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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
Back Cover 1
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
PAN ANA "' j
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&dulderi at Work
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N. D. CHRISTEN NSIN Press Officer
JOSEPH CONNOR, Pulications Editor
WILL AREY Official Panama Canal Company Publication Editorial Assistait
Can.l Information I icer Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z. EUNICE RICHARD and lToe
'nted at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone WVILLIAM BURNS, Official I
O)l s.de .t il Paniarmi .ill servicee ( Cetes, Ret il Stores. and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cent: each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Pi'ost.d ro i:,.s iiL ,;' is lt., f.dIe to te Pan.mna Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C. Z.
idrlauil rmiies .ir-e i c:lted in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights. C. Z.
1h. Ih, .
Governor Comments On
Labor and the Canal
AS THE ARTICLE on the opposite page says, "Labor Built
the Canal-and Keeps It Operating." The management of the
Company-Government never loses sight of that fact and makes
every effort to recognize the constant contributions which labor
makes to the success of the enterprise.
Both old and new employees of the Canal organization
constantly are improving their abilities, job performance, and
knowledge. The organization strives to meet both its own future
employment needs and the needs of its employees through an
apprentice training program, a tuition-refund plan under which
the cost of certain courses of study is refunded to the employee
involved, and through similar activities. But it is only through
participation and willingness of employees themselves that these
programs are succeeding.
The most valuable resource of the Canal enterprise is the
men and women who keep it operating, serving the needs of world
commerce. Improved techniques may result in the laborer of today
being supplanted by the technician of tomorrow, but the people
themselves always will be paramount in operating the water-
way. Without people the Canal could not have been built and
interoceanic travel through it could not be maintained.
As we this month observe Labor Day, let us remember that
all those who work are part of the labor force. Those directly
engaged in handling ship traffic are one element of the labor
force, but so, too, are the doctors, sales clerks, typists, accountants
All of those who labor for the Canal have much of which to
li proud, serving, as they do, the growing requirements of world
coinnurce at the crossroads of the world. Those of us responsible
for the management of the enterprise depend on all of those who
work here. We know that without them one of the world's
greatest engineering achievements simply would not exist or
continue to function.
In This Issue
THIS MONTH'S cover scene is a section of
one of the murals which decorate the rotunda
in the Administration Building at Balboa Heights.
Painted by W. B. Van Ingen, the murals present
the artist's concept of the job of building the
Canal. The scene on the cover is of work on the
lock gates. Other scenes show construction of the
spillway in Gatun Dam and men swarming over
the partially finished lock structures.
\M.mi\ demands were made on the skill,
stamina, and intelligence of those who built the
waterway. Tlhev achieved a great engineering
feat and those who operate it today devote con-
siderable effort to maintaining and improving it.
But it is not only the waterway which is being
improved; many employees are improving them-
selves through study and training. One such
program of training is described in the article
starting on page 12.
Labor Built the Canal . and Keeps It
Operating_---- _______ 3
Two Bureaus Get New Directors_--- 7
Bridge Steel Going Up------_ 8
Return To First Love _-----_ 9
Toward More Adequate Housing --- 10
U.S. School Calendar for 1961-1962...... 11
Drivers in Training__________ 12
It's What's Down There That Counts ---_- 14
Transit Limitations Defined __----- 15
Greater Security for Employees------ 16
Health Insurance Booklets Readied------ 16
Worth Knowing ----_ -____ 17
Swamp Tamer and Administrator ____ 18
Going Strong at 100-Plus --- ____ 19
Anniversaries ---------- 20
Promotions and Transfers ---_-.-_______ 21
Canal Ilitotr\ __-____--_........ 23
Retirements ----------- 23
Shipping __-___-______ 24
SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
\\V A, !A r, Govertmor-1 resist I rvt
\\. P. I :BfR, Lietiten.mt tit ( veru,,
Labor Built the Canal...
..... and Keeps It Operatij
S. . ..
Boat crewmen make check of entire channel bottom to make sure that ships using the waterway will not strike some unknown obstruction.
LABOR, millions upon millions of
hours of it, built the Panama Canal and
labor keeps it flne ti.-ii.: serving the
needs of world shipping and commerce.
The dream of building an inter-
oceanic waterway across the Isthmus of
Panama intrigued men for almost four
centuries before the Canal became a
n-.ilit\ in 1914. The French used 400
million hours of labor in an unsuccess-
ful effort and U.S. forces expended
approximately 750 million more hours
before the Canal was opened on
August 15, 1914.
Dramatic as it was, opening of the
waterway only marked the beginning of
the work. Approximately 1% billion
hours of labor-more than required by
the original construction-have been
used to operate, maintain, and improve
the waterway in the 47 years since 1914.
During all the years since 1880,
when the French effort started, to the
present day, the Canal has made unique
demands upon the men and women
whose labor made it possible and con-
tinues to keep it operating. Early in the
French effort, and throughout the later
work by U.S. forces, it was necessary to
recruit workers elsewhere and 1uii.ii
them to the Isthmus. The local labor
supply simply was not Mitlfi' lit to meet
the need. Today, 81 years after the
French effort began, slightly more than
one-fourth of the employees come from
the United States. Panama citizens
gradually are hfllin more and more of
the skilled and technical positions as
the general level of training and
education climbs upward.
Gerstle Mack, in his massive work
The Land Divided, reports that the
French recruited workers from the sur-
Ij iidiii, Caribbean area, with the most
important source being Jamaica. "Of
12,875 laborers imported in 1885," he
says, "9,000 came from that island."
The French were following a pattern
established more than 30 years earlier
in building the Panama Railroad, which
had imported thousands of laborers
from wherever they could be recruited.
Commenting on this shortage of local
labor, Mack says the French canal com-
pany "found itself almost constantly
hampered by a more or less acute
shortage of labor."
Even the more modest French effort
which started 5 years after collapse of
the original French company required
foreign recruitment of labor to achieve
an employment level of 4,000 persons.
The U.S. forces, which assumed direc-
tion of the construction effort in 1904,
also were forced to use foreign recruit-
ment. Technical experts, mechanics, and
craftsmen of all t\l p,. with only rare
exceptions, were brought from indus-
trially advanced nations, principally the
United States. Laborers and some arti-
sans were hired in the surrounding
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Caribbean area, but the need also led
to recruitment in Europe and Asia.
All West Indian recruits were guar-
anteed repatriation after 500 working
days. Asiatics also were given repatria-
tion rights and a great many of the
Europeans also were returned home
at the expense of the Canal organiza-
tion. (During fiscal year 1961, the Canal
organization spent $1,353 in repatriat-
ing non-U.S.-citizen employees to their
native countries. One of those repatriated
was sent to India.)
Under the successive leadership of
John F. Wallace, John F. Stevens, and
Col. George W. Goethals, the U.S.-
directed forces climbed from a moribund
level of only a few hundred in 1904 to
a peak of 43,350 in 1913. Average
annual employment was more than
20,000 until 1920, then for 20 years it
varied from 10,000 to 16,000. Work on
the third locks project pushed employ-
ment to 37,000 in 1012, before the
effort was shelved. Employment now is
approximately 13,300, having been
nudged up about 800 from a postwar
low 2 years ago of 12 "00 by increasing
ship traffic and the current Canal
improvement program. Without the
labor forces of both past and present,
the possibilities offered by the narrow
Isthmus still would be unrealized and
the transisthmian waterway still would
be only the dream it was when first
suggested about 1530. Establishment ofi
modern transportation across the Isth-
mus cost both money and lives. An esti-
mated 7,000 died in building the
Panama Railroad. Some 6,630 employees
died during the U.S. Canal effort. Deaths
di i, i the French effort have been
variously placed from about 6,000 to
more than 20,000, with the lower figure
being used in The Land Divided.
Development of labor unions among
Canal workers has followed much the
same pattern as in the United States.
There were sporadic, though principally
spontaneous, work stoppages during the
French effort, but little if any formal
organization of workers. A carbuilders
union which developed in the Gorgona
carshops in 1905 is believed to have
been the first formal organization of
Canal workers. The following year,
Local 699 of the International Associa-
tion of Machinists was organized on the
Atlantic side of the Isthmus. Pacific-side
machinists formed Local 811 of the same
union in 1907. Both machinist organiza-
tions still are in operation, being among
the 39 organized associations and labor
groups with which the Company-
Government deals today. An association
of union groups, the Metal Trades
Council, was founded in 1914. A second
association, the Central Labor Union,
Towing locomotive operators like A. M. Hiland help ships at locks.
Antonio Hudson and John Smith help provide fuel service for ships.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
was founded in 1918. In the years since,
the two associations have merged to
form the CLU-MTC. Today, 29 em-
ployee organizations are affiliated with
the CLU-MTC. The 10 other groups
operate as independent units.
Tasks performed by p I-ilt-'.li.
employees are many and diverse, just as
they have been since the construction
period. Some jobs have disappeared in
the flux of changes since 1914, but many
still are basically the same as they were
then. The complexity of the effort neces-
sary to provide uninterrupted service to
world shipping-the siiuihl. overriding
function of the Canal organization-is
indicated by the 900-odd job designa-
tions into which employees are slotted.
On the front line in operation of the
waterway are the pilots, tug masters,
crewmen, lock operators, traffic control-
lers, linehandlers, towing locomotive
operators, and many others-3,800 in all.
To serve ships calling at the Canal, port
facilities employing 1,500 additional
workers are maintained at both ends of
the waterway. Thus, 5,300 of the 13,300
employees are directly engaged in
serving world shipping.
The remaining 8,000 employees of
the Canal enterprise are utilized to
provide services and supply other sup-
port to those whose primary concern is
direct service to shipping. Thus, there
are 1/z employees in supporting roles for
each employee engaged directly with
shipping operations. Economists in the
United States say each factory employee
requires 21/2 persons in suppoi tinc roles
in the community to provide the services
and supplies he and his family require.
Tropical conditions require greater
numbers of medical and sanitation per-
Canal stevedores load cargo aboard ship docked at Cristobal, another service to shipping.
It's a high perch,
but this welder
work which must
be done to keep
R. A. Berry, operating lathe at Gatun, is one of many machinists.
111E .- T' ; .,r1Aatmll*EM il
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
sounded here than is normal in the U.S.,
.,,,lI i to reduce the local ratio even
further below the stateside level. The
"shortage" of one person is compensated
for bv the fact that many services and
supplies required by Canal employees
and their dependents are provided by
individuals and private enterprises in
Panama, extending direct benefits from
the Canal operation into the economy
of the Republic.
Some 3,680 of the present-day
employee force are U.S. citizens. The
remainder are nationals of other coun-
tries, the vast majority, approximately
8 til ,, being Panamanian citizens. This
employment, large as it is, does not
include employees of other organizations
or U.S. Government agencies in the
Zone, nor those .., i. kii,- for contractors
on Zone projects. As of June 30, other
agencies and contractors employed more
than .- t i'i most of them Panamanian
Just as there has been a steady
improvement in V ,-'. working condi-
tions. and fringe benefits over the years,
there have been and are continual move-
ments of employees within the organi-
zation which lead to better wages,
positions, and employment benefits for
a number of workers each year. During
the fiscal year which ended June 30,
there was an increase of 579, or approxi-
mately 5 percent, in the total number
of Company-Government employees.
Miss Ivy IaCosta
of the Balboa
is among those
who help furnish \
services and supplies. L" i
Allen A. Spencer
60 years ago.
During this same period, the number of
non-U.S. citizens being paid at the U.S.
wage base rate increased from 270 to
424, or more than 57 percent. Institution
of Canal Zone Merit S.. t' iii procedures,
through which job applicants are hired
solely on the basis of ability, skill, and
experience, also has improved conditions
for Canal (-npl,,'.. ,.
The Canal organization, through
regular training and apprenticeship
P"'~'g .i', has played an active role in
helping local residents acquire the skills
necessary for better-paying jobs. As local
residents gain in technical skill and
knowledge, the need for recruiting
employees away from the Isthmus is
reduced. These additional skills and abil-
ities among local residents not only tend
to serve the Canal's needs, but also those
of business and industry in the Republic.
Thus, the Panama Canal continues
to play a major role in the economy of
the area in which it is located, just as it
has since the days when the great effort
to build the waterway was started. At
the same time, it contributes to the
economy of the entire globe by serving
the needs of world commerce. But behind
the Canal, serving to make it effective
as a gateway to world trade, are the
thousands who labored to make it a
reality, the thousands more who have
kept it fn I .. tinir,, since it opened, and
the 13,?(itll hi t. day continue to oper-
ate, maintain, and improve it for the
present and the future.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
Bernhard I. Everson
NEW DIRECTORS for two bu-
reaus of the Canal organization were
named by Governor Carter on August 21,
as he moved to fill the vacancy created
by the retirement of Henry L. Donovan
as Director of the Civil Affairs Bureau.
Bernhard I. Everson, Director of
the Transportation and Terminals Bu-
reau since 1954, was named to succeed
Mr. Donovan, who was scheduled to sail
August 28 on a round-the-world cruise
after more than 30 years of employment
in the Canal Zone.
Capt. Axton T. Jones, U.S.N., who
has been Cristobal Port Captain since
October 1959, was named to succeed
Mr. Everson as head of the Transporta-
tion and Terminals Bureau. Captain
Jones, who entered the Navy in 1941,
will retire from the naval service to
remain with the Canal enterprise.
The new Civil Affairs Director was
born in Brevik, Norway, on Novem-
ber 10, 1912, and came to the Canal
Zone with his father 2 years later. He
became a U.S. citizen when his father
While still attending Balboa High
School, Mr. Everson took a temporary
job as a messenger at Balboa Heights in
1927. He also worked as a seaman with
the Marine Division. After being gradu-
ated from Balboa High School in 1930,
he attended the Carnegie Institute of
Tt-Lhnology and received a bachelor of
souicce degreein mechanical engineering
Upon his return to the Canal Zone,
the young engineer took a position in
October 1934 as a technician-operator
at the water filr.ilini plant operated at
the site of Madden Dam during the
construction of the dam and associated
installations. He remained there until
the fall of 1935, when he became a
machinist apprentice and started the
climb through various positions to the
post of Director of the Transportation
and Terminals Bureau.
Having learned Spanish as a child
in the Canal Zone, Mr. Everson speaks
the language fluently and is well known
among Panamanian officials and civic
leaders, particularly on the Atlantic side
of the Isthmus. Active in the civic affairs
of both the Canal Zone and the Republic
of Panama, he was presented with the
Meritorious Citizen Award by the Colon
Civic Council on June 22, 1960, and is
a holder of the Grand Cross of the Eloy
Alfaro International Foundation.
His wife, the former PI, Ilj. Anne
Buechele, also is a lifelong resident of
the Canal Zone. They have three sons,
John, 17; Randall, 14; and Bernhard, 7,
all living with their parents in the Zone.
Captain Jones was born in San Jose,
Calif., on July 27, 1913, and first joined
the Canal organization in October 1959.
He attended the University of Oregon.
When Captain Jones left college he went
to work for Standard Oil of California.
In 1935 he commenced sailing on his
license in the U.S. Merchant Marine.
He was sailing as a licensed deck
officer with the Matson V i- ,ti,,', Co).
at the time he entered the \.I'. i' I' I1.
He holds an unlimited license as a
master mariner and served aboard Navy
vessels during both World War II and
the Korean conflict.
He served aboard the U.S.S. Altair
in the Atlantic Theater early in World
War II, then as commanding ,&th a of
the U.S.S. \Al. '' an attack cargo vessel,
in the -'., -h. I heater. He also served as
I \,. ,r, h.li. i I commanding officer
of the U.S.S. Grand Canyon, a destroyer
tender, in the Mediterranean Sea
following World War II.
During the Korean conflict, Captain
Jones was commanding lff,., i of the
destroyer Miller and received the bronze
star medal with combat citation. He was
on duty with the Chief of Naval Opera-
tions at the Ptit i -a and also was com-
mander of the Rhine River Patrol of
the U.S. Navy in Germany. Prior to
becoming port captain at Cristobal, he
was Iiuiin.iadiI fficer of the fleet
oiler, 1.' 1 .- \ l .d ,'l .
Mrs. Jones is the former Dorothy
Dodd of Bl.ulliiraH,.ic Calif. They have
four alhild ii Dodd, 20; Guy, 17;
Laurie, 14; and Douglas, 11. Dodd is
on active duty with the Navy and the
other three children are with their
parents in the Canal Zone.
THL PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Two Bureaus Get
For High-Level Bridge
S(;O) \\T H of the high-level bridge
being built by the United States across
the Panama Canal at Balboa is proceed-
ing, girder by heavy girder, and will be
one of the sights on the Pacific side of
the Isthmus during the next year or so.
Work on the superstructure, \ which
is the second phase of the bridge con-
struction, started early in August. Steel
men employed by the John F. Beasley
Co. of Dallas, Tex., climbed up and
bolted two 40-foot girders into place
between piers 12 and 13 in the Balboa
Tank Farm to initiate the task.
Since then, these specialists in high
steel construction work have nearly
completed the assembly of the bridge
span extending between the two piers.
Steel for the superstructure is
arriving on the Isthmus at regular inter-
vals, with the bulk of the material due
here next month. If work continues at
the present rate, the superstructure will
be completed on schedule late in 1962.
The superstructure includes installation
of a concrete deck, roadway lighting,
'. and other appurtenances, including
v\.l aini lights for aircraft.
Meanwhile, the substructure work
continued, with the final pour for the
base of pier 4 being completed on
August 18 during a continuous 10-hour
operation. Work was started toward the
end of the month on the two pier shafts
which will rise 126 feet above the water,
L I. i,. ;-, the bridge above them.
Th. i cofferdam for pier 6, last of
the bridge piers to be poured, was built
S.. in August and the first pour for the base
was scheduled for completion by the
end of the month. This pier is located
on the west edge of the channel and
required a 40- by 100-foot cofferdam
with a depth of approximately 35 feet
below low water level.
Tivoli Avenue, which is a continua-
tion of the approach to the new bridge,
rapidly is assuming the .ppenia.imce io
a 4-lane higli v..i%. as it is enlarged pre-
paratory to opening of the bridge. The
widening work is being do nre bA Isthmian
Constructors, Inc., whose first task was
.. the relocation of the play shelter for the
Ancon Elementary School. The section
One of high-steel men stands on cable strand to help guide heavy bridge girder into place. of Tivoli Avenue between J Street and
Ancon Boulevard should be paved and
open to traffic by the end of this year.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
Man who has seen a lot is
helping others view Canal as
operator of the Las Cruces.
Frank Viglietti, former Italian naval officer, aboard sightseeing launch.
THE MAN who at present is sailing
up and down the waterway at the helm
of the Panama Canal's new sightseeing
launch Las Cruces is a former Italian
naval officer who has been a naturalized
U.S. citizen since September 2, 1955.
A former lieutenant commander of
a landing craft transport in the Italian
Navy, he holds Italian license as master,
any seas, any tonnage. However, to
Frank Viglietti the Las Cruces is as
important as any other vessel he's ever
commanded, because it is one more
experience in his varied life, and because
he's adding to water time.
After his graduation from the Royal
Naval Academy in Leghorn, Italy, in
1941, and during World War II, the sea
was his home and his career. During the
past 9 years he's held land jobs. When
he wished to sit for an examination for
a Panama Canal license, he found recent
water experience a requisite. Moreover,
25 percent of that experience has to be
acquired within 3 years of sitting for
Frank Viglietti was born in Cuneo-
Piedmont, Italy, where his father was
general manager of a large bank in the
region. He was graduated from the
Technical Institute at Cuneo, studied
business science and economics at the
University of Turin, and then attended
the Royal Naval Academy.
His first assignment as a graduate
ensign was to a cruiser. Promotions fol-
lowed and he was navigator of destroyer-
class vessels, executive officer on a
cruiser and on a battleship.
He experienced, as a target, heavy
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9
pattern bombing by superfortresses, and
was on two destroyers that were sunk
while en route to North Africa, the last
on March 30, 1943, in the Sicily Canal,
known as the "Route of Death" through
the British Broadcasting Co.'s newscasts.
A fishing vessel endeavored to pick
up survivors but the sea was rough, the
vessel dragged over the life raft, and
Viglietti was hanging over the stem
when the propeller went full ahead. He
shouted, and a seaman grabbed him by
the seat of his pants and unceremo-
niously saved his life. The fishing boat
put into Carthage, Africa, and from
there Viglietti returned to Italy by air.
For the remainder of the hostilities
he was assigned as instructor in astro-
nomical navigation at the Italian Royal
Naval Academy at Leghorn and then
at Brioni, where the Academy was
moved because of the bombings.
After the surrender of Italy,
Viglietti was picked up by the Nazis
and gained first-hand knowledge of life
in concentration camps in Poland and
Knowledge of languages-in this
case, German-is credited by Viglietti
with saving his teeth during his stint in
the concentration camps. Receipt of
medicines by the internees was pro-
hibited, but from time to time he
received packages from home. He man-
aged to get a message through to his
family in Italy to send Vitamin C and,
through his knowledge of German, man-
aged to convince the guard that the
package contained a preparation for
When hostilities ended, he returned
to the Italian Navy, from which he
received an honorable discharge. From
1948 to 1950, he was captain of an
Italian ship, plying between the
North and South Atlantic and the
Life in the Free World beckoned,
however. Ep,- li.ll, after r he had a few
good looks .it h111'. J1 i Communist rule
when his ship docked in Yugoslav ports.
A shipowner in San Francisco,
whose path and Viglietti's had once
crossed, offered the latter a job in
Panama-and a new phase in his career
opened. As in all shipping businesses,
there were ups and downs, and in 1952
Viglietti came ashore on the Isthmus to
hold landlubber positions until the
launch Las Cruces, and an opportunity
to tread a deck again, came along.
He has worked as a maritime tech-
nician with a shipping firm in Panama;
as a dispatcher in the Central Exchange
of the ( .i il'li,..,i Army and Air Force;
as station manager in charge of opera-
tions for Braniff International Airways
at Tocumen; as a freight handling fore-
man; and then a supervisory store-
keeping clerk with the Panama Canal
Company. Since May 11, he has been
assigned to the Dredging Division in a
position known as launch operator.
It's good to be in charge of a craft
again, even a little craft like Las Cruces,
he feels. And every day on the launch
adds to the required total of experience
necessary before he can sit for the
Panama Canal license on which he's
fixed his sights.
These on-the-ground, duplex-style units are the type of new housing being built in the
Two-story duplex units are standard for new housing in the Zone's U.S.-citizen communities.
Canal Zone's Latin American communities.
EMPLOYEES of the Panama Canal
who feel a kinship with the little old
lady who lived in a shoe-no room for
all those children, that is-can take
heart from the housing programs now
A resumption of the program under
which 500 housing units are to be
built in the Zone for non-U.S. citizens
employed by the Company-Government
and an accelerated schedule for building
replacement units for U.S. citizens
employed by the Canal organization all
are aimed at easing and improving
housing conditions for employees and
Plans call for construction this fiscal
year of 100 of the 500 Zone units for
non-U.S.-citizens employees, along with
120 family units and 25 bachelor apart-
ments for U.S. citizens. Although neither
of the programs is designed to add to
the total number of housing units avail-
able, but they will result in larger, more
adequate quarters for Canal employees.
The single-story, duplex housing
units to be built in Latin American com-
munities in the Zone this fiscal year
include 14 two-bedroom units, 50 three-
bedroom units, and 36 four-bedroom
units. All of those built this year will be
in Pedro Miguel. Those to be started in
U.S.-citizen communities will include
12 four-bedroom units on Frangipani
Street in Ancon and 108 three-bedroom
units in Los Rios, Corozal, Ancon, and
Gamboa. The 108 three-bedroom units
will be of two-story, duplex style. The 12
four-bedroom units will be of one-story,
10 SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
During the past two fiscal years, the
Canal built or started 129 houses and
apartment units in La Boca, Balboa
Heights, and Balboa Flats, plus 24 family
units and 4 bachelor units at Gorgas
Hospital. No new units were built in
Latin American communities because a
spending limitation imposed by Congress
proved to be too low to permit construc-
tion of satisfactory units. The limitation
since has been increased sufficiently to
permit the 500-unit program to proceed.
Continuing programs to replace
inadequate and over-age housing in both
U.S. and Latin American communities
in the Zone have been in progress for the
past 10 years, financed from available
The construction of 301 family units,
including the 153 built or started in the
past 2 years and the 120 to be started
this fiscal year, and the 36 remaining
bachelor units in U.S.-citizen communi-
ties is scheduled for completion in
1964, with 90 percent of all units to be
finished by the end of fiscal year 1963.
Completion of the programs is
expected to alleviate much of the present
shortage in adequate housing for Zone
employees. In the case of family housing
for U.S. citizens, the number of satis-
factory three- and four-bedroom units
will be increased by 269 units over the
1959 level, while the number of two-
bedroom units will be increased by 32.
After completion of the program, 59
percent, or almost 6 units in every 10,
will have three or four bedrooms, while
the remaining 41 percent will have two
bedrooms. Prior to the start of work on
the 301 new housing units, two-bedroom
units represented 46 percent of the
total satisfactory family units, while
the Iremaiiing 54 percent had three or
The 500-unit program for Latin
American communities in the Zone will
have a similar effect. The first 200 of
these units will include 50 two-bedroom
units, 110 three-bedroom units, and 40
four-bedroom units. The breakdown
among the remaining 300 units has not
yet been determined.
A recent expansion of the number
of units available for assignment to U.S.
citizens with large families also is
designed to improve housing conditions
for such employees by tending to allo-
cate larger units to larger families. Canal
officials currently believe that all large
U.S.-citizen families will be assigned to
adequate large family quarters by the
early part of calendar year 1963.
All of the new units in both Latin
American and U.S.-citizen communities
are of masonry construction and thus
have a longer life expectancy than the
frame housing units occupied by many
employees of the Canal organization.
U. S. Schools to Open September 11
Sch ool Calendar 1961-1962
School opens____ _____ __
End of first grading period ___
Panama Independence Day (holiday)
Veterans Day (holiday)
Thanksgiving holidays (4 days) -
End of second grading period --
Christmas holidays (10 days) ---
End of third grading period -------
Washington's Birtlid.\ (holiday)-
End of fourth grading period -
Easter holidays (9 d.its)
End of fifth grading period ----
Memorial Day (holiday)
End of sixth grading period
School closes __-------------
--- Nov. 3
--- Nov. 11
--- Dec. 8
Dec. 23-Jan. 1
-- Feb. 22
---- June 6
----- June 7
16 New Teachers From U. S.
NEW TEACHERS hired in the
United States, their hometowns, degrees,
schools from which they received them,
and their assignments in the Division of
Schools are as follows:
John Banasick, Scottdale, Pa.; Master of
Arts, West \ irg nij University; general
science, Balboa High School.
Raymond Blais, Key We'I. Fla Master of
Education, Wayne LUniers'itt; physical
education, Balboa High School.
Mrs. Dorothy Brake, Portsmouth, Ohio;
Bachelor of Science, Michigan State Col-
lege; physical education; Diablo Heights
Junior High Scool.
James Breen, Kinc-.prt. T i. \Master of
Arts, West \ircinmj t'nh, riit music,
Balboa High School.
Ronald F. Bussiere, Pulaski, Wis.; Bachelor
of Science, Wisconsin State College;
industrial arts, Diablo Heights Junior
Ralph Carr, Carlsbad, Calif.; Master of
Education, Oregon State College: Dhys-
ical education, Canal Zone Junior College.
Lawrence E. Fraley, Jr., Boulder, Colo.;
Master of Science, University of Colo-
rado; lh. i. and mathematics, Balboa
Lyle Jenkins, Charleston, Oreg.; Master of
Science, Oregon State College; general
science and biology, Balboa High School.
James H. Mattingly, Alexandria, Va.;
Master of Arts, Ball State Teachers Col-
lege, and Master of Science, Indiana
University; industrial arts, Cristobal
Olin McGill, Fort Worth, Tex.; Master of
Education, University of South Carolina;
mathematics, Balboa High School.
James Montgomery, Greensboro, N.C.;
Master of Arts, University of North Car-
olina; English and Spanish, Cristobal
Junior High School.
Harry H. Nunley, Chattanooga, Term.:
Master of Arts, Middle Tennessee State
C.illA ce. .ixth grade, Diablo Heights
Karl Shirley, Hereford, Tex.; Master of
Education, West Texas State College;
mathematics, Balboa High School.
Gifford Wilde, Santa Rosa, Calif.; Master
of Arts, Chico State College; social
studies, Balboa High School.
Henry J. Williams, Perry, Fla : Master of
Education, University of Florida, mathe-
matics, Balboa High School.
Charles R. Teeter, San Antonio, Tex.:
Master of Education, University of
Arkansas; general business and social
studies, Balboa High School.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Instruction in care and
handling of fork-lift
trucks welcomed by
pier employees, officials.
Robert Yarde, a member of the committee, demonstrates the proper handling of five empty
pallets, while Verol Gill, another committeeman, directs him through the obstacles.
A BOARD some 40 inches wide
and about 30 inches high has become a
focal point of interest among fork-lift
truck operators in the Cristobal pier area
during the past 7 weeks. The small
dimensions of the board belie the impor-
tance attached to it by both the
operators and their supervisors.
| Students and
watch as three
members of the
The somewhat laconic messages on
the board reflect the apparent end results
of what many of those most directly
involved believe to be the best and most
important training program yet insti-
tuted among terminal employees. The
line which says, "J. A. Brooks 735" sets
the goal for most of the operators on the
piers, much as Babe Ruth's record of
60 home runs in one season is the goal
of baseball men.
The inscription means that Mr.
Brooks holds the best score to date in a
test of fork-lift truck operating ability.
The eight men directly following Mr.
Brooks in the scoring also are listed on
the board, with their scores. The test,
combining elements of safety, care,
speed, and judgment, involves putting
a fork-lift truck through its paces in an
intricate obstacle course on Pier 10.
Designed as a training medium for
fork-lift truck operators, the obstacle
course has tested the abilities of even
the most able drivers on the piers-and
is inducing them to take greater pride
in their work and their ability to maneu-
ver their vehicles with speed and safety.
And the training program promises to
be a real money saver for the Canal
Albert G. Tcrwillintl, general
foreman on the piers, in cooperation
with James Barrett, training officer of
the Transportation and Terminals
Bureau, developed the training program.
Terminals officials urged the training as
part of an effort to reduce damage to
12 SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
cargo and equipment, improve work
performance, and cut the accident
Mr. Terwilliger recommended that
field training in operation of the fork-lift
trucks be provided, rather than formal
classroom instruction in the handling
and care to be given vehicles and cargo.
Reviewing training programs suggested
by manufacturers of fork-lift trucks,
Mr. Barrett decided that instruction in
operational methods would benefit both
old and new operators. Planning of the
obstacle course followed.
A major innovation in training
techniques was introduced by Mr. Ter-
williger and Mr. Barrett in developing
the program. They called in some of the
pier supervisors, asked them what kind
of a program they thought would be
most beneficial, then decided the super-
visors' knowledge of conditions and
requirements was so intimate and exten-
sive that they and selected drivers
should supervise the training program.
The result was a committee which
administers the program in cooperation
with Mr. Barrett's office and other
Terminals Division officials.
Harry Abrahams, lead foreman and
35-year veteran on the piers, was named
to head the committee. Other members
are Cuthbert Scales, secretary; Zoilo
Crisson; Robert Yarde; Verol Gill; Albert
Williams; and Ashton Pinnock. Basil G.
Coke, clerk in Mr. Barrett's office, aids
the committee by preparing minutes,
slogans, and other clerical work.
The committee meets twice each
week to review the program, develop
OPERATORS OBSTACLE .ouhk ..
9 BEST SCORERS
J.A .BROOK 735
J.mL, g A.LEON 803
YE: 775 [ iW0LLHESOH808 'o
Four fork-lift truck operators check the scoreboard in the repair shop in the pier area.
changes, propose further training needs
of the fork-lift truck operators, and
coordinate their efforts with the objec-
tives of the training ath i.i d Terminals
In an early nil'-tinii, the committee
decided a basic requirement for fork-lift
truck operators was good t-.eiOht1
Operating, as they do, in the often
Ilniluk light of the huge terminal piers,
Examining some of the written materials for the training course are, in front, left to right,
Albert Williams, Basil G. Coke, and Harry Abrahams. Other members of the committee
looking on are, left to right, Verol Gill, Ashton Pinnock, Cuthbert Seales, and Zoilo Crisson.
the men must have excellent vision
and depth perception, the committee
reasoned. They appealed to Dr. Donald
Robinson for a program of eye-testing
for all operators and were greeted by a
hearty response and the loan of a
machine which a layman can use to give
a basic vision test.
Of the first 100 fork-lift truck oper-
ators to take the examination, only 30
passed with flying colors. The other 70
had %.i1i in', degrees of visual difficulty
which indicated the need for further
examination. They have been referred to
Coco Solo Hospital for examination and,
if needed, a prescripiton for eyeglasses.
After visual tests of the operators
were completed, the training program
was started. The instruction opens with
an oral orientation session in both
English and Spanish to provide a basic
knowledge of the operating parts and
limitations of the fork-lift trucks.
The orientation covers starting,
stopping, and traveling with the fork-lift
truck, as well as safety rules to be fol-
lowed. The operational instruction
explains the limitations of the vehicles,
how damage to them can be avoided,
how to use them with various types of
cargo and loads, and how they can be
used safely for towing or pushing other
vehicles. The safety practices stressed
include proper approach to pallets,
proper loading and moving of pallets,
warnings against a wide range of unsafe
practices, and recommended procedures
in ll. uing various types of cargo.
(See p. 11)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Knowledge of Isthmian past
is dug up-literally-in the
course of core-drilling work.
Core-drilling crew works on unfinished part of Cut-widening project.
THE ISTHMUS of Panama, so free
of major earthquakes that it was con-
sidered safe for the construction of a
lock-type Canal, once rumbled and
shook as hundreds of active volcanos
spewed lava over the landscape and
hurled rock fragments hither and yon.
The sea, which is now held back
by a 50-mile wide strip of land, rose and
covered the Isthmus several times in the
past and completely separated North
from South America.
Prehistoric wild life, including a
fresh water turtle whose fossilized
remains were found a few years ago by
Robert Stewart, the Panama Canal's
geologist, roamed the land and lived in
fresh water lakes the size of Gatun.
The turtle, which dated back 15
n1illI.ri years to the Middle Miocene
Period, lived in a climate and amid veg-
etation very similar tothat \ititie t lda..
These and other prehistoric facts
have been determined by Mr. Stewart
and fellow ._' ,i.'.1'il. who during the
years have studied the g,'-n1ii-il his-
tory of the Isthmus through field trips,
luring major excavation projects, and
1,v 1 .,: core samples, the standard
netliod used by engineers to determine
what lii I, breath the surface of the earth.
The French took core samples when
they started digging through the Pan-
ama hills in the vicinity of what is now
(;.jll.irl Cut. These i .'1l., inciden-
tally, later proved highly valuable to the
United States construction forces work-
ing with the Isthmian Canal Commision.
With a few hundred feet of core
samples, Canal engineers have been able
"j;. :* .. .
Cores cut from the i
lock structures may
reveal weak spots
to trace geological history dating from
the recent, or last few hundred years,
back to the Miocene Age and beyond.
They have also found a wide variety in
the types of rock, clay, and shale.
SEPTEMBER 1. 1961
Core samples by the thousand are
stored in a core shed in the Balboa
Industrial Division, where they undergo
periodic scrutiny by contractors and
engineers. A majority of the samples
were taken as preliminary to the Cut-
widening work or as part of the survey
for the Sea-Level Canal studies. Some
samples have been taken in Panama at
the request of the Panama Government
and others have been obtained of the
concrete in the lock structures during
routine overhauls to determine its con-
dition and possibly locate areas which
should be strengthened by grouting.
The system of core drilling used
during the past 20 years or so involves
the use of a special type of drill which
has a hollow center to accommodate the
core. The drill bit cuts around the core
sample and then frees it for removal.
The actual work of core drilling is done
by the Dredging Division, which then
turns the core samples over to the Engi-
neering Division. They are studied and
classified by Mr. Stewart.
The average depth of a core hole
is about 200 feet, although some have
gone to a depth of 1,200 feet. The
deeper ones were taken on the banks of
the Canal during the Sea-Level Canal
studies and later during preliminary
work on the Cut-widening.
On occasion, when core samples
have not satisfied the needs of engineers
planning a construction project, holes 30
inches in diameter have been cut to per-
mit an on-the-spot inspection of the
material while it is still in place.
Canal officials now are studying the
possibility of using a recent innovation
in the core drilling field-a camera which
can be lowered inside a 3-inch hole to
take pictures. This procedure would not
only eliminate the need for large and
expensive 30-inch core holes but could
be used to advantage on studies in rela-
tion to the widening work still to be
done at Gaillard Cut between Empire
Reach and Gamboa.
Engineers say that the additional
information provided by the camera
could add substantially to the amount
of data obtained from the core samples
removed prior to use of the camera and
conceivably could affect major design,
blasting patterns, and other plans.
Even with improved methods, it
hardly seems likely that Canal core
drillers will ever strike oil or find mineral
deposits of any value. In the past, how-
ever, geologists have come across coins,
buttons, old bottles, and buried cons-
truction machinery, On one recent
occasion they were responsible for a
minor gold rush when a quantity of
pyrite, or fools' gold, was unearthed in
a place called, appropriately enough,
Transit Limitations Defined
THE WIDEST SHIPS ever to tran-
sit the Panama Canal have been U.S.
Navy battleships of the Iowa and Indiana
classes, with beams up to 108 feet and
2 inches. The longest ship was the old
German passenger ship Bremen, which
was 898 feet long.
Despite the fact that there was less
than a foot to spare on each side of the
big battleships, they transited without
undue damage, partly because of the
armor plate they carried. The thin shell
of a commercial vessel is not made to
withstand the blows which the inches-
thick armor plate of a battleship can
resist. Consequently, commercial ships
must be given more gentle treatment as
they go through the 110-foot-wide locks.
Widest commercial ship ever to tran-
sit was the Sinclair Petrolore, which was
taken through with no appreciable
damage, despite her 106.4 feet of width
and 789 feet of length. The big tanker
The sizes of the maximum merchant
ships which are currently transiting the
Canal in a routine manner and with little or
no damage is 102' beam by 800' length by
36'6" draft Tropical Fresh Water.
The length of the ship of the above
description may be extended to 850' with-
out incurring any additional difficulty. This
length is controlled by the radius of turn
in the present Canal Cut.
The Canal is now being widened from
300' to 500', date of completion not yet
determined, but should be completed within
a very few years. At that time the length of
the ship can be extended to 925', con-
trolled by the length of the lock chambers,
without encountering any undue difficulties.
Based on the rather extensive experi-
ence that we have had to date with ships of
beam 102'x 800' length by 36'6" draft,
Tropical Fresh Water, it appears that it
might be feasible to transit, expeditiously
and safely, ships with beams as wide as
104', with lengths up to 850', and drafts
of 36' 6". However, since we have had
very little experience with merchant ships
of this size, we would have to reserve
final judgment until actual transits had
There is a complicating factor in the
matter of beam versus draft, which is pre-
sented by fillets or batters that are present
on the bottom of the lock walls. Ships wider
than 100' beam with a draft deeper than
about 35' will start to encounter inter-
ference in the area of the turn of the ',il,.-.
particularly if they have bilge keels installed
in this area. In short, the wider the ship,
the less the allowable draft, unless the
ship's hull form is built to accommodate
these fillets. (A cross-section diagram of a
lock chamber, showing these fillets, may be
obtained from the Marine Bureau, Panama
Canal Company, Balboa Heights, C.Z. One
made the transit only once, however,
sinking off the coast of Brazil before a
second transit could be attempted. The
single transit was not enough to deter-
mine if the ship could have been safely
transited on a regular basis or if she
would have had to be turned away
because of too great risk of damage to
her side plating.
Because a few inches more in width
and draft and a few feet more in length
can add considerably to the cargo ton-
nage of a ship, while adding only pennies
to the cost of operation, shipbuilders and
operators understandably are interested
in 1.illdgig vessels as large as possible.
In i1 pli to queries about the maxi-
mum size of commercial ships which
can safely be transited through the
Canal, Capt. Richard G. Jack, Marine
Bureau Director, with the approval of
Governor Carter, now is issuing the
section of the fillet in Miraflores Locks is
shown in the bottom picture on p. 14.)
Concerning the draft of ships, it is
normal procedure to limit the draft of a
very large ship on its initial transit to
approximately 33' until its handling charac-
teristics under this draft are established.
Assuming that successful transits are made
at 33', succeeding transits at 1 foot incre-
ments of draft would be permitted until
the draft of 36' 6" is attained, each incre-
ment depending upon the successful nego-
tiation of the Canal at the previous 1 foot
lesser draft. The above draft restrictions
apply when Gatun Lake is at 85' or above,
which is normally from about July until the
end of January. During dry seasons of
exceptionally dry years when Gatun Lake
falls below about 84' above sea level, draft
restrictions may be applied, generally during
the months of March, April, and May, to as
little as 35', possibly less in extremely dry
"dry" years. Advance notices of such draft
restrictions are published at least a week in
advance, with forecasts running as much as
1 month in advance in order to permit ship
operators to load their ships to the proper
draft prior to dispatching them to the
Canal for transit.
Panama Canal reserves the right to tran-
sit a particularly large or difficult handling
ship as a dead ship, charging the operators
for the necessary tugs at the current rate
of $80 per hour per tug. At the present
time, ships of the size of those given in the
first paragraph are normally required to use
at least one tug to aid in steering through
the Cut and additional tugs to aid in posi-
tioning the ship to enter the locks safely.
ClIi .-, for this type of tug service run
a.In 't1 .1' li.l per ship per transit, over and
above the regular tolls.
There is not now any authorized project
to increase the size of the locks, which are
the ultimate controlling factor of the Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Life insurance program
getting warm reception.
Robert Van Wagner, Employee Services Officer, discusses life
insurance program with A. M. Parchment and Ellis L. Fawcett of
the Latin American schools in Paraiso. Both support the program.
THE LIFE INSURANCE program
recently inaugurated for non-U.S.-citizen
employees of the Company-Government
and other Federal agencies in the
Canal Zone has met with a warm
welcome from employees of the Canal
With approximately half of the
12-week signup period cmriph ttl some
5,100, or more than 50 percent of the
9,500 eligible employees of the Com-
pany-Government have signed for the
life insurance coverage. Hundreds more
are expected to join the program before
Information Booklets Readied
On Health Insurance Plans
INFORMATION booklets giving
complete information about benefits
provided by the various group health
insurance plans available to U.S.-citizen
employees of the Company-Government
are to be distributed to all such
employees early this month.
Under provisions of the group
health insurance program of the Federal
Government, all employees are to be
given an opportunity to change insur-
ance plans before November 1, if they
wish to do so. The recent increase in
charges for medical care in Canal Zone
hospitals has resulted in an increase in
rates for the Canal Zone Benefit Plan,
effective November 1, but the other
il1 i,, .1l.,l1, toU.S.-citizen employees
were not affected.
SnIi i, booklets describing the
health insurance plan available to non-
U.S.-citizen employees will be prepared
as soon as details of the new plan can
be developed. Like the altered Canal
Zone Benefit Plan for U.S.-citizen em-
ployees, the revised plan for non-U.S.-
citizen employees will provide increased
coverage to compensate for the increased
Applications which can be used to
join the program or to change from one
plan to another will be available from
the insurance counselor in each unit of
the Company-Government organization.
Employees not wishing to make any
change in their present insurance pro-
gram do not have to file an application
to continue their present plan; it will be
A comparison of the new medical
care charges for non-U.S.-citizen em-
ployees and the coverage to be provided
by the revised group health insurance
plan was not yet available at REVIEW
press time, but will be published in the
October 6 issue. A similar comparison
of the new charges and group hospital
coverage available for U.S.-citizen em-
plAn I, was given in the August issue
of the HEVIEW.
the deadline of October 10, after which
physical examinations may be required
The life insurance program, styled
on that provided for U.S.-citizen em-
ployees, provides life insurance on the
basis of annual earnings. The minimum
policy provides $2,000 coverage and the
maximum is $10,000. The bi-weekly
cost per $1,000 of insurance is 27%
cents, or $7.15 per year.
The insurance also provides double
indemnity for accidental death. Robert
Van Wagner, Employee Services Officer
of the Personnel Bureau, said all insur-
ance counselors in the various units of
the Company-Government have been
provided with explanatory materials
and application forms for the insurance.
The new program is another major
step in extending fringe employment
benefits to non-U.S.-citizen employees
in the Canal Zone. Other fringe benefits
include coverage of the non-U.S.-citizen
employees under the Civil Service Retire-
mentAct and the group health insurance
Under the group life insurance
plan, no physical examination is required
if the employee becomes insured within
the present enrollment period or within
30 days of employment. At the time of
retirement, the employee will have 31
days in which to convert the insurance
to any plan he desires.
Any person insured under the pro-
gram who becomes totally disabled from
either injury of illness prior to his 70th
birthday will be insured for 1 year after
cessation of premium payments. The
policy also provides compensatory pay-
ments for loss of major body parts, such
as eyes, legs, hands, and arms.
16 SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
A DOZEN interesting features on
pre-Colombian Isthmian culture are
included in the latest issue of The
Panama Archaelogist, now available
locally. This is the third consecutive
annual publication of the Panama
The volume contains reports of
field work in Chiriqui, Old Panama,
Code, and Venado Beach, and has 26
illustrations, both line drawings and
photographs. The articles deal with new
approaches to cultural features in Chi-
riqui and Old Panama, further develop-
ments on findings in Code and Venado
Beach, and descriptions of especially
interesting artifacts and examples of
contemporary and indigenous Indian
The lead article is one by the noted
German archaeologist, Dr. Wolgang
Haberland, on work done in Chiriqui
Company Steamship Sailings
THE SCHEDULE of the SS Cristobal between New Orleans and the Canal
Zone will be changed from 10 days for the round trip to 14 days, effective with the
sailing from New Orleans on September 26. The faster schedule has been in effect
this summer to facilitate travel of Company-Government personnel taking home leave.
Sailing and arrival times for the next month are as follows:
Leave Arrive Leave Arrive
New Orleans Cristobal Cristobal New Orleans
September 2 September 6 September 6 September 10
September 12 September 16 September 18 September 22
September 26 September 30 October 2 October 6
The new schedule for the fall, winter, and spring calls for the ship to leave
New Orleans at 1 p.m., every other Tuesday; arrive at Cristobal at 7 a.m., every
other Saturday; leave Cristobal at 1 p.m. every other Monday; and arrive in New
Orleans at 8 a.m. every other Friday.
(Continued from p. 13)
Drivers in Training
Practice on the obstacle course fol-
lows, with scoring based on a demerit
system, in which the best score possible
is zero. Combining speed requirements
against such mistakes as bumping into
one of the obstacles, each error or too-
slow operation results in a predeter-
mined number of points, with the object
being to get as low a score as possible.
Passing score for the test is 1,200.
Anyone scoring higher than that is given
more training. It is a point of some
merriment but obvious pride among the
committee members that one of the top
nine operators now listed on the board
was unable to pass the test on his first
try, primarily because of an inability to
control the machine properly when
operating it in reverse.
Those around the piers who are in
a position to know, give unqualified
endorsement to the training. J. H.
Rheney, foreman of the Motor Trans-
portation Repair Shop in the Cristobal
pier area, which maintains and repairs
the fork-lift trucks, has a number of
laudatory comments about the program.
"It's pretty easy to damage one of these
machines if you don't handle it pro-
perly," he notes. "A lot of the damage
is caused because these men haven't
understood what the fork-lifts can and
can't do. I'm sure this is going to help
correct that situation."
J. W. B. Hall, chief stevedore fore-
man of the Cristobal pier area, also
praises the program. "It costs us about
$2.50 to repair a pallet on which one of
the boards has been broken by ramming
one of the forks into it while attempting
to load it. That doesn't sound like much,
but in a year's time it can cost a lot of
money. And you can well imagine what
one of those forks will do to cargo-say
an air conditioner-if the operator misses
the pallet and rams it. We're tt .ali; .
them to operate their trucks as fast
as possible-but consistent with safety.
I know it's going to help a lot."
"We're pretty proud of this pro-
gram," admits E. B. O'Brien, Jr., Super-
intendent of the Terminals Diision,
"but we're also real proud of the
employee committee which is admin-
istering it. They have taken a real
interest and aroused a lot of enthusiasm
among the drivers to do the best they
know how, while learning to do a better
job. We know it will pay off through
greater pride among the men, better
work performance, and reduced damage
I ~-- ---
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Province. Dr. Haberland, a member of
the local Society, is a constant contrib-
utor to the Society's publications.
Other articles deal with projectile
points, by Dr. Russell H. Mitchell;
spindle whorles, by Dr. Leo P. Biese;
metal and pottery associations, by Gerald
A. Doyle; fabric and metal figurines, by
Dan Sander and Dr. Mitchell; Ihc
ceramic Eir'iii, I ." by Kenneth W.
Vinton; an exploration in Code by Philip
L. Dade; C-14 dates for Venado Beach,
by Dr. Samuel K. Lothrop of the
Harvard Peabody Museum; and a report
on a pottery stamp from ( liiii..I, by
There also are brief descriptive
articles by Karl P. Curtis; on a stone
mask by Dr. Mitchell; and the "Cucua"
costume, by Mrs. Beatrice Curtis. Philip
L. Dade is editor of the publication and
Mrs. Thelma H. Bull is assistant editor.
HOWARD C. PETERSEN, presi-
dent of the Fidelity-PIl.,l I1ii.I Trust
Co. and longtime member of the Board
of Directors, Panama Canal Company,
last month was appointed by President
Kennedy as a special assistant to pre-
pare an international trade program to
replace the reciprocal trade program
next June 30.
Mr. Petersen is to survey the recip-
rocal trade program and developments in
international trade and help draft legis-
lative proposals, while c......""1; ith
activities of all departments interested
in the trade-agreements program. He
will continue as a member of the Panama
Canal Company's Board of Directors.
NOTICE TO READERS
Bi()UNl) copies of volumes 10
a;( I of FlTHE PANAIIA CANAl.
Hti:nw (August 1959 through July
1961) now are i'. ll ,l< on special
order for a limited period. Orders
should be received before Novem-
ber 1, I 1- 1 The price will be $13.50
for,. r. l i ,.. ., ., tamiin! i both olume'
The 24 issues will be bound in
I I ,,ii1, with gold st.unping on the
cover, similar to previous bound
copies. Covers are available in red,
black, it.-,ii. brown, or blue. Tem-
porary binders of board and Linson
cloth, in light blue only, are i'. .n 1l ,l
at s 2 il per set. Heavier temporary
binders of board and fabrikoid, in
dark blue only, are $3 per set.
Orders addressed to the Super-
intendent, Printing Plant, Box 5084.
Cristobal. C.Z., should be accompa-
nied by a postal money order or local
check, payable to the Treasurer,
Panama Canal Company.
John Palmer Smith, Jr.
The following article, in a slightly ,i',ig,-r version, was
published in a recent issue of the "Health Officers News
Di., 4t." a publication of the Public Health Committee of
the Paper Cup & Container Institute. Because of its inter-
est to Canal Zone residents, permission was obtained to
reprint it in THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW. Mr. Smith
recently was ramed to succeed William Brown as Assistant
to the Health Bureau Director, but will continue to serve as
Chief of the Sanitation Division in addition to his new duties.
AMERICA'S SCHOOL children
learn at an early age the dramatic story
of the construction of the Panama Canal
and how its completion was made pos-
I1],1. by the sanitation, yellow fever, and
malaria control measures applied by
Gorgas and LaPrince. Few adults realize,
however, that even today constant effort
is necessary to assure the health of the
host of workers who keep this great
Siii r'i, i iln, marvel functioning.
For the past 20 years it has been
the job of John Palmer Smith, Jr., to
maintain the sanitation protection of the
Canal and the surrounding Canal Zone.
The present official position of this ener-
getic man in his late fifties is Chief,
Division of Sanitation, Health Bureau,
Canal Zone Government.
The Sanitation Chief answers to the
nickname "Pam" because in the relaxed
drawl of the "low-country" of South
Carolina around Charleston where he
was born, his middle name was pro-
nounced "Pama." He is a graduate of
Porter Mlilit.ii\ Academy in Charleston
and of ( I, I. ,i Collegoin Clemson, S.C.,
from which he received a bachelor's
di ,i-, in civil engineering.
After leaving Clemson, Pam worked
1, ini;,. the mid-twenties for a specula-
live hoinebuilder in Washington, D.C.,
+i, .. ;,.- froin foreman to field super-
intciiint, In 1)27, hie got his introduc-
tion inli, tropical sanitation when he
joined d thl United IJuit Co. and was
sent to SaIIna Mii : Colombia, as
general foreman of 'heir construction
departinti t. His job Ided the con-
struction and inaintenai mi of buildings,
dwellings and hospitals, roads, muni-
cipal utilities, and irrigation structures.
While he was stationed at Santa
Marta, he met and married Eva Flye,
whose father, a Yankee from Maine, had
a coffee plantation in the mountains
overlooking the city.
In 1931 he moved his wife and two
sons back to the States, and with the
depression in full swing he worked
at whatever jobs he could find in
engineering and architectural d, .i(n,
carpentry, and building.
Palmer Smith spent 8 months in the
Hell Hole Swamp of eastern South Car-
olina, which abounds in rattlesnakes,
water moccasins, razorback hogs, and
malaria mosquitoes. Part of the time he
was making transit surveys of cutover
timberlands with a crew which included
two men with masters degrees in engi-
noPrinq an unemployed !i ...1. l, I. and
. I sill ,ip. 1, .it During the rest of his
time there he was in charge of malaria
control drainage for the State Health
Then in 1934 he became District
Sanitary Engineer for the Army Third
Corps area, covering Pennsylvania,
Maryland, and Virginia. His job was to
see to the sanitation of approximately
200 Civilian Conservation Corps camps.
On this .,i,.,lmut while checking the
water supply of a remote mountain
town near a proposed CCC camp, he
recalls he asked a town elder whether
there was a chlorinator. The reply he
received was: "We got one, mister, but
don't let the damn thing worry you none.
\VWe only use it when an inspector comes
from the State Health Department, and
that ain't often!"
When the U.S. Navy offered Smith
a job in 1938 as Assistant Engineer
(Civil) at its base at Coco Solo, C.Z.,
he went into a huddle with Eva before
deciding. It didn't take them long, how-
ever, to agree that the job offered in-
teresting possibilities, since both of them
liked the tropics and both spoke Spanish.
Coco Solo was an active and soon-to-
be-expanded aviation and submarine
facility. Pam's principle duty was devel-
opment planning for expansion at the
site as programed by a task group in
Two years later he transferred to
the Panama Canal as an assistant
engineer doing estimation, specification
'..it;m,,. and job planning. In Septem-
ber of 1941, he was approached by Gen.
M. C. Stayer, Chief Health Officer for
the Canal, who needed a sanitation en-
gineer. Pam a-.it, d to join his staff on a
temporary basis, but has remained with
the Canal's Health Bureau ever since.
With our entry into the war, Pam's
1i, *,p,,,ii,ljlhs grew, for the Canal Zone
became the administrative center of the
Antilles Theater, covering all of the
Greater and Lesser Antilles islands of
Things were calm for a while after
the war, but in 1948 there was an out-
break of jungle yellow fever. The Canal
Zone, the Republic of Panama, and the
Fan American Sanitary Bureau joined
forces in a drive to vaccinate everyone
in the Zone and the Republic, and also
to eradicate the Aedes aegypti mosquito,
18 SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
the urban vector of yellow fever, to
prevent explosive epidemics in the
cities. Eradication was achieved in 1951,
and since then there has been no evi-
dence of the mosquito in the Zone or
In his job as it is presently consti-
tuted, Palmer Smith and his staff of about
135 men deal in the Zone with all the
usual phases of a health department's
environmental sanitation program. He
says they all feel the weight of their
I 'Pii'" i1ilit\ to protect the health of
the residents and of the approximately
750,000 passengers and crewmen of the
vessels using the Canal and its ports each
year. Because of the experience he has
gained in his 20 years of service in the
Zone, he is called upon frequently for
advice in solving sanitation problems in
other tropical and subtropical countries.
Pam is active in the affairs of several
professional engineers' .'',Ip, notably
Sanitary Eri2ini iirll of which he is a
charter member and is a diplomat in
public health of the American Academy
of Sanitary EI-igion ., i He also takes a
lively interest in his church, the YMCA,
and the Canal Zone Bov Scout ( .,in,.i 1
For recreation he i, j.. golf and
The Smiths live in a ranch-style
house at Balboa Heights on the Pacific
end of the Zone. In addition to the two
boys born in Colombia, there are two
other children, a girl and a boy, born in
Ancon, Canal Zone. The two older boys
attended college in the States and are
now working away from home. The third
(ldh Mary, is currently attending the
Canal Zone Junior College, but will
complete her college education in the
States. The youngest son, now 15, is a
sophomore in high school, and also will
attend college in the States when ready.
Recently, Palmer Smith was offered
a challenging job in Pakistan because
of the international reputation he has
earned. He turned it down because he
said he preferred to consider the Zone
his permanent home until the time for
his retirement. He felt that his experi-
ence would be more valuable to the
people in the area than it would be to
people on the other side of the world,
where conditions and needs might be
Against the time when he will be
ritil iiL. he has held title to his f.ulnil' 's
i'ltfi.mlnt homestead in Charleston
County, S.C. There he says, he hopes
"to fish and garden and entertain our
children, grandchildren, and relatives
among the live oaks and magnolias."
And among his friends in the Zone he
is Iom101.iIn, the idea of their building
homes tor themselves on his land "so
that our pleasant associations may
continue" beyond their retirement.
Workmen put finishing touches on stilling basin
below old railroad bridge.
(oin( Strong at 10)-P 1s
SOM\IETIII\ \EI\\ has been
added to a structure which has under-
gone a number of changes and served a
variety of purposes on the Isthmus for
more than 100 years.
The structure involved was built
originally as a bridge for the Panama
1(t.,li d1,. on its original route across the
Isthmus. Later, it was modified to serve
as a dam to impound water of the Rio
Grande near Contractors Hill, while the
top of it was used to carry vehicular
ti.ifi., rather than the relocated railway.
For many years, the water im-
pounded behind the dam was the prin-
cipal source of supply for the Pacific side
of the Isthmus, including Panama City.
\\ id, the reservoir no longer being used
to impound water for treatment by the
Zone's Pacific-side purification and filtra-
tion plant, a hole 5 feet in diameter
recently was made through the bottom
of the dam to permit the water to escape
to the Canal.
The limited size of the hole in the
dam, coupled with the volume of water
which at times collects upstream from
it, causes considerable turbulence and
potentially destructive force in the water
being discharged, so a tlillhir basin
designed to dissipate the turbulence and
force of the flow has been built just
below the dam.
The project is part of a flood control
system for the Rio Grande drainage area.
It is associated with a recently con-
structed culvert under the relocated
section of Borinquen Highway and with
the concrete spillway just south of Con-
tractors Hill through which the river
enters the Canal.
By dissipating the force of the
water flowing through the stream during
periods of heavy rainfall, the dam and
stilling basin permit the 'i 11, i1 dis-
charge of the water without detrnment
to downstream structures or to ship
traffic in the Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Assistant Chief, License
Robert J. Douglas
Lindstrom L. Taylor
I'll. hilit, r
Artllir L. 1lbiloine
Evelyn HI. Howell
Milford K. Bailey
Lead Foreman Engineman
Felix M. Townsend
Wilfred H. Inniss
tHlper Cable Splicer
Vivian Naris Swaby
Lead Foreman Alraturec
Jos) D. Vasquez
lh avy Laboirer
II. N. Johnson, Jr.
I:, f Ii_ ,,'. .nd Air
... ..I ...,,,. M ech m ic
Henry M. Robinson
I l. ilun, Pii liit Oiler
Helper Furniture lepairman
Laura N. Scott
Lillian F. de G6mez
Eric H. Ferguson
Bud R. Emery
Chief Engineer, Towboat or
George R. Murray
Chief Engineer, Towboat or
Walter M. Harti
Lead Forem Lo ks trol
Joseph T. Cope
Lead Foreman Locks
Leslie W. Croft
Lead Foreman ockc
John G. Bos I s
Leader Lok Operator
Helper Lock Operator
Evelyn O. Baker
Billie B. Gray
Helper Lock Operator
Lefard A. Bennett
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Charles E. S
Contraban Control Ins sector
Joshua A. Cu l
Casey J. Hall
C. A. Philpotts
Anthony II. Hopiak
Leader li,.A ri.ila
Russell A. Edwards
Time, Leave, and Payroll
W. K. Galloway
Plant Accounting Assistant
LY AN C IMUNITY
gust I. Bauma
Superintendent G unds
i, i r C Checker
Myrtle O. Campbell
Godfrey G. Smith
Miguel T. Diaz
Clara Walton Reid
Food Service Sales Checker
Rafael G. Osorio
High Lift Truck Operator
C. A. Brathwaite
urse Supe sor
PERSON L BUREAU
bn H. Terry
placementt td mployee-
k me Relations
Douglas M. White
Hubert L. Joseph
High Lift Truck Operator
Harry A. Smith
Frank E. Day
Assistant Retail Store Manager
Telmo P. Cooper
Carlota de Navarro
High Lift Truck Operator
Clayton F. Osborne
Helper Lock Operator
M. J. Carrasquilla
Gilbert F. Chase
Leader Liquid Fuels
Walter E. Robison
Inspector, Wood and Steel
Fred T. Lorde
Emilio G. Garay
Richard M. Hirons
Helper Liquid Fuels
Carl W. Warner
Lead Foreman Railroad Yard
Joseph H. Gray
20 SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
- PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
July 10 through August 10
EMPLOYEES who were promoted
or transferred between July 10 and
August 10 arelisted below W\ithiil-t,.i .l
promotions and job i.I..iih..it[.i,
are not listed.
George Vieto, from Supervisory Passenger
Traffic Officer, to Traffic Manager.
Constance L. Bishop, Marie M. Herbling,
from Passenger Traffic Clerk,, to Pas-
senger Rate Assistant.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Joseph S. Corrigan, from Contraband Con-
trol Inspector, to Customs Inspector.
Salvatore Rinaldo, from Customs Guard, to
Contraband Control Inspector.
Rudolph L. Crespo, from Customs Guard,
to Customs Inspector.
Glenn R. McNall, from Theater Doorman,
Supply Division, to Window Clerk Sub-
Charles D. Ward, frol Sici, llmilI. Naviga-
tion Division, to Dl)irrilliti (.lerk Sub-
Division of Schools
Melida M. Bembenek, Clerk-Typist, from
Frank Jackman, from Heavy Laborer, to
Dressing Room Attendant.
George H. Sylvester, from Laborer Cleaner,
to Leader Laborer Cleaner.
Carlos Chanis, from Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Joseph Stultz, from Office Machine Oper-
ator, to Clerk, Engineering Division.
George F. Smith, from Dipper Dredge
Engineer, to Chief Engineer, Towboat
William K. Renner, from Third Assistant
Engineer, SS "Cristobal," Water Trans-
portation Division, to First Assistant
Engineer, Pipeline Dtn ,lc,
Asbury A. Harris, Jr., from Lock Operator
Machinist, Locks Division, to Marine
Cecil A. Archbold, from Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Clerk.
Gerardo Cosca, from Apprentice Carpenter,
to Apprentice Machinist.
Albert G. Brown, Cliford S. Tomlinson,
from Detention Guard, Police Division,
Luis Torrero, from Winchman, Terminals
Division, to Debris Control Winchman.
Jos6 S. Pirez, from High Lift Truck Oper-
ator, Terminals Division, to Debris
Rudolph A. Thompson, from Helper Lock
Operator, Locks Division, to Seaman.
Album A. King, from Helper Marine
Machinist, to Toolroom Attendant.
Johnathan Harriott, from Helper Boiler-
maker, Industrial Division, to Helper
Gerardo Rivera, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Truck Driver.
Teodoro Ayarza, Cesario Ruiano, from Dock
Worker, Terminals Division, to Launch
Gerardo Gill, from Clerk Checker, Ter-
minals Division, to Launch Seaman.
Fidencio Echaverra, Saturnino Fragueiro,
from Dock Worker, Terminals Division,
Rito Ruiz, from Grounds Maintenance
Equipment COp, r tir. C.,mmmuity Serv-
ices Division. i.n B '.itin i
Vincent L. Thomas, from Railroad Track-
man, Railroad Division, to Boatman.
Dudly G. Blanchard, from Dock Worker,
Terminals Division, to Helper hlceL.r
James D. Raymond, from Laborer, Com-
munity Services Division, to General
Frances A. Wade, from Laborer Cleaner,
Community Services Division, to Floating
Heraclio Domniiuez. from Dock Worker,
To. iiniI. D% \ il..i.l, to Heavy Laborer.
Alphonso H. Thomas, from Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Juan Justiniani, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Jos6 D. VAsquez, Heavy Laborer, from
Bolivar Wilson, from Laborer, Maintenance
Di\ .i ..i., II, tvy Laborer.
LNla in (.ondola. from Dock Worker, Ter-
inl ld,.) i)s 1i.i\ 1 to Laborer.
Thomas R. Duean. from Life Guard, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Apprentice Cable-
Hubert J. Jordan, from Window Clerk,
P. -,.lI Di ;i i. r toi ppIr tii. Electrician.
I).iuila1 i. Hardcing. tr,,in l. ader Heavy
1. il,,r r, [ %I m a I nI II i l iI ht.
Burnell F. Dowler, from Oi., r.,llr-Dn.i, I
Machinist to Operator-Foreman Mechanic.
Ruben Eversley, Reginaldo A. James, Jr.,
Hugh L. Shannon, Vibert Turner, Jose
A. C6rdova, from Power Plant Wiper, to
Helper Electrician, Power Plant.
Harold L. Fairclough, from Heavy Laborer
to Helper Electrician.
Amos A. Brathwaite, from Waiter, Supply
Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Howard W. Osborn, from General Manage-
III Il ETliil, t r, to Maintenance Engineer.
Ruth B. Krziza, trom Clerk Stenography to
Secretary Sti Ii i.rr. plI\ .
Murphy B. Alexander, Waldo B. Gilley,
Peter A. Warner, from Lead Foreman to
Roger E. Hamor, from Guard Supervisor,
to Water Systems Controlman.
Bertie Gittens, from Painter, to Leader
Carol A. Scott, from Field Tractor Oper-
ator, to Automotive Equipment Operator.
Vernon B. Smith, from Timekeeper, to
Andres DeGracia, from Laborer, to Helper
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Samuel Moore, from II. .-. 'T ;d, to
Nursing Assistant, (.,., I-t.rpit 1I
Coco Solo Hospital
Dr. Edwin T. Rilkelt., Medical Officer,
from Gorgas Hospital.
James E. A.ee. frnii Ph rin I, i.t, to Super-
visory H'li irl n it t
Nellie S. Hiitkian. fr.,I, H.-ad Dietitian, to
--. l Iliot I hh lla D .-rt- ra, In.,
Fred L. Wnrkiian,. froini Funeral Director,
to li,.i pai II.i.. M ,- i. ,m.e Officer.
Albert A. Smith, from "I ini-k p. r, to
Roger J. Games, Clerk-Typist, from Gorgas
Robert D. Valentine, from Probationary
Pilot, to Pilot.
Jose D. Regalado, from Laborer, Com-
inii.,il, S,.rices Division, to Deckhand.
I lohr Ha.nios, Heavy Laborer, from Ter-
Steven E. Garnett, from Clerk, Terminals
Division, to Apprentice Machinist.
Cecil Morgan, trom Fire Fighter Driver
O l.ril tr ire Division, to Apprentice
B .,I, ril1,k i
Entimo Amaya, from Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Division, to Helper Machinist.
Arnold T. Alphonse, Robert M. Jolliffe, Jr.,
from Utility Worker, Supply Ii)Ii.l.i, to
W illiam L. Be:n:ett, ; i'.n \'i ..,ii. Fl.,
trician, Electrical I )r. t.i.i. I. I' itrn.- i
James J. Boughner, James W. Morris,
Apprentice Electrician, from Electrical
June A. Stevenson, Clerk-Typist, from
Employment and Utilization Division.
John J. Christopher, Roy Feurtado, Walter
Hyde, from Heavy Laborer, to Helper
Gregorio Borbuia, Nicomedes Murillo, from
Railroad Trackman, Railroad Division, to
Juan B. Castro, Heavy Laborer, from Main-
Nathan Barns, from Laborer, Supply Divi-
sion, to Heavy Laborer.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Florence M. Pierson, from Supervisory
.A .-.,lu;, Clerk, to Supervisory Ac-
I '1111111 I Iechnician.
Anne A. Lawson, Frances P. Smith, from
Accounting Clerk, to Accounting Tech-
Gilbert M. Smith, from Graduate Intern,
Business Administration, Supply Divi-
sion, to Accountant.
Paula C. Decker, Clerk-Stenographer, from
Maria E. de Ycaza, from Clerk-Typist, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Time, Leave, and
James A. Dowlin, from Clerk-Typist, Supply
Division, to Office Machine Operator.
Lloyd B. Joseph, from Timekeeper, Motor
Tr Ili'.lirt.,iii.,i Division, to Office Ma-
i li i t"f )| r ih r
Maniuel HiS era. from Electrical Account-
ing Machine Operator, Employment and
Utilization Division, to Office Machine
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Harry C. Egolf, from Superintendent,
Housing Branch, to Chief, Community
Wendell G. Cotton, from Supervisory
Housing Manager, to Superintendent,
Clarence W.Kilbey, fromClhi, f AJmiisir r-
i ,' S t I.II'i. Service C,..tt r Br.,.' h i ..
Sc i- i, (Ci_-.t, r Assistant Si.., rint, iii. ..i r
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 21)
Phyllis D. Powers, from Service Center
S,,. ;i...i to Accounting Assistant.
\1..irlLI I. rhompson, from Clerk-Typist,
to Clerk, Catering.
Geo.,n e Thorbourne, from Cash Clerk, to
Guest House Assistant.
Douglas C. Best, from Sign Painter, to
Alfred A. Cox, Karl L. Harris, Jr., Roberto
O. Martin, Undine M. Reid, Josefina H.
Tlhorn, from Clerk, to Guest House
( I, ik
Lorhland Rail, from Telephone Operator,
to Guest House Clerk.
Joseph Richards, from Leader Laborer, to
Leader High Lift Truck Operator.
David S. Beckett, from Clerk, to Service
Philip Walker, from F....k., k ill., Machine
Operator, \. ...ric Dti '. I-).. to Clerk.
John Hull, tr .-, 1 I, ik t .. Accounting Clerk.
Lloyd S. Smith, from Accounting Clerk,
Terminals Division, to Clerk.
Harold F. Brown, from Truck Driver, to
Motor Vehicle Operator.
Clifton M. Vasselle, from Heavy Laborer,
to N1i; i. ,. i,.... Carpenter.
Marcos A. Argiielles, Victor A. Marks, Luis
Pleitez, Justo Vega, from Warehouse-
man, to Guard.
Selvyn L. Moody, Gilbert Thompson, from
Helper Rigger, to Crane Hookman.
Honorio Magan, Wilfred A. Richards,
Pedro Sotomayor, from Heavy Laborer,
to Crane Hookman.
George A. Jackman, Ernest A. Jones, Hubert
S. Robinson, from Warehouseman, to
Ceoree W. Wallace from Utility Worker,
I., ,s.iI. k, I l.- I L rk.
I'ueiirne \. Io)1,01o from File Clerk, to
s ,t. ,.k ( .. ..l ( i, i. k
"\ intoin Iute, tlimn Waiter, to Waiter
Wilmoth L. Davis, Urbano VAsquez, from
Kitchen Attendant, to Cook.
Allensword Williams, from Heavy Laborer,
Gladys U. Weekes, from Counter Attend-
ant, to Pantryman.
Joaquin Crdfino. Ulric S. Moore, from
Heavy Laborer, to Warehouseman.
Alfonso ( Bemnett. f,..m Toolroom Attend-
ant, I .... I. D1)i I.,". to Warehouseman.
Joseph Gall, Stanley B. Hunte, from Heavy
Laborer, to General Helper.
NicolAs Aguilar, Lewis W. Armstrong,
Henry J. Ford, Vincent C. Forde, George
M. \ eek, from Laborer, to Heavy
Ricardo Henry, Te6filo G6mez, from La-
borer Cleaner, to Heavy Laborer.
Norman J. Clarke, from Package Boy, to
Ferando A. Ponce, from Dock \\, rk.,
Terminals Di. ;;. ... to Heavy Laborer.
Daniel Guerrero, from Laborer Cleaner, to
Carl R. Cumberbatch, from Waiter, to
Julian E. Brooks, John J. Drakes, from
I',. 1 ,.. I.. il. Laborer Cleaner.
I h1,1 I ini)p,.i. from Counter Attendant,
,1. ( 1,i .
Gabriel V. Adonicam, Jr., from Laborer, to
l'r \ Worker.
Artemiio E. Pacheco, from Laborer, to
(;rmooodl Maintenance Equipment Oper-
GrT',,in M'l 'ii,. ~Ih4 D. Ruiloba, from
I ..... i I ,il .. C ollector.
Candelario Morales, Josi P. PAiaro, from
Laborer, to (rounds (Equipment Oper-
Geraldine W. Allen, Constance S. Cadien-
head, Ethlin J. Alston, from Utility
Worker, to Counter Attendant.
Lloyd G. Wilson, from Bus Boy, to Waiter.
Lester J. Leonard, Lester Payne, from
Waiter, to Utility Worker.
Hepburn S. Barber, Hector J. Markland,
Earl R. Samuels, from Package Boy, to
Ashton A. Brown, Jr., from Laborer Cleaner,
to Utility Worker.
Maud E. Bethune, from Laundry Worker,
to Laundry Checker.
Iva L. Benton, from Doorman, to Ticket
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
George W. Rae, from Marine Superinten-
dent, Water Transportation Division, to
General Foreman Ship Cargo Operations.
William D. McArthur, from Liquid Fuels
Ganger, to Leader Liquid Fuels Wharf-
Aureliano Quiroz, from Winchman, to
Leader Ship Cargo Operations.
Everett E. Dudley, Ai....u..ii.' Clerk, from
Carl DaCosta, Timekeeper, from Industrial
Cecil J. Dutton, from Timekeeper, Locks
Division, to Clerk.
Rafael A. Vaughn, from Oiler to Fireman.
Ismael Melkndez, from Dock Worker, to
Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Allan Toussaint, from Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman, to Oiler.
Alejandro Cevillano, Ulric G. Easey, from
Dock Worker, to Heavy Laborer.
Selwyn O. Brown, Hagar E. Salmon, from
Heavy Laborer, Locks Division, to Dock
Victorio Bello, from Heavy Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Dock Worker.
Carlos E. James, from Dock Worker, to
Pedro A. :Manafi. Joshua Samuels,Sylvester
Tracey, Lorenzo Alvarado, Pastor Solis,
from Dock Worker, to Ship Worker.
Motor Transportation Division
Fermin L. Ibfiiez, from Clerk, Engineering
Division, to Timekeeper.
Leo M. Collymore, from Truck Driver, to
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher.
Arthur E. Richards, Hermon A. Williams,
from Truck Driver, to Guard.
Harry J. Ailant, Gustave A. Moller, Bran-
ford Doyle, from Truck Driver to Heavy
Trailer Truck Driver.
Granville R. Moore, from Chauffeur, to
Morrell W. Clarke, Medad U. Evans, Ma-
nuel Edwards, Reginald W. Graham,
George G. Mandeville, Lionel Thorne,
Stephen N. McClean, Sidney A. Tom-
linson, from Truck Driver, to School
Cephas Daniels, from Chauffeur, to School
Wilfred Daily, Ishmail O. Walker, from
Chauffeur, to Heavy Truck Driver.
Ernest F. Sandiford, from Utility \\ ili k4
Supply Division, to Helper Automotive
Rail H. Pinedo, Arthur N. Clarke, Ezra J.
McClair, Samuel F. Jones, Rupert A.
Vaughn, George McKenzie, from Truck
Driver, to Heavy Truck Driver.
PROMOC11ON which did not
involve changes of title follow:
William G. Dolan, Chief, Fire Division.
Robert G. Laatz, Maintenance Engineer,
Melvin E. Walker, Service Center Manager,
Wilfred R. Waldrip, Commissary Store
\l'miner Supplv Division.
Rohert I. h.ankin. \l.rine Traffic Controller,
\ .l i. I I-| ,..l. D ii..I
George R. Cook, Construction Inspector,
Contract and Inspection Division.
Frances M. Brandl, Dolores Espinosa, Staff
Nurse, Corgas Hospital.
Patna L. Brown, Retail Store Supervisor,
Jose A. Muiioz, Cook, Supply Division.
Vivian Blandford, John B. Monrose, Alfred
S. Walker, Motor Vehicle Dispatcher,
Motor Transportation Division.
William Dunn, Edmond C. Elliot, Clerk-
Typist, Di. .1 -.-;i Division.
Victoria Campbell, Clerk-Typist, Supply
Clyde M. Francis, Storekeeping Clerk,
Clyford K. Foster, Hilton D. Perkins, Clerk,
..' Ii.1 D division.
Agnes C. Meade, Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital.
Alric H. Fischle, Clerk, Corozal Hospital.
Benjamin Mojica, Baker, Supply Division.
Kenneth O. Sealey, Sylvester L. Searles,
Telephone Operator, Supply Division.
Juan Guebara, Luis E. Hurtado, Utility
Worker, Supply Division.
Oscar Edmund, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator, Community Serv-
- Not a Statistic
YEAR TO DATE
FIRST AID DISABLING DAYS
CASES INJURIES LOST
'61 '60 '61 '60 61 60
199 262 7 12 110 225
1778 3-j 1769 84., 73 7740S58.13733
( I I.ocks Overha:ul injiurlhs included in toial.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1961
50 Years Ago
SPECIFICATIONS and plans for
the locomotives to tow ships through the
locks were sent to Washington 50 years
ago this month. Bids were to be sought
on the 40 locomotives required for the
locks at Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Mira-
flores. The system of towing outlined in
the specifications was developed by
Edward Schildhauer of the Canal engi-
neering staff. Two bids were to be asked,
one for a locomotive to be used for test
purposes and the other for the remaining
39, if the test machine was satisfactory.
About 66 percent of the concrete
for all the locks was in place. More than
80 percent of the concrete for the system
of locks at Gatun had been laid, con-
crete work at Pedro Miguel was 87 per-
cent complete, and 31 percent of the
concrete for Miraflores Locks was.
In order to increase the water
supply for the city of Panama, it was
decided that a new 20-inch water main
should be laid from the Rio Grande
REITIREMENT certificates were
presented at the end of August to the
employees listed below, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service
and future residence.
Gertrudes Aguilar, Panama; Cattle Attend-
ant, Mindi Dairy; 13 years, 3 months,
25 days; Panama.
Fitzherbert Bolden, Barbados; Fork Lift
Operator, Terminals Division; 45 years,
4 months, 16 days; Panama.
Valentin Cesar, Philippine Islands; Deck
Hand, Navigation Division; 8 years,
11 months, 19 days; Panama.
Seymour S. Clarke, Barbados; Truck Driver,
Motor Transportation Division; 38 years,
7 months, 17 days; Panama.
Manuel Cortes, Costa Rica; Upholsterer,
Motor Transportation Division; 41 years,
4 months, 29 days; Panama.
Edward A. Dias, Jamaica; Deck Hand,
Navigation Division; 36 years, 9 months,
2 days; Panama.
William O. Felton, Indiana; Auto Repair
Machinist, Motor Transportation Divi-
sion; 18 years, 10 days; Indiana.
Eugene Ferdinand, Virein Islands; Chief
Checker, Haiti Office; 13 years, 2 months,
16 days; Haiti.
Noel E. Gibson, Illinois; Shop Teacher,
Division of Schools; 26 years, 4 months,
15 days; Florida.
David W. Hawthorne, Canada; Super-
Reservoir to replace the 16-inch main
then in use.
Footnote to the developing aware-
ness of hygienic practices: Paper drink-
ing cups were placed in the coaches of
the Panama Railroad and the common
drinking cup previously used was
25 Years Ago
THE TIES of friendship between
the United States and Panama have
been strengthened and a spirit of sincere
cordiality and mutual understanding
exists between the two countries, Panama
President Harmodio Arias told the
Panama National Assembly.
In a message reporting that the
1936 treaty between the United States
and Panama would be submitted to the
National Assembly, President Arias
lauded the Good N,.-iihl.J r Policy of
President Franklin D. Roosevelt and
expressed satisfaction with the economic
situation of the Republic.
In the Canal Zone, it was announced
visory Coffee Specialist, Supply Division;
23 years, 23 days; Tennessee.
Jose G. Hugues, Panama; Illustrator, Engi-
neering Division; 18 years, I month,
14 days; Panama.
Ezra A. Josephs, Jamaica; Fork Lift Oper-
ator, Terminals Division; 26 years,
11 months, 20 days; Panama.
William E. Kirkland, Scotland; Diesel
Fvnc i ,r Electrical Division; 20 years,
IIl n.u'ti.. 12 days; Panama, for the
Levi A. McLean, Jamaica; Public Works
Section, Maintenance Division; 26 years,
11 months, 13 days; Panama.
Andres Ortiz, Panama; Helper Painter,
Maintenance Division; 26 years, 11
unrnll, 13 days; Panama.
W illi, N. Pence, North Carolina; Electri-
cian, Electrical Division; 17 years, 8
months, 14 days; Florida.
Joseph M. Raylson, New York; qSp, r : ;' _
Purchasing Agent, New York I ..
29 years, 6 months, 14 days; New York.
Ephama Rojas, Panama; Helper Mechani-
cal, Pacific Locks; 37 years; Panama.
Capt. Frank J. Russell, New York; Pilot,
N.,, cri.., Division; 22 years, 6 days;
\N,- Orl, .,,,
Mohan Singh, India; Dock Employee, Ter-
minals Division; 31 years, 2 months,
22 days; Panama.
Josiah E. Wilkie, Jamaica; Dock Employee,
Terminals Division; 34 years, 10 months,
2 days; Panama.
that a minimum of Ili IIi Il would be
spent during fiscal year 1936 and nearly
$2 million in fiscal year 1937 on new
construction in the Zone. Plans included
building a new post office in Balboa, a
new Balboa Magistrate Court, moving
and rehabilitation of the Ancon movie
house, construction of two new build-
ings in Cristobal, and a new Ancon
A petition asking the President of
the United States and Congress for
enactment of a law which would provide
Panama Canal construction employees
with a higher rate of retirement pay
was circulated in the Canal Zone.
10 Years Ago
A REPLACEMENT housing pro-
gram for the Canal Zone which would
cost $11 million was announced by Col.
George K. Withers, Engineering and
Construction Bureau Director. The work
would include construction of 484
apartments in Silver Cit. (since re-
named Rainbow City), Paraiso, Diablo
Heights, Balboa, Ancon, M., tL'. it.i, and
Gatun, he said.
Pay raises were in the books for all
classified employees of the FIi:r .fI Gov-
ernment in the Canal Zone as the House
of Representatives passed a bill author-
izing a $400 per year boost in salaries.
Raises also were expected for pulk -r .r11.
firemen, teachers, and postal employees.
More than $1,500,000 was spent in
Panama by the Canal organization during
fiscal year 1951, according to an official
report. This was in addition to salaries
paid during the year to non-U.S.-citizen
One Year Ago
THE FLAG of the Republic of
Panama, together with the United States
flag, was raised at Shaler Triangle in the
Canal Zone 1 year ago this month. The
ceremony was attended by Governor
Carter and high officials of both Panama
and the United States, including U.S.
Ambassador to Panama Joseph S. Farland.
Shaler Triangle, where the two flags
have flown side by side every day since
September 21, is located a short distance
from the new 4-lane highway which is
being constructed as an extension of the
approach to the bridge over the Canal
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Midsection of ship is towed through locks.
A RECENT Canal customer, and
one of the most unusual in some time,
was the midsection of a cargo ship which
was ',, in, towed from Japan to Balti-
more, w here it is to be fitted on to the
bow and stern of the cargo vessel David
Three Panama Canal tugs were
lused to tow\ the 415-foot section from
Balboa to the Cristobal breakwater,
where she I ,h1. was taken in tow by
the Japanese .' I i;I.i tI': Daisho Maru
No. 1, which ...... _LI it here from Japan
via Hawaii. Norton I i11 acted as agent
at the Canal.
TRANSITS BY OCEAN GOING G
vNSITS BSl IN J NGl Liner "United States" Coming
THE GIANT trans-Atlantic liner
1960 1961 United States will call at Cristobal twice
Commercial_ 941 931 during February as part of a series of
t .S. Covermnent .. .17 11 Caribbean cruises planned for the vessel
-- this winter. The liner, which is 990 feet
Total 958 942 long and 101.7 feet wide, will be one of
TOLLS' the largest commercial liners ever to
,. dock at a Canal port. She will not transit.
(.(,ninrt.-i; l ....- $4,(8:, 57 8 S4.777 ,."
Panama Agencies, agent for United
1 .S. (:ovmnt 127.37 .1 States Lines on the Isthmus, has
Total 84.810,715 4 .32,.500 announced that the vessel will dock in
Cristobal on both February 10 and
CARGO In,.m tons) February 26. She will remain in port
Commercial "- ,...70 .._. (0 from 7 a.m. the day she arrives until
I .S. (overrnint 134.517 71.319! 5 a.m. the following day.
ta 5718187 5 This will be the ship's first visit to
Total ...... 5,718,187 5,7.7 the Canal and also will be the first time
In.d on. ., ,- .. ...... i.n .. ..n... that she has left the North Atlantic trade
to go on a winter Caribbean cruise. She
will be I.u r\ inig approximately 850
passengers on each visit.
Windjammer Transits Canal
\\vIT A C IR EH of working guests
aboard, the windjammer Yankee passed
through the Canal from Cristobal to
Balboa during August, en route to the
South Seas on an 18-month round-the-
The Yankee, which is a s.iilig ship
in the old tradition, is a veteran of four
previous cruises around the world. She
previously has visited Canal ports on
several occasions, under command of
the explorer, Irving Johnson.
The vessel now is owned by
Capt. Mike Burke, whose N\ !iiipl.iii.lln
Cruises, Inc., operates from Miami, Fla.
Captain Burke has the largest fleet of
sailing ships in U.S. waters, including
the Polynesia and the C. i, .. which
make 10-day cruises through the
On her recent trip through the
Canal, the Yankee's passengers included
Mr. and Mrs. Barney LeVeau, both
graduates of the University of Colorado,
who are making a honeymoon cruise on
the vessel. The young newlyweds plan
to make a study of the cultures of primi-
tive peoples during the trip. They are
part of the working crew and, like other
guests, will stand watch and perform
The famous windjammer \% ill visit
Tahiti, the Polynesian Islands, the Solo-
mons, New Guinea, Bali, Singapore,
7Z.III.',l.. and then cross the lower
Atlantic to Rio de Janeiro. The vessel is
due to return to Miami in February 1 It
New Bulk Carrier
O \ E OF the newest Panama Canal
customers is the Norwegian bulk carrier
Orm Jarl, which made her first transit
through the waterway about 2 months
ago, carrying a cargo of coal from
Norfolk, Va., to Japan.
The Orm Jarl is the first of five
similar ships being built in Sweden for
the Det Nordenfjeldske DS of Trond-
heim, Norway. The vessels are equipped
to carry grain or oil in the upper water
ballast tanks. The Orm Jarl is equipped
to carry grain in her tanks.
To facilitate the loading and un-
loading of the grain, each of the side
tanks is provided with three small oval
hatches. The ship is 25,100 deadweight
tons. She is 577 feet long and 75 feet
wide. Agent here is C. Fernie & Co.
New Ship Master
THE ITALIAN LINE's Marco
Polo, which runs between Italy and
South American west coast ports on a
monthly schedule, made her July trip
under command of a new master. He is
Capt. Aurelio Assereto, who was trans-
ferred from another Italian Line vessel
to the Marco Polo to succeed Capt.
Oscar Ribari, who recently was ap-
pointed master of the 27,000-ton pas-
senger ship .August,i. which plies
between New York and Italy.
SEPTEMBER 1. 1961
UNIV vhb I y U I"LUHIUA
I l l I ,I IIl II l II ll 1 ll11
3 1262 07150 0390