller General
in his annual audits of the Panama
Canal Company and the Canal Zone
Government will give both agencies
clean bills of health in fidiiing all of
their activities to have been conducted
in conformity with law.
In a broader sense, however, the
office serves as part of the staff "team"
that assists the Governor/President in
making his day-to-day decisions in
imliiii;triiiL the two Canal agencies.
In most respects the Office of General
Counsel serves its "client" in much the
same manner as individual ittr in <
serve their private clients-adi ihi,.
them, defending them, and seeking to
enforce legal rights through judicial


the Record


Isthmian Historical Society is
interested in the past, while
retaining interest in today's
events.,. all part of local lore.

Loron B. Burnham, onetime president of Society, interviews
Miss Aminta Melendez and R. D. Prescott about Panama revolution.

\\ H E TH1 E I it's ascertaining the origin
of place names in Panama and the Zone,
tilld ijn, the Zone's educational system
during the construction era, discussing
landmarks in Panama, or any one of
dozens of other historical subjects deal-
ing with the Isthmus, there's a good
chance it has been discussed by the
Isthmian Historical Society.
This organization, founded early in
l'J, I as the Isthmus prepared for the
Goethals Memorial Dedication program,
has interests extending back to the
days when Columbus anchored off the
Atlantic shoreline and also up to yester-
day evening's headlines. Any historical
error about the Isthmus which is made
public soon results in some member of
the Society calling attention to it and
"keeping the record straight."
A recent instance of this penchant for
historical accuracy concerned the resig-
nation of Governor Carter. When the
Governor's plans were announced early
in January, newspaper articles stated he
was the first Governor of the Zone ever
to resign. Society member and amateur
historian Fred de V. Sill, a retired Canal
- 1,iih. ,i. soon was passing along the
word that a number of Governors had
resigned before their terms expired,
including Col. George W. Goethals,
Chief F;, ii.... during construction of
tlc waterway, and first Governor of
tih Zone.
"It's not too iII]]Ii .II t perhaps,"
I o said with a il. ', h" ut I like to
~ li i-ord kept -Ii li-Jlt when it's
.I.. l' t ((1 so ."M
I. \; ( M rCInack, one of the
Icai.ui; o':iii/its ind first president of
the S, i:l. *< 1ins the founding of
the ..i.. this w
I ,.I the paper that there

were 200 'oldtimers' on the Isthmus
and ppl'l.,M'l.,t' 1 that number were
expected to arrive from the United
States to attend the (Goethals Memorial
Dedication) ceremony. . I also had
read an article by C. R. Vosburg . .
in the Star & Herald, in which the writer
deplored the fact that there was no His-
torical Society. . I called a meeting
of all interested persons for what
I hoped would be the beginning of such
a society."
The meeting called by Mrs. McCor-
mack was held on April 7, 1954, and
regular meetings of the organization
have been held continuously since that
time, usually one each month. The
meetings have included discussions on
a wide variety of subjects: Operations
of YMCAs in the Zone during the con-
struction era, the history of what now is
Gorgas Hospital, the events of Novem-
ber 3 and 4, 1903, which led to Pan-
ama's independence from Colombia,
interviews with employees of the
construction era, and other subjects.
The meetings are open to the general
public. Tli, usually are held in the
ballroom of the Tivoli Guest House and
the dollar a year dues paid by each
member are used to pay for a micro-
phone for speakers and other program
participants. The main objects of the
Society, as of similar oiz.ii.i/.tit'i', are
to stimulate a greater love for history,
to learn more about local history, and
to preserve what is learned for those
who may be interested in later years.
To achieve the latter goal, a file of
pictures, recordings, transcriptions, and
clippings have been preserved by the
Society and scrapbooks of each year's
activities are on file with the Canal
Zone Library.

Among those who have participated
in the programs presented by the Soci-
ety are Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, three
times President of Panama and now a
jurist on the International Court of Jus-
tice at The Hague; Juan Antonio Justo,
former archivist of Panama; A. V.
M..C1.tJh. Editor Emeritus of the
Sum -' H[ ra'ld, Eugene Lombard, former
Executive Secretary of the Panama
Canal; Miss Aminta Melendez, heroine
of Panamanian independence, who car-
ried a message across the Isthmus on the
Panama Railroad advising Panama City
leaders of the revolution that a detach-
ment of Colombian troops would be
detained in Colon; Richard D. Prescott,
railroad telegrapher who read messages
sent and received between the two sides
of the Isthmus during the revolution;
John Easter Minter, author of The
ClI.r', and many others.
Tl osr- who have served as president
of the Society, in addition to Mrs.
McCormack, are the Reverend Mainert
J. Peterson, Otis Myers, Donald Mussel-
man, Loron B. Burnham, Cornelius S.
McCormack, and Charles R. Bowen,
who now is serving. Until this year,
when he finally accepted the post of
pire'idient. Dean Roger C. Hackett of
the Canal Zone Junior College served
several years as vice president.
Even though he is preparing to leave
the Isthmus soon, Dean Hackett still
is active in directing work on a major
current project of the Society-deter-
mining the origin and meaning of the
names of Isthmian provinctis, rivers,
cities, towns, mountains, lakes, streets,
and other place names. Other members
pursue their fields of interest, developing
new iliihts into the rich history of the
Isthmus and ko C-pil, the record straight.

14 FEBRUARY 2, 1962

Dean Roger C. Hackett, president of Isthmian Historical Society,
and Juan Ehrman, Panama businessman and fellow Society member,
examine flags of Panama and United States along Zone portion of
parade route for Panama's Flag Day festivities in November 1961.

Mrs. Amy McCormack, first president of Society, with former Canal
Executive Secretary Eugene Lombard, left, and jurist and former
Panama President Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, both honorary members.

Massive Orion Hunter barely fit betweenwallsof 100-foot wide locks
as she transited waterway under able guidance of 3 Canal pilots.


and Well Done"

A "WELL DONE" for officials and employees of the Panama
Canal Company in connection with the January transit of the
huge supertanker Orion Hunter was received by Governor
Carter from the owners of the vessel a few days after the transit.
The cable, sent to the Governor from the Orion Shipping
& Trading Co. offices in New York, said, "Owners of the
Orion Hunter express their appreciation and profound thanks
to the Panama Canal Company, its officers, and employees
for directing the successful and expeditious transit of the
Orion Hunter on January 4. Congratulations and well done,"
the message concluded.
The Orion Hunter, largest commercial vessel ever to transit
the Canal, except for the old German passenger liner Bremen,
made the southbound trip last month on her maiden voyage
from the east coast to Long Beach, Calif.
The ship measures 860 feet in length, has a 104-foot beam,
and a tropical fresh-water draft of 45 feet and 9Vz inches.
With a Panama Canal net tonnage of 33,S2') tons, the Orion
Hunter paid $30,446.10 in tolls, the highest ever collected
from a commercial vessel.
The supertanker arrived at Cristobal January 4 and, with
three Panama Canal pilots aboard, started the southbound
transit at 6:40 a.m. The ship made the trip without incident
and left Miraflores Locks 'Ili r tl'. after 3 p.m. The entire transit
of Canal waters took 11 hours and 11 minutes. United Fruit
Co. served as .ir li for the ship at the Canal.


General Wilson at Gorgas Hospital project with Engineering and Construction Bureau
Director Matthew C. Harrison, far left, Canal engineers, and others in tour party.

Caie( o4 Cngineerj VUl;t 3Jtkmwm

Corps of Engineers has played a major
role in the engineering achievement
represented by the Panama Canal, with
every Governor of the Canal Zone
having been selected from the officers
of the Corps. Many other high officials
of the waterway also are drawn from
the Corps.
It was appropriate, therefore, that the
Chief of i,.-;i I. Lt. Gen. Walter K.
\ilson, Jr., should visit the Canal Zone
, o view current improvement projects.
(;cnral '" I ..1. arrived on the Isthmus
Juiii;ry 9 for a 3-day stay which
inc liid visits to the Thatcher Ferry
Bii.P t, the Gorgas Hospital
construction project, and the La Boca
!I' iil.i-ir area.

The Canal Zone Post, Society of
American Military FiJin.... Is. honored
General Wilson with a dinner dance at
the Fort Amador O(thrfl,' Open Mess
and heard a brief talk by the visitor.
General Wilson was accompanied to
the Isthmus by Brig. Gen. H. A. Morris,
Division Engineer of the South Atlantic
Division, Corps of Eintiin.-. \ll nit.,
C. P. Lindner and L. M. Stephenson of
the South Atlantic Division office;
Col. Julian Sollohub, District Elim, i(-r.
Jacksonville, Fla., and J. J. kip. -,ki,
F. E. Hil.hn and E. C. Brown of
that office.
During his stay on the Isthmus, Gen-
eral \\I lI.. was a ii'it of Governor

Studying at Company Cxpense
THE TUITION Refund Program spon-
sored by the Canal oiE.laizatiLn to
enable Company/Government em-
pil1i-,-, to receive refunds of their
tuition for off-duty studies that will help
them in their work, has been extended
to cover employees off the Isthmus, as
well as those living and working on the
Thus, regular employees in New
Orleans, Washington, and Tokyo now
may take night courses and correspond-
ence study under Company/Government
The Tuition Refund Program, al-
though less than 18 months old, has
proved very popular among Isthmian
employees. Records of the Personnel
Bureau's Employee Development Staff
show that 66 < ipl,~.l... have com-
pleted 95 courses and received a total
of '2 6 1 in refunds, or an average of
about $28 per course.
Of the courses, 4 were taken by
correspondence, while the remaining 91
have been night classes in the Canal
Zone Junior College and local f.litidrs
of Florida State University. Of the
66 employees p.irt ip.atiig. 20 non-U.S.
citizens have < ,inph t -ld 29 courses and
46 U.S. citizens have completed 66.
Approximately one-third of the par-
ticipants took more than one course.
Fourteen took two; four studied three,
one employee took four courses, and
one took five. The five-course champion
is James L. Rinehart of the Industrial
Division, who has been going to Florida
State University night classes almost
continuously, studying Spanish and
organization and management.
As of December 31, 1961, 15 courses
were l-ili, studied.
Company Government employees are
good students. Employee Development
Staff records show that of the 95 courses
completed, 50 final grades of A were
achieved; 31 B's were scored; and
14 showed final grades of C.
Any employee may apply to his
bureau director for Tuition Refund
Program sponsorship if he believes a
course of off-duty study-either night
classes or by correspondence-will help
him in his work. To qualify for the
program, the employee's bureau director
and the Personnel Director both must
c.Iitif t[Ihat tlw-p),[opttd studl \ isldi th ctlv
related to the present work of the
employee and will contribute to more
effective job performance.
Application must be made on Form
984, "Agreement for Tuition Refund."
The signatures of the two directors must

16 FEBRUARY 2, 1462

be obtained in advance of the first
instructional session of a resident class
or before the employee orders a cor-
respondence course or signs a contract
or pays any money for it.
If these requirements are met, refund
of full tuition and registration fees,
together with laboratory fees, if any,
nim be made after the employee com-
pletes the course satisfactorily and pro-
vides proof of grade and payment of
the original fees. Satisfactory comple-
tion in most schools is represented by
a final grade of A, B, or C.

Carnival Jlayg Jlyin
flag is flying in the Canal Zone, symbolic
of the festivities planned for the celebra-
tion of the Carnival of the Americas on
March 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Among those participating in the
Carnival flag raising in Balboa on Jan-
uary 19 were Governor Carter, Governor-
designate Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Pan-
ama Canal Company Board Chairman
Stephen Ailes, and a distinguished com-
pany of Carnival queens, the Carnival
Junta, and musicians.

Special Jund tbrive
FEBRUARY 12 through April 2 is the
period set for on-the-job solicitation of
funds for National Health Agencies and
International Voluntary Agencies in the
Canal Zone, it has been jointly announced
by the civilian and milit.ii-\ organiza-
tions of the Federal Government in
the Zone.
No goal has been established for any
participating ae. ii or for the group,
the announcement said, and each
agency seeking funds through the cam-
paign is to supply its own .11111).1mp
material. The Keym-n of the Gov-
ernor's Council for Voluntary Giving
will conduct the campaign within the

Uoo i0a, Uoo i00
LAUNCHING of the largest merchant
ship ever built in the United States has
added another vessel to the growing
list of those unable to transit the Isth-
mian waterway. The tanker Manhattan,
christened in the Bethlehem Steel Co.'s
East Boston yard on January 10, is
940 feet long and has a beam of 132 feet,
22 feet more than the width of the
Panama Canal locks. With a deep loaded
draft of 49 feet, sha will be unable to
go through the Suez Canal with a full
cargo, but will be able to use that
waterway when only partially loaded.

Jew t com


THE OLD and the new Panama Canal
towing locomotives are shown standing
end-to-end on the east wall of Gatun
Locks as tests were begun on the first
six of the new Japa.er-.built machines
received during January by the Panama
Canal Company. Ch,-Ainmg the new
"mules" through their paces are two
representatives of Mitsubishi Shiji
Kaisha, Ltd., of Tokyo. Keisaku Sugi
and Mitsuo Kubota came to the Isthmus
from Tokyo and will remain here during
the testing period.
The first three of the six machines
were shipped here aboard the Pioneer
Myth and unloaded directly onto the

JVew Port Captain on buty
THE NEW CAPTAIN of the Port of
Cristobal, Capt. E. D. Ring, USN.,
arrived on the Isthmus during January
and assumed his new duties.
A native of Passport, Ill., Captain
Ring has been a U.S. Navy officer since
1941. He is a veteran of World War II,
with service in both the Atlantic and
Pacific Theaters and came to the Isth-
mus from the Atlantic Fleet, where he
had been on duty as Commander of
Destroyer Division 162.
The new port captain is a graduate
of Illinois State Normal University and
completed naval officers training at
Northwestern Uni'.. 1.it'.. In addition to
his duties as port captain he also will
serve as a member of the Board of
Local Inspectors.

s Veited at fatun
east wall return tracks at Gatun Locks.
The second three arrived here aboard
the Pi',a.n r Main 2 weeks later and
were set up on the center wall at Gatun.
While the engineers and Japanese
inspectors prepared the new locomo-
tives for their task of towing ships
through the locks, a training program
was started for all those who will have
anything to do with operating and
maintaining the new "mules." Robert
Blair, wireman lock operator, and Felix
Karpinski, machinist lock operator, who
received instruction on the maintenance
and operation of the machines in Japan,
are taking part in this program.





The Quick


The Dead

THERE IS an all-important difference
between the quick and the dead, and
very often what makes the difference is
a seat belt. The findings of Cornell
University's Automotive Crash Injury
Research confirm this. Two groups of
accidents were compared.
In the group without belts, the fre-
quency of serious injury was high, while
among those with seat belts it was low.
The study shows that people with seat
belts are 35 to 60 percent safer than
people without seat belts.
What does this mean in terms of
human life? Cornell University scien-
tists estimate that seat belts, if widely
used by the motoring public, could
save 5,000 lives each year merely by
holding people inside the car in case
of an accident.
To assist in bringing these facts to
the attention of employees and their
families, the Safety Branch of the Com-
pany/Covernment has arranged for
local showing to the general public a
motion picture made by fhe Univer-
sity of Southern California of actual
test crashes using dummy passengers
wired up to sensitive electronic record-
ing devices to indicate injuries sustained
or avoided, depending upon whether or
not the dummy passengers were held
in the cars by safety belts. The first
showing of the film was at the Balboa
Theater over the January 13-15 week-
end. It will be shown elsewhere as
facilities and opportunities permit.
At present, all Motor Transportation
Division sedans regularly assigned to
transisthmian travel are equipped with
seat belts, as are all Police Division
patrol cars. Since the installation in
these vehicles, several instances have
been reported in which injury to pas-
sengers has been avoided because seat
belts held passengers in place during
sudden crash stops.
In cooperation with the Supply and
Comnmunitv Service Bureau and the
lMoor Tr insportation Division, arrange-
mcs Ihv ,,c bee made to make seat
blts in i:i ,(.:: colors available for pur-
chase ,t I' ; stores and, if desired,
installed Ib lotor Transportation Divi-
sion at minhii niu ctst both for purchase
and installation,

There are so many ways to express your love
for a child-amuse him. caress him. understand
him. protect him from hurt and harm.
Because drivers kill and cripple more children
than any disease, a car is potentially one of the
most dangerous places your child can ever be. So
protect him whenever he is in the car-with a
seat belt.
If every car owner in America had seat belts in

his car-and used them--we could reduce severe
injuries by one-third, deaths by 5,000 a year!
It's terribly important to drive with loving
care, always. And to support strict law endorce-
ment in your town, for where laws are strictly
enforced, accidents and deaths go down. But for
a parent, it's most important of all to protect
your loved ones-and yourself-by relying on
seat belts.

I' PhblIEd It .






^^i' / i1^^'--^


'61 '60 '61 '60 '61 '60
259 250 4 11 410 262
3547(397) 2909 131(4) 142 13299(58)15291
( ) Locks Overhaul injuries included In total

18 FEBRUARY 2, 1962

t35~e 1%s


when you're driving, too!


(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Samuel A. Muir
Laborer Cleaner
John C. DeYoung
Inspector, Gas Plant Products
George P. Hinds
Retail Store Supervisor
Ivan S. Brown
Meat Cutter
Fitz O. Jordan
Laborer Cleaner
Enrique E. Dudley
Edgar R. Lawrence
Leader Boatman

Florence M. Peterson
Accounting Assistant
cas Landecho
Surveying Aid
ertram M. Ramsey
Daniel Orozco
Toolroom Attendant
James A. Brooks
Supervisory Cargo Officer

Frank Wilder
Security Specialist
Warren H. Smith
Thelma H. Bull
Statistical Assistant
George G. Graffman
Passenger Traffic Clerk
Sylvia McKay
Bindery Worker
Frank Koenig
Window Clerk
Clara O. Wattley
Teacher, Junior High, Latin
American Schools
Howard B. Harrison
Lead Foreman, Barge
Tomas A. Molleda
Civil Engineering Draftsman
Jack W. Rocker
Floating Crane Engineer
Alfred T. Marsh
Vicente Acosta
Manuel Gonzalez
Heavy Laborer
Silvestre Avil6s
Walter Sinckler
General Helper
Jesus Argueta
Simon B. Jones
E. A. Jorgensen
Clerk Typist
Jacinto Sanchez
Floating Plant Oiler
Agnes C. Meade
Theophilus N. Shaw


A. M. McCormack
Dental Laboratory
Federico Murray
Medical Technician
Jose Bermudez
Pharmacy Helper
Eric W. McDonald
Medical Aid, Orthopedics
George M. Williamson
Patient Food Service Attendant
Teresa Lawrence
Harry T. Lacy
Master, Towboat or Ferry
James W. Johnson
Launch Operator
Clyde W. Archer
Robert J. Roy
Lock Operator Machinist
BernabB Garay
ch Operator
Arcadi uendia

John ray Ir

LEdo erard J. Luachinists
ec and

Adelaide M. Seldon
Accounting Assistant
Edward J. Lucas
Adelaide M. Seldon
Accounting Assistant
A. B. Hendricks
Systems Accountant
Rolando Nisbeth
Bookeeping Machine
Norman N. Bonnick
Lead Foreman, Grounds
Oswald A. Smith
Stock Control Clerk
Buster Brown
Dry Cleaning Presser
Eliza W. Robinson
Counter Attendant
Gifford Holmes

Harold Johnson
Ruth Williams
Sales Section, Retail Store
Zacarias Garibaldi
Heavy Laborer
Fredrico B. Jones
Dry Cleaning Presser
Wilford N. Mitchell
Olive Archer
Counter Attendant
Geraldine L. Watson
Storekeeping Clerk
Verona M. Pascal
Utility Worker
Teodoro Luna
George S. McCullough
Lead Foreman
Calvin A. Waterman
Gregoria Bisquez
Counter Attendant
Richard Hogan
Gladys M. Duncan
Sales Clerk
Elwood G. Bissett
Supervisory Merchandise
Management Officer
Jorge Lugardo
Laborer Cleaner
Marcus J. Williams
Storekeeping Clerk
M. L. Canavaggio
Cargo Control Clerk
Kenneth E. Licorish
Automotive Equipment
Pedro Aguilar
Truck Driver
Jorge Campbell
Helper Automotive Machinist
William H. Foster
Edwin Paul Carson
Julio H. Ortega
Heavy Laborer
Leroy P. Marsh
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher


December 5 through January 5

L:,lI LO'i FES who were promoted or
transferred between December 10 and
January 10 are listed below. Within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed.
Grayce L. Nadeau, from Legal Clerk,
Stenography, to Legal Clerical Assistant,
M h.,'-I l wbli.
Thora S. Mahone', from Clerk-Stl ir.-.
rapher, to Legal Clerical Assistant.
Stanley J. Crossman, from Printing and
Publications Clerk, to Hand Compositor,
Printing Plant, Mount Hope.
Lew C. Hilzinger, from Window Clerk, to
Clerk-in-Charge, Window Services, Cris-
tobal, Postal Division.
Police Division
Russel T. Billion, Alexander R. Geddie,
Ralph C. Stone, from Police Private to
Police Sergeant.
Paul V. Rozmeski, from Guard, Locks Divi-
sion. to Police Private.
Walton S. \\ ilonI. tr.ii s.1. Clerk, Supply
D division, I.- p.,h ... 'r,. tr-.
Division of Schools
Helen M. Adams, from Substitute Teacher,
to Elementary and Secondary School
Ruth H. Amedee, from Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Elementary
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Stanley E. Hall, from Clerk Checker, Ter-
minals Division, to Mail and File Clerk,
General Audit Division.
Victor M. L6pez, from Mechanical Engi-
neering Draftsman to General Engi-
i,,, rin : Dr ft -m it, Fi,,:in,-:riI Di% ision
Shirkl) K. Finlaon, fr'rom iupcrtsiB.,rv
Clerk, Stenography, to Clerical Assist-
ant, Contract and Inspection Division.
Dredging Division
Norval E. McGrecor. from Dipper Dredge
Fi'in. I.r t.. ( lu4f Engineer, Towboat
"r I I I '
George W. Thompson, Jr. from Dipper
Dr, l,.2 Engineer, to Salvage Towboat

George A. McArthur, from Mechanical En-
gineer, to General Mechanical Engineer.
Ricardo A. Honeywell, from Mess Attend-
ant, to Clerk.
Gladstone C. Bellamy, from Seaman, to
Fl. ior., Plant Oiler.
Inis Alheo. from Debris Control Winch-
man, to Debris Control Leader.
DaCosta \Mihnn. frm Fl. I iii' Plant Fire-
man, to. I I. I,,a Ilair '.\ i. r Tender.
Walford \ \\1,.iin, from Fl..atin. Plant
W incr, to i 1.. ,,,. Plant p\ i,. r Tender.
Alired W'orrell. from I !. tr.r Plant \\ p. r,
I, I>ing Plaint Fireman.
\ ilia II. t ., from Seaman, to Float-
i I -B ~n Oiler.
Edsard Siuffler. iron Launch Seaman, to

Joseph N. ,toddard. from Seaman, to
Leaderr Seami.
Santiago L6pez. fHrm iI]I.. ilI Plant-
Boom ( 1l. t 1I a .,r Seaman.

Narciso G6mez, from Boatman, to Launch
Venancio Ariuz, from Boatman, to Seaman.
George W. Lambert, from Heavy Laborer,
to Seaman.
Juan S. Diaz, from General Helper, to
Navigational Aid Worker.
Sotero Garcia, from Laborer, to Boatman.
JuliAn Martinez, from Grounds Mainte-
nance Equipment Operator, Community
Services Division, to Boatman.
Ernesto F. Scott, from Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Mess Attendant.
Delfin Saavedra, from Railroad Trackman,
Railroad Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Electrical Division
Carl R. Newhard, from Lead Foreman
Central Office E, p irmni toli Communi-
cations Managen it (It,,fi. r
Theodore J. Wilber, from Supervisory
Administrative Services Assistant, to
Administrative Services Assistant.
Glenn H. Burdick, from Office Services
Supervisor, to Supervisory Administra-
tive Services Assistant.
Joseph F. Green, Domingo D. Hinds, Paul
W. Kramer, Jr., Earl H. Turner, from
Marine Machinist, Industrial Division,
to Shift Engineer, Mechanical.
Jack Saltzman, from Electrician, to Elec-
trical Test Operator-Foreman.
Walter E. Blenman, from Niiri,: Assist-
ant, Gorgas Hospital, to Meteorological
William Powell, Henry J. \ allace, from
Helper Machinist, Industrial Division, to
Helper Maintenance Machinist.
George Griffith, from Heavy Laborer, to
Helper Electrician.
Maintenance Division
Robert B. Grier, from Lock Operator
Machinist, Locks Division, to Mainte-
nance Machinist.
Guillermo C. Morales, Rupert L. White,
Maintenance Painter, from Industrial
Luis Cuentas, from General Helper, to
Cement Finisher.
Carlos Cedefio, from Laborer, Community
Services Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Gorgas Hospital
Maxine M. Ince, rhirle i C. Truitt, Sue W.
Warner, from Si Il Ntir,, to Staff Nurse,
Medicine and Surgery.
Carlos Ramirez, from Latoratory Helper,
to Autopsy Assistant.
Pablo E. P6rez, from Hospital Laborer, to
Laboratory Helper.
Corozal Hospital
Marva L. Carter, from Sales Clerk, Supply
Division, to Nursing Assistant, Psy-
Leroy A. Alleyne, from Laborer, Supply
Division, to Nursing Assistant, Psychi-
Constance E. Skeete, from Clerk, to Nurs-
ing Assistant, Psychiatry.
Louis E. Sprauve, from Clerk Checker,
Terminals Division, to Nursing Assistant,
Joseph Rochester, from Nursing .\.i.( il
P-'.'Ii.LIri, to Occupational I11n r.ip'
Enrique R. Richards, from Nur;'e' .\..i.r-
ant, Psychiatry, to Hi cr iti-oin .-I.I mt
Palo Seco Leprosarium
John R. Thomson, from Office Services
Clerk, to Hospital Administrative Officer.

Marie V. Weber, from Staff Nurse, Leprosy,
to Nurse Supervisor, Leprosy.
Victor Smith, from Laborer Cleaner, Supply
Division, to Nursing Assistant, Leprosy.
Jerome A. Phillips, from Laborer Cleaner,
Supply Division, to Kitchen Attendant.
Norman J. Clarke, from Laborer Cleaner,
to Helper Shipwright, Industrial Divi-
Beresford F. Baxter, Alfred E. Bowen,
Lincoln B. Boyce, Larry L. Dick, Wilfred
E. Lindo, Adrington R. Morrison, Sebas-
tian R. Navarro, Ruben A. Padmore,
Edgard U. Petit, Elton H. Sealey, Edgar
E. Taylor, from Teletypist, to Marine
Traffic Clerk, Navigation Division.
Locks Division
June A. Stevenson, from Clerk-Typist, to
Typing Secretary, Office of the Chief.
Magin L. Navarrete, from Helper Lock
Operator, to Leader Boatman.
John E. Winklosky H, from Signalman, to
Supply Division
Lucille Abernathy, from Retail Store Super-
visor, to Commissary Store Department
\\ illiain D. McGowin, from Retail Store
Supervisor, to Commissary Store Depart-
ment Manager.
Louis H. Schmidt, Jr., from Lead Foreman
Service Station Attendant, to Retail
Store Supervisor.
Magdalena L. Bushell, from Timekeeper,
to General Personnel Clerk.
Albert A. Roach, from Sales Clerk, to Sales
Section Head.
Albert DaCosta, from Service Station Oper-
ator, to Sales Section Head.
Francisco Brito, from Stockman, to Leader
High Lift Truck Operator.
Ruperto Jemmott, from Timekeeper, to
Constance V. Dudley, from Counter
Attendant, to Sales Clerk.
Marion Wason, from Utility Worker, to
Retail Store Sales Checker.
Rupert Ranger, from Food Services Sales
Checker, to Storekeeping Clerk.
Verona C. Jackman, from Counter Attend-
ant, to Food Service Sales Checker.
Francis A. Cadogan, from Utility Worker,
to Counter Attendant.
George S. Goode, from Utility Worker, to
Truck Driver.
Irvin V. DeSousa, Vincent George, from
Pinsetter, to Utility Worker.
Victoria B. De Cervinin. from Laborer
Cleaner, to Utillt:. \\'. rk r
Joree A. Hinds. Ir.m \\A.t. r. to Food
b,, r'. ,.e Sales Checker.
Walton J. Davy, from Meat Cutter Assist-
ant, to Meat Cutter.
Lester L. Ferraro, from Pinsetter, to
Package Boy.
community Services Division
Elda M. Mendoza, from Clerk-Typist, to
Luther E. Gray, from Laborer Cleaner, to
Heavy Laborer.
Terminals Division
Gilbert A. Sollas, from Supervisory Cargo

FEBRUARY 2, 1962

Assistant, to Supervisory Clerical Assist-
Carmen F. Ender, from Bill-of-Lading
Clerk, to Cargo Clerk.
Wilmoth L. Raymond, from Ship Worker,
to Winchman.
Alexander A. Cox, from Ship Worker, to
High Lift Truck Operator.
Dionisio Almengor Andres Jiminez, Nar-
ciso Kelly, Nolberto Marin, Feliciano
Mercado, Ram6n M. Reyes, Luis Rias-
cos, from Dock Worker, to High Lift
Truck Operator.
Samuel Bryan, from Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman, to Dock Worker.
Juvenal Arias, from Laborer Cleaner, to
Dock Worker.
Luis H. Nfiiez, from Ship Worker, to
Helper Liquid Fuel Wharfman.
Robert J. Arthur, from Ship Worker, to
Orman B. Inniss, Francisco Delgado, from
Dock Worker, to Heavy Laborer.
Railroad Division
Margaret M. Martin, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, to Secretary, Stri .-'r i., .
Nathan A. Thompson, from Deckhand,
Navigation Division, to Brakeman.
Motor Transportation Division
Evans N. Morrison, from Accounting Clerk,
to Timekeeper.
Hilarius B. Wilson, Jr., from t i.lit,
Worker, Supply Division, to Automotive
Equipment Serviceman.
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Whitney E. Smith, General Attorney,
Office of the General Counsel.
Edward H. Halsall, Chief, Locks Security
Branch, Office of the Chief, Locks Divi-
Paul Kowalchik, Structural Engineer, Engi-
neering Division.
Corneilius J. O'Sullivan, Assistant Com-
missary Store Manager, Supply Division.
Robert H. Adams, Supervisory Storage
Officer, Supply Division.
G. Leroy Koontz, Administrative Services
Assistant, Police Division.
Robert M. Blakely, Jr., Hospital Admin-
istrative Officer, Corozal Hospital.
William J. Barrett, Dental Laboratory
Technician, Gorgas Hospital.
Evelyn S. Barrett, Margaret E. Orvis,
Accounting Clerk, Typing, Contract and
Inspection Division.
Gertrude J. Connard, Peter Neblett, Prince
A. Spencer, Retail Store Supervisor,
Supply Division.
Frank R. Brown, Statistical Draftsman,
Accounting Division.
Eric R. Townsend, Bookeeping Machine
Operator, Accounting Division.
John E. Hogan, Clerk-Typist, Railroad
James N. Miller, Supervisory Clerk, Supply
Horace D. Cooper, Sales Section Head,
Supply Division.
Fitzroy O. Best, Cargo Clerk, Terminals
Vincent Steele, Clerk, Railroad Division.
Agnes B. Whittingham, Clerk, Supply
Margaret Mussa, Germaine I. Punnett,
Clerk-Typist, Supply Division.
Dorothy C. Bushell, Clive A. Courtenay,
Cathaline P. Thompson, Nursing Assist-
ant, Psychiatry, Corozal Hospital.
Anthony Jordan, Sales Clerk, Supply Divi-

50 Years Ago
THE NEED for an Isthmian waterway
was highlighted in February 1912 by
an announcement that the Canal organ-
ization was going to send the tug
Reliance and three 600-cubic yard
barges from the Atlantic side to Balboa
-by way of the Strait of Magellan. The
10!l-Iiiiii.l trip started from Colon
on February 11, was expected to
take until about June 20, and to cost
approximately $15,000.
The area to be occupied by the
channel for the Canal through Mia-
flores Lake was being cleared of brush
and excavation of the channel had
been started. Total excavation for the
channel between Pedro Miguel and
Miraflores Locks was expected to be
approximately 800,000 cubic yards, with
much of it to be used for backfilling
at the locks.
While work was just getting under-
way on the channel between the two
Pacific-side sets of locks, it was reported
that excavation in the Cut through the
Continental Divide was approximately
84 percent complete, with an estimated
14,525,000 cubic yards still to be
removed, including 4,300,000 resulting
from slides. Total excavation from
the entire Canal, through February was
163,182,086 cubic yards, leaving
32,141 2'J 3 cublc yards to be excavated
to complete the waterway.

25 Years Ago
NET INCOME of $1,127,340 was
earned by the Panama Railroad during
fiscal year 1936, it was revealed in Feb-
ruary 1937 by President Roosevelt, who
quoted figures from the 87th Annual
Report of the Board of Directors of
the Railroad.
About the same time, Gov. Clarence
S. Ridley announced that an amendment
to the Canal Zone Code, which would
affirm the authority of the President of
the United States to make regulations
prescribing conditions of employment
for Panama Canal service, would be
included in the legislative program of
the Canal administration. The amend-
ment would, at the same time, protect
the 40-hour week on the Canal Zone
and give the President authority over
matters pertaining to transportation,
medical care, and commutation of leave.

10 Years Ago
RATE INCREASES designed to place
designated commercial activities of the
Panama Canal Ci..ini.i. on a break-
even basis were announced 10 years ago
at Balboa Heights. Main effects were on
such general services as marine bun-
kering, stevedoring, and the Ii killingg of
cargo over the piers. A 2-cent increase
on gasoline and cigarettes, a 50-cent
increase on residence telephones, and a
10-percent raise in Tivoli room rates
also were announced. The charges for
care of grounds around employees'
quarters were discontinued, however.
Fluoridation of the Canal Zone
water supply, which provides water
for all of the Canal Zone as well as
Colon and Panama City and its sub-
urbs, was started in February 1952 as
a partial control of dental d,. '.. The
chemical was introduced into the
water at the Water and Laboratories
Branch filtration plants at Miraflores and
Mount Hope.
One Year Ago
A ( O\lT \(:T for installation of air
conditioning in four Panama Canal
office buildings in Ancon and construc-
tion of a central chilled water plant to
service the buildings was awarded to
the W. B. Uhlhorn Construction Co. of
Harlingen, Tex., on a low base bid of
The Canal Zone joined in the "Car-
nival of Friendship" during tht month,
with parade routes in the Zone on both
sides of the Isthmus bedecked with Car-
nival flags and gaily colored balloons
on light standards.

RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented through January 5 to the follow-
ing employees whose names were not
listed in the retirement list published
in the January issue.
Osmond Green, Linehandler, Atlantic
Branch, Locks Division; 18 years, 3
months, 14 days.
Amy LeCount, Seamstress, Corozal Hos-
pital, Health Bureau; 33 years, 4 months,
25 days.
Manuel P6rez, Shipworker, Cristobal
Branch, Terminals Division; 18 years,
3 months, 12 days.
Newton S. Walker, Painter, Maintenance
Division; 29 years, 1 month, 25 days.




The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
I Second Quarter, Fiscal Year

United States intercoastal -- -----------
East coast of United States and South America _
East coast of United States and Central America _
East coast of United States and Far East __--
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia -___
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada _---
Europe and South America ------ _-
Europe and Australasia- -------
All other routes -_ ___------- _____
Total traffic -_-__- __ -----

Avg. No.
1962 1961 Transits
118 126 162
618 636 427
88 81 143
621 493 257
68 58 55
234 193 160
272 279 116
92 96 80
653 676 374
2,764 2,638 1,774

Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal Years)


August- --------
September ____--
October -- -
November- -----
December _-- --
February __---_--
June -
total ----


1962 1961

931 941
934 912
892 847
935 913
891 859
938 868


Total for year_- --


Avg. No.


Gross Tolls *
(In thousands of dollars)
1962 1961 Tolls
$4,776 $4,680 $2,432
4,749 4,585 2,403
4,523 4,172 2,43,
4,646 4,495 2,559
4,443 4,300 2,361
4,870 4,385 2,545

$28,007 $26,617
_ _ 661



SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.



Belgian -.---.
British --...
Chilean -_-.-
Chinese --_..
Colombian ..-
Danish --.-..-
Ecuadoran -
French -----
German --_---
Greek __-__.
Honduran- _
Israeli ___
Italian _
J '.:-,Ie - - --
I.I.-,n.n ------
Netherlands -- -
Norwegian -
P. iulanaian --
ikruvian ..___
Swedish ......
United States
All others -

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year

Number Tons N
of of
transit cargo t
15 56,391
316 1,915,980
38 286,785
21 171,820
69 110,841
84 372,067
13 16,367
33 236,800
261 764,020
197 1,828,709
22 27,757
18 103,985
59 354,089
211 1,204,759
208 1,688,347
135 741,115
366 2 i911 s5
106 491,125
28 169,320
21 109,732
85 440,441
426 2,560,797
32 174,170
S7.4 1(.. 16.27"=

1961 1951-55
umber Tons Average Average
of of number tons
ransits cargo transits of cargo
4 46,064 __
29s 2,045,350 301 1,874,647
27 239,005 11 66,740
14 72,872 6 38,938
63 124,192 38 46,028
91 256,511 58 213 240
12 17,963 36 24,9 -i
25 145,710 33 147,569
285 774,997 44 92,509
138 1,347,252 26 219,932
49 52,680 96 120,854
15 21,681
44 243,038 36 1 5
210 1,234,903 67 -4116 76-
248 2,086,921 43 260,602
104 603,706 32 151,485
302 1,785,554 193 747,864
92 490,618 115 604,619
23 87,415 7 13,512
10 62,131 ----- -
73 342,571 43 175,551
451 2,991,414 539 3 225 627
60 199,730 50 179,772
2.63. I 15.272.278 1,774 8,797,124

New Zealand Ships to Miami
PASSENGER vessels of the New
Zealand Shipping Co. which operate
between Great Britain and New Zealand
on a monthly basis, by way of the
Panama Canal, will include a stop at
Miami on their homeward voyages
beginning in February.
Norton, Lilly & Co., local agents for
theh vessels, announced that in addition
to Miami, the ships will call at Kingston
and Bermuda on their return trip to
England. On the voyage to New Zea-
land, the ships will call at Curacao,
Panama, and Tahiti.
The New Zealand Shipping Co. also
has announced the purchase of the
former Cunard liner Parthia. The ship
is being remodeled and renamed the
Remuera. It will sail from London
June 1, 1962, on her maiden voyage to
New Zealand and will arrive at the
Canal about mid-June. The ship is being
adapted to carry 350 passengers in
one class and is being air-conditioned
throughout. When it goes into service,
the Riilihda and the Rangitiki are to
be ,inha l n.

More Cruise Liners
TWO MORE U.S. flag passenger liners
have been diverted to the Caribbean
cruise trade during the winter months
and will call at Cristobal early this year.
They are the American Export Line
vessels Independence and Atlantic, both
of which are slated for cruises to the
West Indies out of New York between
January and April.
The Independence will be the first
of the two vessels calling here. It will
arrive on February 10 and remain in
port from about 8 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. The
Atlantic, which will stay in port about
the same period of time, is scheduled
to dock at Cristobal on April 8. Both
vessels will be visiting the Canal for the
first time, normally being on the United
States/Mediterranean run. Boyd Bros.
act as agent for th3 line here and
Panama Tours will conduct the local
tourist excursion for passengers on the
two ships.
Boyd Bros. also report that the
Caribbean Cruise liner Ariadne will call
at Cristobal four times this year on
Caribbean cruises out of Miami. She
docked here on January 11, and will
return on February 8, March 8, and
April 15. After leaving the Canal, the
vessel is scheduled to call at the San
Bias Islands.

Two New Banana Carriers
added to the fleet of small freighters
that make regular trips through the
Canal with bananas from Guayaquil,
Ecuador, to U.S. ports. They are the

22 FEBRUARY 2, 1962


Israeli-flag ships Har Ramon and Har
Gilead, owned by Cargo Ships El-Yam,
Ltd., of Haifa and operated by the
Maritime Overseas Corp. of New York.
The Har Ramon passed northbound
through the Canal for the first time in
October with a full load of Ecuadoran
bananas and has made several trips
since. The Har Gilead started her run
about a month later. They average
two to three trips through the Canal
each month.
The ships are 5,800 deadweight tons,
have a speed of 19 knots and a bale
capacity of 250,000 cubic feet. C. B.
Fenton & Co. is agent for the operating

Southbound Miami Service
A STOP at Miami for cargo is being
made by four ships of the Flota Mer-
cante Grancolombiana S. A. which
operate between Canadian and eastern
U.S. ports and the west coast of South
According to Wilford & McKay, local
agents for the line, the first ship on the
new direct conference service from
Miami to South America passed through
the Canal on New Year's Day. The
Norwegian flagship Sygm, which started
the service, will be followed at approxi-
mately monthly intervals by the Hong
Kong Clipper, the Strom Gunhild, and
another cargo vessel being chartered by
After leaving the Canal southbound,
the ships call at Buenaventura, Guaya-
quil, and Callao. On the northbound
voyage, the vessels will skip Miami and
call at Wilmington, Norfolk, Boston,
and Canadian ports.

Powerful Tug
ONE OF the most powerful ocean-
going tugs flying the U.S. flag, the
M. Moran, arrived in Pusan, Korea, on
Christmas day, with the 30,000-kilowatt
floating generating plant Resistance in
tow, according to word received by
Panama Agencies, agents for the tug
at the Canal.
The big tug made the Canal transit
October 11 and started on her long
journey to Korea shortly afterward. She
is expected to return to the U.S. east
coast by way of the Panama Canal
within the next few months.
The voyage to Korea with the gen-
erating plant was the maiden voyage
for the M. Moran, which was built last
year by the Gulfport Shipbuilding Corp.
With a light running potential of 11,000
nautical miles and a bollard pull of
95,000 pounds and a high maneuver-
ability, the tug is suitable for harbor
service as well as being capable of
handling towing assignments anywhere
in the world.



Second Quarter, Fiscal Year

1962 1961 Av. No.

Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going- __ -_____
Small __ ______
Total commercial__ _
U.S. Government vessels: **
Ocean-going ___- ____
Small --_-_ ___
Total Government ___ -
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment_ --____-_ -_ __

Atlantic Pacific
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic

1,426 1,338 2,764
79 49 128
1,505 1,387 2,892

25 18 43
18 34 52

43 1 3
1,548 1,439

SVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
"Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1,
ships transited free.


Total Total





2 2l;

1951, Government-operated


Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year


Ores, various___ __ ---------
Lumber - -___ - -
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)---
Wheat _____ ------- -
Canned food products __--- ----
Nitrate of soda -- -----
Barley ___
Bananas ___-____---_--
Metals, various__-_----_- ----
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) _-__ _ -___---
Coffee- .-. ---_ ---_--------
Fertilizers, ui.,1-.i -fi-d -- - - -- -
Iron and steel manufactures ____- ---
Pulpwood and products_ ---__-_
All others- - -
Total --_------ ---------
Total __________________---


1 13-2 940
77_ 1 13
523 315
241 O10
221.i1l l
243 I-Y)


24.', I7
112 617
1 3-1,l'
7 41 l 3'A 7

l't51 r,3
4 3,1 W26
21 l 4 31
327 313.
4.7 lifl.382

Atlantic to Pacific

Second Quarter, Fiscal Year


Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)
Coal and coke_________-
Metal, scrap ________- ___ -__
Iron and steel manufactures ______
Phosphates _- - -
Sugar. _
Soybeans __-. ------
Sulphur_ _ --
Ammonium compounds- __
Paper and paper products ------
Ores, various ___
Machinery _____--------
Corn __ __
Chemicals unclassified_- _-
All others
Total -----


-112 24-1.
,41' 2
4 10 62731
74 5671


2 5'-ii. 153
550 'q-o
.327,hl 1
.343 457
104 143
6s '57
7 .4i0.t.7 1

A%,: r.lj .
1336S ';
4-1 132
1 61; 613


THE CONTINUING Japanese indus-
trial boom remained a major factor in the
record movement of cargo which passed
through the Panama Canal to the Far
East during the first 6 months of the
1962 fiscal year, just as it has for the
past several years.
Official statistics compiled by the
Canal enterprise show that the move-
ment of such items as scrap iron, coal,
and phosphates to feed the expanding
Japanese industrial machine were at a
record level in the 6-month period
beginning July 1, 1961. At the same
time, cargo movements to the east coast
of United States increased, reversing the
drop in these movements which occurred
during the recent business recession.
Trade to the Far East accounted for
more than one-third of all cargo being
carried through the waterway during
the half-year period, with a record high
of 41.2 percent of all Canal cargo being
credited to that area during the month
of July. The average amount of cargo
moving to and from Asia since July was
36.7 percent of all shipments through
the waterway. Scrap iron shipments,
which have been climbing steadily for
several years, increased by more than
a million long tons during the July-
through-December period, compared
with the similar period of 1960.
Meanwhile, trade with the west coast
of South America was on an upward
trend at the end of the 6-month period,
after showing a decline in the piu tdi i
fiscal year. Cargo movements through
the Canal from western South America
during December 1961 came to
127,000 long tons more than during
December 1960.
The increase in cargo movements
from the west coast of South America,
long a major source of Canal traffic,
occurred despite a drop in the tradi-
tionally large shipments of iron ore from
Peru and ( l,1, which normally account
for a major part of this business.
Sodium nitrate from Chile and fish
meal from Peru are two major commodi-
ties which have helped push the South
American west coast cargo movements
upward, despite the drop in ore ship-
inents. Although Peru during recent
tcars has become one of the leading
producers of fish meal, the Chilean
nitrate trade has suffered since the last
war because of the production in former
purchasing countries of cheap synthetic
Irl IlI. Fish meal, meanwhile, has
moved into prominence as its use as a


Commercial ................
U.S. Government. ..........
Free transits. ..............
Total ...........
Commercial .... $4,388,109
U.S. Government. 82 153
Total. ... $4,470,264
Commercial. .... 5,046,493
U.S. Government. 79,716
Total.... 5,126,209

1960 1961
868 938
16 8
6 7
890 953

$4 '-,1i 195


SIncludes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
"Cargo figures are in long tons.

food product for animals has increased
in many parts of the world.
The gradual increase in the size of
ocean-going vessels using the Panama
Canal has been a major factor involved
in planning the future of the waterway
for the past 10 years-and statistics for
December 1961 show that the average
size of ships still is increasing. During
that final month of 1961, the average
Panama Canal net tonnage of ships
using the waterway was 5,921 tons, the

highest monthly average in the 47-year
history of the Canal.
This average net tonnage was a siz-
able increase over the 5,770 net ton
average of December 1960 and the
5,672 net ton average recorded in
December 1959. The worldwide trend
toward construction of larger ships was
not limited to ore carriers and tankers,
but also extended to other commercial
ships and passenger vessels.
Between 1938 and 1961, Canal sta-
tistics show, the size of ore ships using
the waterway increased from an average
of 4,822 Panama Canal net tons to
8,087. During the same span of time,
tankers climbed from an average of
5,834 to 9,492 net tons, commercial
cargo ships from 4,722 to 5,088 net tons,
and commercial passenger ships from
6,542 to 8,095 net tons.
During the month of December, when
the big ships were setting a new record
for average size, ore ships transiting the
waterway averaged 9,356 Panama Canal
net tons, cargo ships averaged 5,360,
and commercial passenger vessels aver-
aged 8,361. The average size of tankers
declined during the month, however,
falling to 9,114 net tons from the
average net tonnage of 9,492 chalked
up by all tankers using the waterway
during the year.



1000 u
900 E
700 N

600 S


24 FEBRUARY 2, 1962



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