Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00048
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: Summer 1977
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00048
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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panamacanalrevie1977pana ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Back Matter
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Back Cover
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text

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Digitized by the Internet Archive


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


OCT. 12
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Lieutenant Governor




anal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publicatian
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1.50, airmail $3, single copies 75 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Postage stamps provide a unique
look at local history 4
Triumph of Canal diggers
vividly depicted

Airmail service to the Isthmus
marvel of the age in the 1920's 10
Lindbergh opened route
between Miami and

Those were the days when ... 13
Passengers had the luxury
of wicker chairs and
open windows

Canal Zone-Paradise for
bird watchers 14
Preservation of forests
assures profusion of
tropical birds

Painting the birds 22
Lois Morgan's watercolors
delight library patrons

Culinary Capers 25

Marine Bunkering 30
A vital service for
Canal customers

At left: The "Queen Elizabeth 2" and three
othrr super-sized ships more through .11irnflortr
Locks of the Panama Canal. The "QE2"
(top left) set a new toll record when she
transited .M\arch 29 on on around-the-world
cruise. She paid $68,.199.46.
(Photos arc by Kevin Jenkins, Don Conde, and
Arthur L. Pollack.)

L ,A

S ,. 15



Ferry Bridge stamp, one of the
best known rarities in the stamp world
is among the Canal Zone stamps
appearing on the cover of this edition.
Six of these misprinted stamps are
along the right side of the page and
can be compared to the perfectly
printed stamp, with the bridge in
silver, which is shown on the first day
of issue cover at the top of the page.
The bridge stamps are from the col-
lection of the Canal Zone Library-
Museum which has 50 of these rare
stamps; 50 are in the Smithsonian In-
stitution in Washington, D.C.; and the
onlv others in existence are 50 that are
in the hands of private collectors and
stamp dealers. (For further information
on this famous stamp, see the story
which begins on p. 4.)
Among the other stamps on the cover
are examples of the handsome 25th
Panama Canal anniversary stamp series
showing the "before and after" of
Canal construction sites; the regular
series which honors the builders of the
Canal; and the new 13-cent dredge
Cascadas stamp. All of the stamps are
from the collection of Louis R. Reves,
Administrative Officer in the Canal
Zone Postal Division.
To produce this photograph, the
stamps were arranged on a sheet of
glass and suspended several inches
above the shears and the red, white,
and blue ribbon used in the ribbon-
cutting ceremony that marked the
opening of the bridge, October 12,
1962. The cover was designed by
Willie K. Friar and photographed by
Arthur L. Pollack.


L alnaa L



S N i a F,
0 r t P S C t % 'A *i
~ ii -. in*~

Stamps provide

a colorful look

at local history

most interesting hobbies. It also
has a distinct educational value. Here
in the Canal Zone, the stamp collector's
attention is drawn to one of the richest
sagas in the history of the United
States, the man-made funnel through
which flows the commerce of the world.
"The postal history and stamps of
the Canal Zone Government vividly
reflect the early trials, heartbreaking
failures and glorious completion of the
Panama Canal. These bits of postage
depict the ingenious planners, scenes of
their work and the determined Canal
diggers accomplishments."
Thus wrote former Gov. William E.
Potter in his introduction to the book,
"Canal Zone Postage Stamps," which
w\as published by the Canal Zone
Government in 1961.
Prepared by the late Judge E. I. P.
Tatelman. Magistrate of the Cristobal
Court, this book, \which is still sold at
local post offices, gives a thorough
account of Canal Zone stamps, dis-
cusses the subjects depicted on the
stamps, and tells the story of the Canal
Zone Postal Service.
The Canal Zone regular stamp issue
is, by far, the oldest in use anv\where
today, according to research by the
Caribbean Stamp Club. These stamps
arc referred to by collectors as the
"14th Canal Zone series." Stamp buffs
term these regular issues "definitive"
issues. This issue was first recom-
mended in 1928 by Crede Calhoun.
xho \was Director of Posts for the
Canal Zone from 1916 to 19-17.

The 1-cent green Gorgas stamp,
which came out October 3, 1928, is
believed to be the oldest stamp in the
world in terms of continuous use. Other
oldsters and their dates of issue are
the 50-cent Blackburn, issued in 1929;
the 20-cent Hodges, 15-cent Smith,
and 20-cent Rousseau, all issued in
1932; the 3-cent Goethals issued in
1934; and the 30-cent Williamson, last
of the lot, issued in 1940.
The Caribbean Stamp Club mem-
bers and other stamp collectors have
scanned stamp catalogs and journals
for possible rivals to these venerable
stamps but no close competitors could
be found for the 1-cent Gorgas or the
50-cent Blackburn.
Stamp collectors are interested in
these stamps but perhaps the most
coveted by collectors and best known
to the average citizen is the 4-cent
Thatcher Ferry Bridge commemorative
stamp, issued in 1962 to mark the
opening of the bridge across the Canal
at Balboa.
A full sheet, 200 hundred of these
handsome stamps, was printed per-
fectly like all of the others in the
issue, except for one important detail-
the bridge was missing.
Somehow during the press run that
overprinted the bridge in silver, this
sheet did not come in contact with the
printing plate. This sheet probably
had adhered to the sheet directly on
top of it as it passed through the press.
The Thatcher Ferry misprint became
one of the world's most famous stamp
errors. Word of the error spread fast

The story of the United

States' construction of

the Panama Canal, one of

the world's great

engineering achievements,

is told in Canal Zone stamps

By Eunice Richard

when Henry L. Harris, prominent
Boston stamp dealer found, in checking
his order of 5,000 of the commemora-
tive stamps, that he had a sheet of
50 stamps without the bridge.
About the same time that collector
Harris found that he possessed what
amounted to a philatelic bonanza, the
Canal Zone Postal Service discovered
that it also had 150 of the misprinted
The United States Post Office De-
partment suggested to the Governor
of the Canal Zone that more of the
stamps without the bridge be reprinted
in order to flood the market with iden-
tically misprinted copies, which would
have destroyed the potential worth of
the 50 original misprinted stamps
owned by Harris.
This was an act that would have
blunted much of the fun and excite-
ment of stamp collecting for the
millions who are always hopeful of
finding a rare error. Harris promptly
appealed to the Federal District Court
for a restraining order.
There were protests from stamp col-
lectors all over the world and Harris
proved to be a stalwart champion of
their cause. After nearly 3 years ot
legal action, the Federal District Coinl
in WVashington, D.C., ruled in favor of
llarris in his suit to prevent Canal Zone
postal authorities from deliberately
printing more of the bridgeless stamps.
The misprinted stamps in the pos-
session of Canal Zone postal authorities
\\erc disposed of in the following
manner. A sheet of 50 was laminated


and deeded to the Smithsonian Insti-
tution in Washington, D.C., where the
stamps have become a star attraction;
50 more were laminated and given to
the Canal Zone Library (6 of the 50
appear on the cover of this magazine);
and the remaining 50 were destroyed.
Seeing that these stamps arc now worth
S3,500 each, this must have been an
heartbreaking task for some employee.
The Canal Zone Postal Service has
a colorful history that dates back to
1904, when it was established as part
of the Department of Revenues under
the supervision of the Treasurer of the
Canal Zone. Paymaster L. C. Tobev,
USN, was the first Director of Posts.
Post offices were first opened at La
Boca, Ancon, Cristobal, Gatun, Cule-
bra, Bohio, Corgona, Matachin, and
Empire. They were operated then 1b
railroad station agents as postmasters.
The Canal Zone Postal Service has
operated as an independent postal svs-
tem from the beginning and is estab-
lished as such by Act of Congress of
the United States.
When the Canal Zone Postal Service
was first established on June 24, 1904,
a small supply of 2, 50, and 10e
Panama provisional stamps overprinted
"Canal Zone" horizontally in roman
capitals were obtained and used.
Colombian stamps overprinted "Pan-
ama," "Canal Zone" and stamps issued
by Panama overprinted "Canal Zone"
were used between the years 1904 and
1924 in conformity with the provision
of an executive order issued in 1904
by Secretary of War William H. Taft.
U.S. stamps overprinted "Canal Zone"
were initially used in 1904 for a short
period of time and again commencing

The bridgelesss" bridge

stamps are selling

for $3,500 each

in 1924. In general, the Canal Zone
Government purchased its stamps from
the Republic of Panama until 1924, at
which time the Taft agreement was
- Vr

The misprinted Thatcher Ferry Bridge
stamp, which is shown on the
front cover of this edition, is missing
this bridge, which it was designed
to commemorate.

abrogated by the President of the
United States. From July 1, 1924, to
October 1, 1928, and even later, the
United States Government furnished
its stamps.
The first stamp the permanent issue
of Canal Zone stamps, the 2-cent
Goethals, was placed on sale October 1,

Displayed in the stamp rarities section of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.,
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge stamp is one of the most popular exhibits
in the philatelic collection.


i E '-r E R T a R V 3 Q I .
7- A,> 5 R >. 1 '. -

*' r sSSA
\ ^^ *^ \Ss!^

192S, but this particular stamp is no
longer in use. The current Canal Zone
postage stamps consist of a series of
14 ordinary stamps. Ten picture mem-
bers of the Isthmian Canal Commission
and others who played a major part in
Canal Zone history or in construction
and operation of the Panama Canal.
The other four picture the Canal's
Administration Building at Balboa
Heights; the Goethals' Memorial at
Balboa; Fort San Lorenzo, on the
Atlantic Coast; and the dipper dredge
There have been a number of com-
memorative stamps, the most hand-
some being the set of stamps issued on
the 25th anniversary of the opening of
the Panama Canal. Judge Tatelman.
writing in the book on Canal Zone
stamps, said they were considered the
finest in designing and engraving and
even the Bureau of Engraving and
Printing in Washington, which is
usually restrained in comments con-
cerning its work, expressed pleasure in

the design and the excellence of
Tatelman reported an interesting
prologue to this series involving Pres-
ident Franklin D. Roosevelt, his in-
terest in stamps and his interest in this
issue in particular.
A few years before the 25th anniver-
sary of the Canal, President Roosevelt
arrived in Balboa aboard the U.S.S.
Houston. He was presented, by Canal
officials, with an album showing Canal
scenes of the construction era and
matching pictures of the same areas
showing the completed job. Fascinated
with the contrast, he suggested that
there existed in these before and after

I'nrtd States Prvcidcnt Franklin D. Roosevelt, accompanied iby the President of
Panama. Dr. llarmodio Arias, toinrs the Canal Zone during a i.sit to tile Isthnmus. It iwas at
thli time that he stated thle beforee and after" stamps seen at the top of this paze.

President Roosevelt

suggested the design

for the 25th anniversary

commemorative stamps

scenes, the makings of a fine stamp
series which could be used to com-
memorate the 25th anniversary of the
opening of the Panama Canal.
The Governor of the Canal Zone, on
December 7, 1938, approved the sep-
arate scenes of "before" and "after"
for a series of 16 denominations for the
ordinary stamps and six values for
airmail stamps. In addition to the
25th anniversary, the airmail stamps
commemorated the 10th anniversary
of the Canal Zone's regular airmail
Some of the other commemorative
stamps issued by the Canal Zone Postal
Service over the years honor the 25th
anniversary of the foundations of the
Smithsonian Research Laborator'. at
Barro Colorado Island, the Cailif:ri,13
Gold Rush, the 75th anniversary' of
the opening of Gorgas Hospital. thl:
West Indian workers who help d build
the Panama Canal, the 100th birthday '
of President Theodore Roose'hl. aid
the 50th anniversary of the Boy Scouts
of America.
More recently there have been spe-
cial stamps issued to recognize the
world united against malaria and the
golden anniversary of the opening of
the Panama Canal.
But a new stamp does not app ir
from nowhere. When a proposal for
a new stamp is made, it sets in motion
the Governor's Canal Zone Stamp Ad-
visory Committee which decides on the
color, design, and occasionally, the
denomination of the new stamp. The
latter, as a rule, is decided in advance
by the needs of the postal service.
The advisory committee meets only
when it has work to do in connection

6 SuMMER 1977

with the Canal Zone postal system.
A suggestion for a new stamp may be
originated by a member of the com-
mittee, by someone outside of the com-
mittee, bv an outside organization or
by an increase in postal rates which
necessitates issuance of a stamp in a
new denomination.
Members of the committee are Civil
Affairs Director, Fred Cotton who is
chairman of the group; Executive Sec-
retarv J. Patrick Conley; Donald W.
Date, Franklin Kwai Ben, and Robert
Donaldson of the Engineering Division;
and Thomas E. Petcrson and Betty
Bovcr of the Personnel Bureau.
Approval of a design by the Advisory
Committee is the last step before sub-
mission of the final sketch of the stamp
to the Governor for review and final
action before it is sent to the U.S.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing in
Washington, D.C., by the Director of
The most recent issues placed on
sale were the 13-cent ordinary stamp,
both in sheet and booklet form, and
the 22-cent and 35-cent airmail stamps.
The 13-cent ordinary stamp which
generated great philatelic interest fea-
tured the Panama Canal dipper dredge
Cascadas. It is based on a painting byv
Alwvn Sprague, a local artist, and
depicts the important role played by
the Dredging Division in the main-
tcnance of the Panama Canal. It is one


This 1906 scene shows a mail wagon waiting at the Cristobal Post Office,
which at that time was located in the same building as the commissary.
The wagon, at right, is delivering goods to the commissary.

of a series of paintings on Canal oper-
ations which was reproduced in the
60th anniversary edition of the PAN-
AMA CANAL REVIEW. All 13 of these
paintings, including the one from which *
the stamp was made, are now on dis- i
play at the Canal Zone Library-
As Tatelman noted, the receiving
and distribution of mail in the Canal
Zone as well as efficient dispatch were -,!
of utmost importance if the Canal --
"diggers" were to remain here and be .-
kept happy.
Recognizing the importance of the
establishment of post offices, Gen.
George W. Davis cabled Admiral
Walker in \ashington as follows:
"Must immediately institute a mail
service upon Zone. Have appointed
acting postmasters Cristobal, Gatun,
Bohio, Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Empire,
Culcbra, La Boca, Ancon, which should
be officially designated United States
post Offices; Cristobal and Ancon,
money orders. Request Post Office De-
partment and Superintendent Posts re- AN U'USUAL MAIL Dl
port to me with equipment, blanks. Mail (subscriptions to Vict
instructions, supply of United States Went through the Canal b
postage stamps surcharge Canal Zone, in 1919.
Panama. I send names of postmasters
by mail W\ednesdav."

ory Bonds)
y submarine


-- ..-.. ,

1 a r^ pi~
V IfllHIr

I *, I s l
^l-." iI I.*

Above left: Lew C. Hilzinger, Director
of Posts, and Louis R. Reyes, Admin-
istrative Officer in the Postal Division,
discuss postal matters at the Philatelic
Agency in Ancon. Right above: Boat
mail brought by train from Cristobal
is unloaded in Diablo. At left: Mort
Jordan and Claude Burgess sort airmail
at Balboa Post Office. Left below:
Cristobal postmaster IV, A. Alonis
discusses a postal problem with
Edwin NV. Reid who is sorting mail at
the Cristobal Post Office.

A history of the Canal Zone post
offices is a history of the progress of
the construction work. As work shifted
location or was completed, post offices
were moved or new ones opened to
follow the workers. When work started
at Miraflores Locks, a post office was
established there. When the waters of
Gatiin Lake commenced to rise, many
of the construction townsites were
abandoned and with them the post
offices and some of the old post offices
along the Chagres River valley now
lie beneath the waters of Gatun Lake.
Today, there are two main post
offices in the Canal Zone. They are in
Balboa and Cristobal. There are 13
branch offices and one delivery unit
Postal employees number 116 and
include both United States and Pan-

SUm~11En 1977





-' amanian citizens. The\' handled 27,838
Above: Conrad Blades serves patrons tons of mail during fiscal year 1976,
including surface and airmail. Re-
at the Gamboa Post Office. Above ceipts during fiscal year 1976 totaled
right: Employees at work sorting mail 81,729,26117
SThis is a far cry from the first year
are reflected in wall mirror. Below: of operation in 1904 when stamp sales ,
in one month were $655.54.
In sharp contrast to construction-dlay i e ,month wee Postal aini.is
The Canal Zone Postal administra- --
facilities, which tccre often located tion is unique in its establishment and
operation. It has its own postal regula-
in the train stations, is this modern tons, yet theUnited States regulations -
building at Gamboa. At right: A busy are applicable. Its postal laws are con-
tained in both the Federal Statutes and
day at the Balboa Post Office, one of the Canal Zone Code. It does not
the two main post offices. The belong to the Universal Postal Union
but adheres to its policies. It is not
Balhoa Heights Post Office has been within the United States Post Office
changed to a delivery unit facility. Deiartment. but like that orCgaization.
is a unit of the United States Govern-

.J .i ,1-

S '', U
Fi'L -V.. ^,. 1


<, I

NEW YoRK. April '? T
lonil Charli' A Llndlb reh
SI:lk off In a r.tular P.mn-
3 an ,lIrwuayn plai.- .ilt1r-
'ifrnlonl trmn 1 ';n il flor
S Irnoll wa, rl. he will
SinIly morn:nc i 00
e~ rrstlnhal in a lda n
S *t Innl iiguratltng tIh
0; e11 i ar'rvice ho-
S stat and
S o on xpeon to
^ << 1O11 o'clork In
r va Gra.la,-

l *.. *! 1 O'-
ni inlrlek -
d t url. nial

4 St to or-
' \'i ~n-' 7Th mail
at+Id atPrinlinial
VFa M or Buennr Alrm.

was astir this morning over the
tact that mail can now be delivered
from New York to the Canal Zone in
five and one-half hours less than two
days," the Star and Herald of Panama
reported back on April 29, 1930, fol-
lowing the arrival at France Field of
the mail plane from Miami, piloted by
none other than Col. Charles A. Lind-
Forty-seven years later this might
still be a record delivery time, many
of today's Canal Zone postal customers
will tell you.
But back in the 1920's and 1930's
there were no complaints. Airmail
service to the Isthmus was the marvel
of the age and Lindbergh the hero of
the century. As a technical advisor to
pioneering Pan American Airways, he
made four trips to France Field from
Miami as pilot of the plane delivering
the mail.
Sorting the 200 or more pounds of


mail on that first direct United States-
Canal Zone flight kept the Cristobal
Post Office personnel busy throughout
the night and at dawn the following
day, the mail was loaded on a Pan
American Grace Co. (Panagra) plane
for the first long haul mail flight down
the west coast of South America.
While establishing the new airmail
services between the United States and
Panama, Lindv soon became a familiar
figure on the Isthmus. But his comings
and goings were recorded in minute
detail by the local press. So much so
that he descended from the realm of
the angels to the level of the common
The Panama Spanish press in 1930
concluded that Lindbergh, who was
given such a cordial welcome in Pan-
ama in 1928 on his first visit in the
Spirit of St. Louis, had become "about
as inspirational as a Chicago sausage
Prior to Lindbergh's arrival on the

.-3 - -- --
-. ,a1'--

- Ia-

L'.S. Arny seaplane prepares to take off for first local airmail flight,
October 18, 1918.

inaugural Central American flight in
1929, an editorial in the Panama
American noted that it was almost a
,ear since he had been greeted so
enthusiastically in Panama and the
Canal Zone.
"Little preparation is being made for
his reception this time while 12 months
ago, he was the Viking of the Air, the
Lone Eagle, the lone conqueror of the
treacherous Atlantic, the Goodwill
"This year, he is just an ordinary
businessman blazing a trial for a com-
mercial company which proposes to
operate airplane service from the United
States to Panama. His achievements in
the air remain supreme and he is still
prominent. But the spark of romance
has flickered out."
These statements made the Lone
Eagle one of the boys but it did not
detract from the fact that he was one
of the pioneers that made airmail
service a household word and turned
both Lindv and the postal service into
such a routine matter that mere mortals
dared to criticize.
Airmail service from the United
States to Panama was first started in
1929 between Miami and France Field
under contract with Pan American Air-
ways. The route went through Central
America via Cuba, Honduras, Nicara-
gua and Costa Rica, entering Panama
at David.
This route, also officially inaugurated
by Lindbergh, was set up following
several years of study and surveys and
experimental flights along the proposed
Before the mail flights became com-
mercial, the U.S. Army Air Force,
which controlled the only landing fields
in the Canal Zone, was giving strong
support to the idea of getting mail out
of the Canal Zone by air.
The first mail ever to be carried by
air in Panama, however, was a local job
and was loaded in Cristobal aboard a
U.S. Army single engine amphibian
plane October 18, 1918. As part of a
campaign to promote the sale of
Liberty Loan subscriptions during
World War I, most of the 919 pieces
of mail were bonds. The so called
Aeroo" dispatch from Cristobal to Bal-
boa was carried non-stop on the plane
piloted by U.S. Army Air Force Maj.
\VW. W. vnne. It took 30 minutes of
flying time but nearly an hour in all
to deliver the mail to Balboa Heights.
By 1920, the idea of sending mail
by air to the United States was being
promoted and a dispatch of mail con-

10 SUMXmER 1977

sisting of 621 letters, 89 cards and
9 pieces of registered mail was placed
aboard an Army Air Force plane at
France Field early on the morning of
October 6, 1920.
Among the letters was a notice from
Crede Calhoun, Canal Zone Director
of Posts, to the U.S. Postmaster Gen-
eral in Washington, D.C., noting that
the letter was being sent by the first
dispatch of mail to be made from the
Isthmus of Panama to the United
States by "aeroplane."
"I take this opportunity to express
to you my kindest consideration and
the hope that this may be a forerunner
of the eventual establishment of aero-
plane mail service between the United
States and Latin America."
This grandiose beginning of an early
air age project had an anticlimactic
ending, however. Lt. Charles B. Austin,
pilot in the U.S. Army Air Service, en-
countered impossible weather condi-
tions nearing the island of Jamaica and
he was compelled to return to France
Field. All mail, including the confident
message to the Postmaster General in
Washington, was unloaded and dis-
patched from Cristobal by the SS
Orbita sailing for New York via Nor-
In an effort to speed up the mail
delivery between the Isthmus and the
United States, arrangements were made
in 1922 between the Canal Zone Post
Office and postal authorities in New
Orleans to have the Canal Zone mail
sacks picked up by hydroplane off in-
coming mail ships at the mouth of the
Mississippi River.
The sacks were flown back to New
Orleans and put on the first outgoing
railroad train. This advanced mail des-
tined to New York and the U.S. West
Coast from 6 to 18 hours depending,
on the railroad connections.
Transcontinental airmail service was
established within the United States bv
1924 and the hydroplane service was
used to connect with this too. Notices
of the airmail service schedules were
put no in all Canal Zone post offices
and charges were set at 8 cents a
postal zone with the addition of the
regular 2-cent rate for the Canal Zone
Thus a letter weighing I ounce or
less mailed in the Canal Zone would
cost all Isthmian resident 10 cents to
send it from the Canal Zone to Chicago
via New York. If it went from New
York to San Francisco or from San
Francisco to New York it would cost
26 cents. The regular postal rate in

those days was 2 cents within the
United States and to countries having
a postal convention with the United
States. Those sending letters elsewhere
paid 3 cents.
The first airmail flights between the
Canal Zone and Costa Rica were started
in 1925 following a trial run inaugu-
rated by the U.S. Army Air Force.
In February of that year a bill was
introduced into the U.S. Congress to
establish airmail service between New
Orleans and the Canal Zone at rates
prescribed by existing law. It author-
ized the Postmaster General to pur-
chase or lease such filing fields, hangars
and other equipment necessary for serv-
ice and to construct facilities with an
appropriated fund of $1,500,000.

Lindbergh opened airmail

service between Miami

and Cristobal but

U.S. Army made first

local airmail flight

Things did not move too fast and
although there was an airmail service
between the Canal Zone and Colombia
and the Canal Zone and Costa Rica,
bids for the airmail line from Key West
to Panama were not advertised until
1928. The contract was awarded in
July 1928 to Pan American Airwavs
which was then running a passenger
and mail service between Key \est
and Havana, Cuba.
Lindbergh celebrated his 27th birth-
day by hopping off from Miami
February 3, 1929, to make the first
airmail flight to Panama. He made the
trip via Havana, Cuba: Tela. Hondu-
ras; Managua, Nicaragua: and David.
With him on this trip were John
Hambleton, Vice President of Pan
American, one mechanic and one radio
operator. He also had six bags of mail.
Juan T. Trippe, President and founder
of Pan American. traveled part of the
Although his receptions in the vari-
ous countries were to be informal.
hundreds of people managed to get to
the airport to greet the famous flver
when he arrived. At France Field there
were more than 1.500 including news-
men and newsreel photographers.
Said the Panama American on this

historic occasion "The airmail arrived
here on time todav. Airmail Pilot
Charles A. Lindbergh was at the stick.
"Scheduled to arrive at 4 p.m., the
Lone Eagle zoomed over France Field
as watch hands pointed exactly to
4 o'clock. Two sportive P. W. pursuit
planes were flying formation on each
side. Three minutes later he had
landed the big Sikorsky and opened
the longest airmail route in the world.
He estimated that he had flown about
2,000 miles from Miami to France
As reporters surrounded the plane,
Lindbergh refused to pose for pho-
tographs until he had checked out the
mail bags and received a receipt for
them from Director of Posts, Crede
Calhoun and Postmaster Gerald Bliss.
When the famous flier opened the
Pan American Airways direct mail route
between Miami and Buenos Aires
April 28. 1930, he landed his twin
motored Sikorsky at France Field ahead
of his scheduled filing time from
Havana to Cristobal by almost 2 hours.
Said the Panama American: "Al-
though soaked to the skin after being
exposed from an open cockpit to a
downpour of rain, Lindbergh was
smiling happily as he crawled out of
the plane. Delivering to Gerald Bliss,
Cristobal Postmaster, 215 pounds of
mail consigned from various points in
the United States to South America and
the Canal Zone, Lindbergh officially
inaugurated the new 7-day airmail
service from New York to Buenos Aires
and Montevideo."
Flying the mail or any other air
service was not easy in those days and
compared to the present day routine
jet flights, it was downright hazard-
ous. In addition to the vagaries of the
weather at the low levels the un-
pressurized planes had to fly, pilots
also had to travel during daylight hours
and land at primitive, makeshift air-
Taking over at the Isthmus from
Lindbergh on that inaugural South
American mail flight in 1930 was Lloyd
R. "Dintv" Moore. veteran Pan Amer-
ican-Grace Airways pilot.
Moore left France Field at 6:26 a.m..
April 29, and landed at Santa Elena.
Ecuador at 5:48 p.m., stopping on the
wav to refuel at Buenaventura. and
Tumaco in Colombia. He was accom-
panied only by a copilot and a radio
operator who reported a flight con-
tinuouslv harassed by strong head-
winds as far as Tumaco and an almost


\ n"'2 t <. t t 1 / 'I' '.- .,ri I.ilu A a, r-
I , \ rling.

m i 'A ";'. -wT
'hlIitl .

., oi i., ,, \ '1
*..'"--ir'z'-.i ontl Air los '"

Lindv Heakes Delivery Of Mail 1 h i
Sfiulch He Started New 7-Day Servi '?,

Il I- I I, L..I -1 '2I 1


First-day airmail cover now on
display at Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, D.C.

impenetrable fog from Tumaco to
Santa Elena. At Talara, Peru, the mails
were rushed to another waiting plane
which took them to Lima.
From Lima the mail flight continued
down the coast of South America to
Santiago, Chile. Bundled in arctic
flying togs, the pilot took off from San-
tiago early in the morning, crossed the
Andes, flying sometimes at an altitude
of 20,000 feet, and landed in Buenos
Aires at 4:30 p.m.
The express airmail service from
Miami, inaugurated in 1930, was only
one of many airmail routes Lindbergh
sponsored personally within the United
States and to Panama. The Colonel
himself could not remember how many
when he was interviewed at France
Field. It was the beginning of the air-
mail age and still a matter of wonder.
Canal Zone Gov. Harry Burgess,
writing to J. M. Eaton, Pan American
Airways General Manager in New
York, said: "It has been brought to mv
attention that letters originating as far
west as Des Moines, Iowa, and Min-
neapolis, Minn.. arriving on Pan Amer-
ican Airways plane last Sunday, were
received by the Canal Zone postal serv-
ice 50 hours after they were mailed at
the office of origin. Rapid and reliable
communications service is vital to the

Panama Canal offering to the best ad-
vantage its service and facilities to
business interests using the waterway."
Stamp collectors, an avid breed,
were no different in those days from
what they are today. Post offices on
the Isthmus had as much trouble with
the collectors as they did establishing
the first regular airmail routes.
Both on this first flight via Central
America and the later one direct from
Miami, the bags contained thousands
of first-day covers most of them con-
signed to stamp collectors who made
all kinds of requests, sent money and
stamps and generally gave a bad time
to the hard working postal clerks.
Lines of people 15 deep waited at
the windows of the various Canal Zone
post offices to purchase stamps and the
special first-dav cache for the cancel-
lation of the first airmail letters to be
sent from the Isthmus to the United
The cache was designed bv Meade
Bolton, then Section Office Engineer
at Balboa Heights, and showed a tri-
motored monoplane flying over Gail-
lard Cut with a ship beneath it in the
Interest was doubled by the fact that
Lindbergh was flying the inaugural
flight and by the time post offices closed
on departure date, more than 30.000
letters were processed.
The work was accomplished not
without some grief and a lot of burning
of the midnight oil. In a memo to
Director of Posts Calhoun, Stacev
Russell, the Canal Zone Postal In-
spector, noted some of the difficulties.
Of the approximately 22.000 letters
received on the first flight, most were
individual requests for first flight covers
Since they contained money and
stamps, he handled them personally and
succeeded in dispatching 42.061 articles
on the return inaugural flight.
Some of the collectors, he said, made
unreasonable demands that could not
be filled and several hundred letters
arrived with 5-cent U.S. postage affixed
which could not be used here. Others
sent $1 and asked the post office to
return 10 or 15 covers. Each wanted
special attention, perfectly centered
stamps and the autograph of the post-
master and the pilot-who was Lind-
Postmaster Bliss complied with the
autograph in these cases, but, said
Russell, naturally no attempt was made
to obtain the pilot's autograph. E.R.

12 SUMMER 1977


Those where the days...

when the passengers opened the windows

planes used by the U.S.
Postal Service, were capable of
carrying 8 to 12 passengers and
800 pounds of mail. To give some
idea of what it was like to be
a passenger on one of these flights,
an excerpt from a 1928 Pan Amer-
ican brochure is reprinted below.
It will be noted that passengers in
those days had the luxury of
wicker chairs and could open
the window to enjoy the breeze.
The fare on this trip between
Key West and Havana was $50
and included 30 pounds of
luggage. Excess baggage was carried
at the rate of 25 cents per pound
"when the capacity of the plane
Motors drum pleasantly, spinning
glinting propellers in the early
morning sunshine, as a little group
emerges from the Passenger Station
and strolls leisurely down the path.
Those who are making their first
trip by air are wont to exclaim
at the size of the airliner-its sturdy
yet graceful lines that impart such
a definite impression of power
and reliability. The interior of
the plane, with its spacious and
luxuriously furnished cabin arouses
admiration. Wicker chairs beautifully
upholstered are ranged four in
a row on either side of the cabin-
leaving ample leg room and a clear
aisle up the center.
As the passengers settle them-
selves for the journey, the Assistant
Pilot furnishes each with reading
matter, inquires after individual
comfort, then takes his place next
to the Chief Pilot. There is
a subdued distant roar, as the
propellers begin to whirl faster
and the plane taxes gently forward
for the take-off. It gains speed.
Some seasoned air traveler casually
rcmarks-"We're off!," but were
it not for the cessation of the
nimble of the wheels on the ground,
the fact that the plane had arisen

would scarcely be noticeable.
The Pilot rises in a wide arc,
and Key West with its white
buildings slips gently away beneath.
Meacham Field, where the plane
took off, swings into view.
The Airliner straightens her
course, heading out to sea-pink
and white coral reefs are discernable
through the clear blue water of
the Gulf. The little island Key
becomes an emerald set in blue,
studded with tiny pearls of white
Ahead as far as the eve can see
are snowcapped waves in endless
motion, sparkling in the sunlight.
A refreshing breath of cool air
pervades the cabin, as a seasoned
air passenger slides back the
window next to his chair. Others
soon follow suit, finding the
operation absurdly simple and the
window easily adjusted to meet
individual taste.
Above are corded nets in which
small articles of apparel may be
placed-hats, top-coats, sticks,
briefcases and other things that
the traveler may wish to have at
close hand.
There is a compartment for
heavier luggage aft, also a lavatory
and storage space for mail.
Pan American Airways, Inc., holds
exclusive contracts for this service.
The Post Office Department requires
strict maintenance of schedules
and exercises a general supervision
over the Company's operations,
in order to protect and safeguard
the mails.
But to return to the flight-
Passengers aboard this modern
Magic Carpet converse freely,
untroubled by the muffled roar
of the engines. One points out far
below a six-masted barkentine,
reminiscent of the days of Captain
Kidd-another sights the car ferry
which appears at the halfway
point in the air journey, on her
run between Havana and Key West.
The White-Uniformed Assistant
Pilot emerges from the cockpit

(Photos from 1928 Pan American brochure)

Interior ef Pa. Amerih., Atli,,hr

gptE- -

Palstegers boarding IPan American AIrliner
and cheerfully supplies interesting
information to those who are taking
their first flight. It is learned that
the load carried by the plane is
checked three times before the
take-off, and limited to the point
which enables any one of the
three engines alone, to keep the
plane in the air until one shore
or the other is reached.
Suddenly land is sighted-the
coast of Cuba-and soon Havana
Harbor swings into view, with
Morro Castle guarding its narrow
entrance, and the famous Malccon
Drive stretching along the opposite
shore, and all around a sea of
white houses. Havana from the
air-a sight not soon forgotten.
Surely a visit to Havana, the
enchanted city, the Monte Carlo
of the New World, is in itself a
sufficient lure to the traveler, but -
add to this the fascination of making
the journey over the turbulent
Straits of Florida b\ Airliner, and
the urge to go becomes irresistible.


Canal Zone

SHappy hunting ground

for bird watchers

By Willie K. Friar

parrots from the South American
jungles were taken to Europe by sailors
who had adopted them as companions
for their long and arduous voyages,
tropical birds have excited the imagina-
tion of nature lovers.
The colorful profusion of tropical
birds in such close proximity to homes
and offices is one of the first impressions
of the new arrival to the Canal Zone.
But it is not by accident that the
Canal Zone has become a paradise for
bird watchers. The builders of the

Panama Canal were men of vision and
they made careful plans to preserve
forest areas, wherever possible, not
only to protect the watershed so vital
to the operation of the Panama Canal
but to preserve the habitats of the
wildlife in the area.
As soon as the permanent towns were
built, top priority was given to the
planting of trees and shrubs. A "City
Beautiful" movement was started and
the Canal Record of May 15, 1915,
"In connection with the landscape

.. ----L .^ -

BMn ~ -
Matco Sdnchez, of the Grounds Branch, waters a newly planted palm on the Prado
in Balboa. These young trees will replace the old ones, now more than 62 years old,
which were planted when tlw permanent towns of the Canal Zone were built.
Early planting of trees assured the propagation of the colorful tropical birds
in the housing areas.

work being done in the permanent
towns of the Canal Zone the horti-
culturist supervising the work is en-
deavoring to secure the cooperation of
all residents in beautifying the towns
by means of plants, shrubs, and trees.
He points out that no place in the
world offers better opportunities for
this purpose, as the climate of perennial
summer allows plants a continuous

Preservation of forests

and planting of trees

make the Canal Zone a

naturalist's paradise

development to more and more attrac-
tive forms. Tasteful planting, he states,
and proper community care, will relieve
the glistening newness of the new con-
crete town of Balboa, gradually conceal
its angularity, and eventually transform
it into a beautiful dwelling place,
delightful to live in."
The flower and fruit trees planted at
this time quickly filled with birds and
a large bird population developed in
all the towns. Also helpful to the sur-
vival of the birds in the Canal Zone,
was the decision to place the utility
lines underground, not only adding
significantly to the beauty of the towns
but eliminating a hazard for birds. Few
people are aware that flocks of migrat-
ing birds frequently sever their wings
when they accidentally fly into these
An ornithologist's delight, the Canal
Zone has more varieties of birds than



'iI .



- 4 1NN




A sampling of tlhe 880 species of birds found on the Isthmus, photographed by Officer John V. Brown, of the
Canal Zone Police. These are familiar to most local residents. Left to right, by rows: Toucan, Tropical Kingbird,
Red-legged Honeycreeper, Orange-chinned Parakeets, Red-crowned Woodpecker, and a flock of parakeets eating bananas
at a backyard bird feeder.




One of the few places

in the world where

such a great variety

of birds can be seen

with so little effort

all of North America above Mexico.
Approximately 880 species have been
identified here.
There are several groups of people
who are particularly interested in the
local birds. There are the bird watchers,
many of whom belong to the Canal
Zone Chapter of the Florida Audubon
Society. They go on field trips and
wander through field and forest with
binoculars identifying birds and keep-
ing annual records. They are especially
interested in finding a particular type
bird unusually early or late in the
season or seeing a rare species, like the
quetzal, which is still found in the
Panama highlands.
A second group is made up of orni-
thologists who represent a branch of
biological science and study such things
as how birds developed in the course
of evolution and how the individual
survives, including feeding habits,
migrating, breeding, nesting, etc.
Almost everyone, young and old,
appreciates birds and feels a special
joy at hearing their songs and watching
their activities.
But for any bird fancier to pursue
this interest, there must be, of course,
an abundance and variety of birds and
this requires preservation of their
Since many tropical birds make their
homes in the large old trees of the
forest they leave the area as soon as
the trees are cut. They need the jungle
canopy for shade and the hollows in
the trees in which to make their nests.
Once destroyed, the tropical forest
does not grow back as many people
believe. A dense jungle type growth
does begin immediately but it is usually
scrubby growth and not the same as
the old forest with the large sturdy
branches and the verdant growth of
leaves, orchids, and bromiliads. which
are typical of the trees which are manv
years old. The process of regrowth is

so slow that, for all practical purposes,
once the jungle forest is destroyed, it is
abandoned forever bv the birds that
used the area as their habitat.
Many of the irreplaceable old trees
of the Isthmus have disappeared. But
because of the foresight of the late
Dr. Thomas Barbour, well-known natu-
ralist, who proposed the establishment
of the Madden Forest Preserve, and
to the efforts of the late Canal Zone
Gov. Harry Burgess, the Canal Zone
remains a veritible wonderland for the
bird watcher or amateur naturalist.
Writing in 1930 about the establish-
ment of the Madden Forest Preserve,
Dr. Barbour said, "This forest reserve
abuts on country with a considerable
rural population as you cross the
boundary of the Canal Zone, to which
the reserve extends, and passes into
the territory of the Republic of Pan-
ama. The area is not sufficiently exten-
sive to support many of the large native
animals but many of the small species
are abundant and will increase with
protection and the birds are very satis-
fying indeed and are to be seen in
numbers and great variety. There are
several fine colonies of the hang-nests
or oropendulas."
It was also through Dr. Barbour's
efforts that Barro Colorado Island has
been preserved. It is a hill converted
into an island by the rising waters of
the Chagres River following comple-
tion of the Gatun Dam. Birds, as well
as animals, fled to safety here and as
a result, a great variety are concentrated
in this sanctuary.
Barro Colorado, administrated by
the Smithsonian Institution, is ideal
for the study and observation of trop-
ical birds as trails have been chopped
through the jungle so that it is possible
to view birds in their natural environ-
Today, the Madden Forest Preserve
with its giant espav6 and cuipo trees
covers nearly 6 square miles of the
Canal Zone and is a popular spot for
bird watching.
But the struggle to protect the area
from squatters and timber poachers
began at the time of its establishment
and continues today. Canal Zone police
keep a regular patrol and watchful eve
on the preserve but poachers slio in
and squatters practicing slash and bum
agriculture continue to invade and
destroy the forest.
Panama is a biological crossroads of
North and South America containing
plants and animals from both con-
tinents and is considered by some scien-

tists to be the most biologically diverse
country in the world for its size. Here
one can find within a small easily ac-
cessible area, an enormous variety of
bird life but conservation of habitats
is an escalating problem as man's im-
pact on the environment becomes in-
creasingly strong.
It is significant that after Balboa
discovered the Pacific Ocean and
claimed the land for Spain, a part of
his ritual was to cut down a tree.
It is still almost a ritual in parts of the
Isthmus to attack the trees as soon as
a road is opened through an area and
the people come in.
In addition, the constant burnings
during the dry season decimate the
forests. Although fires have little effect
on the untouched thick tropical forest
where no cutting has been allowed, the
edges are vulnerable to repeated burn-
ings and the forest gradually retreats
until only sawgrass and other undesir-
able grasses continue to grow.
Anyone driving through Madden
Forest can observe this process. The
moment one leaves the protected area
there is only sawgrass. The tropical
soil which once supported giant trees
has dried out from exposure to the
sun and has become barren and all the
colorful birds have deserted the area.
, 4

Bisected by the Trans-Isthmian
Madden Forest Preserve, is an
easily accessible wonderland
for bird lovers.



Continued preservation of

habitats is necessary for the Canal

Zone to remain a bird sanctuary

Above: Canal Zone Police Officer,
John V. Brown, a bird watcher,
shows some of his color slides
to Balboa Elementary students.
Above right: Second grade students
place some crumbs on the bird feeder built
for them by Officer Brown.

It is hoped that in all future plans
for the Canal Zone, measures will be
taken to permanently insure the pre-
servation of forest areas such as
Madden, Ancon Hill, the Pipeline Road
area near Gamboa (a particularly
valuable area for bird watching) Barro
Colorado and other areas, such as Fort
Sherman and Fort San Lorenzo on the
Atlantic side, not just for bird watchers
but for the enjoyment of all nature
Bird watching is the hobby of an
increasingly large number of people,
as evidenced by the number of tourists
who come to the Isthmus for this pur-

pose. Amateur naturalists have made
many important contributions to orni-
thology and the study of birds con-
tinues to contribute much to the
theoretical and practical aspects of
As objects of general interest, birds
have always been a part of the writings
and art of man. Stories about birds are
a part of all ancient cultures. Bird
figures are found in ancient Egyptian
hieroglyphs and paintings. Aesop's
fables are filled with bird characters.
One of the most impressive of the
drawings on the Nazca plains of Peru
is a bird.

Bird watching is a hobby that requires little equipment.
However, to reach the habitats of some of the rarer
birds, a canoe and jeep are helpful.


The Natural History

Society donated

bird watercolors to

Canal Zone


In 1928, Bertha Bement Sturgis, who
was a strong advocate of conservation
in her popular "Field Book of Birds
of the Panama Canal Zone," wrote:
"Many of the birds are valuable to
man as destroyers of insects, as game
birds, or food; while those that are not
useful are for the most part quite
harmless and often very beautiful and
interesting creatures, which all who
have a love of nature enjoy seeing and
becoming familiar with.
"It cannot be too strongly empha-
sized that now is the time to begin
systematic and earnest efforts to pre-
serve the wildlife of the Isthmus, and
to set aside reservations for the purpose
while it still can be accomplished with
a minimum of trouble and expense.
Ten or fifteen years hence the difficul-
ties and cost will be many times greater
and it will be too late to save many of
the larger and rarer species of birds
and animals, as far as the Canal Zone
and the more accessible parts of the
Republic are concerned."
She went on to propose the organiza-
tion of a natural history society to work
for the preservation of the native birds
and animals.
In 1931, such a society was organ-
ized. It was called The Panama Canal
Natural History Society and from the
time of its first meeting on August 19,
of that year, the list of scientists who
addressed the group read like a page
from "American Men of Science."
There was Dr. Arthur H. Compton,
professor of physics at the University
of Chicago, winner of the Nobel Prize
in physics.
There was Dr. Thomas Barbour.
Director of the Harvard Museum of
Comparative Zoology and Dr. Frank
Chapman, Curator in Chief of Orni-
thology for the American Museum of
Natural History, one of the world's
greatest ornithologists.
The society held meetings for many
cars at the Smithsonian Institution

Building in Panama City. The society
became a memorable part of Isthmian
history and has served to foster interest
and study of insect, reptile and other
wildlife forms on the Isthmus. The
membership included many well-known
Canal Zone residents who were here
during construction days and who con-
tinued to work with the Canal follow-
ing its opening in 1914. Quite a few
influential citizens of Panama were
included in the membership.
Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt was a guest
at the meeting addressed by Dr. Chap-
man and the President of the Republic
of Panama and the Governor of the
Canal Zone were honorary members of
the society.
Dr. James Zetek, at that time the
director of Barro Colorado Tropical
Research Station, was the first president
of the Natural History Society and
Dr. Barbour and Dr. Chapman became
charter members.
The society was formed to stimulate
interest in local natural history and
to give local residents contact with the
eminent scientists who frequently come
to this region, particularly to Barro
Colorado to study tropical wildlife.
When the society was disbanded
several years ago, the remaining mem-
bers still on the Isthmus voted to use
the funds left in the treasury to pur-
chase the watercolors of Canal Zone
birds which had been painted by
Lois Morgan. (Story on Miss Morgan
is on p. 22.) These were donated to
the Canal Zone Library-Museum and
all 2S of them may now be seen
hanging on the walls of the recently
renovated library.
Eight of these paintings are re-
produced in the centerfold of the

Birds shown in the centerfold are,
left to right, top row:
I. Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus
2. Palm Tanager (Thraupis palma-
3. Variable Seedeater (Sporophila
4. Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus
5. Orange-chinned Parakeet (Bro-
togeris jugularis)
6. Yellow-backed Oriole (Icterus
7. Red-legged Honeycreeper (Cya-
nerpes cyaneus)
S. Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana)

The Oropendula female is a skillful
weaver. Here she weaves the bottom
of the nest while the male
keeps watch for predators.






The Oropendulas are among the most interesting local birds with their long strange hanging gourd-like nests
which are built in colonies in carefully selected trees. The female nest builders have the peculiar habit of stealing
fibers from a neighbor's nest then she is away and quickly wearing it into their own nests.



the birds

I oi\ Morgan'ls watercolors

delight patrons at the

(iial Zone Library-Museum

are not rare jungle birds but are
ones that I have come to know. With
a few exceptions, most of the birds
are fairly common." This is the way
Lois Morgan explained the subjects she
selected for her paintings of birds of
the Canal Zone. Eight of these water-
colors are featured on pages 20 and 21.
All 28 watercolors in the collection are
on permanent display at the Canal Z'ne
Miss Morgan came to the Canal Zone
in 1947 and taught science, art, social
studies, and math to junior high school
students until she retired in 1973 and
returned to Toledo, Ohio, where she
was born and grew up. She received
her Bachelor of Arts in Education
Degree at the University of Toledo and
studied art at the Toledo Museum of
Art and with Eliot O'Hara at Goose
Rocks Beach, Maine. She also taught
art at the Toledo Artists' Club and
Toledo Women's Club.
In her spare time, one of her hobbies
was capturing in watercolors the places
she visited. She has painted landscapes
in Maine, New Hampshire, Louisiana,
Ohio, Michigan, Costa Rica, Ecuad9r,
Peru, Bolivia, and Panama.
In addition to her well-known bird
collection, she did a series of tropical
flowers and grasses and another of her
shows featured paintings of Louisiana
landscapes painted while she was in
Baton Rouge on a Ford Fellowship.
The fellowship was granted to Miss
Morgan to enable her to study botany,
paint watercolors of local flowers, and
visit historic sites relating to her teach-
ing of social studies.
Her work is well known in the United
States as well as on the Isthmus. She
has had work accepted in juried water-
color shows in Ohio, West Virginia.
and New York as well as in her home-
town, where she has had shows at the
Toledo Museum of Art and the Toledo
Artists' Club.

This 1962 photograph shows
Lois Morgan putting finishing touches
on a bird watercolor at her home in Balboa.
Retired since 1973, she now lives
in Toledo, Ohio, where she continues
to pursue her interest in painting.


It's fun to find

the female birds

whose feathers

may blend in with

the foliage

A familiar figure around the Canal
Zone for many years, Miss Morgan
attracted crowds as she sat absorbed
in her work of painting flowers, grasses,
or birds but she said this never dis-
turbed her. She also noted that cats,
dogs, and even one snake showed up
to watch her at work. In discussing the
bird paintings and her painting tech-
nique, Miss Morgan said:
"I paint in transparent watercolor
and use no white for lighting. Anything
that is light must be kept light or
scratched out after the painting is done.
I have no white in my paints.
"I have been interested in birds all
my life, and I have been interested in
the different birds I saw here. I had
been thinking of painting some of the
common birds as well as some of the
common plants of Panama and the
Canal Zone and have been making bird
sketches for some years.
"In painting the birds I have done
them from life making sketches and
notes and watching them for hours day
after day. When I felt I "knew" the
birds well enough I would sketch them
in poses that I had seen them assume
and that to me were characteristic of
the bird. Then I would check mv notes
against Mrs. Sturgis' descriptions (au-
thor of "Field Book of Birds of the
Panama Canal Zone"), and if there
was a discrepancy, I would study the
birds some more. After I had painted
the bird, I would keep on observing
to see if I had painted it as I thought
it should be done. Some of the birds
came within several feet of me but
most of the study was done through
"Mv first bird paintings were done
directly in watercolor, but, as my paper
supply diminished, I began sketchintu
the final picture in pencil first and trans-
ferring my sketch to the watercol,')
paper and then painting.
"It has been a fascinating proit. I

Ellen Martin, secretary to the Recreational Scrvices Officer in the Civil Affairs Bureau,
conmparcs the reproductions in the ccntcrspread of this edition
to the original watercolors on display at the Canal Zone Library-iMuscirn.

and one that has been of increasing
interest. The Canal Zone Library has
an excellent collection of bird books
and I have been interested in all of
them. I enjoyed particularly the in-
formation about some of our com-
mon birds-the blue tanager, crimson-
backed tanager, blue honevcreeper, and
the boat-tailed grackle in "Life His-
tories of Central American Birds" by
A. F. Skutch. "Field Book of Birds of
the Panama Canal Zone" by Bertha B.
Sturgis is the best book on the birds
of the Zone."
(A new book, published this year,
"Birds of Panama" by Robert S.
Ridgel offers bird watchers up-to-date
information about bird watching in the
Canal Zone. It is available in the Canal
Zone retail stores.)
"The birds are painted approximately
life size. flowever, since thev can com-
press slicisc'lves; and fluff out their

feathers and then stretch themselves
out and smooth down their feathers.
their size changes so much in life. They
can change from tender, roundheaded,
lound-eved Easter chick types to small-
headed, feathered reptilian contours.
Their color changes according to the
light and the season, and I think, varies
greatly in different members of the
same species."
Her extraordinary collection of local
birds features those familiar to residents
of the Canal Zone as well as the not-
so-familiar "cacique," which Miss
Morgan says she just happened to dis-
cover at a feeding station on Ancon
Since her retirement, Miss Morgan
continues to paint but also donates
time to the mobile meals program for
shut-ins and teaches English to the
foreign born at the International
Institute in Toledo.-\VKF


' Culinary


.^ *i.

.p '
~ EE: "
)X ,.,dEI~r ~ ~


of the culinary arts to share their
favorite recipes with other REVIEW
readers brought forth a plethora of
diner's delights for our summer issue.
Among the many who responded
was a professional chef whose story
appears on page 28, and a long time
Canal Zone resident who came back
with a counter-request for a special
salad dressing fondly remembered from
the days of the old Tivoli.
A little digging in the files of the
Canal's Supply Division produced not
only the requested roquefort dressing
but the more traditional Tivoli Dressing
which was a trademark of the elegant
old hostelry in its heydey.

Rushed to completion in 1906 for
the arrival of President Theodore
Roosevelt, the first of a long line of
celebrities and distinguished guests to
sign its register, the Tivoli closed its
doors in 1971.
The building was dismantled, but
many of the furnishings, silver and
chinaware were salvaged and put up
for sale as nostalgic reminders of
another era. First opened as a com-
mercial hotel, the Tivoli became a
government guest house in 1951.
In construction days and in the years
to follow, the Tivoli was a popular
social center and a favorite eating place
with Isthmus residents.

Readers' Recipes

Lemon Cream Cheese Salad With
Shrimp Dressing
(Shown at left)

2 Cups boiling water
2 Packages lemon fello (3 ounces each)
1 8-Ounce package cream cheese
5 Cup light cream
1 Cup chopped celery
1 Cup pitted ripe olives, sliced
1 Cup whipping cream (! pint)
Pour water over jello and stir. Chill
until just syrupy. Soften cream cheese
with cream and fold into jello. Add
celery and olives. Whip cream and fold
into jello mixture. Put mixture into
mold and chill in refrigerator for 24

1 Cup mayonnaise
2 Tablespoons lemon juice
12' Tablespoons grated onion
4 Tablespoons finely chopped pimento
23 Cup chopped cooked shrimp
Mix well mayonnaise, juice. onion.
pimiento and shrimp and chill until
read to serve. The dressing may be
served over the mold (after it has been
inverted onto serving dish) or on the
Serving plate mav be decorated with
small whole cooked shrimp, hard boiled
egg halves and tomato wedges.
Noreen Singer


Rakort Spenot
(Layered Spinach)
2 5-Ounce packages wide noodles
2 Packages frozen chopped spinach or
2 cups fresh cooked spinach
3 Tablespoons butter or margarine
2 Tablespoons flour
M Teaspoon salt (or to taste)
3 Teaspoon Hungarian paprika
34 Teaspoon black pepper
I Teaspoon cayenne pepper
1 Cup milk
i2 Pound Swiss cheese, coarsely grated
Cook noodles as directed on pack-
age, drain and rinse. Cook spinach and
drain well. Check both for salt and
add to suit taste. In saucepan, melt
butter, stir in flour, salt, paprika and
pepper. Gradually stir in milk. Cook
until thickened, stirring constantly.
Remove from heat and stir in the
spinach. Crease 12 x 8 x 2 baking dish.
Arrange half of noodles in dish, sprinkle
with one half of the cheese; spoon
spinach mixture over cheese; add re-
maining noodles and sprinkle other half
of the cheese over top. (Paprika can be
sprinkled over top of cheese for faster
browning or more desirable color.)
Bake at 3500F 15 minutes or until
cheese is bubbly. Yield: makes 8 gen-
erous servings. Can be served with any
entree-chicken, beef, veal, lamb chops
or fish. Can be made day before and
Sue Wallace

Toasted Coconut Chips
1 Coconut
Salt to taste
To prepare coconut, pierce eves in
end of coconut and drain liquid. Crack
coconut open removing meat in fairly
large chunks, when possible, and run
potato peeler down edges to make
strips. Spread by layers in roasting
pan; sprinkling each layer generously
with salt and toast in 300 oven for
approximately 1 hour, stirring oc-
casionally. When done they will be
golden brown and crisp. Cool. Pack
loosely in an airtight container. One
medium coconut will make 1 one-
pound can of chips.
Karen Palumbo

Pickled Carrots
1 Can tomato soup
1 Onion, diced
1 Green pepper, diced
3 Cup salad oil
1 Cup sugar
i Cup vinegar
1 Teaspoon French mustard
1 Teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
Salt and pepper to taste
3 Cans sliced carrots, drained
Mix all ingredients. Add the carrots
last. Place in covered dish or jar.
Refrigerate for several hours before
Margie Ruoff

By Vic Canel

j '


Tivoli Dressing
1 Cup sugar
is Teaspoon dry mustard
4 Tablespoons catsup
i Garlic clove (pressed)
4 Medium sized onion, chopped
1 Cup oil
1 Cup cider vinegar
Mix sugar, mustard, catsup and
garlic. Add oil. Blend or whip until
creamy. Add vinegar and blend or
whip until thick and creamy. Pour into
2 quart container. Add onion and let
set from 6 to 24 hours in refrigerator.

Roquefort Dressing
1 8-Ounce package Blue cheese
8 Ounces sour cream
A Medium onion, grated
1 Small garlic clove
Dash Louisiana Hot Sauce "
Dash Worcestershire Sauce
Mayonnaise to thin dressing
Crumble the cheese and blend with
sour cream. Add the onion, garlic, the
sauces and mayonnaise. Let set in
refrigerator overnight.


- -

-- -.- -. .

Tivoli menu covers and Tivoli china are from the collection
of J. Winter Collins, Retirement/Housing Counselor.
Tivoli silver is from the Canal Zone Library-Museum.

26 SUMMER 1977

Stuffed Olive Fritters
1 7-Ounce can pitted black olives
(jumbo size)
I, Cup finely chopped onion
1 Tablespoon bread crumbs (very fine)
4 Tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese
2 Tablespoons tomato juice
% Cup Bisquick mix
Cup milk
1 Egg
Oil for deep frying
Drain olives. Combine onion, crumbs,
2 tablespoons cheese and tomato juice
to form stiff mixture. Stuff mixture into
centers of olives. Beat Bisquick with
milk, egg and remaining cheese to
make batter. Pour about 1" of oil into
pan and heat to medium-hot. Dip
stuffed olives into batter and fry in
oil until golden brown and crisp. Keep
turning olives to brown evenly.
Noreen Singer

Avocado Omelet
4 Eggs
2 Avocados
1 Tablespoon dry onion flakes
i Teaspoon salt
1 Cup grated Swiss cheese
4 Teaspoons butter
Separate the egg volks from the
whites. Peel and mash the avocados.
Combine the mashed avocados with
the egg yolks, onion, salt, and 1/ cup
cheese. Blend until smooth and
creamy. In another bowl, beat the eQz
whites until stiff. Combine with the
avocado mixture and stir until all in-
gredients turn bright avocado green.
Melt the butter over medium heat in
a 6-inch frying pan. Pour 3 of the
batter into the pan, allow omelet to
turn a light golden brown, flip com-
pletely and sprinkle with the grated
cheese. Allow second side to turn
golden brown. Cover and cook for
2 minutes more while the cheese melts.
Serve immediately. Makes 4 omelets.
Roy Howell

Paper Bag Apple Pie
Crust for deep dish pie
7 Cups of apple chunks
i Cup sugar
2 Tablespoons lemon juice
2 Tablespoons flour
3 Teaspoon cinnamon

Ak C


ii Cup sugar
V Cup flour
1 Stick butter
Combine Vz cup sugar, 2 tablespoons
flour and cinnamon. Sprinkle over
apples, coating well. Spoon in shell.
Sprinkle with lemon juice. Combine
topping ingredients, cutting in the
butter and sprinkle over the apples.
Slide the pie into a large paper bag
and close it with paper clips. Bake for
1 hour at 425"F. Split bag open and
Note: The paper bag will not work
if it is recycled paper.
Beverly Hoffman

Potatoes Supreme
6 Medium potatoes, boiled and peeled
Salt aru pepper to taste
Cup butter or margarine, melted
2 Cups shredded Cheddar cheese
% Cup chopped green onions
1 Pint dairy sour cream
Grate potatoes coarsely. Mix with
remaining ingredients and put in
shallow 1-1/2 quart baking dish.
Sprinkle parsley on top and dot with
butter. Bake at 350*F about 35 min-
utes. Makes six servings.
Donna Crubbs

Barbecued Pot Roast
Beef pot roast (blade, arm or chuck,
3 to 4 pounds)
2 Teaspoons salt
4 Teaspoon pepper
2 Tablespoons fat
3 Cup water
1 8-Ounce can tomato sauce
3 Medium onions (minced or thinly sliced)
2 Cloves garlic (minced)
2 Tablespoons brown sugar
' Teaspoon paprika
3 Teaspoon dry mustard (Colmans)
43 Cup lemon juice
34 Cup chili sauce
1 Tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
,4 Cup vinegar
Rub meat with salt and pepper,
brown in hot fat. Add water, tomato
sauce, onion and garlic. Cover and
cook over low heat 12 hours. Combine
remaining ingredients and pour over
meat. Cover and continue cooking for
about 1 hour . or until tender. Re-
move meat, thicken gravy with either
flour or cornstarch (whichever is -the
preference). Serve immediately. (This
recipe, like many, improves with re-
Sue Wallace


--T -~-C



Guanabana Sherbert
? Cup sugar
1 Cup water
1 Cup light cream
2 Cups guanabana pure
1 Tablespoon lemon juice
1 Egg white
Pur6e guanabana pulp by putting it
through a colander, forcing it through
a sieve, or squeezing it through cheese
Combine sugar and water and boil
5 minutes. Cool to lukewarm. Add
pure and unbeaten egg white, cream
and lemon juice. Freeze in an ice-
cream freezer using 8 parts ice to
1 part salt.
Muriel Anderson

Quick Chocolate Mousse
1 6-Ounce package chocolate chips
2 Whole eggs
3 Tablespoons very strong hot coffee
2 Tablespoons rum or Grand Alarnier
(CM preferred)
4' Cup scalded milk
Combine all ingredients in blender
and mix at high speed for 2 minutes.
Pour into four dessert dishes and chill
for about 2 hours. Top with whipped
cream before serving.
Deborah Livingston

Refrigerator Pickles
8 Cups sliced cucumbers
1 Cup diced onions
1 Cup diced celery
1 Cup diced green peppers
Mix and let stand for / hour.
In the meantime make the brine.
2 Cups sugar
1 Cup vinegar
1 Teaspoon celery seed
1 Teaspoon mustard seed
3 Teaspoon turmeric
Mix all in pan. Bring to boil and let
cool. Pour over vegetables and mix
well. Put in jars and refrigerate. Let
stand for 10 days before using. Makes
3 pints.
Mickie Kramer

Alva L. Osavio, who sent
in his recipe for

Quiche Bretagne, removes
the delectable dish from
the oven in the
Dredging Division kitchen
in Gamboa.

By Dolores E. Suisman

others are cooks. Alva L. Osavio
is a cook. As is so often the case, fate
played a part in casting him in the role
he has filled to perfection.
It began with Hungarian goulash.
Back in 1940 when Osavio was a
brand-new second cook on the tug
Favorite, the captain wanted Hun-
garian goulash for lunch and asked
Osavio if he could make it. Although
the ambitious young man had never
heard the words before, without batting
an eye, he nodded and dashed for the
nearest cookbook. When not only the
captain but the officers and crew agreed
it was the best goulash they had ever
tasted, Osavio's star began its rise.
Assigned now as the Dredging Di-
vision's Food Supervisor, Osavio is in
charge of procurement, storeroom,
kitchen, and galleys on the division's
floating equipment. But he doesn't
The box lunches his cooks prepare
for men working overtime are as tasty
as he can make them, but it's not the
same as poring over cookbooks, prepar-
ing menus and serving big steaming
hot lunches to hard-working hungry
Osavio was 17 in 1939 when hle
went to work as a pinsetter in the
Gatun Clubhouse bowling alley. Three

times in one year he was promoted:
to waiter, pantryman and cooks helper.
A little later he transferred to the
Lighthouse Division as a messman,
second cook, and, when the captain
needed someone good at math to do
subsistence reports, to steward over
men his senior in age and grade.
Osavio's career and the Favorite's
menus brightened again in 1945 when
the tanker Royal Oak transmitted the
Canal. A cook-to-cook talk with the
ship's steward, a seagoing veteran of
ships' galleys, ended with a gift that is
now the treasure of Osavio's huge col-
lection of cookbooks: volumes entitled
"How To Cook on Shipboard," "How
To Bake on Shipboard," and "How
To Order Food for Shipboard."
The new tug Taboga came into
service in January 1949 and Osavio,
now a real pro himself, was put in
charge of feeding all of the men work-
ing on the Canal's floating equipment.
He often went to sea himself to cook
for those who went out to repair light-
houses on the reefs that guide ships
along the Atlantic coast to the Panama
Twice he traveled far beyond the
lighthouse reefs. A trip to Jacksonville,
Fla., to pick up a new barge and tow
it to Cristobal turned into a month's


layover in the United States when the
Coast Guard wouldn't allow the tug
to leave while hurricane warnings
were up.
The "Red Letter Days" in Osavio's
life involve feeding people: "Dredging
Division Day," August 15, 1970, when
he walked around and around the en-
tire division area until his feet ached
supervising eight cooks as they pre-
pared fried fish, cole slaw, hamburgers
and hotdogs for 3,000 people. And
March 15, 1973 when Gov. W. P.
Leber hosted 250 U.N. Security Coun-
cil delegates aboard the Atlas tied up
at Miraflores Locks. In rare unanimous
agreement, the delegates approved of
the buffet lunch of tropical delicacies
that Osavio served.
Osavio has long had a desk-and-
paper-work job but he has never
stopped cooking. At work he leaves his
office to get out in the kitchen with his
men "to keep his hand in." And at
home he cooks when he's allowed in
the kitchen-which isn't often. His
wife, the former Doriel Piggott of
Gatun, says he only wants to get into
her kitchen to show off. But he does
do the cooking for parties and church
suppers when he makes his most
popular, and often original, dishes. Most
requested are his famous Johnny
Mazetti and chicken chow mein.
Saturday he and Doriel go to his
cousin's home in Bethania were Osavio
experiments with new recipes. Once it
was Quiche Bretagne (his recipe is at
right) which, he says, "just happened"
when he was making a Quiche Lorraine
and his cousin came home from a
fishing trip with some crabs. Osavio
tossed in crab meat, added some
shrimp that were in the refrigerator
and had a dish that drew raves and
has come to be one of his most sought-
after recipes.
Now he is experimenting with three
Ceviche recipes-one from Bolivia, one
from Peru and one from Mexico.
Osavio, who was born in Gatun and
attended Catun Elementary School and
the Baptist Academy in Cristobal, lives
in a home in Paraiso filled with letters
of appreciation, certificates of com-
mendation and many other forms of
recognition. Twice he has received out-
standing performance awards with
quality step pay increases.
He is proud of these signs of the
success of his 38-year career but he is
most proud of the sign of approval that
comes when those eating one of his
meals ask for seconds.

Quiche Bretagne
C Cup mayonnaise
3 Eggs, beaten
1% Cup (73 ounce can crabneat, drained
and flaked)
1 8-Ounce package natural Swiss cheese,
sliced and cut into pieces
1%/ Cups shrimp, cooked and cut into
3 Tablespoons flour
1/ Cup white wine or cooking sherry
1 Teaspoon parsley flakes
% Teaspoon salt
1 Cup thinly sliced onions
% Cup chopped scallions (about % inch
2' Cup pimientos, minced
3/ Cup thinly sliced celery
One 10-inch unbaked pie shell,
chilled in refrigerator. Combine may-
onnaise, flour, eggs, and wvine and mix
until smooth as velvet. Stir in crab-
meat, shrimp, Swiss cheese, celery,
parsley, salt, pimiento, scallions and
onions. Pour into pastry shell. Bake at
350F for 30 to 40 minutes. Serves 8.


Dredging Division's

food supervisor is

a creative cook


It -. "

Above: The freshly baked Quiche
Bretagne is seen close-up on the table
of a tugboat. In the background is
the dredge "Cascadas." Below:
WVith wine, a special treat.


Marine Bunkering

An aerial view of Balboa shows a part
of the commercially owned and the
Panama Canal Company owned and
leased tanks at the La Boca Tank Farm.

By Fannie P. Hernandez

Plays a vital

role in the

operation of the

Panama Canal

Bunkering Division, one of the
largest hunkering operations in the
world, handled 5,200 ships during
fiscal year 1976. On a comparative
basis, this was about 43 percent of the
more than 12,000 oceangoing com-
mercial vessels which transited the
Canal during that period.
In February 1977, the Rcmiuera, a
northbound containership, took on
43,500 barrels of fuel at Pier 16, Cris-
tobal, having a value of some $600,000
at current local prices. In July 1973,

the price of fuel in Cristobal was $3.85
per barrel vs. $14.14 per barrel at the
present time. The average bunker order
today has a value of approximately
The bulk of all products moved
through Panama Canal pipelines is the
property of six major pil companies
operating in the Canal Zone and Pan-
ama. and the Canal's Marine Bunker-
ing Division charges only for hose
handling, pumping, and the use of
Prior to the recent decline in transits
30 SUMM hER 1977

One of the largest

bunkering operations

in the world

caused by the worldwide recession, oil
volume handled in the Canal Zone
made it the largest bunkering service
in the western hemisphere and the
third largest in the world. The largest
operation in the world is in the Kuwxait
area and the second largest is Europort
Following the end of coal bunker-
ing at the Canal, the petroleum work-
load climbed upward steadily at an
annual rate of 4 to 5 percent until the
middle of last year when higher prices
caused a downturn.
From the two coaling stations es-
tablished in Canal construction days,
the Marine Bunkering operations at
the Panama Canal have evolved to
become an integral part of services
offered to transiting ships at the ports
of Cristobal and Balboa. (The term

~ .


Conveyors for transferring coal from the pit to ships can be seen in this
1921 photograph of the old coaling station at Balboa.

Serving Canal customers for more than 62 years

-:- g .-".- .a

The tanker, "Opalia," is serviced at Dock 7 in Balboa, a tanker discharge and bunkering
berth. In the foreground is a gantry crane used for handling containers.

bunkering comes from the word
"bunker," a compartment in a ship for
storing fuel.) Today, bunkering in-
volves the use of heavy, portable oil
hoses and fixed pipe connections
between a storage tank and the ship
with valves to control the flow of fuel.
Reducing fuel costs and other ex-
penses of ocean transportation were a
basic consideration of the Panama
Canal before it was opened. It was
recognized in toll studies made in
1912 that toll rates and the cost of fuel
would greatly influence traffic through
the Canal. To attract shipping to the
waterway, it was necessary for the
Canal to be equipped with facilities
for supplying vessels with coal, fuel
oil and other provisions that would be
comparable to those offered at the
main ports of the world.
In "Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls,"
studies by Emery R. Johnson in 1912,
it was indicated that "Government
coaling stations will give the Panama
Canal greater traffic and larger reve-
nues." Providing coal at the Canal for
merchant vessels making long voyages
was an important factor in competing
for the traffic which was free to move
by more than one route. Business-
minded shipping companies were aware


_ZA lS 1
damp l:t

Fuel Distribution System Operator Hugh Cole conducts
tests at the boiler water testing laboratory in Balboa.

Operator John Webly makes an adjustment on a by-pass valve on
a turbine pump at the Balboa Plant.

also that by being able to cut bunker
space in their vessels there would be
more room for cargo.
To provide this service, coaling

plants were established at Cristobal and
Balboa, in 1914, soon after the Canal
was opened to world commerce. At
Cristobal, ample wharf space was built
and coal handling machinery was pro-
vided for loading and unloading the
colliers bringing coal from Virginia and
West Virginia, and for loading it onto
the barges. Covering 20 acres, with
"coal pile" space 1,800 feet long b*y
460 feet \wide, the Cristobal coaling
station was said to be the largest single
coal receiving and distributing plant
in the world at that time.
The two plants had a normal stor-
age capacity of approximately 500,000
tons of coal and sales ran as high as
45,000 tons a month. The sale of coal
was then a growing business for the
Panama Canal and for several years
the coaling plant at Cristobal was one
of the most important harbor operations.

' *


Vessels took on coal at Cristobal
from barges or from cars alongside
the wharf. It cost $5.40 a ton and the
use of the steam hoist and crane was
$1 an hour. At Balboa, the price was
$1 more per ton.
In addition to coal, fuel oil was
available at $1.30 a barrel at Balboa
from the Union Oil Co., the oldest
petroleum company identified with the
construction and operation of the Pan-
ama Canal and the Panama Railroad.
A lease granted by President Theodore
Roosevelt in 1906 to Union Oil stipu-
lated that the company pay $500 a
month for the support of the public
schools in the Canal Zone and furnish
the Isthmian Canal Commission and
the Panama Railroad all the oil they
needed at 90 cents a barrel.
Later, the lease was amended by
doing away with the monthly payment

Above left: Fernando Romero, one of
the three fuel distribution system foremen
(n duty 7 days a week, gives
instructions over the VHF radio as he
coordinates bunkering operations at the
La Boca Tank Farm. At left:
Froildn Diaz, Arcadio Batista and
Manuel L6pez hook up a
2,300 barrel per hour bunkering meter.

SUM.~t1E 1977

t 1' : ', -- b

At Mount Hope, James Dodd stands at the control panel of a new
package boiler while coworker Henry Fergus drains the filter.

Walter F. Boyd, wears safety ear protectors, as
he works at the Mount Hope Plant.

for the schools, exempting the com-
pany from taxes in the Canal Zone,
fixing the price of oil at $1.10 a barrel,
and limiting the volume to 60,000
barrels a month. Oil consumption,
however, increased at such a rate that
supplemental agreements had to be
made. Union Oil constructed the first
pipeline across the Isthmus in 1907.
It was the first pipeline across the Con-
tinent and was removed by the War
Department after the Canal was built.
In 1914, when the Canal opened,
89 percent of the world's shipping
depended on coal, while by 1936 only
slightly over 50 percent was using coal.
Black smoke pouring from the funnels
of vessels was still a common sight at
the Canal until the early 1950's but
coaling days were coming to an end.
During and shortly after World
War II, the U.S. Navy converted most

Above right: Jack Ruoff, left, General
Manager, Harbor Terminals Division and
Edward H. Bensen. Acting Manager.
Bunkering Division, discuss
operations. At right: Mike Kandrin,
Fuel Distribiution System Operator,
starts up a 4,000 barrel per hour turbine
screw pump to deliver fuel to
a customer.

of its ships to oil and the two coal
plants became less and less important.
Business picked up slightly during the
war when a few of the old coal burners
were pressed into service.
But sale of coal declined so steadily
after the war that the Panama Canal
retired from the coaling business. Part
of the equipment at the Balboa Plant
had already been altered to handle
sand and gravel and the plant was
closed as a coaling station in Decem-
ber 1947. The Cristobal Plant was
closed in December 1951 and the
entire plant scrapped.
Bunkering operations were until re-
cently handled by a section of the Ter-
minals Division. Because of the im-
portance of these operations to the
Canal's basic mission, the volume of
business, and the complexity of bunker-

ing functions, marine bunkering oper-
ations were made an independent unit,
becoming in 1974, the Marine Bunker-
ing Division.

j.^kifIf I r,




At right and on opposite page,
workmen install new fuel lines .
for bunkering and tanker
service at pier 16 in Cristobal.



Marine Bunkering operates two
major oil handling plants, one on each
side of the Isthmus. The plants are
equipped with storage tanks, pipelines,
hundreds of valves, pumps, boilers,
hoses and other equipment to receive,
store and deliver fuel to ships. Both
oil handling plants were placed into
operation in 1914 and a number of the
original tanks, pipelines, pumps and
other equipment are still in use.
On the Pacific side, a tank farm and
pumping plant are located in La Boca
with pipelines to and installations on
or under Docks 4, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16
and Pier 18.
On the Atlantic side, the tank farm
and pumping plant are at Mount Hope
with pipelines to and installations on
or under Docks 9 and 10 and Piers 6,
7, 8 and 16. Docks 6 and 7, Balboa,
and Pier 16, Cristobal, are primarily
tanker discharge and bunkering facil-
ities. Other docks and piers are used
for combined cargo operations and
The common pipeline system in-
cludes about 28 miles of pipeline of
various diameters at each terminal.
There are 47 storage tanks of 1,885,600

barrels working capacity in active serv-
ice on the Pacific side and approxi-
mately 2,095,500 barrels of space in
44 tanks at Mount Hope, including
Panama Canal, commercial and some
U.S. Navy facilities. Included in the
operations is a direct pipeline tie-in
from the refinery at Las Minas. Daily
pumping of fuel is provided for the
electric plant in Panama City.
When oil is to be pumped to or
from a pier, hoses, adapters, blenders,
meters and other equipment have to be
brought out, assembled and after use
disassembled and stored. Other equip-
ment includes hose trailers and cranes
for lifting hoses into position. Connect-
ing and disconnecting hoses and
blenders may take from half an hour
to two hours and the total bunkering
time varies with the number of barrels
lifted and the pumping rate.
Approximately 185 employees work-
ing three 8-hour shifts, 24 hours a day
throughout the year, attend to Marine
Bunkering activities on both sides of
the Isthmus. Their duties include the
discharge of petroleum products from
tankers and providing for the basic
fueling services of bunkering on the

piers. The shoreside pumping, gauging
of tanks, and dockside assistance serv-
ice an average of 15 vessels a day. At
the real core of the operations at both
plants are the pumps, manifolds and
boilers manned by Fuel Distribution
System Operators, Boiler Tenders and
Fuel Distribution System Workers.
Fuel Distribution System Operators,
highly skilled employees, are respon-
sible for round-the-clock operation of
the manifold, pump and boiler systems.
Bunkering crews usually consist of a
leader and four employees who per-
form the hook-up of the heavy hoses.
Once a vessel orders bunkers, the
leader goes aboard the vessel and
checks with the engineer to verify the
ship's requirements. He then reports to
the Operator at the operations plant
verifying the amount and type of
bunkers to be taken on.
Crews must accomplish their duties
promptly as vessels usually want to
move in and out of the ports quickly
due to high operating costs. Various
types of mechanical bunkering devices
have been developed to reduce a ship's
time in port, an important economic
aspect in shipping operations.
While the petroleum industry has
intensified its efforts to eliminate oil
spills at terminals and elsewhere, ac-
cidents inevitably occur due to human
error or equipment failure. Bunkering
crews worry about these spills and
guard against oil pollution of Canal
Zone waters. Bunkering personnel
constantly monitor hoses and shore
connections to detect any leaks. Con-
tainment and clean-up equipment are
available at both ports on a standby
basis, and in case of a spill, quick
action is taken to stop the discharge
and contain the spill, with the aid of
Dredging Division's Oil Pollution
Control Unit.
The heart of the distribution system
at each terminal is a manifold which
allows products received from tankers
to be directed to the proper tanks and
from the storage tanks to various
pumps which then direct it through
pipelines to piers, Panama Canal
powerplants, or to other storage tanks.
There are seven oil transfer pumps,
ranging from 5 to 60 years old, at
each terminal plant, varying in capacity
from 600 to 4,000 barrels per hour.
Power to operate the majority of these
pumps is supplied by three modern
"automatic" steam boilers of approxi-
mately 700 horsepower each. The old
brick boilers were not automatic and


required hard physical labor to operate
Joseph Drake, a husky boiler tender
whose service with bunkering opera-
tions goes back to 1939, recalls that his
work was more difficult in the old days
before the new bunkering devices and
wharf equipment were developed. "We
used block and tackle to hoist the
hoses up to the ship. The hoses were
heavy and the 50-pound flanges on
each end made them quite a load.
Carrying a 4-inch hose on my shoulders,
sometimes quite a distance down the
pier, was a hard job even for a big
fellow like me. A less able-bodied man
would have buckled under the weight,"
Drake remarked.
He noted too that the location of a
vessel's intake connection often created
a problem as ship designers apparently
did not take into consideration the
necessity for fueling until the design
was complete and piping connections
were added any place. As a result, the
manifold on one vessel was found
amidships, on another it would be near
the bow, and on another, at the stern.
Newer vessels have adequate piping
and connections are conveniently lo-
cated, but some of the old ones still
in operation provide real challenges to
ingenuity. For instance, where do you
hook a block and tackle arrangement
to lift and support bunkering hose for
a connection located on the vessel's
galley overhead with nothing above
but the blue sky?
Drake recalled that since fewer
ships were coming through the Canal
in those pre-war days, the men had
time to perform other duties on the
piers or at the plant. On a slow night,
it was not unusual for a couple of the
men to get out the lawn mowers, turn
on the flood lights and cut the grass
near the plant. One fringe benefit the
bunkering men had in those days was
the good meals they were offered
aboard the vessels they were working
on. "We could have all the food we
wanted, be it breakfast, lunch or
dinner," said Drake wistfully. This
practice was changed a few years ago
and the men no longer are permitted
to accept invitations to go aboard
vessels for meals.
Gauging tanks and assuring that they
are not overfilled are the duties of
gaugers at the Balboa and Mount Hope
tank farms. A gauger needs to be alert
and agile while climbing the tanks or
moving in and out and around the
tank farm. He also soon develops a skill


Improvement projects have totaled

more than one million dollars annually

for the past few years



_ _

From steamships to supertankers

$ .

In 1917, when this photograph was made, the Cristobal Coaling Station
was the largest coal receiving and distributing plant in the world.


A vessel takes on bunkers at Pier 16 in Cristobal. In the foreground is a
tanker discharge riser for loading and of-loading fuel.

with mathematics and knows that each
/V inch of petroleum product in a
large storage tank equals a certain
number of barrels for the different size
tanks. In the petroleum industry, a
barrel is 42 gallons. Fuel oil, gasolines,
diesel oils, solvent and toluene (re-
sembling benzene, used as a solvent
and anti-knock agent for gasoline) are
stored in the more than 90 tanks at
Balboa and Mount Hope. A rigid
accounting system is necessary for the
various commercial firms to follow
and monitor these highly valued
Before tankers are allowed to dis-
charge any product into the pipeline
S system, tests are made on samples
S taken from the vessel. Tests for flash
point are made and products must
meet certain minimum or maximum
standards. Pointing out how important
it is for the right fuel to be routed to
a certain tank or a vessel to receive the
product it has requested, manifold oper-
ator Manuel Aparicio recalled an inci-
dent several years ago when a vessel
supposedly unloading heavy diesel dis-
charged ammonia instead. It took 2
years to clean out the tank and make it
serviceable again. "A nightmarish mis-
take, yes, but it can easily happen
nowadays when vessels often carry
three or four different products-gaso-
line, diesel, crude or a blend", said
Aparicio, adding that, luckily, he had
nothing to do with that costly blunder
cars ago. He checks samples of pro-
duct every half hour when loading or
unloading to make sure it is the right
product and is going where it should.
Since vessels of many nations re-
ceive bunkers at Canal Zone piers

TRANSITS (Oceangoing)


First quarter First quarter
FY 1977 FY 1976
Commercial__.._ 2,887 3,031
U.S. Government 21 25
Free----------- 5 7
Total .-- 2,913 3,063
Commercial -__.. 38,167,041 $32,728,464
U.S. Government 180,176 257,773
Total___ 838.347,217 832,986,237
CARGO 00 (Oceangoing)
Commercial--.-- 31,851,363 29,953,719
U.S. Government. 49,469 69,296
Free- __-------- 18
Total -__ 31,900,832 30,023,033

o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small.
00 Cargo figures in long toos.
NOTE: Effective 10-1-76 the fiscal year for all U.S. Govern-
ment agencies was changed from July 1 through June 30, to
October I through September 30. For continuity purposes,
July, August, and September 1976 were designated the Transi-
tion Quarter.
Figures shown for the First Quarter of 1976 correspond to
the new fiscal year.
Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.







through contracts with major oil com-
panies, occasionally a language barrier
arises. A selective use of sign language
and terms common to the petroleum
business throughout the world are nor-
mally sufficient to enable bunkering
personnel to deal effectively with any
vessels wishing to replenish their

In addition to routine bunkering
operations, the Marine Bunkering Di-
vision extends special assistance to
vessels experiencing problems while
transiting the Canal.

Last year, when the gasoline tanker
Mobil Aero had its propeller back off
the tailshaft and lodge against the
ship's rudder in Gatun Lake, it was
necessary to make arrangements for
transferring the gasoline from one
tanker to another. The vessel in dis-
tress was moved through Catun
Locks with tug assistance to pier 16,
Cristobal. Later 252,474 barrels of
gasoline were transferred from one side
of the pier through pipelines into the
tanker Mobil Lube. The ship transited
with the cargo on toward its destina-
tion, while the Industrial Division
effected the necessary repairs to the
Mobil Aero.

When the crude oil tanker Lyko-
medis developed hull and other prob-
lems this past January, a cargo of
165,000 barrels of crude oil and 30,000
barrels of fuel oil was transferred from
this vessel under strict precautionary
safety measures to the Esso Parentis,
another tanker lying alongside the
opposite side of the pier.
In both cases, the value of the cargo
at today's prices was extremely high,
the vessels were anxious to overcome
their problems, safely transfer their
cargoes and get both ships and cargoes
moving on toward their respective

Currently, the Marine Bunkering Di-
vision has numerous plant improve-
ments underway that include line
renewal, installation of new pumps, and
a meter prover at Balboa. In the last
few years improvement projects have
totaled over 81 million annually. Every
effort is made to maintain the petro-
leum distribution system in a first
class condition and to continue serving
shipping at the terminal ports of the
Canal with dispatch and efficiency.

First Quarter 1977

No. of
Nationality transit
British.__________ 261
Chilean -------- 50
Chinese, Nat'l. ____ 28
Colombian.----- 45
Cuban. ------ 20
Cypriot-------- 24
Danish _----_- 74
Ecuadorian---- -- 43
French -_-- 43
German, East --- 26
German, West.__- 145
Greek ----------- 246
Italian_------- 43
Japanese--------- 233
Liberian---- 432
Netherlands --- 51
Norwegian ----- 143
Panamanian ---- 269
Peruvian----- 40
Poland----- 23
Singaporean -- 22
Soviet----------- 42
Swedish-------- 78
United States----- 281
Yugoslavian ------ 26
All other----- 199
Total __- 2,887

tons of cargo

First Quarter 1976
No. of Long
transit tons of cargo
319 2,916,314
45 475,918
27 324,208
51 70,324
13 52,370
24 87,428
77 496,429
36 219,822
49 271,962
19 21,972
150 890,739
227 3,546,080
65 514,151
250 2,034,314
402 7,270,529
89 508,794
160 2,223,375
235 1,715,370
62 656,778
24 92,823
21 182,055
49 170,687
80 1,095,785
276 1,965,761
13 69,941
268 2,079,790
3,031 29,953,719

Trade routes

East Coast United States-Asia-___ ------ ----
Europe-West Coast South America _- ---------_---
East Coast United States-\West Coast South America-__-- -
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada__ -- --
Europe-Asia --- -- ----------------------
Europe-Oceania------------------------ ----
East Coast Canada-Asia--------------------- ----
United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii)------ ---
East Coast South America-Asia ___-------.--------------
West Coast South America-West Indies ----------
All other _--_ -- -----------------------
Total _----- -------- ---------

First F
quarter qu
1977 1


July ------------------ -- --
August ------------
September------ ---
October ---- ----------- 976 1
November------------- 968
December --- ------- 943
Total _______----- 2,887 3
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.

carter Tran-
FY sition
976 quarter
---- 1,037
,045 --
994 -
992 ---
,031 3,037

Transition Quarter
No. of Long
transit tons of cargo
298 2,897,587
42 360,422
31 412,129
49 77,388
20 83,447
22 93.345
62 503,223
51 514,569
46 296,937
15 24,189
157 856,210
279 4,311,095
57 297,029
229 2,289,244
461 7,150,210
58 413,973
180 2,674,792
263 1,789,166
37 393,676
18 41,109
22 232,898
60 249,248
75 756,804
248 2,046,044
34 321,136
223 1,802,430
3,037 30,888,300

quarter quarter Tran-
FY FY sition
1977 1976 quarter
(Oct.- (Oct.- (July-
.oc.- Nov. Aug.-
Dec.) Dec.) Sept.)
664 680 695
269 258 269
237 299 267
220 208 257
74 126 63
101 107 101
81 80 71
123 102 104
87 41 64
95 93 85
936 1,037 1,061
2,887 3,031 3,037

Tolls (in thousands of dollars) 1
First First
quarter quarter Tran-
FY FY sition
1977 1976 quarter
---- -- 11,351
$11,488 $11,150
12,777 10,846
13,887 10,722 ---
$38,152 $32,718 835,272

NOTE: Effective 10-1-76 the fiscal year for all U.S. Government agencies was changed from
July 1 through June 30, to October 1 through September 30. For continuity purposes, July,
August, and September 1976 were designated the Transition Quarter. Figures shown for the First
Quarter of 1976 correspond to the new fiscal year.
Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.



First First



(in long tons)

Atlantic to Pacific

GA- ".
U66i' ,CLi

Petroleum and products ------------
Coal and coke--- -- -------
Soybeans ___ -------
Phosphate --- __________________
Wheat -----___________________
Ores, various ---------____ _____
Metal, scrap-___ ----__
Chemicals, unclassified____--- -
Manufactures of iron and steel--. __
Sugar ---___
Fertilizers, unclassified--------___
Paper and products -- ---__
Machinery and equipment (excluding autos,
trucks, and accessories)----_
All other --------
Total_______-- __ ---

First quarter First quarter quarter
1977 1976 (July-Aug.-
3ct.-Nov.-Dec.) (Oct.-Nov.-Dec.) Sept.)





Pacific to Atlantic

First quarter
Commodity 1977
Petroleum and products--------_ 2,403,579
Manufactures of iron and steel ___ 2,089,971
Ores, various ---- ----- 1,492,487
Lumber and products --- ___ 1,162,362
Sugar ----------------_------- 856,625
Barley__ ----- __ __ 517,284
Woodpulp-------- ___-----_ 484,978
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 412,509
Bananas-- ------------------ 375,251
Metals, various ------ --------_---- 353,993
Sulfur _- --------------_----- 255,406
Molasses----- ------------- ---_ 231,582
Autos, trucks, and accessories--_.- ______ 194,037
Fishmeal ______------------__ 170,457
Paper and products------------------- 153,988
All other --- -------3,224,758
Total -- ----------------- 14,379,267

First quarter



) Sept.)


Oceangoing___-- _
Small --------------
Total --------
U.S. Government:
Oceangoing -----___-
Small 1-- __- __
Total_- --_------

First quarter 1977
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total
1,422 1,465 2,887
S 98 78 176
1,520 1,543 3,063

12 7 19
S. 54 16 70
66 23 89





Grand Total _-------_ .. 1,586 1,566 3,152 3,229 3,295

1 Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons.
NOTE: Effective 10-1-76 the fiscal year for all U.S. Government agencies was changed from
July 1 through June 30. to October 1 through September 30. For continuity purposes. Tuly.
August, and September 1976 were designated the Transition Quarter. Figures shown for the First
Quarter of 1976 correspond to the new fiscal year.
Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.

Complete control of the U.S.S. "Elliot"
can be carried out from the ship's spacious
bridge which is equipped with a display
console (foreground) to keep the
commander constantly in touch with the
status of targets being tracked by
the Combat Information Center below
decks while direction and speed of
the ship can be automatically controlled
from the central console at left.

Another new destroyer

transits the Canal

the 30 new multi-mission de-
strovers being built for the U.S. Navy,
transited the Canal in February. The
ship is seen at right in Miraflores Locks.
The fourth new destroyer to transit
the Canal in recent months, the Elliot
was enroute from Ingalls Shipbuilding
Division of Litton Industries in Pas-
cagoula. Miss., to San Diego, Calif.
The first major Navy combat ships
to be powered by jet engines, the des-
troyers of this class can reach speeds
in excess of 30 knots.
Designed primarily for submarine
tracking and anti-submarine warfare,
they will be able to cope with threats
from nuclear attack and missile-launch-
ing submarines. They can bombard
enemv shore positions, support am-
phibious assaults, escort military and
merchant ship convoys, perform sur-
veillance of hostile surface ships, es-
tablish blockades and undertake search
and rescue operations.
The Elliot is a large destroyer, 563.4
feet long with a beam of 55 feet.
Through use of automation and ad-
vanced technology in the propulsion,
armament and electronic systems, and
use of equipment requiring minimum
maintenance, the crew size has been
reduced to about 250 officers and en-
listed men, less than SO percent of the
crew required for modern combat ships
of similar size.


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